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"Sharpening Skills.....

Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.

Effect of Compression Ratio on Performance and Emissions of


Diesel on a Single Cylinder Four Stroke VCR Engine
Vijay Kumar Attri1, Vijay Kumar Sharma2, Saurabh Kumar Singh3, Manish Saraswat4
1,3

Asstt. Professor, Deptt. of Mechanical Engg. , LKCE, Ghaziabad


Asstt. Professor, Deptt. of Mechanical Engg. , JP Institute of Engg & Tech., Meerut
4
Asstt. Professor, Deptt. of Mechanical Engg. , ABES Engg College, Ghaziabad

Abstract Experimental work was conducted to evaluate


the effect of compression ratio on performance and emission
by using conventional diesel fuel on the single cylinder four
stroke variable compression ratio (VCR) engine with the
engine working at different five engine loads at compression
ratio 18 (CR18), compression ratio 17 (CR17) & compression
ratio 16 (CR16). The test were performed on Engine speed
1500 rpm and for emissions was measured by AVL emission
analyser. The performance parameters evaluated including
Brake thermal efficiency (BTE), brake specific fuel
consumption (BSFC) and Exhaust gas temperature (EGT)
with emission HC, CO & NOx. Experimental data showed at
CR17 give their best performance in the diesel engine. Result
showed slightly enhancement in brake thermal efficiency as
well as brake specific fuel consumption and reduced in
exhaust gas temperature while the emission content at CR18
shows marginal improvement in CO and reduced in HC, its
increase as load increases. The main factor NOx decreases as
compression ratio increases and increases as load increases.
At higher compression ration i.e. CR18 NOx reduced upto
30% from the compression ration 16.

I.

INTRODUCTION

The setup consists of single cylinder, four stroke, VCR


(Variable Compression Ratio) Diesel engine connected to
eddy current type dynamometer for loading. The
compression ratio can be changed without stopping the
engine and without altering the combustion chamber
geometry by specially designed tilting cylinder block
arrangement. Setup is provided with necessary instruments
for combustion pressure and crank-angle measurements.
These signals are interfaced to computer through engine
indicator for PPV diagrams. Provision is also made for
interfacing airflow, fuel flow, temperatures and load
measurement.

The set up has stand-alone panel box consisting of air


box, two fuel tanks for duel fuel test, manometer, fuel
measuring unit, transmitters for air
and fuel flow
measurements, process indicator and engine indicator.
Rotameters are provided for cooling water and calorimeter
water flow measurement.
The setup enables study of VCR engine performance for
brake power, indicated power, frictional power, BMEP,
IMEP, brake thermal efficiency, indicated thermal
efficiency, Mechanical efficiency, volumetric efficiency,
specific fuel consumption. Lab view based Engine
Performance Analysis software package Enginesoft_9.0
is provided for on line performance evaluation.
II.

V ARIABLE COMPRESSION R ATIO (VCR) ENGINES

1. Because of cylinder-bore diameter, piston-stroke


length and combustion-chamber volume are almost
always constant, the compression ratio for a given
engine is almost always constant, until engine wear
takes its toll.
2. One exception is the experimental Variable
Compression engine. This engine uses a technique
that dynamically alters the volume of the combustion
chamber (Vc), which, via above equation, changes the
compression ratio (CR).
3. The Atkinson cycle engine was one of the first
attempts at variable compression.
4. The VCR engine used for the experiment in this case
uses a special type of mechanical technique to vary
the compression ratio of the engine. Cylinder block is
attached to an adjuster nut arrangement with help of
which it can be tilted to specified angle to vary the
clearance volume and hence the compression ratio
changes accordingly.

Lord Krishna College of Engineering (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute) Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.

Compression ratio setting on a single cylinder VCR Diesel Engine


Fuel properties of Diesel fuel

Properties

Diesel fuel

Chemical formula

C14.32H24.75

Molecular weight (g/mol)

197.21

Oxygen (%) (wt.)

Density (kg/m3)

837

Boiling point (0C)

210-235

ST(0C)

254

LHV (MJ/kg)

42.65

VLH (kJ/kg)

375

CN

45-50

Lord Krishna College of Engineering (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute) Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.

III.

ENGINE DETAILS

IC Engine set up under test is Kirloskar TV1 having


power 5.20 kW @ 1500 rpm which is 1 Cylinder, Four
stroke , Constant Speed, Water Cooled, Diesel Engine, with
Cylinder Bore 87.50(mm), Stroke Length 110.00(mm),
Connecting Rod length 234.00(mm), Compression Ratio
18.00, Swept volume 661.45 (cc).
IV.

TEST PARAMETER

For this, at a given compression ratio 18 (CR18), the


load is increased from 0-10 kg, 2kg at a time, and the
engine is run for the required test duration for the
measurement of values.
Emission Tester
Engine emissions of different compression ratio of diesel
(cr18, cr17 & cr16) and at different load (0-10 kg) with a
step of 2 kg were measured by AVL emission analyser.
Specifications about the analyser are given below :

These are to be entered every time engine testing has to


be done. First compression ratio and calorific value of fuel
at one time and for new compression ratio entered
manually, rest of this every parameter will achieved
automatically for corresponding load to be entered
automatically.
Parameter Description :
Brake specific fuel consumption
Fuel consumption rate
Brake thermal efficiency
Brake mean effective pressure
Exhaust gas Temperature
Actual Speed
Air intake velocity etc.
4.4.3 Testing Procedure
The VCR engine has to be operated on the 1-butanol
diesel blend at different compression ratios, with a load
range of 0-10kg at each given value of compression ratio.

Lord Krishna College of Engineering (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute) Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.
Test Setup

Lord Krishna College of Engineering (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute) Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.
Single Cylinder Foru Stroke Diesel Engine Graphs

Brake specific fuel consumption comparison at different compression ratio for diesel

Brake Thermal Efficiency consumption comparison at different compression ratio for diesel

Lord Krishna College of Engineering (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute) Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.

Exhaust Gas Temperature comparison at different compression ratio for diesel

CO emission comparison at different compression ratio for diesel

Lord Krishna College of Engineering (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute) Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.

HC emission comparison at different compression ratio for diesel

NOx emission comparison at different compression ratio for diesel

Lord Krishna College of Engineering (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Institute) Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.
V.

INTERPRETATION O F GRAPH

It is observed from the above graphs that the Brake


specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at low load was higher at
CR 18 and gradually decreases as compression ratio
decrease but as load increases it become quite similar for
CR18 & CR16. It can be observed from the figure that
CR17 gives their best output. Brake thermal efficiency
(BTE) at CR18 at low load condition was noticed poor and
in comparison CR16 is shows higher output but as load
increases Brake thermal efficiency increases and give their
best result at CR17 which shows in graph and this
improvement upto 10% higher than CR18 and CR16.
EGT again at higher side at CR18 when load at low side.
As load increases EGT increases and near the same result
for CR18 and CR16, at CR17 EGT has approximately 12%
less rest of two compression ratio.
CO increase at high compression ratio i.e. CR18 as well
as on CR16, experimental data shows their optimum value
at CR17. CO shows their higher value at low load condition
and its decreases as load increases. On other hand HC
decreases as compression ratio increases and increases as
load increases. CO reduced approximately 20% at CR18
from the CR16. The main factor NOx decreases as
compression ratio increases and increases as load increases.
At higher compression ration i.e. CR18 NOx reduced upto
30% from the compression ration 16.
VI.

CONCLUSION

As from the above result and discussion we can


conclude that diesel engine at compression ratio 17 (CR17)
gives their best result in performance i.e. Brake specific
fuel consumption, Brake Thermal efficiency and Exhaust
gas temperature in comparison of compression ratio 18 &
16 but the adverse effect on emission the data shows least
emission content found at compression ratio 18 (CR18)
means higher compression ratio. At CR18 NOx reduced
upto 30% from the CR16 at loading condition and reduced
20% CO, no doubt slightly increment in HC emission were
found at CR18. The operating condition at CR18 is an
environmentally friendly and can be used in any diesel
engine.

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"Sharpening Skills.....
Serving Nation"

International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering


Website: www.ijetae.com (ISSN 2250-2459 (Online), Volume 5, Special Issue 1, April 2015)
Second International Conference on Advanced Developments in Engineering and Technology (ICADET-15), INDIA.
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