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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Introduction to
Reservoir Engineering

Gerhard Thonhauser

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

What is Reservoir Engineering ?

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Engineering Challenges

Model fluid flow in porous media


Consider thermo-dynamics of the system
Develop a model of the reservoir
z
z

Material balance
Drive mechanisms

Make production forecasts


Suggests ways to enhance oil recovery

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Crude Quality by Types

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Phase Diagram

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Introduction

What is Reservoir Engineering


z

Reservoir Engineering is the art of developing and producing


oil and gas fluids in such a manner as to obtain a high
economic recovery

Tasks
z
z
z
z
z

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

How much oil and gas is originally in place?


What are the drive mechanisms for the reservoir?
What will the recovery factor be (by primary recovery)?
What will future production rates be?
How can the recovery be increased economically?

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases
1. How much oil and gas is originally in place?
z

Estimation of Hydrocarbons in Place

Determination of Fluid Pressure Regimes


Location of Fluid contacts
Reservoir Rock & Fluid data

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Oil Bearing Formation

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Traps

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Faults

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Oil, Water, Gas Segregation

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Typical Distribution

OOIP:
30 %

recoverable

70 %

not recoverable with


current technology

1 m3 Reservoir:
75 % Sandstone,
10 % Water,
15 % Oil.

Economically recoveralbe:
ca. 5 %

d. h.: 2/3 of the oil is not


recoverable with current
available technology!

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases

Oil Volume in the Reservoir


z
z

OIP = Vf(1-Swc)
where

V
Net bulk volume of the reservoir rock
f
Porosity of the reservoir
Swc Connate or irreducible water saturation

STOIP = Vf(1-Swc)/Bo

Bo

Oil Formation Volume Factor [ResVol/STVol]

E.g: Bo = 1.2 defines that a volume of 1.2 rb of oil will


produce 1 stb of oil at the surface together with the volume
of gas which was originally dissolved in the oil in the
reservoir

f and Swc are determined from petrophysical analysis


The net bulk volume, V, is obtained from geology and fluid
pressure analysis.

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Contour Map

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Volumetric Method

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Decline Curve

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases
2. What are the drive mechanisms for the reservoir?

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases

3. What will the recovery factor


be (by primary recovery)?
z
z

Required to estimate reserves


Depending on driving
mechanisms
Best estimated with reservoir
simulation

4. What will future production


rates be?
z

Reservoir development
strategies

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Simulation

Gridding of the reservoir


Assigning reservoir properties
to each block
Simulate flow behavior

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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases
5. How can recovery be increased economically?
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is oil recovery by the injection of
materials not normally present in the reservoir

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EOR CO2 Flooding

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Incremental Oil Recovery by EOR

Oil production rate

EOR operation
A

Incremental
EOR oil

B
C

Time
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Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Enhanced (EOR) or Improved (IOR) Oil Recovery

Steam Flooding

Chemical

In-situ Combustion

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