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Articulo sobre MPPT

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doi:10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.367.397

Online: 2013-08-16

Hongling Wang1, a, Wu Wang2, b

1

a

jhwlz@tom.com, bxcu_wangwu@sina.com

Keywords: maximum power point tracking (MPPT); fuzzy control; variable perturb step; wind

turbine; simulation

Abstract. Traditional MPPT control strategy for variable speed wind turbine was dependent on

turbines parameters, the algorithm was difficulty in realize system. A new MPPT based on fuzzy

control was presented to improve the efficiency of wind power generation system. This MPPT control

strategy adjusts the proportion coefficient of power curve according to the operation states and change

perturb step by power characteristic point slop, the power characteristic of wind turbine was analyzed

and the strategy of dynamic power curve tracking mode was described, with fuzzy controller designed

for this MPPT tracking, the tracking speed was improved, the oscillation around MPP was reduced,

the control performance confirmed by MATLAB simulation.

Introduction

The large consumption of conventional fossil energy brings about serious environmental issues such

as greenhouse gases, acid rain, air pollution; the exploitation of wind power will improve the energy

structure and ease the power shortage, which is an effective approach to solving the world energy

crisis, so the turbine unit capacity is increasing rapidly [1]. But because of the random of the wind and

the effect of pneumatic, fluctuation, intermittence and uncertain are the characteristics of wind energy

which cause wind energy output power fluctuation, besides, the effectiveness could be further

downgraded with wind energy conversion system (WECS) uncertainties [2]. A MPPT control is

required to achieve optimum wind energy utilization and maintain the maximal aerodynamic

efficiency. In order to capture the maximum wind energy, the MPPT control was adopted in variable

speed wind energy conversion system, MPPT was classified into three control method, one is tip

speed ratio (TSR), the main idea of TSR was calculating optimum speed by measure wind speed and

the characteristic of wind turbine with wind variable, adjusting the generator speed operate on

optimum speed, so the maximum energy captured. The disadvantages of this method was the wind

speed and rotor speed should be measured, which was hard in reality system, also the anemometer

was expensive and adds extra cost to the system with control complexity; the other method is power

signal feedback (PSF) control, in this method, the maximum power curve should be pre-calculated,

with an encoder or tachogenerator for speed measure, adjusting the power to tracking the maximum

power, as for the shortcomings of these two method, the hill climb searching (HSC) was proposed [3].

HCS control on the other hand does not require any prior knowledge about the system and is

absolutely independent of the turbine, generator and wind characteristics, however, tow serious

problems with the HCS method are the speed-efficiency tradeoff and the wrong directionality under

rapid wind change, also the algorithm and control procedure are commonly complex, which make it

difficult to execute [4].

Fuzzy control has many advantages such as control with mathematical models not needed, can use

expert information and knowledge, and with strong robustness, on the other hand, in practical control

equipment the controller parameters are hard to get and lack of systematic analytical method, the

fuzzy-control-based MPPT scheme is good, but somewhat complex to implement, the MPPT control

strategy based on fuzzy control was presented, in the control process, the power coefficient was

adjusted with the relative relation of operation point and maximum power point, the advantages of

All rights reserved. No part of contents of this paper may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means without the written permission of Trans

Tech Publications, www.ttp.net. (ID: 132.174.254.159, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, USA-23/05/15,08:01:30)

398

this control strategy is less dependent on wind turbines parameters, the new algorithm could improve

the tracking speed, reduced the oscillation around the maximum power point and improve the

efficiency of WECS [5].

MPPT dynamic power curve tracking with fuzzy control

In the wind turbines mechanical power-rotor speed and maximum power curve, at different wind

speed, there was a optimal rotor speed for maximum power tracking, the connection of maximum

power point was maximum power curve, if the turbines rotor speed was controlled at optimal rotor

speed, then the maximum power tracking realized.

The mechanical power extracted by a wind turbine can be given by [6]:

P = 0.5 R 2C p ( , ) 3

(1)

Where, is the air density, R is the radius of turbine blades, is the wind velocity, C p ( , ) is the

power coefficient which is a nonlinear function of the tip speed ratio and the blade pitch angle, the tip

speed ration was defined as:

= R v

(2)

3

3

3

P max = R5C p maxopt

/ 2opt

= koptopt

(3)

As in (1), the coefficient kopt was an important parameter for mechanical power, so, by adjusting

kopt subtly, so the rotor speed was changing dynamically, the rules for kopt adjusting can be given as

follows.

dP

and d , if m

> 0 and d < 0 , the current operation point at the left

d

dt

d

dt

side of MPP, the rotor speed has the trend of decrease, so the rotor speed should be improved by kopt

Calculating

dPm

> 0 and d > 0 , the current operation point also at the left side of MPP, but the

d

dt

rotor speed has the trend of increase, the rotor speed should be improved by kopt reduced, but in these

reduced, if

dPm

dPm

Fuzzy control was widely used in nonlinear system and uncertain complex system, as for kopt

adjusting above mentioned, fuzzy control is a suitable adoption, here, a double input-one output fuzzy

dP

controller was designed, the input was selected as m

and d , the output selected as k for

d

dt

kopt subtle adjusting. The fuzzy set universe of discourse with five fuzzy subsets. The universe of

, d and k with [NB, NM, NS, Z, PS, PM, PB], as for input fuzzy set, the

d

dt

triangle membership function was adopted with discrete collection. k = {3, 2, 1, 0,1, 2,3} ,

dPm

= d = {6, 4, 2, 0, 2, 4, 6} , the membership function as shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2, the

d

dt

dP

is

fuzzy control rules as shown in Tab.1, which can described with fuzzy language such as, if m

d

NB and is d NB the is k PB.

dt

discourse for

dPm

399

membership of inputs

NM

NS

PS

PM

mermbership of output

NB

1

PB

0.8

Degree of membership

Degree of membership

NB

1

0.6

0.4

0

u

PS

PM

PB

-2

-1

0

e

0.4

0

-2

0.6

0.2

-4

NS

0.8

0.2

-6

NM

-3

d

dPm

NB

NM

NS

Z

PS

PM

PB

NB

NM

NS

PB

PB

PM

PM

PM

PS

PS

PB

PM

PS

PS

PS

PM

PM

PM

PM

PS

PS

PS

PM

PM

dt

Z

k

PS

PS

PS

Z

NS

NM

NB

PS

PM

PB

PM

PM

NM

NS

NS

NM

NB

PM

PM

NM

NM

NM

NM

NB

NS

NS

NB

NB

NB

NB

NB

The simulation was taken under MATLAB platform [8], the fuzzy control rules was taken as Tab.1, a

squirrel cage induction generator was taken for simulation, the radius of the turbine R = 2.5m , air

density = 1.25kg/m 2 , the optimal tip speed ration opt = 7 and the power coefficient C p = 0.47 .

0.5

0.45

7

0.4

0.35

0.3

Cp

5

4

0.25

0.2

0.15

0.1

0.05

1

0

50

100

150

t/s

200

250

300

50

100

150

t/s

200

250

300

With the new MPPT control strategy, the tip speed ratio curve as shown in Fig.3 and the power

coeffiecient changing curve as shown in Fig.4, the tracking performance as shown in Fig.5 and the the

torque characteristic curve as shown in Fig.6, the simulation result shows that fuzzy control was a

400

suitable control strategy for MPPT, the oscillation at MPP was resolved and the conversion efficiency

of wind energy was enhanced.

35

300

30

250

25

200

w T (Nm)

20

15

150

100

10

50

50

100

150

t/s

200

250

300

10

15

20

25

l (rad/s)

Acknowledgment

It is a project supported by Foundation of office of education, He Nan Province (2011B470005,

12A470007) and Natural Science Foundation of He Nan Province (122102210416112102210339).

References

[1] JI Zhi-cheng, FENG Hai-ying, SHEN yan-xia. The Active Pitch Control Research of Wind

Turbine Based on Feedback Linearzation Method [J]. Small & Special Electrical Machines,

2011,39(11):40-43

[2] TAN Xun-qiong, TANG Jie, WU Zheng-qiu . 10 MW variable speed direct-driven wind turbines

modeling and Matlab simulation [J]. Power System Protection and Control, 2011,39(24):31-37

[3] XIA An-jun, HU Shu-ju, XU Hong-hua. Research on dynamic power curve control strategy of

MPPT for wind turbine. ELECTRIC DRIVE, 2011(12): pp.61-65.

[4] ZHANG Xiaolian, LI Qun, YIN Minghui, et al. An improved hill-climbing searching method

based on halt mechanism[J]. Proceedings of the CSEE, 2012(14):128-134

[5] KONG Yi-gang, WANG Zhi-xin. Design and simulation of fuzzy sliding mode robust controller

for large wind generating unit [J]. Proceedings of CSEE.2008, 28(14):136-142

[6] MENG Tao, JI Zhi-cheng. Two-frequency-loop control for wind energy conversion system based

on sliding mode control [J]. Electric Machines and Control, 2009,(11):152-156

[7] Wang Wu, Wang Hong-ling, Bai Zheng-min. Fault Diagnosis of Three Level Inverter Based on

Improved Neural Networks[J]. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 2011, Vol.97, pp.55-62

[8] Wang wu, Bai Zheng-min, Yao ning. Simulation of Neural Network sliding Mode Control for

Permanent Magnet Linear Synchronous Motor [J]. ELECTRIC MACHINES & CONTROL

APPLICATION, 2011,38(2):22-25

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.367

10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.367.397

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