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# Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Introduction to
Reservoir Engineering

Gerhard Thonhauser

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## Model fluid flow in porous media

Consider thermo-dynamics of the system
Develop a model of the reservoir
z
z

Material balance
Drive mechanisms

## Make production forecasts

Suggests ways to enhance oil recovery

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Phase Diagram

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Introduction

z

## Reservoir Engineering is the art of developing and producing

oil and gas fluids in such a manner as to obtain a high
economic recovery

z
z
z
z
z

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## How much oil and gas is originally in place?

What are the drive mechanisms for the reservoir?
What will the recovery factor be (by primary recovery)?
What will future production rates be?
How can the recovery be increased economically?

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## Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases
1. How much oil and gas is originally in place?
z

## Determination of Fluid Pressure Regimes

Location of Fluid contacts
Reservoir Rock & Fluid data

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Traps

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Faults

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OOIP:
30 %

recoverable

70 %

## not recoverable with

current technology

1 m3 Reservoir:
75 % Sandstone,
10 % Water,
15 % Oil.

Economically recoveralbe:
ca. 5 %

## d. h.: 2/3 of the oil is not

recoverable with current
available technology!

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Sample Cases

## Oil Volume in the Reservoir

z
z

OIP = Vf(1-Swc)
where

V
Net bulk volume of the reservoir rock
f
Porosity of the reservoir
Swc Connate or irreducible water saturation

STOIP = Vf(1-Swc)/Bo

Bo

## E.g: Bo = 1.2 defines that a volume of 1.2 rb of oil will

produce 1 stb of oil at the surface together with the volume
of gas which was originally dissolved in the oil in the
reservoir

## f and Swc are determined from petrophysical analysis

The net bulk volume, V, is obtained from geology and fluid
pressure analysis.

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## Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Volumetric Method

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Decline Curve

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## Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases
2. What are the drive mechanisms for the reservoir?

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Sample Cases

## 3. What will the recovery factor

be (by primary recovery)?
z
z

## Required to estimate reserves

Depending on driving
mechanisms
Best estimated with reservoir
simulation

## 4. What will future production

rates be?
z

Reservoir development
strategies

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## Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Reservoir Simulation

## Gridding of the reservoir

Assigning reservoir properties
to each block
Simulate flow behavior

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## Logistics in Petroleum Engineering

Sample Cases
5. How can recovery be increased economically?
Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) is oil recovery by the injection of
materials not normally present in the reservoir

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EOR operation
A

Incremental
EOR oil

B
C

Time
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## Enhanced (EOR) or Improved (IOR) Oil Recovery

Steam Flooding

Chemical

In-situ Combustion

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