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Physics Class ICP FMIPA UNM 2016

Abstract. Has conducted experiments about ohms law and resistivity with purpose can measured

strong currents and voltages using appropriate tools. Understand influence cross-sectional area,

length and type of wire to strong electrical currents and voltages. Determine value of wire

resistivity and various types of wire. Understand ohms law. This experiment consists of four

activities, namely relationship between the cross-sectional area and strong current and voltages.

Used konstantan with length 100 cm and a cross-sectional area being manipulated. The second

activity is relationship with wire`s length and strong current and voltages. Used konstantan with

diameter 0.7 mm and cross-sectional area 0.4 mm2. The third activity is relationship between

wire`s type and strong current and voltages. Used 1 m in diameter 0.5 mm cross-sectional area of

0.2 mm2. The fourth activity is relationship between strong current and voltages. Resistors are used

to have the barriers is 150 . Based on the graph of data analysis can concluded that the crosssectional area is proportional to the strong current and inversely proportional to the voltages while

the length of the wire is directly proportional to the voltages is inversely proportional to dab a

strong electric current.

Keywords: cross-sectional area, the length of wire, wire types, strong currents, voltages.

PROBLEM FORMULATION

1. What appropriate tools can we use to measure the strong currents electric and

voltages?

2. How influence cross-sectional area, length and type of wire to strong electrical

currents and voltages?

3. How much value of wire resistivity and various types of wire. ?

4. What is the ohms law?

PURPOSE

1. Skillfully taking measurements strong currents electric and voltages using appropriate

tools.

2. Understand influence cross-sectional area, length and type of wire to strong electrical

currents and voltages.

3. Determine value of wire resistivity and various types of wire.

4. Understand ohms law

METHODOLOGY EXPERIMENT

Brief Theory

If we played a similar potential difference between the ends of the copper rod

and wooden sticks that have similar geometry, then generated different currents. The

characteristics (properties) that caused this conductor is a barrier (resistance). We define

the resistance of a conductor (often called prisoners = resistor) between the two points by

dressing a difference in potential difference V between these points, and by measuring the

current I, and then perform the division:

R=V/I

Or

V=IR

With R is the resistance wire.

(Halliday, Resnick: 187)

electric current will also increase in proportion with the increase in potential

difference. Wire length L and cross-sectional area A, would have amounted to

R obstacles,

R= L/A

Where is the resistivity of wire. In this experiment will investigate the

relationship between potential difference and strong electric currents in

different types of wire that has a long, cross-sectional area, and the different

types of wire. Charts the relationship between potential difference and strong

electric current is used to determine the value of R and resistivity of wire

(lead, 2015: 14)

Equipments

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Power supply DC

Analog Multimeter LD 20

Connecting cable

Resistor

Rheostat

Work Procedures

First Activitiy. Relations section area with strong electric current and voltages

First measurement of voltage and strong electrical currents carried to some

broad cross-section of different lengths and the same type of wire. Then, the results are

noted in Table observations.

Tabel 1. Voltage and electrical current in the wire diameter are different

No.

d=1,0 10 m

d=0,7 10 m

d=0,5 10 m

A=0,8 106 m2

A=0,4 106 m2

U (V)

I (A)

U (V)

I (A)

1.

U (V)

I (A)

d=1,0 10 m

U (V)

I (A)

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Second Activity. Relationship wire length with strong electrical currents and voltages.

First, measurement of voltage and strong electrical currents carried to different

lengths with the type and the same cross-sectional area of the wire. After that, the results

are noted in Table observations .

1.

No

l = 1m

U (V)

l=2m

I (A)

U (V)

I (A)

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Third Activity. Relationship kind of wire with a strong electric current and voltage.

First, measurement of voltage and strong electrical currents made for different

types of wire length and the same cross-sectional area an then, the results are noted in

Table observations.

1. No

Konstantan

U (V)

1.

2.

3.

4.

Messing

I (A)

U (V)

I (A)

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Fourth Activity. Relationship strong electric current with voltages.

First, measurement of the voltage across the resistor and a strong electric

current through a resistor done. Then, rheostat slide-slide to get different results.

Identification Variables

First Activity. Relations section area with strong electric current and voltages.

1. Variable manipulation

2. Variable response

3. Control variables

Second Activity. Relationship wire length with strong electric current and voltages.

1. Variable manipulation

2. Variable response

3. Control variables

Third Activity. Relationship kind of wire with a strong electric current and voltages.

1. Variable manipulation

2. Variable response

3. Control variables

First Activity.

1. Variable manipulation

(mm2).Voltage is the magnitude of the voltage readings on basicmeter in volts (V).

2. Variable response

3. Variable control = type of wire is a type of wire used in the experiment. Wire length

is the length of the wire is calculated from the end of the unit (m).

Second Activity

1. Variable manipulation

of the unit (m). Voltage is the magnitude of the voltage readings on basicmeter in

volts (V).

2. Variable response

3. Variable control = type of wire is a type of wire used in the experiment. Sectional

area of the wire conductor is a cross-sectional area is calculated based on a

mathematical formula to the units (mm2).

Third Activity

1. Variable manipulation

2. Variable response

3. Variable control = cross-sectional area is the cross sectional area of the wire

conductors are calculated based on a mathematical formula to the units (mm 2).

Wire length is the length of the wire is calculated from the end of the unit (m).

Experiment Result

Activity 1. Relationship between cross sectional area of the wire strong current

and voltages

Wire types

: konstantan

Wire length

: |1.0 0.5| m

Table 1. Results of voltages measurements and strong electric current in the wire diameter

(cross-sectional area) are different.

d = 1,0 mm

A = 0,8 mm2

U (V)

I (A)

|0.2 0,01|

|0.15 0.05|

|0.4 0,01|

|0.50 0.05|

|0.6 0,01|

|0.75 0.01|

|0.8 0.01|

|1.10 0.01|

|1.0 0.01|

|2.30 0.01|

d = 1,7 mm

A = 0,4 mm2

U (V)

I (A)

|0.2 0.01|

|0.10 0,01|

|0.4 0.01|

|0.20 0,01|

|0.6 0.01|

|0.40 0,01|

|0.8 0.01|

|0.50 0,01|

|1.0 0.01|

|0.60 0,01|

d = 0,5 mm

A = 0,2 mm2

U (V)

I (A)

|0.2 0,01|

|0.05 0,01|

|0.4 0,01|

|0.10 0,01|

|0.6 0,01|

|0.15 0,01|

|0.8 0,01|

|0.20 0,01|

|1.0 0,01|

|0.30 0,01|

d = 0,35 mm

A = 0,1 mm2

U (V)

I (A)

|0.2 0,01|

|0.01 0,001|

|0.4 0,01|

|0.03 0,001|

|0.6 0,01|

|0.04 0,001|

|0.8 0,01|

|0.07 0,001|

|1.0 0,01|

|0.09 0,001|

|1.2 0.01|

|2.60 0.01|

|1.2 0.01|

|0.70 0,01|

|1.2 0,01|

|0.35 0,01|

|1.2 0,01|

|0.10 0,001|

Second Activity.Relationship wire length with strong electrical currents and voltages.

Wire types

: Konstantan

Wire diameter

|0.7 0.5| mm

Cross-sectional area

Table 2. Measurement of the potential difference and strong electric currents in wires with

different lengths.

No

1

2

3

4

5

6

l=1m

U (V)

|0.2 0.1|

|0.4 0.1|

|0.6 0.1|

|0.8 0.1|

|1.0 0.1|

|1.2 0.1|

l=2m

I (A)

|0.10 0,01|

|0.20 0,01|

|0.40 0,01|

|0.50 0,01|

|0.60 0,01|

|0.70 0,01|

U (V)

|0.2 0.1|

|0.4 0.1|

|0.6 0.1|

|0.8 0.1|

|1.0 0.1|

|1.2 0.1|

I (A)

|0.05 0,05|

|0.10 0,05|

|0.20 0,05|

|0.30 0,05|

|0.35 0,05|

|0.40 0,05|

Third Activity.Relationship kind of wire with a strong electric current and voltage

Wire diameter (d)

|0.5 0.5| mm

Cross-sectional area

|1.0 0.5| m

Third Table. Measurement of the potential difference and strong electric currents in

different types of wire.

No

konstantan

messing

U (V)

I (A)

U (V)

I (A)

1

|0.2 0.1|

|0.05 0.05|

|0.2 0.1|

|0.70 0,05|

2

|0.4 0.1|

|0.10 0.05|

|0.4 0.1|

|0.90 0,05|

3

|0.6 0.1|

|0.15 0.05|

|0.6 0.1|

|1.40 0,05|

Resistor

: 180

Table 4. The strong relationship between electric current and potential difference

No

voltage (volt)

1

2

3

4

5

6

|6.0 0,1|

|5.8 0,1|

|5.6 0,1|

|5.4 0,1|

|5.2 0,1|

|5.0 0,1|

|0.031 0.001|

|0.030 0.001|

|0.028 0,001|

|0.027 0,001|

|0.026 0,001|

|0.025 0,001|

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

|4.8 0,1|

|4.6 0,1|

|4.4 0,1|

|4.2 0,1|

|4.0 0,1|

|3.8 0,1|

|3.6 0.1|

|3.4 0.1|

|0.024 0,001|

|0.023 0,001|

|0.022 0,001|

|0.021 0,001|

|0.020 0,001|

|0.019 0,001|

|0.018 0.001|

|0.018 0.001|

Data Analysis

The first activity. The effect of cross-sectional area to the electrical current and

voltage

0.8

R = 1

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

f(x) = 0.79x + 0

R = 1

0.3

0.2

R = 1

0.1

0

0

f(x) = 0.03x - 0

0.1

0.2

0.3

R = 0.99

volt (volt)

0.4

0.5

0.6

Graph 1. The effect of cross-sectional area to the electrical current and voltage

y = mx + c

m=

dy

dx

R=

V

I

R=

1

m

m

= 1.542

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

1.5332 = 0.652

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.5% = 0.5% (4 AB )

=

PR

KR R

100

0,5 0,648

= 0.00324

100

= |0.652 0.003|

m

= 0.789

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

0.789

= 1.267

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.6% = 0.4% (4 AB )

R =

=

PR

KR R

100

0.4 1.267

100

= 0.005

= |1.267 0.005|

m

= 0.423

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

0.423

= 2.364

= 0.997 x 100%

= 99.7%

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.7% = 0.3% (4 AB )

R =

=

PR

KR x R

100

0,3 x 2,364

100

= 0.0079

= |2.364 0.008|

m

= 0.026

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

0.026

= 38.4615

= 0.994 x 100%

= 99.4%

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.4% = 0.6% (4 AB )

=

PR

KR x R

100

0.6 x 38.4615

100

= 0.2308

= |38.46 0.23|

R ( Resistance ( )

0.8

0.4

0.2

0.1

0.652

1.267

2.364

38.4615

1

A

Ever greater the cross-sectional area (A) of the wire so, ever lower the resistance

(R)

The second activity. The effect of length of wire to the electrical current and

voltage.

2

1.8

1.6

1.4

1.2

1

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

R = 1

f(x) = 0.79x + 0

R = 1

0

voltage (volt)

Graph. 2. The effect of length of wire to the electrical current and voltage.

For wire length of 1 m

m

= 0.696

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

0.7893

= 1.267

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.62% = 0.38% (4 AB)

=

PR

KR x R

100

0.38 x 1.267

100

= 0.0048

= |1.267 0.005|

m

= 0.3842

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

0.3842

= 2.6028

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.8% = 0.16% ( 4 AB )

R =

KR x R

100

0.16 x 2.6028

100

= 0.00416

PR

= |2.603 0.004|

wire length ( m )

R ( resistance ( )

1

2

1.267

2.603

R L

Ever greater the length (L) of the wire so, ever greater the resistance (R)

The third activity. The effect of kind of wire to the electrical current and voltage

1.4

f(x) = 2.76x - 0.01

R = 1

1.2

1

0.8

0.4

0.2

R = 1

0

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

voltage (volt)

Graph 3. The effect of kind of wire to the electrical current and voltage

For kind of wire konstantan

m

= 0.423

1

0.423

= 2.364

0.6

DK

= R2 x 100%

= 0.9953 x 100% = 99.53%

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.53% = 0.47% ( 4 AB )

R =

=

PR

KR x R

100

0.47 x 2.364

100

= 0.0111

= |2.364 0.011|

m

= 2.7631

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

2.633

= 0.3741

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.73% = 0.27% (4 AB )

R =

=

PR

KR x R

100

0.27 x 0.3741

100

= 0.00101

= |0.374 0.001|

R. A

L

2.364 0.2

1000

= 0.4728 10-3 mm

= 0.4728 10-6 m

R. A

L

0.3741 0.2

1000

= 0.7484 10-4 mm

= 0.7482 10-7 m

konstantan and messing in theory

konstantan

%diff =

: 0.5 10-6 m

Rtheory R experiment

100

R average

0.50.473

0.486

100% = 5.54%

%diff =

Rtheory R experiment

100

R average

0.080.075

0.077

100% = 6.49%

kind of wire

R ( resistance ( )

0.4728 10-6 m

0.7482 10-7 m

2.364

0.374

Ever greater the wire resistivity ( ), so ever greater the resistance of a wire (R)

The fourth activity. The relationship between the electrical current and voltage

0.06

f(x) = 0.01x + 0

R = 0.99

0.05

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.01

0

1

voltage (volt)

m

= 0.008

DK

= R2 x 100%

1

0.008

=125

KR

= 100% - DK

= 100% - 99.3% = 0.7% (4 AB)

R =

=

PR

KR x R

100

0.7 x 200

100

= 0.875

= |125.000 0.875|

%diff =

Rtheory R experiment

100

R average

150 125

137.5

100%

= 18.18%

DISCUSSION

Has conducted experiments about ohms law and resistivity wire, which

consists of four activities. The first activity is a strong influence of cross-sectional area of

the electric current and potential difference. The second activity is the strong influence of

wire length on the electric current and potential difference. The third activity is the strong

influence of the type of wire to the electric current and potential difference. The fourth

activity is a strong relationship of voltage and electric current.

In the first activity, namely the influence of strong cross-sectional area of the

electric current and potential difference. Constant variables is the type that is konstantan

wire and wire length of 1 m to ignore its influence. Then the manipulated variables are

cross-sectional area is 0.8 mm2, 0.4 mm2, 0.2 mm2 and 0.1 mm2 with each diameter of

1.0 mm, 0.7 mm, 0.5 mm and 0 , 35 mm in order to get the value of R consecutive

namely | 0.648 0.003 | , | 1.267 0.005 | , | 2.364 0.008 | , and | 38.46 0.23 | .

Based on the analysis of these activities can be seen that the cross-sectional area is

inversely proportional to the value constraints and the results are consistent with the

theory.

The second activity is the strong influence of wire length on the electric current

and potential difference. The manipulated variable is the length of rope that is 1 m and 2

m. constant variable is the type of wire, diameter of 0.7 mm, and the cross-sectional area

of 0.4 mm2 is, and obtained R value of | 1.437 0.067 | and | 2.921 0.005 | . So that

it can be seen that the length of the wire is directly proportional to the value of its

resistance and results in accordance with the theory.

The third activity is the strong influence of the type of wire to the electric current and

potential difference. Constant variable that is the diameter of the wire, the wire crosssectional area and length of 1 m. The manipulated variable is the type of wire that is

konstantan and messing. Based on the analysis of data obtained R value of | 2.364 0.007

| and | | . So it can be said resistivity wire is directly proportional to the wire

barriers and these results are in accordance with the theory

The fourth activity is a strong relationship of voltage and electric current. In

this activity, we use a resistor with a barrier of 150 . While the slide rheostat- to obtain

different data and strong value of electric current and potential difference can be read. Of

this activity is directly proportional to the voltage obtained electric current.

CONCLUSION

Based on the experiments that have been carried out it can be concluded that:

1. Strong electric current can be measured by using ammeters and the potential

difference was measured by using a voltmeter.

2. The cross-sectional area is proportional to the strong current and inversely

proportional to the voltage ,the length of the wire directly inversly with strong

currents and is directly proportional to the voltage , and resistance is inversely

proportional to the type of wire strong currents and is directly proportional to the

voltage .

3. Barriers wire type depends on the type of wire.

4. Legal ohm describes a large electric current flows through a conductor wire is always

proportional to the potential difference is applied to it.

ADVICE

The good, the practicum students more active and serious in order to avoid errors in data

retrieval. In collecting data to measure strong currents and potential difference, the

practitioner must be perpendicular to the basic meter to avoid measurement error.

REFFERENCES

Halliday, Resnick. 1996. Fisika Dasar Jilid Dua. Jakarta : Erlangga

Tim Dosen Fisika Dasar II. 2014. Penuntun praktikum fisika dasar II. Makassar :

Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNM.

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