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THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE USE OF SCANNING

STRATEGY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS READING


ACHIEVEMENT OF THE SECOND YEAR OF MTs N
WONOSEGORO IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012
A Graduating Paper
Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I)
In English and Educational Department

Written By:
YOHAN HERU PURNAMA
11307115

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FACULTY


STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA
2012

MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS


STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 02 Telp. (0298) 323706 Fax. (0298) 323433 Salatiga 50721
Website: www.stainsalatiga.ac.id. E-mail administrasi@stainsalatiga.ac.id

DECLARATION
BISMILLAHIRROHMANIRROHIM

Hereby the researcher declares that this graduating paper is made by the
researcher himself, and it is not containing materials written and has been
published by other people and other peoples idea except the information from the
references.
The researcher is capable to account to his graduating paper if in the future
it can be proved of containing others idea or in fact, the researcher imitates the
others graduating paper.
Likewise, this declaration is made by the researcher, and he hopes that this
declaration can be understood.

Salatiga, Januari 14, 2012


The Researcher

Yohan Heru Purnama


NIM: 11307115

MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS


STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 02 Telp. (0298) 323706 Fax. (0298) 323433 Salatiga 50721
Website: www.stainsalatiga.ac.id. E-mail administrasi@stainsalatiga.ac.id

Salatiga, January 14, 2012


Maslihatul Umami, S.Pd.I, M.A
The Lecturer of Educational Faculty
State Institute of Islamic Studies Salatiga
ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES
Case: Yohan Heru Purnamas Graduating Paper
Dear
The Head of State Institute of Islamic Studies
Salatiga
Assalamualaikum Wr. Wb.
After reading and correcting Yohan Heru Purnamas Graduating Paper
entitled THE EFFECTIVNESS OF SCANNING STRATEGY TO
IMPROVE STUDENTS READING ACHIEVEMENT OF THE
SECOND YEAR OF MTs N WONOSEGORO IN THE ACADEMIC
YEAR 2011/2012.

I have decided and would like to propose that if

educational faculty could accept it. I hope it could be examined as soon as


possible.
Wassalamualaikum Wr. Wb.

Counselor,

Maslihatul Umami, S.Pd.I, M.A


NIP:19800513 200312 2003

MINISTRY OF RELIGIOUS AFFAIRS


STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (STAIN) SALATIGA
Jl. Tentara Pelajar No. 02 Telp. (0298) 323706 Fax. (0298) 323433 Salatiga 50721
Website: www.stainsalatiga.ac.id. E-mail administrasi@stainsalatiga.ac.id

GRADUATING PAPER
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE USE OF SCANNING STRATEGY
TO IMPROVE STUDENTS READING ACHIEVEMENT
OF THE SECOND YEAR OF MTsN WONOSEGORO
IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012
BY:
YOHAN HERU PURNAMA
NIM. 113 07 115
Has been bought to the board of examiners of examiners of English
Departemen of Educational Faculty of State Islamic Studies Institute (STAIN)
Salatiga in April 15, 2012 and hereby considered to completely fulfill the
requirement of the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan Islam (S. Pd. I) in English and
Education Departemen.
Board Examiners
Head

: Benny Ridwan , M. Hum

_____________________

Secretary

: Norwanto, M. Hum

_____________________

1st Examiner : Hanung Triyoko, S.S, M. Hum, M. Ed. _____________________


2nd Examiner : Setya Rini, M. Pd

_____________________

3rd Examiner : Maslihatul Umami, S.Pd. I, M.A

_____________________

Salatiga, April 16, 2012


Head of STAIN of Salatiga

Dr. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag


NIP. 19580827 198303 1 002

MOTTO

Happiness will come when it comes


- Capt. Jack Sparrow -

DEDICATION

This graduation paper is whole-heartedly dedicated to:


1. My Father (Sumardi) and my Mother (Siti Rohmah), thank you for the love, trust,
finance and encouragement.
2. My little naughty sister, Andri Wahyaningrum I know you love me
3. My indeed friends; M. Nazil Iqdami, Stamma Amin, Arbain, Lusiana Kartika,
Soraya Azmi, Munying, Pajar Peh, Miftah Richard, BB, Ali, Jibrun, Sothing our
togetherness means a lot to me love you full !!
4. My big family of Communicative English Club (CEC) keep your unity in
diversity guyz.
5. My friends in TBI 2007.
6. All STAIN Salatiga lectures especially for those who have taught in my class.
7. All teachers and students in MTs N Wonosegoro.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
In the name of Allah, the most gracious and merciful, the Lord of universe.
Because of Him, the writer could finish this thesis as one of the requirement for
Sarjana Pendidikan Islam at English Department of Educational Faculty of State
Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga in 2011.
Secondly, peace and salutation always be given to our Prophet
Muhammad SAW who has guided us from the darkness to the lightness.
However, this success would not be achieved without those supports,
guidance, advice, help, and encouragement from individual and institution, and I
somehow realize that an appropriate moment for me to deepest gratitude for:
1. Dr. Imam Sutomo, M.Ag, the head of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN)
Salatiga
2. Suwardi, M.Pd as the chief of Education Faculty
3. Mashlihatul Umami, S.PdI, M.A, as the chief of English Department and also as the
writers counsellor who has educated, supported, directed and given the writer
advices, suggestion, and recommendation for this thesis from beginning until the end
4. All the lecturers in the English Department of STAIN Salatiga
5. All the staff that have helped the writer in processing of thesis administration
6. My beloved father and mother, thanks for all
7. All of my friends that helped me finish this thesis

Finally, this thesis is expected to be able to provide useful knowledge and


information to the readers. The researcher is pleased to accept more suggestion
and contribution from the readers for the improvement of the thesis.
Salatiga, January 14, 2012
The researcher

Yohan Heru Purnama


NIM: 11307115

ABSTRACT

Purnama, Yohan Heru. 2012. The Effectiveness of the Use Scanning Strategy to
Improve Students Reading Achievement of the Second Years of MTs N
Wonosegoro in the Academic Year 2011/2012. A Graduating Paper.
Educational Faculty. English Department. State Institute of Islamic Studies
(STAIN) Salatiga. Counselor: Mashlihatul Umami. S.Pd.I., M.A.
Keywords: Scanning strategy, Reading.
Scanning in reading is regarded as a strategy to help readers quickly go
through a text to find a particular piece of information. This strategy can be used
to help students achieve their reading effectively. Thus, the aims of conducting
this research are to find out the data of students reading achievement that have
been taught using scanning strategy, as well as to get a real evidence of the
effectiveness of the use of this particular strategy. The techniques of collecting the
data applied by the writer are documentation, observation, pre-test, and post-test.
The data, which have been collected, are analyzed by using some books for the
theoretical data and using t-test for the quantitative data. From the calculation of
the t-test, the result of the effectiveness between students reading achievement
taught with scanning strategy and without scanning strategy is 3.56. It means that
the effectiveness of the use of scanning strategy to improve students reading
achievement of the second year of MTs N Wonosegoro in the academic year
2011/2012 is in sufficient level. It means that the use of scanning strategy is
effective to improve students reading achievement. Therefore, the scanning
reading strategy is appropriate to be applied in a reading class.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE ........................................................................................................................

DECLARATION .......................................................................................................

ii

ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES .......................................................................

iii

STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION .......................................................................

iv

MOTTO .....................................................................................................................

DEDICATION ...........................................................................................................

vi

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ............................................................................................

vii

ABSTRACT ............................................................................................................... viii


TABLE OF CONTENTS ...........................................................................................

ix

LIST OF TABLES .....................................................................................................

xi

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
A.

Background of the Research ........................................................

B.

Limitation of the Problems..........................................................

C.

Problem Statement ......................................................................

D.

The Objective of the Study ...........................................................

E.

Hypothesis ....................................................................................

F.

Literature Review .........................................................................

G.

Clarification of Key Terms ............................................................

H.

Benefits of the Study ....................................................................

10

CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW


A.

Definition of Reading ...................................................................

12

B.

Effectiveness of Reading ..............................................................

13

C.

Students Reading Achievement ..................................................

19

D.

Kinds of Reading Technique .........................................................

21

E.

Ways to Reading...........................................................................

22

F.

Strategies of Teaching Reading ....................................................

25

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


A.

Research Setting...........................................................................

30

B.

Research Method .........................................................................

37

C.

Object of the Research .................................................................

37

D.

Technique of Collecting Data .......................................................

38

E.

Technique of Data Analysis............................................... ...........

44

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS


A.

Research Findings.........................................................................

46

B.

The Analysis of Data .....................................................................

49

C.

The Test of Hypothesis .................................................................

51

D.

The Interpretations and Discussions of Data ...............................

52

CHAPTER V CLOSURE
A.

Conclusion ....................................................................................

55

B.

Suggestion ....................................................................................

56

BIBLIOGRAPHY
APPENDIX

LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1

The Profile of Students of MTsN Wonosegoro 2011/2012 ....................

33

Table 3.2

The Profile of Teachers and Staff of MTsN Wonosegoro 2011/2012....

33

Table 3.3

The Profile of Educational Facilities and Equipments ...........................

35

Table 3.4

The Criterions of the Observation ..........................................................

40

Table 3.5

The List of Students of the Experimental Class .....................................

43

Table 3.6

The List of Students of the Control Class ..............................................

43

Table 4.1

The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test of Experimental Class..................

46

Table 4.2

The Score of Pre-Test and Post-Test of Control Class ..........................

48

Table 4.3

The Comparison Scores between Experiment and Control Class .........

49

Figure 3.1

The Organization Structure of MTsN Wonosegoro ..............................

36

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Reading is one of the four language skills that must be mastered by
the students in learning a language. It is essential for having reading ability,
because we can transfer and develop science, technology, and culture by
reading. We also get information that is needed. In real life reading is often
part of series of activities, including locating texts and presenting material
orally and in writing, even in a class, activities that include speaking and
writing are well motivated. However, using reading as gist for a writing,
speak, and to provide informations.
Reading one of the most important of the four skills in a second
language, particularly in English as a second language or foreign language.
Certainly, if we consider the study of English as a foreign language around
the world, the situation in which most English learners find themselves that
reading is the main reason why student learn the language. Without reading
proficiency, second language readers cannot perform the knowledge and
perform speaking English as well. That reading is not passive, but rather
than active, and in fact an interactive, procces has been recognized for some
time in first or native language reading. (Carrell, 1996;1)
Reading is a complex information proccesing skill in which the reader
interacts with the text in order to create meaningful discourse. The reader is

an active, problem solving individual who coordinates a number of skills and


strategies to gain comprehension as he/she reads as a reading material. The
goal of reading program is to develop fluency wherein independent readers
set their own goals and strategies for reading. And the reading activities are
suggested by the goal of the readers and by specific characteristics of the
reading passage. Reading tasks must be realistic in terms of both language use
and students abilities. (Silberstein, 1984:12)
English, an international language is taught in junior high school as a
compulsory subject. In learning English, reading is taught as one of the four
language skills that must be mastered by the students of junior high school.
Reading is an important skill because of it; the 2006 Educational Unit Level
Curriculum for junior high school emphasizes reading in learning English.
The instructional objectives of teaching reading based on the 2006
Educational Unit Level Curriculum are as follows: the first is to get general
information about the text, second is to identify the main idea explicitly,
thirds is to identify the main idea implicitly, fourth is get detail information
about the text and the last is to infer words, phrases and sentences meaning
based on the context.
It is expected that after studying English for three years, the students
will have reading ability and achieve 1000 words as stated in this curriculum.
Actually, the ability of the students in reading is very poor. It is proved to be
their result both in a midterm examination and final examination, for example
the students of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro get low score in their English final

examination in 2011. Their English score is 3, 50. It proves that their English
is poor.
There are some factors that cause the student reading ability poor. The
factors are classified into two internal and external factors. The internal
factors come from student themselves such as motivation, and knowledge.
The external factor come from teacher, school facilities parents and the
condition that influences the student in learning English.
In this case, the knowledge of students have important role in reading
achievement. The problem comes from the students is caused by their lack of
knowledge that is related to the text. For example, when a teacher discusses
about sport, many students actually do not know various kinds of sport like
basketball, baseball, yacht, etc. they cannot understand the meaning of the
text because they do not know what they are discussing about. This happened
because students just nodded and felt ashamed to ask to the teacher when they
found difficult words and not understandable materials. Although, the
location of the school its very strategies in a road but it has minimum
facilities for learning process.
The problem comes from the teacher, is referred to the lack of the
teacher skill and method in teaching reading. Actually, not all the teacher
uses strategies to teach reading. Most teachers in giving the material,
especially English (Reading) only ask students to read without giving
directions and strategies to the students.

A teacher should be having

strategies and method that suitable with the condition. To solve the problem

in teaching reading, the research gave scanning strategy to improve students


reading achievement.
In this research, the researcher uses scanning strategy to improve
students reading achievement. It deals with the 2006 Educational Unit Level
Curriculum which state that the teaching of reading is oriented to the world
that providing the real lives. The aid that is meant here is the use of scanning
method.
Based on the background above, the researcher emphasizes the
research in the uses of scanning strategy by conducting experimental
research. It helps the students understand and comprehend the text easily. So,
the research focuses on THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE USE SCANNING
STRATEGY TO IMPROVE STUDENTS READING ACHIEVEMENT OF
MTs NEGERI WONOSEGORO IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012.

B. Limitation of The Problem


In this research, the writer focuses on the use of the scanning strategy
in the second years students of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro in the academic
year of 2011/2012.

C. Problem Statements
To make this research more focus, the researcher formulates two
research questions as follows:

1.

Does the use of scanning strategy in teaching reading improve students


reading achievement at the second year students of MTs Negeri
Wonosegoro Boyolali?

2.

How far is the effectiveness of the use of scanning strategy in teaching


reading can improve students reading achievement at the second year
students of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro Boyolali?

D. The Objectives of The Study


In relation to the research problem, the objectives of the study are:
1.

To find out whether yes or not the use of scanning strategy is effective to
improve students reading achievement at the second year students of
MTs Negeri Wonosegoro Boyolali.

2.

To find out how far the effectiveness of the use of scanning strategy in
teaching reading can improve students reading achievement at the
second year students of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro Boyolali

E. Hypothesis
This research is to answer the question about whether yes or not the
use of scanning strategy is effective to improve students reading
achievement. To get the answer of question, the researcher should propose
alternative hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (Ho) as below:
1. Alternative Hypothesis (Ha):
There is a significant improvement on students reading scores taught by
scanning strategy rather than taught without scanning strategy

2. Null Hypothesis (Ho):


There is no improvement on students reading scores taught by scanning
strategy rather than taught without scanning strategy

F. Literature Review
The writer takes some reviews of related literature from other
thesis as principle or comparative in this research.
The first one had been done by Didik Mahmud Marjiin (113 00
33)

entitled

THE

INFLUENCE

OF

STUDENTS

READING

COMPREHENSION TOWARD THEIR WRITING SKILL MASTERY


(A case study of second year students of MTs Aswaja Tengaran in the
Academic Year of 2007/2008). He had analyzed that there was a positive
correlation between students reading comprehension and students writing
skill mastery.
The second was done by Arina Manasikana (113 07 073) entitled
THE INFLUENCE OF READING ENGLISH INTENSITY TOWARD
STUDENTS ACADEMIC WRITING ACHIEVEMENT (Case study The
Sixth Semester Of English Department Students Of State Islamic Studies
Institute Of Stain Salatiga In The Academic Year Of 2011/2012) The
writer showed that the students reading English intensity gives a positive
contribution to the students achievement writing ability.

The last research was conducted by Munim Mubarok entitled


THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SKIMMING IN PRE READING ACTIVITY
OF THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF MTs NU SALATIGA IN
THE YEAR ACADEMIC YEAR 2009/2010 concluded that, there is a
significant difference between the skimming class and non-skimming
class. It shows that using skimming in teaching reading comprehension is
more effective than teaching reading comprehension without skimming.

G. Clarification of Key Term


1. Reading
Reading is one of the four language skills which have the main
roles in learning language. There are many definitions of reading that are
stated by experts Reinking and Scheiner in Sukirah (1988) define reading
is an active cognitive process of interesting with print and monitoring
comprehension to establish meaning. Sukira adds that reading is
combination of word recognition and intellect and emotion interrelated
with prior knowledge to understand the message communicated (Kustaryo,
1988:2).
About reading comprehension, Edithia asserts that the reading
process is reading comprehension, so knowledge is the basic element for
comprehension (Simanjuntak, 1998:12)
Reading comprehension is not possible without the ability to
pronounce the printed word (recording); reading comprehension is to

understand a text that is read or the process of constructing meaning from


a text. (Decant, 1971:312).
Valet (1981) says the ability to understand the target language
greatly depends on ones knowledge of vocabulary in broader sense. In
line with her, Serfoss and Readence add the fluent reading is also
intimately related to the ability to comprehend an authors message.
Further, F. Grellet (1981) defines reading as understanding the written text
means extracting the required information from it as effective as possible.
In additions Goodman (1973;164) state that: the readers does not
use all the information available to him. Reading is a procces in which the
reader picks an choose from the available information only enougt to
select and predict a language structure which is decodable. It is not any
sense a precise perceptual process.
2. The Kinds of Reading Technique
According to Franchoise Grellet (1992), there are four kinds of
readings techniques i-e:
a. Skimming
Skimming is quickly running ones eyes over a text to get the gist of it.
b. Scanning
Scanning is quickly going through a text to find a particular piece of
information.
c. Extensive reading

Extensive reading is reading longer text, usually for ones own pleasure.
This is a fluent activity, mainly involving global understanding.

d. Intensive reading
Intensive reading is reading shorter to extract specific information. This
is more an accuracy activity involving reading for detail.

In line with F. Grellet, Sukirah (1988;5) adds for scanning and


scanning as follow:
a. Skimming is a technique used to look for the gist of what the author is
saying without a lot of detail. This is used if one only wants a preview
or an overview of the material. It is used after the reader has already
carefully studied and he needs to review the major ideas and concepts.
b. Scanning is not a reading process in true sense of the word. It is a
searching that requires a reader to float over the material until he find
what he needs then stops and reads as much as necessary in order to
answer his question.
3. Students Reading Achievement
Achievement is a concrete result of an act done by individual.
Achievement is something done with effort and skill successfully
(Hornby; 1987:8). In general, achievement is personal accomplishment,
attainment of goals set by the individual or society in educational
psychology. The term applies to specify level proficiency in academic

purpose. The Students reading achievement was indicated academic report


(grades).

According to (http://www.ehow.com/list_6085384) accessed 14


December 2011. Reading success is crucial to a student's academic
achievement. Elementary, middle and high school teachers and
administrators should all focus on increasing their students' achievement in
reading. It is a life skill that can drastically determine a student's quality of
life and success inside and outside of school.

H. Benefit of The Study


This study is expected to provide some advantages for the students,
teachers and the school in teaching learning reading comprehension. These
advantages are:
1.

For the teacher


This technique can be an alternative in teaching English especially
reading comprehension. This technique also helps the teacher in
explaining the material.

2.

For the students


These techniques help the student in comprehending the text and
make the students interest in learning English.

3.

For the school

The result of the research is to assist the school to decide a policy


in teaching learning process especially teaching reading comprehension.

I. Thesis organization
Chapter I: Introduction that consist of background of the study,
limitation of the problem, problem statements, objectives of the study,
hypothesis,

clarification of key term, benefit of the study and thesis

organization. Chapter II: Literature review of reading, consist of the


definition of reading, effectiveness of reading, Student reading achievement,
strategy of teaching reading and the factors in reading, the weakness of
students in reading. Chapter III: The researcher talks about research
methodology; they are research setting, research method, object of the
research, technique of collecting data, data presentation and technique of data
analysis. Chapter IV: Findings and discussions consist of research findings,
the analysis of data, the test of hypothesis and the interpretation and
discussion of data. Chapter V: Closure, consist of conclusion and suggestion.
The last part is bibliography and appendix.

CHAPTER II
LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Definition of Reading
Reading is one of the four language skills that must be
mastered by the students in learning a language. It is essential for
having reading ability, because we can transfer and develop science,
technology and culture by reading. We also get information that is
needed. In real life reading is often part of series of activities, including
locating texts and presenting material orally and in writing, even in a
class, activities that include speaking and writing are well motivated.
However, using reading as gist for a writing, speak, and to provide
informations.
Reading is by far the most important of the four skills in a
second language, particularly in English as a second language or
foreign language. Certainly, if we consider the study of English as a
foreign language around the world, the situation in which most English
learners find themselves that reading is the main reason why student
learn the language. Without reading proficiency, second language
readers cannot perform the knowledge and perform speaking English
as well. That reading is not passive, but rather than active, and in fact
an interactive, procces has been recognized for some time in first or
native language reading. (Carrell, 1996;1)

Reading is a complex information proccesing skill in which the


reader interacts with the text in order to create meaningful discourse.
The reader is an active, problem solving individual who coordinates a
number of skills and strategies to gain comprehension as he/she reads
as a reading material. The goal of reading program is to develop
fluency wherein independent readers set their own goals and
strategies for reading. And the reading activities are suggested by the
goal of the readers and by specific characteristics of the reading
passage. Reading tasks must be realistic in terms of both language
use and students abilities. (Silberstein, 1984:12)
B. Effectiveness of Reading
According to the Isaac (2010), developing effective reading
management skills is an important part of learning. However, students
can experience difficulties at first with the volume of reading for their
courses. These difficulties can include time management and with the
reading process itself. The time management issues for students can
include:

Finding time to read to get an overall idea about a subject

Finding time to read in preparation for lectures and tutorials

Finding time to read to prepare for assignments.


The technical reading issues encountered by some students,

which the reading process itself can include:

Learning in English.

Puzzling over unfamiliar words and jargon.

Repeatedly going back over what has just been read to check
understanding.

Reading out aloud or under the breath.


According to Isaac (2010) there are six steps to more effective

reading for all students, the steps are:


1. Feeling right about reading
Your feelings about reading can affect the way you approach
and manage it. People who generally enjoy the experience of
reading and read for pleasure have often learned instinctively to
manage the process. They know that maintaining and enhancing
their enjoyment of reading is often about:

Finding the right time and place to read

Getting into the right mood

Getting involved actively with what they read

Picking the right text to read.


These basic reading practices will serve them well in higher

education, work and in their personal lives. However, many


students have either mixed feelings about reading, or dislike the
experience- and do it because they have to.
2. Develop the 3Rs of reading
It is important to have a purpose for reading before you start.
This advice may seem a self-evident and obvious. But when time is

limited it is important to consider beforehand why you intend to read


a particular text and what you hope to gain from it. Different reading
purposes require different levels of engagement with texts the 3Rs
of reading is Reading to Reveal, Review, and Remind.
3. Become a more selective reader
Reading with a particular learning purpose in mind and refer
to them selectively in your assignments. The important thing is to
develop your understanding of theories, ideas and practices in a
way that is best for you. Then select the most appropriate source
and concentrate on the part of this that will give you the information
you seek.
4. Become a smarter reader
You can become a smarter reader by:
a. Smart reading is also about discovering the right time to
connect with your energy levels.
b. Smart reading is also about knowing when to stop.
c. Distraction problems can also occur when the subject being
studied appears totally removed from the real world.
d. Listening to music while you read may help some students, but
can be an irritant to others.
e. If you are reading in preparation for a written assignment, it is
wiser not to surround yourself with too many books, as this can
create a pressure on you to read them all.

5. Become a more focused (and faster) reader


There is the tips more focused and faster reader:
a. Do you mouth words or read under your breath
If you mouth words you can only read as fast as you speak.
If you try to stop doing this you may then find that your
reading speed increases. Try the technique below to help
train your eyes to follow more quickly a line of reading.
b. Focusing on Primary Words
As emphasized earlier, an important skill in reading is to be
able to identify key points or ideas and primary words in
reading.
6. Become a more active reader
Active reading is about becoming more involved with what
you read. One important way of getting involved is by:

Making notes.
Note making means summarizing or highlighting what
you feel is important or relevant to note.

Voice Notes
Using a voice-recorder/Dictaphone to summarize the key
ideas verbally can work well for some students, as it can
help them concentrate on the reading and summaries in
their own words what they have read.

In line with Adler C.R, he said that reading comprehension

strategies are conscious plans-sets of steps that good readers use to


make sense of text. Comprehension strategy instruction helps
students become purposeful, active readers who are in control of their
own reading comprehension. Adler C.R making seven strategies here
appears

to

have

comprehension.

firm

scientific

basis

for

(http://www.readingrockets.org

improving

text

accessed

on

December 5, 2011).
a. Monitoring comprehension
Students who are good at monitoring their comprehension
knows when they understand what they read and when they do
not. They have strategies to "fix" problems in their understanding
as the problems arise.
b. Metacognition
Metacognition can be defined as "thinking about thinking."
Good readers use metacognitive strategies to think about and
have control over their reading. Before reading, they might clarify
their purpose for reading and preview the text. During reading,
they might monitor their understanding, adjusting their reading
speed to fit the difficulty of the text and "fixing" any comprehension
problems they have. After reading, they check their understanding
of what they read.
c. Graphic and semantic organizers

Graphic organizers illustrate concepts and relationships


between concepts in a text or using diagrams. Graphic organizers
are known by different names, such as maps, webs, graphs,
charts, frames, or clusters.
d. Answering questions
The

Question-Answer

Relationship

strategy

(QAR)

encourages students to learn how to answer questions better.


Students are asked to indicate whether the information they used
to answer questions about the text was textually explicit
information (information that was directly stated in the text),
textually implicit information (information that was implied in the
text), or information entirely from the student's own background
knowledge.
e. Generating questions
By generating questions, students become aware of whether
they can answer the questions and if they understand what they
are reading. Students learn to ask themselves questions that
require them to combine information from different segments of
text.
f.

Recognizing story structure


In story structure instruction, students learn to identify the
categories of content (characters, setting, events, problem, and
resolution). Often, students learn to recognize story structure

through the use of story maps. Instruction in story structure


improves students' comprehension.
g. Summarizing
Summarizing requires students to determine what is
important in what they are reading and to put it into their own
words. Instruction in summarizing helps students:

Identify or generate main ideas.

Connect the main or central ideas.

Eliminate unnecessary information.

Remember what they read.

C. Students Reading Achievement


There one several definition of achievement is something done
with effort and skill successfully. (Hornby, 1974; 7). In general,
achievement is personal accomplishment, attainment of goals set by
the individual or society in educational psychology. The term applies to
specify level of proficiency in academic purpose. From the explanation
above, the writer concludes that achievement is a result achieved by
someone and influenced by external and internal factors.
The students achievement was indicated report (grades) the
learning achievement is classified as follow:
1.

Cognitive achievement

The cognitive achievement involves knowledge comprehension,


application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation and memory.
2.

Effective achievement
The effective achievement coffers receiving, responding, valuing,
characteristic organization and internalities.

3.

Psychomotor achievement
Psychomotor achievement consists of body movement, basic
skill, movement, perceptual, harmony, complex skill movement,
speech behavior and expressive/interpretative movement.

According to (Nasution, 1984; 37) the academic measure can be


in six ways, they are:
1.

Main level of achievement

2.

Average or distribution of achievement

3.

Group achievement

4.

Mastery level achievement

5.

Achievement and effect size

In line with (Muhibbin, 1987; 46) achievement is influenced by


internal and external factors.
1. Internal factor

The internal factors consist of psychological and physical


aspect. The psychological aspect involves: emotion, observation,
reaction, fantasy, associative, desire, attention, attitude, aptitude,
intelligence, motivation, cognitive ability, talent and interest. Than
the physical factor aspect covers: body, health, fatigue, the physic
condition and sense.

2. External factor
The external factor consists of physical and social factor. For
example, physical factors such as: study space, study tool,
lighting, ventilations, weather and situation. And social factors are
parents, teacher, and method of teaching, curriculum, classroom
and environment.

D. The Kinds of Reading Technique


According to Franchoise Grellet (1992), there are four kinds of
readings techniques i-e:
1. Skimming
Skimming is quickly running ones eyes over a text to get the gist
of it.
2. Scanning
Scanning is quickly going through a text to find a particular piece
of information.

3. Extensive Reading
Extensive reading is reading longer text, usually for ones own
pleasure. This is a fluent activity, mainly involving global
understanding.
4. Intensive Reading
Intensive

reading

is

reading

shorter

to

extract

specific

information. This is more an accuracy activity involving reading


for detail.
In line with F. Grellet, Sukirah adds for skimming and scanning
as follow:
1. Skimming is a technique used to look for the gist of what the
author is saying without a lot of detail. This is used if one only
wants a preview or an overview of the material. It is used after
the reader has already carefully studied and he needs to review
the major ideas and concepts.
2. Scanning is not a reading process in the true sense of the word.
It is a searching that requires a reader to float over the material
until he find what he needs then stops and reads as much as
necessary in order to answer his question (Ophelia H. Hancock
in Sukirah 1988:9).
E. The Ways to Reading

There are some familiar reading techniques that one another


have the specific aim to improve reading ability (F. Grellet, 1981).
They are as stated below:
1. Sensitizing
It will develop the students strategies to cope with unfamiliar
words and complex or apparently abs cure sentences. It should
ensure that they do not stumble on every difficult or get
discourage from the outset. Here students should employ some
skills.
2. Inference
Inference means making use of syntactic, logical and culture
clues to discover meaning of unknown elements. When dealing
with a new text, it is better not to explain the difficult words to the
leaner beforehand. The students should be encourage to make a
guess at the meaning of the words they do not know rather then
look them up in the dictionary.
3. Understanding relation with the sentence
In ability to infer the meaning of unknown elements often
causes discouragement and apprehension in students when they
are faced with a new text. A similar problem arises when
students are unable to get an immediate grasp of sentences
structures. It is therefore important to train the students as early
as possible to look first for the care of the sentence. In order to

do that the learners can be asked to divide passage into sense


groups and underline, box or organized in some other way the
important elements of each sentence in a passage.
4. Linking sentences and ideas:
Another area in which it is essential to prepare the students
in reckoning the various devices use to create textual cohesion
and more particularly the use of references and linking words.
5. Improving Reading Speed
Students who read slowly will easily get discouraged. They
will also tent to stumble on unfamiliar words and fail to grasp the
general meaning of the passage. One of the most common ways
of increasing reading speed is to give students passage to read
and ask them to time themselves. A conversion table taking the
length of the text and the reading time into account will tell them
what their reading speed is and this will make it easier for them
to try and read a little faster every time. When practicing faster
reading systematically, the students can be encouraged to keep
a record of their result showing their progress. This should
encourage them to read more.
6. From Scanning to Skimming
Students will never read efficiently unless they can adopt
their reading speed and technique to their aim when reading. By
reading all texts in the same way, they will waste time and fail to

remember points of importance to them, because they would


absorb too much non essential information. The students are
suggested to develop their skill in these ways:
a. Predicting
This is not really a technique but skill which is basic to all
reading technique practiced in this part and to process of
reading generally. It is faulting of predicting or guessing what
is to come next. The skill is at the care of technique such as
anticipation or skimming, the more systematic training by
giving the students unfinished passage to complete or by
going through a text little by little, stopping after each sentence
in order predict what likely to come next.
b. Previewing
Unlike predicting, previewing is very specific reading
technique, this skill encourage where the required information
is to be. It is useful when skimming and scanning is as study
skill. The students encouraged to think in a short article to get
an idea.
c. Skimming and Scanning
Both skimming and scanning are specific reading
techniques necessary for quick and efficient reading. When
skimming, we go through the reading material quickly in order
to get the gist of it to know how it is organized or to get an idea

of the some or the intention of the writer. When doing


scanning, we only locate specific information and often we do
not even follow the linearity of the passage to do so. We
simple let our eyes wonder over the text until we find what we
are looking for, whether it is a name, a date or less specific
piece of information. Skimming is therefore a more through
activity which requires an overall view of the text and implies a
definite reading. Competence scanning on the other hand is
more limited since it only means retrieving what information is
relevant to our purpose.
F. Strategy of Teaching Reading
(J. Anderson 1988; 37) said that some of the guidelines for
teaching reading;
1. Whether or not a teachers view of reading is broad enough and in
harmony with the best thought in the area of reading can
determine to a considerable extent the effectiveness of his
program.
2. Reading is a developmental process.
3. An orderly plan of organization of the reading program.
4. What constitutes desirability in method of instruction varies from
learner to another.
5. The teacher should help each child develop or maintain selfrespect and self esteem.

6. The teacher aim should be to help each child develop in reading


ability to extent of his capabilities.
7. Participant by the learner in the establishment of goals is an
important educational activity.
8. Careful diagnosis of the needs of each learner is essential to an
effectives reading program.
9. Frequent evaluations by students and teachers of the extent to
which goals are being achieved can serve as a guideline for the
teacher.
10. No one can force an individual to learn to read, al the teacher can
do this to provide the opportunity to learn.
Hedge (2003) states that any reading component of an English
language course may include a set of learning goals for:
a. The ability to read a wide range of texts in English. This is the
long-range

goal most

teachers seek to

develop

through

independent readers outside EFL/ESL classroom.


b. Building knowledge of language which will facilitate reading ability.
c. Building schematic knowledge.
d. The ability to adapt the reading style according to reading purpose
(i.e. skimming, scanning).
e. Developing an awareness of the structure of written texts in
English taking a critical stance to the contents of the texts.
G. The Weakness of Students in Reading

Sukirah (1988; 15) in her book gives some reasons that make
the students are weak in their reading ability. Reading comprehension
needs a prior knowledge as the important foundation in getting the gist
of the paragraph. These know ledges are:
1.

Word Recognition
The students have difficult when trying to recognize words of
the target language. This difficulty arises because the two
languages are not branches of the same language. Word
recognition is an important component in understanding a target
language or native language. So recognizing familiar words in
new passage and discovering the meaning of unfamiliar words is
the important skill.

2.

New Word Recognition


Learning new words that are introduced for the first time to
the students is greatly influenced by their prior knowledge about
words. For example: when a student will produce the word
prediction, he has had a prior understanding of word predict to
form the noun prediction. In this case, the role of the memory
should be noted by teacher when selecting material and deciding
method for teaching. A teacher should give a model when
presenting new word, wait a moment and then asks the students
to reproduce the model.

3.

The Language System

The language system influences the students when they are


learning vocabulary. This involves vocabulary and structure. For
example: the regular and irregular plural form, the countable and
uncountable noun, the regular and irregular verb and the
derivational words. In fact, the mastery of vocabulary item lies in
the ability to use word in the appropriate context. Ones mastery
in the vocabulary or the target language could be seen from the
ability to use in the appropriate and precise condition.
Further, understanding the sound system of the target is one
of the aspects of learning language which should not be ignored.
It is possible that a student can speak a second or third language
with vocabulary and grammar which are nearly the same as the
native speaker. But it still retains foreign accent. In this case,
stress and intonation have important role to decide the meaning,
the last, vocabulary and spelling. Spelling is one of the difficulties
in learning target language because of phonemics irregularity. To
overcome this problem is to consult the dictionary continuously.
This habit would help the students enrich their knowledge of
spelling. They would master both the spelling and meaning of the
word in context.
4.

Other Factors
Those factors might be come from students himself, the
teacher or the educational context.

a. The student
The factors come from the student himself are: his
attitude toward the target language should be positive. His
motivation is an aspect that is importance in learning
language. Motivation and attitude influence the success or
the failure of the students study.
b. The teacher
His skill and personality are instruments that create the
condition for learning, his teaching skill on both his language
proficiency and his knowledge of method and technique of
language teaching. The other aspects are his preparation,
his skill of using teaching media and his pedagogical skill.

CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Setting
1. The Description of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro
MTs Negeri Wonosegoro officially became a state school in
1995. The school was built by prominent figure of people in
Wonosegoro, Mr. Dimyati, in 1966. The school is located at Jl.
Karangjati-Wonosegoro Km. 2 Karangjati, Wonosegoro, Boyolali,
Central Java, 57382. The Location of the school is strategic and easy to
reach because it is located nearby the main road of KaranggedeWonosegoro.
In 1966 the school was called MTs Nahdlatul Ulama and in
1973 that school was called MMP (Madrasah Menengah Pertama).
Then, in 1977 the name of the school was changed into MTs Al Islam.
Finally, in 1995 became MTs Negeri Wonosegoro.
The main facilities possessed by MTs Negeri Wonosegoro are
teacher, buildings, textbooks, and internet. The total students of MTs
Negeri Wonosegoro in the academic year of 2011/2012 are 557. They
consist of 143 students of the first year, 178 students of the second
year, and 236 students of the third year. MTs Negeri Wonosegoro has
twenty classrooms; they are eight classes for the third year, six classes
for the second year, and six for the first year.

2. The Identity of the School


a. Name

: MTs Negeri Wonosegoro

b. Number Of School

: 123330918001

c. Accreditation

: A (in 2009)

d. Address

: Jl. Karangjati-Wonosegoro Km. 2

e. Postal Code

: 57382

f. Phone Number

: 0298610635

g. Location of School

: Karangjati Rt. 01/05 Wonosegoro

h. Established

: 1966

i. Status of School

: 1977 (MTs Al Islam-Private School)


1995 (MTs N Wonosegoro-State School)

3. The Vision of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro


The school focuses on belief and righteousness to The
Almighty God ALLAH SWT, establishing intellectualism, and
creating cadres of human leaders and accelerates religious campaign to
achieve the prosperous world.
4. The Missions of Mts Negeri Wonosegoro
In additional, there are nine missions proposed by MTs Negeri
Wonosegoro, which are:
a. to realize effective and conducive teaching and learning process in
order to develop students to their maximum potential;
b. to realize the spirit of intensive achievement and competition
among all school members;

c. to help students recognize their own potential;


d. to promote religious activities and Islamic culture;
e.

to apply a participative management that involves all school


members;

f. to prepare competitive graduates with high Islamic commitment;


g. to convince students to actively get involved in the society;
h. to internalize the values of sincerity, simplicity, autonomy,
responsibility for the freedom of thoughts, punctuality, and caring;
i. to create an Islamic environment physically and socially.
5. The Curriculum of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro
a. The Core Program
MTs Negeri Wonosegoro implements the Educational Unit
Level Curriculum (KTSP) as the core curriculum that is
recommended by the ministry of national educational.
b. The Specific Program
MTs Negeri Wonosegoro acknowledges some specific
programs that are the mastery of computer technology, Javanese
language, English language, Bahasa, and religious awareness.
c. Extensive Program
MTs Negeri Wonosegoro holds some extensive programs
such as extracurricular and personality, which covers of scouts,
sports, art, computer, and music (marching band).

6. The Profile of Students


Table 3.1
The Profile of Students of Mts Negeri Wonosegoro in the
Academic year of 2011/2012
Sex
Number of
Class
Total
Class
Male
Female
VII
6
71
72
102
VIII
6
91
87
143
IX
8
120
116
236

No
1
2
3
Total

20

282

275

557

7. The Profile of Teachers and Staffs

No.
1.
2.

3.

4.

5.

6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Table 3.2
The Profile of Teachers and Staffs of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro in
the Academic Year 2011/2012
Occupation
Name
Head Master
Drs. Mushonif, M.Pd.
Vice Head Master of Curriculum
Sutrisno.S.PdI. MM.
Affair
Yusriah TNK, S.Ag.
Assistant of Curriculum Affair
Vice Head Master of Students
Drs. Supriyadi
Affair
Nurhadi, S.Ag.
Assistant of Students Affair
Vice Head Master of
Infrastructure Affair
Assistant of Infrastructure Affair
Vice Head Master of Public
Relationship
Assistant of Public Relationship
Chief of School Administration
Treasure organization of School
Treasure Organization of BOS
Homeroom 9A
Homeroom 9B
Homeroom 9C

Suluri, S.PdI.
Amirudin, S.Ag.
Nurul H, S.Ag., M.Pd.
Drs. SAD. Hastuti
M. Yazis. SH
Siti K.
Hendriayana, S.Pd.
Suprojo, S.Pd.
Drs. Sulistiyana
Drs. Eko Wiyono

12.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

32.
33.
34.
35.

Homeroom 9D
Homeroom 9E
Homeroom 9F
Homeroom 9G
Homeroom 9H
Homeroom 8A
Homeroom 8B
Homeroom 8C
Homeroom 8D
Homeroom 8E
Homeroom 8F
Homeroom 7A
Homeroom 7B
Homeroom 7C
Homeroom 7D
Homeroom 7E
Homeroom 7F
Coordinators of Counselor
1. Counselor of Class 9
2. Counselor of Class 8
3. Counselor of Class 7
Coordinator Computer
Coordinator of Students Health
Coordinator of Red Cross
Coordinators of Extracurricular
1. Scout

2. Marching Band
3. Memorizing Holy Quran
4. Read Holy Quran
5. Read and Write Holy Quran
6. Electronics

Joko Sulistyo, S.Pd.


Umi M, S.Ag.
Triwidodo, S.Pd.
Hendriayana, S.Pd.
Amirudin, S.Ag.
Endah Sulistyorini, S.Pd.
Yusriah TNK, S.Ag.
Siti Hritsah, S.Ag.
Wiwin Istiqomah, S.Pd.
Mashudi, S.Ag.
Eny Budiyarti, S.Pd.
W. Eko Wiyono, S.Pd.
Istiqomah, S.Pd.
Siti Nuripah, S.Pd.
Agus Triyanto, S.Pd.
M. Zuhri, S.Ag.
Suprojo, S.Pd.
Sumanto, S.Pd.
Paimin, S.PdI.
Joko Sulistyo, S.Pd.
Amirudin, S.Ag.
Mashudi, S.Ag.
M. Zainudin, A.Ma.
Dra. Taslimatul C.
1. Paimin, S.PdI.
2. Dra. SAD Hastuti
3. Eny Budiyarti, S.Pd.
4. W Eko Wiyono, S.Pd.
1. Arif H, S.Ag.,M.Pd.
2. Paimin, S.PdI.
Tri Widodo, S.Pd.
Siti Darojah, S.PdI.
1. Drs. Eko Wiyono
2. M. Zuhri, S.Ag.
1. Suprojo, S.Pd.
2. Drs. Agus Rustomo

7. Art
8. Computer

36.

Library Staff

37.

School Cafeteria

W. Eko Wiyono, S.Pd


1. Mashudi, S.Ag.
2. Sochiffuddin, S.Pd
3. Dewi Chotijah
1. Agus R, S.Pd
2. Hendrawan H, S.E
1. Zahrotun Nafisah
2. Sulastri

8. The Profile of Educational Facilities and Equipments

No

Table 3.3
The Profile of Educational Facilities and Equipments of MTs
Negeri Wonosegoro in the Academic Year of 2011/2012
Facilities
Total
Condition

Head Master office

Good

Staff Office

Good

Teacher Office

Good

Administration Office

Good

Counselor Office

Good

Library

Good

Cooperation

Good

Computer lab

Good

Students Clinic Room Unit

Good

10

Meeting Hall

Good

11

Classroom

20

Good

12

Mushola (School praying hall)

Good

13

Sport hall

Under construction

14

Sport yard

Good

15

Parking Area

Good

16

OSIS Room

Good

17

Students Red Cross Room

Good

18

Storeroom

Good

19

Studio Marching Band

Good

9. The Organization Structure of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro

Figure 3.1
The Organization Structure of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro

Head Master
Chief of Committee
Chief of School
Administration

Counselor

Vice Head
Master of
Curriculum
Affairs

Vice Head
Master of
Students Affairs

Vice Head
Master of
Infrastructure

Coordinator
of Scout

Coordinator of
Art

Coordinator of
Religion

Students

Vice Head
Master of Public
Relationship

Coordinator of
Social

B. Research Method
Research can be defined as the process of problem solving. To solve
the problem, the researcher needs a method. The choice of the method
depends on the objective of the research. Related to this research, the
researcher used quantitative approach. Quantitative research is a process to get
knowledge that applies some models as mathematic, statistic, and
econometric; and then, the result of the analysis is presented in nominal form
(Hasan, 2004: 30).

C. Object of the Research


1. Population
Population is all subjects intended to be investigated. (Hadi,
1990:20). The population of this research is the entire second year
students of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro in the academic year of
2011/2012. They are 143 students.

2. Sample and Sampling Technique


The population of the study is 143 students from the second year
of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro, which consists of six classes. The
researcher only took two classes that are VIII.B that consists of 30

students and VIII.C that consists of 30 students, one class as the


experiment class and the other class as the control class. The reason
why researcher took the two classes because of the recommendation of
English teacher in MTs Negeri Wonosegoro. She said that both classes
are considered as the more appropriate classes to be researched than the
other classes.
The sample was taken in term of purposive sampling technique.
The researcher used purposive sampling technique because it is in line
with the method of the research.
Purposive sampling adalah suatu penelitian sample yang dilakukan
dengan cara mengambil subjek bukan didasarkan atas
strata/random/daerah tertentu tetapi didasarkan pada adanya tujuan
tertentu tetapi didasarkan pada adanya tujuan tertentu yang
disebabkan adanya pertimbangan keterbatasan waktu, tenaga atau
biaya sehingga seorang peneliti tidak dapat mengambil sample yang
banyak atau letaknya jauh dari jangkauan (Purposive sampling is a
research sample done by taking some subjects based on a certain
purpose by considering limited time, energy and cost so that a
researcher does not have to take a great number of sample that is out
of the range) (Sudaryanto, 1993:133-136).
This research has been done by using experimental method.
The researcher did field research by teaching two different classes
using two different methods. In the beginning and in the end of the
experiment, the students reading ability was tested using the same
instruments of reading test. Then, the data was analyzed by using
t-test.

D. Technique of Collecting Data

1. Documentation
Hopkins (1993:140) stated that document surrounding curriculum
or other educational concern can illumine rationale and purpose in
interesting ways. The use of such material can provide background
information and understanding what issues that would not otherwise be
available. The documentary data are book, transcript and history book of
MTs Negeri Wonosegoro. This method used to know the condition of
students and teacher, structure of school organization, profile, and location
of school.
The researcher completed the research by using document to
explain about the school and the data which is needed for this research.
The researcher asked with the school to give complete data, so this
research can produce result.
2. Observation
Before doing the research, the researcher observed the location and
the population as well. Observation on the research site was done from
05th December 2011 to 10th December 2011. The research was done in
two classes namely experiment class and control class. Before treating
the students using scanning strategy and without scanning strategy, the
researcher administered the pre-test to the students in both classes
with the same instrument in order to know the homogeneity of students
reading achievement. The next step was the experiment, where the Class

of VIIIB, the experiment class, was taught using scanning strategy and
class of VIIIC, as the control class, was taught without scanning strategy.
The presentation of the lesson was done by the teacher with the
guidance made by the researcher. Then, post-test was administered after
finishing the experiment. The researcher used the same format of question
that was administered in the pre-test. Even though the test instrument
was the same, students didnt realize that it would be examined again
later. Finally, the researcher made a calculation of the result from both test.
The further explanation will be discussed later.
In additional, to follow closely the process of the treatment, the
researcher made an observation sheet containing some criterions or
procedures of how the implementation of scanning was supposed to went
through. In other words, the researcher used a check list for the
observation. The criterions of procedures that were assessed can be seen in
the following table:

No

Table 3.4
The criterions of the observation
Criterions

1.

Conducting pre-test

2.

Teaching learning process (experiment)


a. Teacher prepare the material well
b. Teacher conduct the classroom well
c. Teacher use the time effectively
d. Teacher convey the scanning strategy clearly
e. Teacher give evaluation after the lesson
f. Teacher ask students difficulties

Yes

No

g. Students feel enthusiastic to follow the lesson


h. Students

give

attention

to

teachers

explanation
i. Students active during learning process
j. Students apply scanning strategy well
k. Students

understand

the

teachers

explanation
l. Students do the evaluation well
3.

Conducting post-test

a.

Teacher prepares the material well. Teacher used certain material


based on the standard competence and curriculum. In addition, it was
arranged structurally by using lesson plan. (look at appendix)

b.

Teacher conduct classroom well. It means that, teacher can control


the situation of students during teaching learning process (look at
appendix)

c.

Teacher use the time effectively. Teacher can maintain the time
along the lesson. (look at appendix)

d.

Teacher conveys the scanning strategy clearly. It means that, teacher


should understand about the scanning. So, the implementation of this
strategy can be understood easily and clearly. (look at appendix)

e.

Teacher gives the evaluation after the lesson. Teacher should give
evaluation in order to measure students improvement after this
strategy was applied (look at appendix)

f.

Teacher asks students difficulties. After giving the sheet, teacher


asked students whether any difficulty or not. Therefore, teacher can
solve students problem. (look at appendix)

g.

Students feel enthusiastic to follow the lesson. It means that, students


want know this strategy deeply by asking several question about it.
(look at appendix)

h.

Students give attention to the teachers explanation. Students can


give the response after learning process by giving question, feedback
or comment. (look at appendix)

i.

Students were active during learning process. Students are brave to


present their idea in front of class. (look at appendix)

j.

The students apply this strategy well. Students can apply scanning
individually. Moreover, they can memorize the steps correctly. (look
at appendix)

k.

Students understand teaches explanation. They can answer the


questions based on the sheet material correctly. (look at appendix)

l.

Students do the evaluation well. Students finished the test


individually. Moreover, the result of the test was improved. (look at
appendix)

3. Test
1. Pre-test

Pre-test is used to know the students achievement before the


researcher gives material of the research. The format of the pre-test is
multiple choice questions that response to the given text.
2. Post-test
Post-test means that after the researcher presented the material to the
student, he measured the students achievement of how well they
understood the material of scanning by using the same text and
questions as in the pre-test.
Below is the list of students of the experiment class and the control
class:
Table 3.5
The list of students of the experiment class (X)
Sex No Name

No

Name

Sex

Agung Dwi Santoso

16

Muhammad Bayu Rizki P.

Agus Santoso

17

Mutiatun Hasanah

Ahmad Yulianto

18

Niken Ayu Puspita Sari

Anandya Anisa P.

19

Novita Ika Anggraini

Ari Jatmiko

20

Nuryani

Arif Eko Cahyono

21

Risky Meylisa

Ehaq Anjarwati

22

Siti Mupidah

Eka Riri Aulia

23

Supriyadi

Eko Prastiono

24

Taufik Hidayat

10

Fuad Khadziq

25

Tri Inawati

11

Hasan Muali

26

Tri Pamungkas

12

Iin Nuraini

27

Wasilatul Khasanah

13

M. Santoso

28

Wiwin Sulastri

14

Martiah

29

Yulinar

15

Muh Ichwan Tawakal

30

Zakariya Arimur Rizal

Table 3.6
The list of students of the control class (Y)
Sex No Name

No

Name

Sex

Adi Prayitno

16

Laila Nurhayati

Afif Maulana Abdullah

17

Muhamad Huysain

Ami Tristania

18

Muhamad Ifan Adi S.

Ana Listianingsih

19

Muhammad Latif

Andi Wibowo

20

Mulyani

Anif Khoirul Amin

21

Nur Azizah

Arifatul Ahmadi

22

Pipit Maya Sari

Aris Diyanto

23

Purwanto

Benni Sanjaya

24

Ria Ristiana Safitri

10

Eka Safitri

25

Saiful Kurniawan

11

Eni Rofikoh

26

Sutrisno

12

Erna Febriani

27

Umi Hidayatul Khasanah

13

Fajar Rinaldi

28

Yuni Padmasari

14

Hutomo Saputro

29

Yuniatri Utami

15

Istinganah

30

Yusuf Farkhani

E. Technique of Data Analysis


Data analysis is the last step in the procedure of research. In
analyzing the data from the pre-test and post-test, the researcher used the
statistical calculation of T-test. T-test is used in order to find out the
differences of the result/score of students achievement in studying
reading using scanning method.
After getting the data, they are proceeded and analyzed
through the following steps:

1. Seeking gained score from students reading test and describing


it in the tables. The gained scores of experiment class are
variable I that symbolized by X and the gained scores of
control class are variable II that symbolized by Y
2. Determining mean of variable of experiment class with formula
MX= X
N
3. Determining mean of variable of control class with formula
MY= Y
N

4. Determining deviation score of variable X with formula


x= X-MX
Sum of or must equal to null. From the square of , the
researcher found out 2
5. Determining deviation score of variable Y with formula
y = Y-MY
Sum of y or y must equal to null. From the square of y, the
researcher found out y2
6. Analyzing the result by using statistic calculation of T-Test

7. Giving interpretation

CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS

The researcher conducted field research. The researcher held this research
by teaching learning process that was done at two classes that are VIII B control
as class and VIII C experiment as class. And the researcher got the data from
pre-test and post test. The pre-test was given before the lesson began and
the post-test was given after the lesson finished.
A. Research Findings
The results of data analysis can be described as follows:
1.

The Experiment Class with Scanning Strategy


The result of pre-test for the experiment class that used scanning
strategy is gained with range score between 20 and 88 and the mean
score is 42.2. Meanwhile in the post-test, the range score is between 32
and 92 and the mean score is 59.3.
The result of data analysis, both data calculation and raw
scores, can be described in the following table:
Table 4.1
The score of pre-test and post-test of experiment class (X)
NO PRE-TEST
POST-TEST
GAINED SCORE
1
40
52
12
2
60
52
-8
3
40
72
32
4
88
92
4
5
60
64
4
6
48
60
12

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

2.

40
40
60
52
40
88
40
40
40
20
20
56
28
28
28
44
40
40
20
40
40
44
20
22
1
x = 1266
x1 = 42.2

56
56
64
56
40
92
32
56
72
60
48
68
52
56
56
64
56
60
60
56
64
60
48
56
2
x = 1780
x2 = 59.3

16
16
4
4
0
4
-8
16
32
40
28
12
24
28
28
20
16
20
40
16
24
16
28
34
X = 514
MX = 17.13

The Control Class without Scanning Strategy


The result of pre-test is gained with range score between 20 and 92 and the
mean score is 49.5. Meanwhile, the result of pre-test is gained with range score
between 20 and 92 and the mean score is 55.7

The result of data analysis, both data calculation and raw scores,
can be seen in the following table:

Table 4.2
The score of pre-test and post-test of the control class (Y)
NO PRE-TEST
POST-TEST
GAINED SCORE
1
82
92
10
2
80
84
4
3
56
60
4
4
60
60
0
5
20
48
28
6
40
60
20
7
60
60
0
8
64
76
12
9
60
64
4
10
44
68
24
11
72
64
-8
12
40
60
20
13
40
60
20
14
40
44
4
15
40
44
4
16
52
56
4
17
48
40
-8
18
92
80
-12
19
24
40
16
20
40
40
0
21
72
76
4
22
40
56
16
23
40
36
-4
24
60
64
4
25
60
60
0
26
40
40
0
27
40
40
0
28
20
20
0
29
20
40
20
30
40
40
0
y1 = 1486
y2 = 1672
Y = 186
y1 = 49.5
y2 = 55.7
MY = 6.2

B. The Analysis of Data


After writing the comparison between the score of experiment and the
control class, the researcher calculates the deviation for two classes as
follows:
Table 4.3
The comparison score between experiment and control class
No

x2

y2

12

10

-5,13

3,8

26,32

14,44

-8

-25,13

-2,2

631,52

4,84

32

14,87

-2,2

221,12

4,84

-13,13

-6,2

172,40

38,44

28

-13,13

21,8

172,40

475,24

12

20

-5,13

13,8

26,32

190,44

16

-1,13

-6,2

1,28

38,44

16

12

-1,13

5,8

1,28

33,64

-13,13

-2,2

172,40

4,84

10

24

-13,13

17,8

172,40

316,84

11

-8

-17,13

-14,2

293,44

201,64

12

20

-13,13

13,8

172,40

190,44

13

-8

20

-25,13

13,8

631,52

190,44

14

16

-1,13

-2,2

1,28

4,84

15

32

14,87

-2,2

221,12

4,84

16

40

22,87

-2,2

523,04

4,84

17

28

-8

10,87

-14,2

118,16

201,64

18

12

-12

-5,13

-18,2

26,32

331,24

19

24

16

6,87

9,8

47,20

96,04

20

28

10,87

-6,2

118,16

38,44

21

28

10,87

-2,2

118,16

4,84

22

20

16

2,87

9,8

8,24

96,04

23

16

-4

-1,13

-10,2

1,28

104,04

24

20

2,87

-2,2

8,24

4,84

25

40

22,87

-6,2

523,04

38,44

26

16

-1,13

-6,2

1,28

38,44

27

24

6,87

-6,2

47,20

38,44

28

16

-1,13

-6,2

1,28

38,44

29

28

20

10,87

13,8

118,16

190,44

30

34

16,87

-6,2

284,60

38,44

x= 0.1

y=0

X = 514

Y =186

MX =17.13

MY = 6.2

x2=4861.47

y2=2978.8

From the table above, the researcher obtained the result of X=514,
Y=186, x2=4861.7 and y2=2978.8, while each NX and NY is 30. Then, the
researcher found out the mean score of variable X and Y as follows;
MX=17.13 and MY=6.2. After getting MX, MY, x2, y2, NX and NY,
the researcher calculated them based on the steps of the t-test formula as follows:

1.

The Calculation of T-Test


MX MY

x 2 +y 2

NX +NY 2

17.136.2

4861 .7+2978 .8
30+302

7840 .5
58

60

. 900

10.93

30+30

. 30.30

10.93

NX +NY
NX .NY

135.18 . 0.07
10.93
9.46
10.93
3.07

= 3.56
2.

Degree of Fredoom
df = N1+N2-2
= 30 + 30 2
= 58
There is no degree of freedom of 58, therefore, the researcher uses
the closer df to 58 that is 60.

3.

In degree of significance 5 % (see appendix) from 60 in tt = 2, 00


In degree of significance 1 % (see appendix) from 60 in tt = 2, 66

4.

The researcher compared to to t table that if to > t table it means that Ho is


rejected and Ha is accepted, but when to < t table it means that Ho is accepted
and Ha is rejected.
to: tt= 3.56 > 2.00 in degree of significance 5%
to: tt= 3.56 > 2.66 in degree of significance 1%

C. The Test of Hypothesis


This research is to answer the question about whether yes or not the
use of scanning strategy is effective to improve students reading
achievement.
To get the answer of question, the researcher should propose
alternative hypothesis (Ha) and null hypothesis (Ho) as below:

Ha = There is a significant improvement on students reading scores taught


by scanning strategy rather than taught without scanning strategy
Ho = There is no improvement on students reading scores taught by
scanning strategy rather than taught without scanning strategy
The criteria of hypothesis presentation states that: If to > tt, Ha is
accepted and Ho rejected; and If to < tt, it Ha is rejected and Ho is accepted.
From the result of the statistic calculation indicates that the
value of to is 3.56 and the value of degree of freedom (df) was 60. In
this research, the writer used the degree of significance of 5% and 1%. The

writer used df =60 for there is no df for 58. Meanwhile, the degree of
significance of 5 % is 2.00 and for 1% is 2.66.
After obtaining to, the writer compared it with each values of the
degree of significance, the result is to: tt= 3.56 > 2.00 in degree of significance
5 % and to: tt= 3.56 > 2.00 in degree of significance 1%.
Since to score is higher that tt, it means that alternative hypothesis (Ha)
of research is accepted and the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected. In another
words, it means that, There is a significant improvement on students
reading scores taught by scanning strategy rather than taught without
scanning strategy.

D. The Interpretation and Discussion of Data


As stated above that if to is higher than tt, so the alternative
hypothesis is accepted. According to the explanation about the analysis
of the result on the tables above, researcher can conclude that teaching
reading through scanning strategy is better than teaching reading without
scanning strategy at second year students of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro. It can
be seen on the tables above that the students who learn reading through
scanning strategy and who learn reading without scanning strategy has a
significant difference. It means that there is a significant influence of
using the scanning strategy in teaching reading. Therefore, the students
reading scores taught by using scanning strategy are higher than without
using scanning strategy.

However, the researcher could not deny that the difference score
between two classes is not much, but the reading achievement in the
experiment class has proven that scanning strategy can be a good method in
developing reading achievement.
In additional, the positive finding of this research is in line with the
previous research done by Munim Mubarok with the title THE
EFFECTIVENESS OF SKIMMING IN PRE READING ACTIVITY OF
THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF MTs NU SALATIGA IN THE
YEAR ACADEMIC YEAR 2009/2010 . In Munims research, it is found
that the use of skimming gives positive effect to the improvement of students
pre-reading activity. It is obvious that the finding of this research whereas the
scanning strategy is used also gives positive effect to the achievement of
students reading skill.
Another evidence that definitely supports the finding of this research
can be seen in the research done by Franqoisevitu and J. Kevin O'Regan
(Uniuersite Rene Descartes, Paris, France) and Albrecht W. Inhoff and
Richard Topolski (State University of New York, Binghamton, New York)
under

the

title

MINDLESS

READING:

EYE-MOVEMENT

CHARACTERISTICS ARE SIMILAR IN SCANNING LETTER STRINGS


AND READING TEXTS. In their work, it is found that the eyes are capable
of generating an autonomous oculomotor scanning strategy in the absence of
any linguistic information to process argues in favor of the idea that such
predetermined oculomotor strategies might be an important determinant of

eye movements in reading. It can be inferred that scanning strategy has a


significant effect to the improvement of eye movements in reading. If eye
movements improve, the reading ability will also improve. Therefore, the
finding of above research is in line with the finding of this research.

CHAPTER V
CLOSURE

A. Conclusion
Based on the findings of the research, the researcher can draw the
conclusions as follows:
1. Teaching reading by using scanning strategy is more effective than
teaching reading without scanning strategy to improve students reading
achievement.
2. According to the result of the analysis of the research, it shows that
the value of to (t observation) is 3,56 and the value of tt (t table) from
the df (58) on degree of significance of 5 % and 1 %, are 2.00 and 2,66.
It means that the value of to is higher than the value of tt. Therefore, the
alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted and null hypothesis (Ho) is
rejected, or it can be said that there is a significant influence of using
scanning strategy in teaching reading.
It can be concluded that teaching reading through scanning strategy
is quite success. It can be seen on the table of the students reading scores
that the students who learn reading through scanning strategy and without
scanning strategy have a significant difference. It means that there is a
significant influence of using scanning strategy in teaching reading.
Therefore, the conclusion is that the students reading scores taught
using scanning strategy are better than taught without using scanning
strategy. In other words, the use of scanning strategy in teaching reading

has a significant difference to the students achievement in reading skill at


the second year students of MTs Negeri Wonosegoro Boyolali.
B. Suggestion
Regarding the result of the research, the researcher thinks that the
students must be given scanning strategy to improve their reading
achievement; this strategy makes them easier to comprehend the text.
1. The suggestion for the teacher
The teachers have to know many reading strategies, it is important for
the teacher to improve reading strategies in teaching learning process.
Learning reading is not simple and it needs more attention from the
teacher and the students.
The teachers should develop material and good method and strategy in
teaching English.
2. For the students
The students to do more reading activity and also attend the teacher
explanation and do the instructions.
The

students

need

to

realize

that

learning

is

two

way

process, not only teacher-centered. It means that they play a significant


role in achieving their success in study.
The students need more to practice their English skill especially their
reading and keep practicing in English.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anderson. J. 1988. Efficient Reading A Practical Guide. Sidney: McGraw Hill


Book Company.
Carrell, Patricia L. 1996. Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading.
Cambridge University Press.
Decant, Emerald V. 1971. Improving The Teaching of Reading (Third Edition).
New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
Grellet, Franchoise. 1991. Developing Skill: A Practical Guide to Reading
Comprehension Exercises. Cambridge University Press.
Hamalik, Oemar. 1989. Media Pendidikan. Bandung: PT. Alumni.
Hadi, Sutrisno. 1977. Statistik jilid II. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset.
Hopkins, David. 1993. A Teachers Guide to Classroom Research. Philadelphia:
Open University Press.
Hornby, A S. 1987. Oxford English Learners Dictionary of Current English.
Oxford University Press
Hornby, 1974. The new Grolier Webster international dictionary of current
English, new york, oxford University press
Isaac, Disraeli. 2010. Developing Effective Reading Management Skill. Journal.
Kustaryo, Dra. Sukirah. 1988. Reading Technique for College Student. Jakarta:
Proyek Pembangunan Lembaga Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
Nasution, 1984. Berbagai Pendekatan dalam Proses Belajar Mengajar. Jakarta:
Bina aksara.
Muhhibin, Syah. 1987. Psikologi Pendidikan Dengan Pendekatan Baru. Remaja
Rosda Karya: Bandung
Silberstein, Sandra. 1984. Techniques And Resources In Teaching Reading. New
York: Oxford University Press.

Simanjuntak, Edithia Gloria. 1998. Developing Reading Skill for EFL Student.
Jakarta: Proyek Pengembangan Lembaga Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
W. Searfoss, Lyndon and Readence, John. 1985. Helping Learn to Read. New
Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.
http://www.englishonline.org.cn/en/teachers/teaching-articles/plan
preparation/teaching-aids. Access on October 27, 2011.
http://www.ehow.com/list_6085384. Access on December 14, 2011
http://www.readingrockets.org. Access on December 5, 2011

CURRICULUM VITAE

Name

: Yohan Heru Purnama

Place/date of Birth

: Boyolali, July 18, 1986

Address

: Karang Jati, RT I/RW V, Kec. Wonosegoro, Kab.


Boyolali, 57382

E-mail/Phone Number

: heru_r@rocketmail.com/ 085 641 150 586

Educational Background:
1. TK Bustanul Athfal Ketoyan Wonosegoro Boyolali (1991 - 1992)
2. SDN I Ketoyan Wonosegoro Boyolali (1992 - 1998)
3. MTsN Wonosegoro Boyolali (1998 - 2001)
4. SMAN I Andong Boyolali (2001 2004)
5. AMIKA DHARMA NUSANTARA Salatiga (2004 2005)
6.

English Department of STAIN Salatiga (2007 2012)

Foto Kegiatan Belajar Mengajar

Ruang Tata Usaha

Perpustakaan Sekolah

Koperasi MTs N Wonosegoro

Ruang Guru dan Mading

Gedung Kelas MTs N Wonosegoro

Mushola MTs N wonosegoro