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OHM LAWS AND WIRE RESISTIVITY

Elisabeth Clara S., Frafti Rejeki S. Mutmainnah S.*), Sari Wahyuni.


Physics Class ICP FMIPA UNM 2016
Abstract. Has conducted experiments about ohms law and resistivity with purpose can measured
strong currents and voltages using appropriate tools. Understand influence cross-sectional area,
length and type of wire to strong electrical currents and voltages. Determine value of wire
resistivity and various types of wire. Understand ohms law. This experiment consists of four
activities, namely relationship between the cross-sectional area and strong current and voltages.
Used konstantan with length 100 cm and a cross-sectional area being manipulated. The second
activity is relationship with wire`s length and strong current and voltages. Used konstantan with
diameter 0.7 mm and cross-sectional area 0.4 mm2. The third activity is relationship between
wire`s type and strong current and voltages. Used 1 m in diameter 0.5 mm cross-sectional area of
0.2 mm2. The fourth activity is relationship between strong current and voltages. Resistors are used
to have the barriers is 150 . Based on the graph of data analysis can concluded that the crosssectional area is proportional to the strong current and inversely proportional to the voltages while
the length of the wire is directly proportional to the voltages is inversely proportional to dab a
strong electric current.
Keywords: cross-sectional area, the length of wire, wire types, strong currents, voltages.

PROBLEM FORMULATION
1. What appropriate tools can we use to measure the strong currents electric and
voltages?
2. How influence cross-sectional area, length and type of wire to strong electrical
currents and voltages?
3. How much value of wire resistivity and various types of wire. ?
4. What is the ohms law?

PURPOSE
1. Skillfully taking measurements strong currents electric and voltages using appropriate
tools.
2. Understand influence cross-sectional area, length and type of wire to strong electrical
currents and voltages.
3. Determine value of wire resistivity and various types of wire.
4. Understand ohms law

METHODOLOGY EXPERIMENT
Brief Theory
If we played a similar potential difference between the ends of the copper rod
and wooden sticks that have similar geometry, then generated different currents. The
characteristics (properties) that caused this conductor is a barrier (resistance). We define
the resistance of a conductor (often called prisoners = resistor) between the two points by

dressing a difference in potential difference V between these points, and by measuring the
current I, and then perform the division:
R=V/I
Or
V=IR
With R is the resistance wire.
(Halliday, Resnick: 187)

If the potential difference is enlarged, the appointment of strong


electric current will also increase in proportion with the increase in potential
difference. Wire length L and cross-sectional area A, would have amounted to
R obstacles,
R= L/A
Where is the resistivity of wire. In this experiment will investigate the
relationship between potential difference and strong electric currents in
different types of wire that has a long, cross-sectional area, and the different
types of wire. Charts the relationship between potential difference and strong
electric current is used to determine the value of R and resistivity of wire
(lead, 2015: 14)
Equipments
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Conductor wire resistance measurement


Power supply DC
Analog Multimeter LD 20
Connecting cable
Resistor
Rheostat

Work Procedures
First Activitiy. Relations section area with strong electric current and voltages
First measurement of voltage and strong electrical currents carried to some
broad cross-section of different lengths and the same type of wire. Then, the results are
noted in Table observations.

Tabel 1. Voltage and electrical current in the wire diameter are different

No.

d=1,0 10 m

d=0,7 10 m

d=0,5 10 m

A=0,8 106 m2

A=0,4 106 m2

A=0,2 106 m2 A=0,1 106 m2

U (V)

I (A)

U (V)

I (A)
1.

U (V)

I (A)

d=1,0 10 m

U (V)

I (A)

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Second Activity. Relationship wire length with strong electrical currents and voltages.
First, measurement of voltage and strong electrical currents carried to different
lengths with the type and the same cross-sectional area of the wire. After that, the results
are noted in Table observations .
1.

No

l = 1m
U (V)

l=2m
I (A)

U (V)

I (A)

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Third Activity. Relationship kind of wire with a strong electric current and voltage.
First, measurement of voltage and strong electrical currents made for different
types of wire length and the same cross-sectional area an then, the results are noted in
Table observations.
1. No

Konstantan
U (V)

1.
2.
3.
4.

Messing
I (A)

U (V)

I (A)

5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Fourth Activity. Relationship strong electric current with voltages.
First, measurement of the voltage across the resistor and a strong electric
current through a resistor done. Then, rheostat slide-slide to get different results.

Identification Variables
First Activity. Relations section area with strong electric current and voltages.
1. Variable manipulation

: broad cross-sectional area (mm2) and voltage (V).

2. Variable response

: a strong electric current (I).

3. Control variables

: the type of wire and wire length (cm).

Second Activity. Relationship wire length with strong electric current and voltages.
1. Variable manipulation

: wire length (cm) and voltage (V).

2. Variable response

: a strong electric current (I).

3. Control variables

: the type of wire and cross-sectional area (mm2).

Third Activity. Relationship kind of wire with a strong electric current and voltages.
1. Variable manipulation

: types of wire and voltage (V).

2. Variable response

: a strong electric current (I).

3. Control variables

: cross-sectional area (mm2) and length of the wire (cm).

Operational Definition of Variable


First Activity.
1. Variable manipulation

= cross-sectional area is the cross sectional area of the

wire conductors are calculated based on a mathematical formula to the units


(mm2).Voltage is the magnitude of the voltage readings on basicmeter in volts (V).
2. Variable response

= Strong currents are powerful currents magnitude shown

in the multimeter in amperes (A).


3. Variable control = type of wire is a type of wire used in the experiment. Wire length
is the length of the wire is calculated from the end of the unit (m).

Second Activity
1. Variable manipulation

= length of wire is wire length is calculated from the end

of the unit (m). Voltage is the magnitude of the voltage readings on basicmeter in
volts (V).
2. Variable response

= Strong currents are powerful currents magnitude shown

in the multimeter in amperes (A).


3. Variable control = type of wire is a type of wire used in the experiment. Sectional
area of the wire conductor is a cross-sectional area is calculated based on a
mathematical formula to the units (mm2).
Third Activity
1. Variable manipulation

= wire type is the type of wire used in the experiment.

Voltage is the magnitude of the voltage readings on basicmeter in volts (V).


2. Variable response

= Strong currents are powerful currents magnitude shown

in the multimeter in amperes (A).


3. Variable control = cross-sectional area is the cross sectional area of the wire
conductors are calculated based on a mathematical formula to the units (mm 2).
Wire length is the length of the wire is calculated from the end of the unit (m).

EXPERIMENT RESULT AND DATA ANALYSIS


Experiment Result
Activity 1. Relationship between cross sectional area of the wire strong current
and voltages
Wire types

: konstantan

Wire length

: |1.0 0.5| m

Table 1. Results of voltages measurements and strong electric current in the wire diameter
(cross-sectional area) are different.
d = 1,0 mm
A = 0,8 mm2
U (V)
I (A)
|0.2 0,01|
|0.15 0.05|
|0.4 0,01|
|0.50 0.05|
|0.6 0,01|
|0.75 0.01|
|0.8 0.01|
|1.10 0.01|
|1.0 0.01|
|2.30 0.01|

d = 1,7 mm
A = 0,4 mm2
U (V)
I (A)
|0.2 0.01|
|0.10 0,01|
|0.4 0.01|
|0.20 0,01|
|0.6 0.01|
|0.40 0,01|
|0.8 0.01|
|0.50 0,01|
|1.0 0.01|
|0.60 0,01|

d = 0,5 mm
A = 0,2 mm2
U (V)
I (A)
|0.2 0,01|
|0.05 0,01|
|0.4 0,01|
|0.10 0,01|
|0.6 0,01|
|0.15 0,01|
|0.8 0,01|
|0.20 0,01|
|1.0 0,01|
|0.30 0,01|

d = 0,35 mm
A = 0,1 mm2
U (V)
I (A)
|0.2 0,01|
|0.01 0,001|
|0.4 0,01|
|0.03 0,001|
|0.6 0,01|
|0.04 0,001|
|0.8 0,01|
|0.07 0,001|
|1.0 0,01|
|0.09 0,001|

|1.2 0.01|

|2.60 0.01|

|1.2 0.01|

|0.70 0,01|

|1.2 0,01|

|0.35 0,01|

|1.2 0,01|

|0.10 0,001|

Second Activity.Relationship wire length with strong electrical currents and voltages.
Wire types

: Konstantan

Wire diameter

|0.7 0.5| mm

Cross-sectional area

|0.4 0.5| mm2

Table 2. Measurement of the potential difference and strong electric currents in wires with
different lengths.
No
1
2
3
4
5
6

l=1m
U (V)
|0.2 0.1|
|0.4 0.1|
|0.6 0.1|
|0.8 0.1|
|1.0 0.1|
|1.2 0.1|

l=2m
I (A)
|0.10 0,01|
|0.20 0,01|
|0.40 0,01|
|0.50 0,01|
|0.60 0,01|
|0.70 0,01|

U (V)
|0.2 0.1|
|0.4 0.1|
|0.6 0.1|
|0.8 0.1|
|1.0 0.1|
|1.2 0.1|

I (A)
|0.05 0,05|
|0.10 0,05|
|0.20 0,05|
|0.30 0,05|
|0.35 0,05|
|0.40 0,05|

Third Activity.Relationship kind of wire with a strong electric current and voltage
Wire diameter (d)

|0.5 0.5| mm

Cross-sectional area

|0.1 0.5| mm2

Wire length (m)

|1.0 0.5| m

Third Table. Measurement of the potential difference and strong electric currents in
different types of wire.
No
konstantan
messing
U (V)
I (A)
U (V)
I (A)
1
|0.2 0.1|
|0.05 0.05|
|0.2 0.1|
|0.70 0,05|
2
|0.4 0.1|
|0.10 0.05|
|0.4 0.1|
|0.90 0,05|
3
|0.6 0.1|
|0.15 0.05|
|0.6 0.1|
|1.40 0,05|

Fourth Activity. Relationship strong electric current with potential difference


Resistor

: 180

Table 4. The strong relationship between electric current and potential difference
No

voltage (volt)

Strong electric current (A)

1
2
3
4
5
6

|6.0 0,1|
|5.8 0,1|
|5.6 0,1|
|5.4 0,1|
|5.2 0,1|
|5.0 0,1|

|0.031 0.001|
|0.030 0.001|
|0.028 0,001|
|0.027 0,001|
|0.026 0,001|
|0.025 0,001|

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

|4.8 0,1|
|4.6 0,1|
|4.4 0,1|
|4.2 0,1|
|4.0 0,1|
|3.8 0,1|
|3.6 0.1|
|3.4 0.1|

|0.024 0,001|
|0.023 0,001|
|0.022 0,001|
|0.021 0,001|
|0.020 0,001|
|0.019 0,001|
|0.018 0.001|
|0.018 0.001|

Data Analysis
The first activity. The effect of cross-sectional area to the electrical current and
voltage

0.8

f(x) = 1.53x + 0.01


R = 1

0.7
0.6
0.5

electric current (ampere)

0.4

f(x) = 0.79x + 0
R = 1

0.3
0.2

f(x) = 0.42x - 0.01


R = 1

0.1
0
0

f(x) = 0.03x - 0
0.1
0.2
0.3
R = 0.99
volt (volt)

0.4

0.5

0.6

Graph 1. The effect of cross-sectional area to the electrical current and voltage
y = mx + c

m=

dy
dx

R=

V
I

R=

1
m

For cross-sectional area of 0.8 mm2


m

= 1.542

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
1.5332 = 0.652

= 0.995 x 100% = 99.5%


KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.5% = 0.5% (4 AB )

=
PR

KR R
100

0,5 0,648
= 0.00324
100

= |0.652 0.003|

For cross-sectional area of 0.4 mm2


m

= 0.789

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
0.789

= 1.267

= 0.996 x 100% = 99.6%


KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.6% = 0.4% (4 AB )

R =

=
PR

KR R
100
0.4 1.267
100

= 0.005

= |1.267 0.005|

For cross-sectional area of 0.2 mm2


m

= 0.423

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
0.423

= 2.364

= 0.997 x 100%
= 99.7%
KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.7% = 0.3% (4 AB )

R =
=
PR

KR x R
100
0,3 x 2,364
100

= 0.0079

= |2.364 0.008|

For cross-sectional area of 0.1 mm2


m

= 0.026

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
0.026

= 38.4615

= 0.994 x 100%
= 99.4%
KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.4% = 0.6% (4 AB )

=
PR

KR x R
100

0.6 x 38.4615
100

= 0.2308

= |38.46 0.23|

cross-sectional area ( mm2)

R ( Resistance ( )

0.8
0.4
0.2
0.1

0.652
1.267
2.364
38.4615

So, we can conclude that:

1
A

Ever greater the cross-sectional area (A) of the wire so, ever lower the resistance
(R)

The second activity. The effect of length of wire to the electrical current and
voltage.

electric current (ampere)

2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0

f(x) = 0.38x - 0.02


R = 1

f(x) = 0.79x + 0
R = 1
0

voltage (volt)

Graph. 2. The effect of length of wire to the electrical current and voltage.
For wire length of 1 m
m

= 0.696

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
0.7893

= 1.267

= 0.9962 x 100% = 99.62%


KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.62% = 0.38% (4 AB)

=
PR

KR x R
100

0.38 x 1.267
100

= 0.0048

= |1.267 0.005|

For wire length of 2 m


m

= 0.3842

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
0.3842

= 2.6028

= 0.9984 x 100% = 99.84%

KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.8% = 0.16% ( 4 AB )

R =

KR x R
100
0.16 x 2.6028
100

= 0.00416
PR

= |2.603 0.004|

wire length ( m )

R ( resistance ( )

1
2

1.267
2.603

So, we can conclude that:

R L

Ever greater the length (L) of the wire so, ever greater the resistance (R)
The third activity. The effect of kind of wire to the electrical current and voltage
1.4
f(x) = 2.76x - 0.01
R = 1

1.2
1
0.8

electric current (Ampere) 0.6


0.4
0.2

f(x) = 0.42x - 0.01


R = 1

0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

voltage (volt)

Graph 3. The effect of kind of wire to the electrical current and voltage
For kind of wire konstantan
m

= 0.423

1
0.423

= 2.364

0.6

DK

= R2 x 100%
= 0.9953 x 100% = 99.53%

KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.53% = 0.47% ( 4 AB )

R =

=
PR

KR x R
100
0.47 x 2.364
100

= 0.0111

= |2.364 0.011|

For kind of wire messing


m

= 2.7631

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
2.633

= 0.3741

= 0.9973 x 100% = 99.73%


KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.73% = 0.27% (4 AB )

R =
=
PR

KR x R
100
0.27 x 0.3741
100

= 0.00101

= |0.374 0.001|

konstantan and messing in experiment

R. A
L

2.364 0.2
1000

= 0.4728 10-3 mm
= 0.4728 10-6 m

R. A
L

0.3741 0.2
1000

= 0.7484 10-4 mm
= 0.7482 10-7 m
konstantan and messing in theory
konstantan

%diff =

: 0.5 10-6 m

Rtheory R experiment
100
R average
0.50.473
0.486

100% = 5.54%

messing : 0.08 10-6 m


%diff =

Rtheory R experiment
100
R average
0.080.075
0.077

100% = 6.49%

kind of wire

R ( resistance ( )

0.4728 10-6 m
0.7482 10-7 m

2.364
0.374

So, we can conclude that

Ever greater the wire resistivity ( ), so ever greater the resistance of a wire (R)
The fourth activity. The relationship between the electrical current and voltage

0.06
f(x) = 0.01x + 0
R = 0.99

0.05
0.04

electric current (Ampere)

0.03
0.02
0.01
0
1

voltage (volt)

Graph 4. The relationship between the electrical current and voltage.


m

= 0.008

DK

= R2 x 100%

1
0.008

=125

= 0.993 x 100% = 99.3 %


KR

= 100% - DK
= 100% - 99.3% = 0.7% (4 AB)

R =
=
PR

KR x R
100
0.7 x 200
100

= 0.875

= |125.000 0.875|

%diff =

Rtheory R experiment
100
R average
150 125
137.5

100%

= 18.18%
DISCUSSION
Has conducted experiments about ohms law and resistivity wire, which
consists of four activities. The first activity is a strong influence of cross-sectional area of
the electric current and potential difference. The second activity is the strong influence of
wire length on the electric current and potential difference. The third activity is the strong
influence of the type of wire to the electric current and potential difference. The fourth
activity is a strong relationship of voltage and electric current.
In the first activity, namely the influence of strong cross-sectional area of the
electric current and potential difference. Constant variables is the type that is konstantan
wire and wire length of 1 m to ignore its influence. Then the manipulated variables are
cross-sectional area is 0.8 mm2, 0.4 mm2, 0.2 mm2 and 0.1 mm2 with each diameter of
1.0 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.5 mm and 0 , 35 mm in order to get the value of R consecutive
namely | 0.648 0.003 | , | 1.267 0.005 | , | 2.364 0.008 | , and | 38.46 0.23 | .
Based on the analysis of these activities can be seen that the cross-sectional area is
inversely proportional to the value constraints and the results are consistent with the
theory.
The second activity is the strong influence of wire length on the electric current
and potential difference. The manipulated variable is the length of rope that is 1 m and 2
m. constant variable is the type of wire, diameter of 0.7 mm, and the cross-sectional area
of 0.4 mm2 is, and obtained R value of | 1.437 0.067 | and | 2.921 0.005 | . So that
it can be seen that the length of the wire is directly proportional to the value of its
resistance and results in accordance with the theory.
The third activity is the strong influence of the type of wire to the electric current and
potential difference. Constant variable that is the diameter of the wire, the wire crosssectional area and length of 1 m. The manipulated variable is the type of wire that is
konstantan and messing. Based on the analysis of data obtained R value of | 2.364 0.007
| and | | . So it can be said resistivity wire is directly proportional to the wire
barriers and these results are in accordance with the theory
The fourth activity is a strong relationship of voltage and electric current. In
this activity, we use a resistor with a barrier of 150 . While the slide rheostat- to obtain
different data and strong value of electric current and potential difference can be read. Of
this activity is directly proportional to the voltage obtained electric current.

CONCLUSION
Based on the experiments that have been carried out it can be concluded that:
1. Strong electric current can be measured by using ammeters and the potential
difference was measured by using a voltmeter.
2. The cross-sectional area is proportional to the strong current and inversely
proportional to the voltage ,the length of the wire directly inversly with strong
currents and is directly proportional to the voltage , and resistance is inversely
proportional to the type of wire strong currents and is directly proportional to the
voltage .
3. Barriers wire type depends on the type of wire.
4. Legal ohm describes a large electric current flows through a conductor wire is always
proportional to the potential difference is applied to it.

ADVICE
The good, the practicum students more active and serious in order to avoid errors in data
retrieval. In collecting data to measure strong currents and potential difference, the
practitioner must be perpendicular to the basic meter to avoid measurement error.

REFFERENCES
Halliday, Resnick. 1996. Fisika Dasar Jilid Dua. Jakarta : Erlangga
Tim Dosen Fisika Dasar II. 2014. Penuntun praktikum fisika dasar II. Makassar :
Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNM.