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Level sensors detect the level of substances that flow, including liquids, slurries, granular materials, and powders. Fluids and fluidized solids flow to become essentially level in their containers because of gravity whereas most bulk solids pile at an angle of repose to a peak. The substance to be measured can be inside a container or can be in its natural form. The PID controller calculation involves three separate constant parameters, and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control; the proportional, the integral and derivative values, denoted as „P‟ „I‟ and ‟D‟. Heuristically, these values can be interpreted in terms of time; „P‟ depends on the present error, „I‟ on the accumulation of past errors, and „D‟ is a prediction of future errors, based

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Pawan Kumar Kushwaha and Vinod Kumar Giri*

ABSTRACT- Level sensors detect the level of substances that flow, including liquids, slurries, granular materials, and powders. Fluids and

fluidized solids flow to become essentially level in their containers because of gravity whereas most bulk solids pile at an angle of repose to a peak.

The substance to be measured can be inside a container or can be in its natural form. The PID controller calculation involves three separate constant

parameters, and is accordingly sometimes called three-term control; the proportional, the integral and derivative values, denoted as P I and

D. Heuristically, these values can be interpreted in terms of time; P depends on the present error, I on the accumulation of past errors, and D is

a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of change. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control

element such as the position of a control valve. An abundant amount of research work has been reported in the past on the tuning of PID controllers.

Internal model control and error-integral criteria tuning formulae are to mention only a few. The control of liquid level in tanks and flow between

tanks is a problem in the process technologies. The process technologies require liquids to be pumped, stored in tanks, and then pumped to another

tank systematically. The conventional control algorithms are difficult to reach required control quality.In this paper we present an efficient

elementary idea about the PID controller system, fuzzy logic controller and water level control for water tank system has been presented. The

result shown in the paper is encouraging & promising.

KEY WORDS: PID Controllers, Fuzzy Logic Controller, Water Level Control, SISO.

INTRODUCTION

Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controllers are widely

used in industrial practice since last six decade. The invention

of PID control is in 1910 (largely owing to Elmer Sperrys

ship autopilot) and the straightforward Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N)

tuning rule in 1942 [1]. Today, PID is used in more than 90%

of practical control systems, ranging from consumer

electronics such as cameras to industrial processes such as

chemical processes. The PID controller helps to get our output

(velocity, temperature, position) where we want it, in a short

time, with minimal overshoot, and with little error [2]. It also

the most adopted controllers in the industry due to the good

cost and given benefits to the industry [3]. Many nonlinear

processes can be controlled using the well-known and

industrially proven PID controller [4]. A considerable direct

performance increase (financial gain) is demanded when

replacing a conventional control system with an advanced one

[4]. The maintenance costs of an inadequate conventional

control solution may be less obvious. The tricky part of

controller design is to figure out just how much of a corrective

effort the controller should apply to the process in each case.

Some situation requires tighter control of the process variable

than On-Off control can provide. Proportional control

provides better control because its output operate linearly

anywhere between fully ON and fully OFF [5]. As its name

implies, its output changes proportionally to the input error

signal. Proportional controller simply multiplies the error by a

constant to compute its next output.

Author: Pawan Kumar Kushwaha is currently

pursuing Master of Technology program in Electrical

Engineering in MMM. Engg. College, Gorakhpur

India, E-mail: pawankus@gmail.com

*Co-Author: Vinod Kumar Giri is Associate Prof. in

MMMEC Gorakhpur India.

be eliminated altogether by automatically resetting the set

point to an artificially high value [3, 6]. The PID controllers

function is to maintain the output at a level that there is no

difference (error) between the process variable and the set

point in as fast response as possible Fuzzy logic is derived

from fuzzy set theory. It deals with reasoning, approximation

rather than precise values. The concept of Fuzzy Logic (FL)

was conceived by Lotfi Zadeh, a professor at the University of

California at Barkley and presented not as a control

methodology. Fuzzy logic allows intermediate values to be

defined between conventional evaluations like true/false,

yes/no, high/low, etc. Some of the controllers with their

mathematical equation are as follows.

Proportional Controller

In a controller with proportional control action, there is a

continuous linear relation between the output of the controller

m (manipulated variable) and actuating error signal e.

Mathematically

m (t) = Kp e ( t )

Where Kp is known as proportional gain or proportional

sensitivity.

Integral Controller

In a controller with integral control action, the output of the

controller is changed at a rate which is proportional to the

actuating error signal e (t).

Mathematically

d/dt m(t) = K i e (t)

Where K i is a constant.

Derivative Controller

In a controller with derivative control action the output of the

controller depends on the rate of change of actuating error

signal e.

Mathematically m (t) = K d d/dte(t)

Where K d is known as derivative gain constant.

Proportional-Plus-Integral Controller

This is the combination of proportional and integral control

action.

Mathematically m( t ) = K p e(t) +K p K i e(t)dt

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Qo3 =flow rate of fluid between tanks

Proportional-Plus-Derivative Controller

When a derivative control action is added in series to

proportional control action, then this combination is termed as

proportional-derivative control action. Mathematically it can

be defined as

m (t) = K p e(t) + K p T d d/dte(t)

Proportional-Plus-Integral-Plus Derivative Controller

The combination of proportional, integral and derivative

control action is called PID control action and the controller is

called three action controllers. Mathematically

m (t) = K p e(t) + K p T d d/dte(t) + K p 1/Ti e(t)dt

2 Mathematical Modeling of Coupled Tank System

Before the process of designing controller begin, it is vital to

understand the mathematics of how the coupled tank system

behaves. In this system, nonlinear dynamic model are

observed. Four steps are taken to derive each of the

corresponding line arise perturbation models from the

nonlinear model. Fig 1 shows the schematic diagram of

coupled tank system.

Qi1, Qi2 = pump flow rate into tank 1 and tank 2 respectively

Qo1, Qo2 = flow rate of fluid out of tank 1 and tank 2

respectively

Each outlet drain can be modeled as a simple orifice.

Bernoullis equation for Steady, non-Viscous an

incompressible show that the outlet flows in each tank is

Proportional to the square root of the head of water in the tank.

Similarly, the flow between the two tanks is proportional to

the square root of the head differential.

Qo1 = 1H1

(3)

Qo2 = 2H2

(4)

Qo3 = 3H1 H2

(5)

the coefficients of discharge, the cross sectional area of each

orifice and the gravitational constant. Combining equation (3),

(4) and (5) into both equation (1) and (2), a set of nonlinear

state equations which describe the system dynamics of the

coupled tank are derived.

A1 dH1/dt = Qi1 1H1 - 3H1 H2

(6)

(7)

Suppose that for a set of inflows Qi1 and Qi2, the fluid level

in the tanks is at some steady state level H1 and H2. Consider

a small variation in each inflow, q1 in Qi1 and q2 in Qi2. Let

the resulting perturbation in level be h1 and h2 respectively.

From equations (6) and (7), the equation will become:

Fig 1: Schematic Diagram of Coupled Tank System

For Tank 1

A1 d (H1+ h1) /dt = (Qi1 + q1) 1 (H1 + h1) - 3H1 H2

+ h1 h2 (8)

A simple nonlinear model is derived based on figure 1. Let

H1and H2 be the fluid level in each tank, measured with

respect to the corresponding outlet. Considering a simple mass

balance, the rate of change of fluid volume in each tank equals

the net flow of fluid into the tank. Thus for each of tank 1 and

tank 2, the dynamic equation is developed as follows.

A1 = dH1/dt Qi1 Qo1 Qo3

(1)

A2 = dH2/dt Qi2 Qo2 Qo3

(2)

For Tank 2

A2 d (H2+ h2) /dt = (Qi2 + q2) 2 (H2 + h2) + 3H1 H2

+ h1 h2 (9)

Subtracting equations (6) and (7) from equation (8) and (9),

the equations that will be obtained are,

A1 dh1 /dt = q1 1( (H1 + h1 -H1) - 3(H1 H2 + h1

h2 - H1 - H2

(10)

Where

h2 - H1 - H2

(11)

A1.A2 =cross sectional area of tank 1 and tank 2 respectively

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H1 + h1 = H1 (1 + H1/2 H1)

3h1(s)/ 2H1 H2 (21)

(12)

Therefore,

Rewritten equation (20) and (21)

H1 + h1 - H1 h1/2H1

A1 dh1/dt = q1 qo1 3 (h1 h2 )/2H2 H1

A2 dh2/dt = q2 qo2 3 (h1 h2)/2H2 H1

(22)

(23)

(13)

(14)

the drain pipes. This would be appropriate in the case where

outflow is controlled by attaching an external clamp for

instance.

2.3 First Order Single Input Single Output (SISO) Plant

is the process variable (PV) and q1 is the manipulated variable

(MV). Case will be considered when q2 is zero. Then,

equation (2.4.4.1) and (2.4.4.2) will be expressed into a

form that relates between the manipulated variable, q1 and

the process variable, h2 and the final transfer function can be

obtained as,

completely depressed so that there is no flow between the two

tanks. Equation (6) and (7) can be simplified to become first

order differential equation.

A1dh1/dt = q1 1h1/2H1

(15)

A2dh2/dt = q2 2h2/2H2

(16)

Taking the level of fluid at tank 1 that will control, the output

variable h1 represents a small change in the steady state level

H1 and q1 is a small change in the steady state input flow rate

into tank 1, Qi1. H1 is also the steady state operating points

and isa constant. Performed Laplace transform on equation

(15) will become,

Fig 2: Block Diagram of Second Order Process

3 CONTROLLER DESIGN

From equation (17), the time constant of the tank 1 dynamics

can be expressed

Kt= 2H1 /1

controller that will control level fluid at tank 1 on coupled tank

system. The purpose controller that needs to design is PID

Controller. The designing of controller are divided into two

methods. Each value of 1, 2, 3, A1, A2, H1 and H2 can be

obtained from calibrate experiments manual CTS-001 book

that also been provided with this plant and those values are:

10.78, 11.03, 11.03, 32, 32, 17, and 15 respectively.

(19)

This configuration is considered by having the baffle raised

slightly. The manipulated variable is the perturbation to tank 1

inflow. Performed laplace transform of equation (13) and (14),

and assuming that initially all variables are at their steady state

values,

A1sh1(s) = q1(s) (1 /2H1 + 3 /2H1 H2) h1(s) + 3h2

(s)/ 2H1 H2

(20)

After solving equations the value of T1, T2, K1, K2, K12, and

K21 are: 6.1459, 6.0109, 0.1921, 0.1878, 0.749, and 0.7325

respectively.

TF=

0.036 (25)

36.942 s2 + 12.1568s + 0.451

By using fig. file in Matlab 8.0 the Fuzzy logic block is

prepared and the basic structure of this file is as shown in

figure. Here Mamdani type of rule-base model is used. This

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produces output in Fuzzified form. Normal system need to

produce precise output. A defuzzification process is to convert

the inferred possibility distribution of an output variable to a

representative precise value. The work is done by using

centroid defuzzification principle in the given fuzzy inference

system. In this min implication together with the max

aggregation operator is used.

Figure shows the surface view of the system under

consideration.

Shown FIS is having seven input member function for both

input variables leading to 7*7 i.e. 49 rules. Figures show these

rules using rule viewer.

in cases with two or more inputs and one output: we can

actually grab the axes and reposition them to get a different

three dimensional view on the data.

A membership function characterizes a fuzzy set. The value of

membership function represents a degree of membership to

the fuzzy set, which is between 0 and 1. A fuzzy set with the

sharp membership function curve has higher resolution and

control sensitivity. With the smooth one, the stability of

system is better but resolution is lower. Fuzzy control rules is

a set expressed by fuzzy language, which describes the

mapping relationship of inputs and outputs.

The fuzzy rules of Kp, Ki and Kd for the controllers are

expressed in the rule matrices as shown in table.

Table 2: The fuzzy rules table of Kp

The rule viewer shows a map of the whole fuzzy inference

process. The first two columns of plots show the membership

functions of the antecedent, or then if part of each rule. The

third column of plots shows the membership functions of the

consequent, or then part of each rule.

The rule viewer shows one calculation at a time in great detail.

In this sense, it presents a sort of micro view of the fuzzy

inference system. If the entire output surface of system is to be

viewed. That is, the entire span of the output set based on the

The above table 1 shows the fuzzy rule base for tuning the

PID parameter of proportional gain Kp. There are total 49

rules in the above table.

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validity for each parameter will be compared using the

reference value (set point). Figure 3 shows the MATLAB

simulink block for PID Controller combines with plant.

The above table 2 shows the fuzzy rule base for tuning the

PID parameter of proportional gain Ki. There are total 49 rules

in the above table.

Table 4: The fuzzy rules table of Kd

plant

4.1 Simulation result without controller

In this section the simulation result without the controllers has

been shown.

The above table 3shows the fuzzy rule base for tuning the PID

parameter of proportional gain Kd. There are total 49 rules in

the above table.

Fig.6: Fuzzy PID controller designed using Simulink tools

4. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In this section the designing of PID Controller to control

coupled tank system using MATLAB software. This software

is used to create the simulink model for PID Controller and

performance for each parameter for PID Controller has been

simulated.

The performances of PID Controller are evaluated in terms of

overshoot, rise time and steady state error. Then, the gain for

constantly overflow. This situation happen because of this

system running without controller to control the Pump 1

speed, so the Pump 1 will continuously pump the liquid out

from the tank until it overflow. PID controller must be put as it

controller element so that the liquid will not overflow and will

indicates as required.

4.2 Simulation result with PID Controller

In this section the simulation result with the PID Controllers

has been shown.

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Controller

Controller

Figure 5 shows the performance of proportional controller.

The set point is set equal to 3 and the proportional gain is set

20. The plot shows that proportional controller reduced both

the rise time and the steady state error. Proportional controller

also increased the overshoot and decreased the settling time by

small amount.

Figure 6 shows the performance of proportional-derivative

controller. The set point is set equal to 3. The proportional

gain is set equal to 20 and derivative gain is set equal to 10.

This plot shows that the derivative controller reduced both the

overshoot and the settling time but had small effect on the rise

time and the steady state error.

controller. The set point is set equal to 1. The proportional

gain is set equal to 20 and integral gain is set equal to 12. The

plot shows that integral controller also reduced the rise time

increased the overshoot same as the proportional controller

does. The integral controller also eliminated the steady state

error.

Figure 8 shows the performance of PID Controller. The set

point is set equal to 3. The proportional gain is set equal to 12,

integral gain is set equal to 4 and derivative gain is set equal to

7 to provide the desired response. The plot shows that the

output voltage achieves the set point voltage at time equal to

10 second. The output voltage have slightly overshoot before

stabilize at time equal to 20 second.

Table 1 shows the effects of increasing proportional, integral

and derivative parameters.

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Table 1: Effects of change of the parameter

REFERENCES

1.

2.

3.

4.

From the simulation results shown in fig (4, 5, 6, 7 & 8) it may

be concluded that PID controller eliminates the offset of the

proportional mode and still provides fast response. This can be

used for virtually any process condition including this water

level controller. The PID controller is one of the most

powerful but complex controller mode operations combines

the proportional, integral, and derivative modes. This system

can be used for any process condition including controlling

water level in a tank. The water level can be controlled

continuously without manual adjusting of the valve. The PID

algorithms will automatically response to the system so that

the system is stabilized near the set point.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

controller design Electropneumatic Systems, Journal

of Material Processing

Technology 1641655(2005) 14659-1465

Terry Bartelt, Industrial Control Electronics: Devices,

Systems and Applications, Second Edition, Delmar,

2002

Aurelio Piazzi and Antonio Visioli, A Noncausal

Approach for PID control Journal of Process Control,

4 March 2006.

S. Gerksic et al. / Control Engineering Practice 14

(2006) 935948, Advanced Control Algorithms

Embedded in a Programmable Logic Controller, 22

July 2005.

Paul H. Lewis and Chang Yang (1997). Basic

Control Systems Engineering: Prentice Hall.

Carl Knopse, Guest Editor, PID Control, IEEE

Control System Magazine, February 2006.

S. Bennett, Development of the PID controller,

IEEE Contr. Syst. Mag., vol. 13, Dec. 1993, pp. 58

65.

S. Song, L.Xie and Wen-Jim Cai, Auto-tuning of

Cascade Control Systems IEEE Proceedings of the

4th world Congress on

Intelligent Control and

Automation, June 10-14, 2002, Shanghai, P. R.

China, pp 3339-3343.

K. Passino, Towards bridging the perceived gap

between conventional and intelligent control, in

Intelligent Control: Theory and Applications, IEEE

Press, 1996, ch. 1, pp. 127. Gupta, M. M. and

Sinha, N. K. editors.

K. Passino, Bridging the gap between conventional

and intelligent control, Special Issue on Intelligent

Control, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, vol. 13,

June 1993, pp. 1218.

Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

www.mathworks.com

www.scribd.com

www.slideshare.net

www.wikipedia.org

5. CONCLUSIONS

Hence it may be concluded that the Fuzzy PID controller is the

most effective controller that eliminates the offset of the

proportional mode and still provides fast response. That is

why Fuzzy PID controller has been chosen. It may be further

stated that because of the action of Proportional parameter, the

plot result will respond to a change very quickly. Due to the

action of Integral parameter, the system is able to be returned

to the set point value. The Derivative parameter will measure

the change in the error and help to adjust the plot result

accordingly.

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