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Name

: Debby Mulya

Student ID : A1B011045

CHAPTER 14
Teaching and Curriculum Design
Environment Analysis
The teachers have to consider questions like this following :

Will this activity be interesting enough for my learners?


Do i have enough time to do this activity?
Will this activity be too noisy?
Do the learners know how to do this kind of activity or will I
have explain it to them?
Will this activity create a lot of marking for me to do?

All of this questions relate to environment analysis. The purpose of


environtment analysis is to make sure that what happens is likely to be
succesful because it takes account of the local situation.
It is important to remember when doing environment anaysis, that it
is done to see its effect on the language course. Teachers can either
work within an environtmental constraint, or they can try to overcome
the constraint.

Needs Analysis
One of the most common problems in teaching is suiting the
activities and material in lessons in the class. The teacher have to
consider questions like this following :

Is this material too difficult for my learners?


Is there something new for my learners to learn in this
activity?
Will everyone in the class be able to cope with this activity ?

All of this question relate to needs analysis. Needs analysis involves


looking at what the learners know now, what they need to know by the
end of the course, and what they want to know. The criteria of the good
analysis is reliable, valid, and practical. Teacher can be a very good
sources of needs analysis, because they typically know their learners well.

It is important that teachers keep checking their own intuitions of


learners language knowledge against the results of tests and careful
observation of the learners using language.

Principles
The teacher have to consider questions like the following :

Will this be a good activity for my learners ?


Are my learners doing enough reading ?
Is it good to get learners to memorise words and phrases?
Should I do the same activity again?
Should my learners be doing homework?

These questions can be answered by looking at principles of teaching


and learning. Information about teaching and learning can come from
research, but such information can also come from teachers experience
and observation of teaching and learning.
Environtment analysis, needs analysis and principles make up the
outer circles of the curriculum design diagram. These three parts of
curriculum design processprovide data and guidance for the parts of the
parts of the inner circle of the diagram. Without the outer circles, setting
goals, deciding on the content and sequencing of items in the course,
deciding what activities and lesson formats to use, and monitoring and
assesing, learners progress would be uninformed, ad hoc process.

Goals
Goal is the important things to decide why a course is being taught
and what the learners need to get from it. That is why goals as a centre in
inner circle in curriculum design. The whole purpose of the language
course is centred around what the learner need to learn. Goals can be
expressed in general terms and be given more detail when considering
the content of the course.
It is important in doing such technique analysis, in order to know the
application of principle of teaching and learning. One example of
technique analysis includes looking at the learning goals of a particular
technique and activity, the condition which are needed to achieve the
goals. These are becaused features, conditions and goal in a causative
sequence.

Content and sequencing

The teacher have to consider the questions like the following :

What reading passage will use?


What vocabulary will i get the learner to focus on in this
activity?
Which items shall i use for the blanks in the blank- filling
activity Iam making?
How can I repeat the language items which were used in the
previous lesson?
What topics should i get the learners to talk about in my
discussion activities?

The content of language course consist of the language items, ideas,


skills, and strategies that meet the goals of the course. It is important for
the curriculum designer to keep some check on vocabulary, grammar and
discourse to make sure that important items are being covered and
repeated.
Some courses follow themes that dealing with the ideas content of the
course. The positive features of themes is that a continuing theme can
provide opportunities for the same language features to be recycled and
thus better learnt. The choice of the ideas content of course can involve
the application of several principles.

Format and Presentation

What activities will I get the learners to do today?


Shall I get the learners to do this activity individually or in
pairs or groups?
Should I pre-teach these items before the learners meet
them in the reading passage?
Shall I write this on the blackboard?
Should I have a pre-reading discussion or should I get the
learners to talk about the text after the reading?
Have I got a good balance of activities in this lesson?
All of these questions relate to format and presentation,
because they involve what the learners do in the lesson and the
order in which they do these things in the lesson. It is not too
dicult to see how format and presentation decisions are inuenced
by principles, needs analysis and environment analysis.
The choice of an activity also depends on environment
analysis factors. Does the physical arrangement of the classroom

make it easy to do group work? Is there enough time to complete


the activity? Are the learners well-behaved enough to be able to
work quietly and independently? Have the learners done this
activity before or will they need to be taught how to do the activity
properly?
The choice of an activity also depends on needs analysis
factors. Some activities may be asking the learners to do things they
are not yet able to do.

Monitoring and Assessment


The teachers have to consider questions like the following:
Is this activity going well?
Are all the learners participating in the activity?
Are some learners doing more work than others?
Have the learners learnt anything from this activity?
Should I give the learners a test to encourage them to
keep on learning?
All of these questions relate to monitoring and assessment,
because they
involve the teacher looking carefully at what learners are actually
doing and they involve the teacher in some kind of testing or
measurement. Monitoring occurs whenever the teacher observes
what the learners are doing or what they have done in order to see
if things are going as they should.
Assessment can be done for many different purposes. It can
be used to encourage learning, to find areas of diculty, to place
the learners in the right group or class, to measure learning from the
course, or to measure how much their language proficiency has
improved.

Evaluation :
The teachers have to consider questions like the following:
Is the course going well?
Are the learners happy with the course?
Am I happy with the course?

Would other teachers think that my course is a good


course?
Can I see ways in which I can improve the course?
Did todays lesson go well?
Will I get through the course book by the end of the
course?
All the questions relate to evaluation because they involve making a
judgement on whether the course or some aspect of it is good or not. In
the curriculum design diagram, evaluation is a large circle which includes
all of the parts of the curriculum design process. This is because
evaluation is very wide-ranging and can focus on any aspect of curriculum
design.
Most of evaluation of courses is done by the teacher and by the
learners, often independently of each other. Learners have opinions about
the courses they follow, and teachers similarly have opinions. These
opinions are important because they involve people closely related to the
course.