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14.

ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

14.1

GENERAL

14.1.1

EXTENT OF WORKS

For the purpose of the Works, the electrical requirements have been divided into the
following sub-sections:1.

General

2.

Switchboards, starter boards and motor control centres

3.

Motors, actuators and variable speed drives

4.

Distribution system

5.

Earthing system

6.

Lighting and small power installations

7.

Lightning protection system

8.

Standby diesel generator set

9.

Variable Speed Drive

10.

Projector

11.

LED TV

12.

CCTV Surveillance System

14.1.2 ELECTRICITY SUPPLIES


SESCO electricity supplies will be provided at 415 V to the intake and treatment
works. The utilisation voltage will be at 415/240 Volt, 50 Hz (3 phase, 4 wire with
solidly earthed neutral). Standby diesel engine driven generator sets will be installed
to provide standby power supply in the event of SESCO power supply failure.
The Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining all necessary information from
SESCO and the Jabatan Bekalan Elektrik in connection with further approval of
particular details, etc. which are required to complete the Works in accordance with
the requirements of SESCO and the Pengarah Jabatan Bekalan Elektrik.
14.1.3 IMPORT OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
The Contractor shall also be responsible for obtaining the necessary approvals from
the relevant authorities for all items of electrical equipment supplied under the
Contract. The approval of equipment and material by the relevant authority shall
however not prejudice the right of the Superintending Office (S.O.) to reject such
equipment or materials which may not comply with the Specification.
The Contractor's attention is drawn to Regulation 97 of me Electricity Supply Act
1990 and Electricity Supply Regulations 1994 in respect of import of electrical
apparatus and accessories into Malaysia.

S14-1

14.2

SWITCHBOARDS, STARTER BOARDS AND MOTOR CONTROL CENTRES

14.2.1 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION


(a)

General

Main Switchboards (MSB1 & MSB2) and sub switchboards (rated 1000A and above)
shall be manufactured to Form 3b.
The switchboard shall be manufactured by a switchboard manufacturer registered
with the Director of Electricity, Sarawak or the Energy Commission, Malaysia.
The switchboard manufacturer must have a certificate of Type Tests issued by ASTA
or any other switchboard testing authority, the tests having been carried out in
accordance with IEC 60439-1:1999 and BSEN 60439-1:1999 on a switchboard of
the specified current rating.
The minimum type tests required are:(i)

temperature-rise limits, and

(ii)

short-circuit withstand strength

The switchboard shall be manufactured and tested at the registered factory of the
holder of the Type Test certificate.
Switchboards, switchgears , starter boards and motor control centres to be supplied
under the Contract shall conform with the requirements of this Section. The special
requirements of each individual equipment are specified in the appropriate clauses.
Components shall be standardized as much as possible. Electrically identical
components shall be of one type and make.
The prospective 3-phase fault levels of the systems are stated in the Drawings and
are also given in the Specification. Type Test Certificates from a recognized
switchgear testing authority such as ASTA or KEMA shall be submitted with the
Tender as evidence that the switchgear, fuses and control gear etc. have passed the
test for operation at fault levels not less than those called for in me Specification and
the Drawings. Type test certificates for temperature rise and impulse withstand
voltage test shall also be furnished.
Switchboards, associated components and all other equipment shall comply with the
relevant current BS and/or IEC Specification. The switchgear shall be enclosed in a
dust, insect and vermin proof steel cubicle of rigid construction and made of electro
galvanized sheet steel of such thickness that it is free from distortion and that it shall
be capable of sustaining without damage all stresses produced during fault
conditions. Where two or more cubicles are fitted together they shall form a
continuous flush front. All units shall be floor mounted and shall be of the extensible
type unless otherwise specified. All switchboards in the same room shall be of
uniform height.
Before painting, the plates shall undergo pre-treatment process of cleaning with
water and chemical solutions in the following order:(i)

Degreasing

Alkaline degreasing solution at ambient temperature.


(ii)

Rinsing

Water at ambient temperature

S14-2

(iii)

Derusting/Descaling (Applicable for cut off edges and welded areas)

Acid pickling solution at ambient temperature.


(iv)

Rinsing

Water at ambient temperature.


(v)

Zinc phosphating

Metal phosphating solution at ambient temperature to give a coating of zinc


phosphate of not less than 2.5 g/m2 thick.
(vi)

Rinsing

Water at ambient temperature.


(vii) Final rinsing
Chromate passivation solution or deionizer water at ambient temperature.
(viii) Drying
The plates are dried in free air at ambient temperature.
Metal surfaces shall be finished with a rust proof polyester powder coating with an
electrostatic spray process and shall be oven baked at 180 C for 10 minutes. The
dry film thickness shall be at least 65 microns.
The paint thickness measurement shall be made on dry film using magnetic or eddy
current properties.
Surface hardness of finished paint coat shall be to 2H. The finished paint coat shall
be able to pass the corrosion resistance test of 600 hours 5 % salt spray.
The final paint coat shall be semi-gloss and the colour shall be sand beige (Munsell
code 5Y7/1). Where a number of free-standing panels or component sections
assemble to form a board or group of equipment, the Contractor shall ensure that a
finish of uniform texture and an exact colour match is achieved.
All metal parts exposed by cutting and any part of the painted surfaces that have
been scratched or marked shall be prepared and finished to match the original paint
finish.
The whole painting process from start to finish from pre-treatment to final coat curing
shall be completed within an 8 hour work-shift.
The switchboard shall be formed by fitting together floor standing panels to form a
flush mounted continuous board of uniform height and shape when viewed from the
front side or rear without visible gaps, except that for switchboards where the
incoming supply panels may be of different depth from other panels when viewed
from the rear.
Switchboards shall be pleasing in appearance, symmetrically arranged as tar as
possible with projections kept to a minimum. Exterior corners and edges shall be
rounded to give a smooth overall appearance. Design involving the use of externally
visible assembly bolts and screws on the front panels will not be accepted for the
front of the panel.

S14-3

All cubicle doors shall be hinged and fitted with minimum two captive chromium
plated thumb knurled screws at the top and bottom of the cubicle door. Front doors
shall be hinged at the left side of the cubicle. The hinges shall be concealed. Hinges
shall not be spaced more than 1200 mm apart. All doors shall be fitted with a
restrainer, so positioned that each door shall be prevented from swinging beyond
120. Earth leads connected to doors shall not be accepted as restrainers. Hinges
shall be of sufficient number and strength to ensure no wobbling would occur when
moving the swinging panel due to weight of installed components. Access doors
shall be double leaf if the width exceeds 900 mm. In addition, key operated
chromium plated car door type handles with brass cylinder locks shall be provided
for means of fastening cubicle doors where the height of cubicle exceeds 400 mm.
All bolts and nuts used for construction of switchboard shall be nickel or cadmium or
chromium plated. Bolts for door and cover fixing shall be captive and provided with
nylon washers to prevent damage to paintwork. All hardware such as hinges, levers,
screws, etc. shall be zinc plated high tensile steel. Front doors and all cover plates
shall be fitted with non-deteriorable neoprene gaskets to the approval of the
Superintending Office (S.O.).
The various compartments of the switchgear shall be so arranged that in the event
of water accumulating on the switch room floor, there shall be no danger of water
penetrating into compartments housing active components for example, busbars,
current transformers, etc. The clearance of active components from the switch room
floor must at least be 300 mm. The busbar compartment shall be at least 900 mm
above the switch room floor. Minimum clearance of 2000 mm in front and 750 mm at
the rear and sides shall be provided for 415 volt switchboards.
The arrangement of the equipment within each cubicle shall be such that all normal
maintenance can be carried out as far as possible through front access doors. Live
parts within the cubicle shall either be isolated automatically when the section door
is opened, or be fitted with insulating barriers to prevent accidental contact by
personnel. Live parts shall be labelled Danger-Live.
Access from the front side of cubicle shall be through the front hinged door. When
rear access is also required, a bolted removable cover shall be provided. No
equipment shall be mounted on removable covers. Large covers equivalent to half
full height and above shall be provided with handles to facilitate removal and
replacement. Bolted covers on compartments incorporating live connections shall
have a suitable warning label.
The interior of each piece of equipment shall be clearly marked to show the phases
and to this end either colored plastic discs screwed to fixed components or
identification by means of colored plastic sleeving shall he employed. Plastic tape
will not be permitted.
Hot dipped galvanized steelwork necessary for supporting the switchboards shall
also be included. All adjoining detachable switchgear metal frames shall be fastened
with zinc plated high tensile steel bolts and nuts. Screws shall not be allowed for
such purpose. The switchboards shall be suitable for mounting on robust base
frames constructed from 'C' channel of height not less than 75 mm, and shall not be
bolted directly to the floor. Fixing bolts shall be of stainless steel. Fixing shall be not
less than four holding down bolts at the front and rear of the panel. They shall not be
visible from outside the panel but readily accessible from within.
Suitable lifting lugs together with blanking set screws shall be provided to facilitate
unloading.

S14-4

The manufacturer's name if incorporated on the switchboards shall be in a style to


be approved by the Superintending Office (S.O.).
(b)

415 volt switchboards, starter boards and motor control centres

415 volt switchboards shall be suitable for operation on 415 volt, 3-phase, 4-wire, 50
Hz system with solidly earthed neutral and have a prospective 3 phase fault level of
minimum 50 kA for 3 seconds.
415 volt switchboards shall conform to BS 5486 Part I and be of modular
construction. Each column shall have a maximum of six cubicles. Each panel shall
have four surfaces viz. a front, two sides and rear surfaces. Adjacent panels shall
not have a common side. In addition, the panels shall be constructed to BS 5486
Form 3B. Busbars shall be separated from functional units, functional units
separated from one another, busbars separated from outgoing terminals, outgoing
terminals separated from one another but placed in a common cable chamber
(cable glanded elsewhere and separate from cable terminal enclosure). Switchboard
cubicles shall be made of sheet steel of not less than 2.5 mm thickness for panel
front plates and 2.0 mm for panel side and rear plates and intercubicle partitions.
Height of the cubicles shall not be greater than 2250 mm overall. Front of panel
instruments and controls shall be so mounted that the height of their centres above
the finished floor shall be between 1800 mm and 900 mm for indicators, control
devices and signal lamps. A blank compartment with hinged door at least 300 mm
high shall be provided at the base of every panel.
The entire switchboard/starter board/motor control centre enclosure shall provide a
degree of protection not less than IP54 for indoor installations.
Gaskets shall be fitted to the panel front doors and all cover plates to minimise entry
of dust. Gaskets shall be of minimum 6 mm in any direction. Gaskets shall be
continuous without joints around corners.
Cubicles and enclosures for outdoor service shall provide a degree of protection to
IP 65. The cubicles shall be fitted with lockable outside doors and a housing so
designed that all controls, instruments and such like are fully enclosed and the
whole assembly is weatherproof and vandal proof. The doors shall be fitted with
stays to prevent overstraining of the hinge fixing, and allow fixing of the doors in the
open position. Inner cubicles shall also be weatherproof to allow operation of the
controls when outside doors are open during inclement weather.
The cubicles shall have a rear sloping weather canopy projecting over the front by at
least 150 mm. Door mounted components shall be protected by a vandal resistant
secondary glazed door so that all controls and indicators are clearly visible.
A drawing pocket of minimum size 250 mm x 250 mm x 20 mm shall be provided
inside, on one of the door or more of each separate switchboard or starter board.
14.2.2 BUSBARS AND CONNECTIONS
Ratings of the busbars shall be as shown in the Drawings and neutral bar shall have
the same cross sectional area as the phase busbars. The sizing of busbars shall be
based on 30C temperature rise over an ambient of 40C.
The mechanical and dielectric strengths of busbars and connection supports shall
be able to withstand the worst conditions of electric surge or short circuit fault which
can occur on the installation. Busbars marking and arrangement, connection and
grade of copper shall all comply as appropriate with BS 159 and 1433. All busbars,
risers and droppers shall be ASTA certified.

S14-5

The switchboards shall be so arranged that the busbars run horizontally through
each sectionalized length and shall comprise required number of busbars. The
busbars shall be fabricated from hard drawn high conductivity tinned copper rigidly
mounted on non-hygroscopic insulators with connection from the busbars to the
circuit breaker and switches effected by means of copper bars or cables securely
clamped to the bars and identified by means of coloured plastic sleeving or painting
to indicate the phase colours. For 200 amps and below cables or dropper busbars
shall be used. Above 200 amps, dropper busbars shall be used. 415 volt busbars
shall comply with BS 159 and where appropriate to BS EN 60439-1 Pan I, with a
short time rating compatible with that of the associated switchgears. The conductors
shall be separated and supported with appropriate clearances in air and shall be
adequately insulated or encapsulated. Clearances as recommended for bare
busbars by relevant standards shall be maintained, even if the busbars are
insulated.
Jointing of sections of busbars shall be done by bolts and nuts. Bolts shall be fitted
with spring washers and lock-nuts. Bolts shall preferably be of copper alloy or other
nonmagnetic metal, resistant to corrosion with thermal coefficient of expansion close
to that of copper. Ferrous bolts and nuts may be used for busbars carrying 630
Amps or less.
Busbars shall be provided with PVC sleeving throughout their lengths and joints
including tee-off connections shall be provided with removable insulating shrouds.
Taping of joints or components shall not be accepted. Non-tracking and nonhygroscopic solid insulant of cast epoxy resin, polyester, bakelised paper or
equivalent shall be used for the insulation of the busbar to circuit breaker
connectors, circuit breaker isolating contact orifices, circuit breaker to cable box
connectors, primary conductor of current transformers and voltage transformers.
Busbar insulation material shall be flame retardant. The insulation shall include
snap-on covers for easy access to all joints and shall be certified to remain
serviceable, should a fault occur.
Direct access to busbars shall not be possible. Access to busbars shall be made
available by removal of bolted covers. Suitable warning on covers shall be provided
externally and internally on shutters.
14.2.3

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

Current transformers (CTs) shall comply with BS 3938 and shall be of the bar
primary pattern where practicable. All current transformers shall have a short-time
current rating of not less than that of the switch gear in which they are incorporated.
For both bar primary and wound primary current transformers this rating shall be for
a period of 3 sec. Current transformer for protection purposes shall have an
accuracy class of 5 PI 0 and metering CTs shall have an accuracy class of 1.0 as
indicated on the Drawings. CTs for SESCO metering shall be to Class 0.2. All
current transformers shall have sufficient capacity or output to operate satisfactorily
the protective devices or measuring instruments connected. The burden on CTs
shall not be more than 60 % of rated output.
Current transformers shall be of the air cooled type and encapsulated in epoxy
resin.
Where multi-ratio current transformers are supplied, a label shall be provided,
clearly indicating the connections required for the alternative ratios. These
connections shall also be shown on circuit diagrams.

S14-6

Identification labels shall be fitted giving type, ratio, burden, class accuracy, voltage
rating output and serial numbers. Engraved type duplicate labels shall be fitted on
the exterior of the mounting chambers suitably located to enable reading without the
removal of any cover or metal sheeting forming pan of the structure of the
switchboards.
Current transformers for balanced earth fault protection and unit protection shall
maintain their accuracy classification under maximum through fault current
conditions and shall be designed for a stability of not less than six times the rated
primary current. Where attracted armature relays are employed, the spill current with
maximum stability conditions shall not exceed one quarter of the operating current of
the relay.
Magnetization characteristics, calculated performance, protection settings and
values of stabilizing or setting resistors of CTs shall be furnished by the Contractor.
14.2.4

CONTROL VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

110, 50 and 24 volt control voltage supplies shall be derived from 415/240 volt
supply through double wound control transformers with the centre point of the
secondary earthed and fuses provided at both primary and secondary sides. A
separate control transformer shall be provided for each cubicle. The VA rating of the
transformer shall be capable of supplying 150% of the arithmetic sum of the
connected loads that may be energized simultaneously at its most adverse service
condition, e.g. all alarms and lamps energized. All such supplies shall be tapped
from the same phase (Y-phase) to ensure same phase for different panels.
14.2.5 INDICATING INSTRUMENTS
Indicating instruments on switchboards shall be flush mounted and shall generally
be of the same pattern and appearance throughout. They shall be of a type giving
no parallax error and their normal maximum reading shall be at about 60% of full
scale deflection. Readings shall be in actual values. Ammeters shall be provided
with selector switches to read line currents. Ammeters in motor circuits shall have an
overload scale of 6 times. Voltmeters shall be provided with selector switches for
phase to phase and phase to neutral voltage selection.
Indicating instruments shall be fitted with zeroing devices and shall be positioned
with dial centres not more than 1800 mm and not less than 900 mm above the
finished floor level.
Indicating instruments shall comply with BS 89. Ammeters, voltmeters and kilowatt
meters shall have 240 scale deflection and shall be of class index 1.5. Power factor
meters shall have 360 scale deflection and maximum error of 2 electrical.
Frequency meter shall be of the pointer type with resolutions scaled to 0.1 Hz and of
accuracy class 0.2. All ammeters, voltmeters, power factor meters and frequency
meters shall have bezels not less than 96 mm x 96 mm.
Kilowatt-hour meters shall comply fully with BS 37 and BS 5685 as appropriate. The
accuracy of the meters shall be to Class 1 or better. The terminals in kilowatt-hour
meters shall have shorting links, which shall close automatically when the meter is
withdrawn.
Pilot lamps shall be provided upstream of the circuit breaker/isolator/MCCB for
switchboards/starter boards for monitoring the status of the incoming supply.

S14-7

A voltmeter and an ammeter with selection switches and power factor meter shall
also be provided downstream of the incoming circuit breaker/isolator for
switchboards/starter hoards rated at 100 Amps per phase and above and where
indicated on Drawings
Instrument which have live terminals such as voltmeters, power factor meters shall
have individual terminals shrouded by red PVC caps readily detachable.
14.2.6 PROTECTION RELAYS
(a)

General

The protection relay to be provided in each switchgear shall be as indicated on


Drawings.
All relays shall be of the electro-magnetic type. Static relays will not be accepted.
Protection relays on switchgear shall be in accordance with BS 142. Relays shall be
contained in dust-proof cases. Protection relays shall be mounted on the front of the
switchgear or relay panel and shall be of the flush, withdraw able pattern. Auxiliary
relays may be mounted within the panel such as to be accessible for inspection and
wiring. Plug-in pattern relays shall have a positive means for retaining them in the
service position.
Relay contacts shall be capable of making and breaking the maximum current which
can occur in the respective circuit they control. Contacts for remote alarms and
indications shall be volt-free.
Relays shall have provision for testing operation without disconnecting permanent
wiring.
Operation indicators shall be fitted to tripping relays and such other relays or relay
elements as will enable the type of fault condition to be identified.
Hand reset flag indicators and contacts shall be provided. The hand reset flag
indicator shall be capable of being reset without the relay case being opened. It
shall not be possible to manually operate the contacts of the relay without first
removing the cover and one terminal of the cover shall have provision for sealing.
Protection relays having several live terminals on opening of panel, shall be shielded
with insulating sheets of clear Perspex, separate sheet being used for each relay
and fixed rigidly on the mounting stud of the relay.
(b)

Over current and earth fault inverse time protection relays

Relays shall be of the induction disc, inverse time, over current type. Over current
elements shall be supplied with adjustable settings for both operating current and
time, the adjustment being possible on load. The range of current setting for phase
fault elements shall be 50 to 200% of rated full load with tappings at 25% intervals
and the time setting adjustment shall he 0 to 3 seconds at 10 times the normal
operating current.
Inverse time earth fault elements shall comply with the foregoing hut shall have a
range of settings from 10 to 40% with tappings at 5% intervals.
GEC Alsthom Type CDG 36 and CDG 16 relays, manufactured in the United
Kingdom, are approved and preferred types and shall be included in the main offer.
A price variation shall be entered in the Schedule of Deviations for the provision of
relays of other manufacture, if offered.

S14-8

(c)

Definite time over/under voltage relays

The over/under voltage relay shall monitor the alternator output voltage and shall
operate after a time delay should the voltage exceed the set high trip level or drop
below the set low trip level.
The over voltage setting shall be from 110 to 140% of nominal voltage and
continuously adjustable. The under voltage setting shall be from 70 to 90% of
normal voltage and continuously adjustable.
The time delay element shall have a continuously adjustable time setting range from
0 to 3 seconds.
(d)

Definite time over/under frequency relays

The over/under frequency relay shall monitor the frequency of the generator output
voltage and shall operate after a time delay should the frequency exceed the high
trip level or drop below the low trip level.
The over frequency setting range shall be continuously adjustable from 52 to 55 Hz.
The under frequency setting range shall be continuously adjustable from 48 to 45
Hz. The time delay element shall have a continuously adjustable time setting range
from 0 to 3 seconds.
(e)

Motor protection relays

Motor protection relay (MPR) shall be of the electromagnetic type with hand reset
flags and contacts, similar to P & B Golds, U.K. make, type M5AX or approved
equivalent.
The relay shall provide protection against three phase overload, single phasing and
instantaneous earth fault.
The relay shall be complete with saturating current transformers which shall feed the
heaters of the thermal element. The saturating current transformers shall have
suitable tappings, for matching the CT ratio with the motor full load current.
A swamping resistor with adjustable setting shall be provided for the earth leakage
element.
The cold and hot time/current characteristics for the relay shall he printed on a
metallic plate mounted right behind the glass cover. Settings of all relay elements
shall be carried out from me front with the relay cover removed.
Setting ranges of the various elements of the relays shall be as follows:
Instantaneous Earth Fault

20%

Thermal Overload

80% - 125% continuously adjustable

(f)

Thermistor relays

Thermistor relays for the protection of motor windings shall be suitable to accept
output signals from the thermistors embedded in the motor windings. The relays
shall be suitable for operation on 240V AC, supply without the use of additional stepdown transformer or DC power supply unit. The output contacts shall be volt-free
and shall have at least single pole changeover or one pair of normally open or
normally closed contact. The output contacts shall be rated to operate AC 240V, 2A
inductive circuit. The relay shall have built -in LED trip indicators. The output
contacts shall be of the manually reset type.

S14-9

(g)

Thermal overload relays

Thermal overload relays shall protect the motors against three phase overload and
single phasing. The relays shall be of the hand reset bi-metal type and ambient
temperature compensated. The overload setting range shall be continuously
adjustable from 80 to 125% of motor full load current. The relay shall also include a
test pushbutton. The relay shall be trip free such that, even if the reset pushbutton is
pressed, when the fault exists, the relay shall trip.
(h)

Earth leakage relays

The relay shall be complete with a separate but matching zero sequence ring CT
made by the same manufacturer. Relay trip sensitivity shall be adjustable from 30
mA to 5A and shall also have a built-in adjustable time delay from 40 milliseconds to
50 seconds. The relay shall be suitable for operation on 240 volt AC, single phase,
50 Hz supply.
The relays shall have built-in LEDs to indicate the following :-

power on

trip conditions

direct indication (4 levels) of the instantaneous residual current present in the


system as a percentage of the set tripping current value.

The relay shall be equipped with a test circuit to check the operation of the relay and
the correctness of wiring between relay and the ring CT. The zero ring CT shall be
equipped with two separate and galvanic ally insulated secondary windings, one for
the measurement and the other for integral test. The test windings of the CT shall be
connected to the relay permanently by 2 additional wires, for manual integral testing.
The relay shall have two pairs of changeover output contacts for tripping the motor
contactors.
The relay shall be suitable for DIN rail mounting. The relay shall have a transparent
cover, which shall be scalable with stickers to prevent unauthorized operation. The
earth leakage relays shall be similar to IME make, Delta-4 Series or approved
equivalent.
14.2.7 CIRCUIT-BREAKERS
(a)

General

Circuit breakers shall be capable of interrupting all faults up to their maximum rating
without damage to equipment or danger to personnel.
Test evidence of the normal current rating and certification by an independent
switchgear testing authority such as KEMA or ASTA of the symmetrical breaking
capacity including the short time rating shall be submitted with the tender.
(b)

Low voltage circuit-breakers

Circuit-breakers rated at 1000 V or less shall be of the air break type, fully
tropicalised and shall generally comply with the requirements specified in BS EN
60947 or IEC 947-2.
The requirement of normal current-ratings and symmetrical breaking capacity are
detailed in the Drawings.

S14-10

Unless stated otherwise minimum rated short time withstand capacity (ICW) shall
not be less than 45 kA for 3 seconds to BS EN 60947 to IEC 947. The Contractor
shall submit type test certificates for short circuit test temperature rise test and creep
age test issued by 'ASTA' or KEMA for verification. The rated service breaking
capacity (ICS) for circuit breakers shall be equal to 100% ultimate breaking capacity
(ICU). All circuit breakers shall have utilization category A except for circuit breakers
for sub-distribution switchboards which shall have utilization category B.
The air circuit-breakers (ACB) shall be of the horizontal isolation pattern with
horizontal draw out facilities. They shall be so constructed as to be fully capable of
clearing any fault condition which may occur on the electrical system without
damage to equipment or personnel. Arc chutes shall be easily removed for
inspection.
Automatically operated shutters covering the main isolating contacts shall be
provided and facility shall be made for locking the shutters in the closed position and
holding the shutters in the open position.
Bus-section ACBs shall be of the 4 pole type, with full size neutral. Changeover
ACBs shall be of 4 pole type with full size neutral and with electrical and mechanical
interlocks. The ACBs shall be of the vertical rod link type. Wire type link will not be
accepted.
(i) Operating mechanisms
All ACBs shall be provided with operating mechanisms of the automatic 240 volt AC
single phase motor wound spring assisted type with manual charging facilities. The
ACB closing coil shall be operated by 240 volt AC supply.
All operating mechanisms shall have mechanical 'ON' and 'OFF' indicators and a
manual trip device fitted with means for locking. In addition, closed, open and
tripped indication lamps shall be provided on the panel door. Hand charged and
motor charged spring mechanisms shall have mechanical indicators to show
"SPRINGS CHARGED" AND "SPRINGS FREE"
Operating mechanisms of the hand or motor charged spring type shall be arranged
so that release of the spring to close the circuit-breaker can only be achieved by a
deliberate action. It shall not be possible for vibration or mechanical" shocks to
release the charged spring. A mechanically operated operation counter shall be
provided for each ACB.
Closing and trip control switches shall be pistol grip and push to operate type, shall
turn clockwise for closing and anti-clockwise for tripping and labelled "open-neutralclose" with spring return to neutral. The handle shall be capable of being locked in
the neutral position.
When the circuit breaker trips on fault, the circuit breaker shall be prevented from
closing until the fault is cleared and the fault is cleared and lockout relay is reset.
(ii)

Shunt trip coil

Shunt trip coil shall be operated by 240 volt AC supply unless otherwise stated by
the S.O. In addition the circuit breaker shall be provided with series trip (direct-acting
trip) device which shall operate with no time lag under short-circuit condition.
(iii)

Circuit-breaker alignment

ACB moving portions shall be fined with positive guides so as to ensure correct
alignment of the isolating contacts.

S14-11

(iv)

Interlocks and test operation facilities

All ACBs shall be provided with interlocks to ensure that:The circuit-breaker cannot be plugged in or isolated whilst it is closed.
The circuit-breaker cannot be closed until it is fully plugged in or completely isolated.
With hand-charged spring mechanisms the springs cannot be discharged until they
have been fully charged.
Where key interlocking (Castell or similar) is employed, tripping of a closed circuitbreaker shall not occur if any attempt is made to remove the trapped key from the
mechanism.
Facilities shall be provided for testing the circuit-breaker operation when in the
isolated and withdrawn position by the normal means as in service.
(v)

Mechanical indicators

Mechanical indicators shall be provided on the front of the air circuit breaker to
indicate clearly the following:-

Springs charged

Springs discharged

Circuit breaker in 'connected' position

Circuit breaker in 'test' position

Circuit breaker in 'disconnected' position.

(c)

Moulded Case Circuit Breakers

Moulded case circuit breakers (MCCBs) shall comply fully with BS EN 60947-2 and
IEC 947-2 and the case shall be of moulded insulating material of good mechanical
strength and non-tracking properties. The tripping mechanism shall be calibrated in
compliance with British Standards at the factory and the breaker shall be sealed to
prevent tampering. MCCBs shall have a mechanical endurance life of not less than
20,000 operations.
MCCBs shall have quick make, quick break, trip-free operating mechanism and shall
incorporate thermal and magnetic trip units, to provide overload and short circuit
protection respectively. The trip unit for each pole shall provide inverse time delay
under overload conditions and instantaneous magnetic tripping for short circuit
protection, with adjustable trip settings from 4 times to 10 times for MCCBs rated
above 60 amps.
MCCBs shall be fitted with AC or DC operated shunt trip coils where specified to be
used in conjunction with protection relays. MCCBs on incomer panels and on motor
starter panels shall have sufficient directly activated auxiliary contacts for vital
interlocks besides providing 1 NO and 1 NC output contacts as spare.
The MCCBs shall be so designed that when on tripped condition, the MCCBs
cannot be switched on again unless it has been reset by switching to OFF position
first. The operating conditions (i.e. ON, OFF or TRIP) of the MCCBs shall be clearly
indicated.

S14-12

Moulded case circuit breakers shall be of Single Pole and Neutral (SPN), Double
Pole (DP), Triple Pole and Neutral (TPN) or Four Pole type as required. The
construction and operation of the circuit breakers shall be such that if a fault occurs,
all the poles of the circuit breakers shall operate simultaneously to isolate and clear
the fault efficiently and safely without any possible risk to the operators of the
installation. Each circuit breaker shall incorporate "trip-free" mechanisms to ensure
that the breaker cannot be held closed in fault conditions.
The operating mechanism of the circuit breakers shall be hermetically sealed at the
factory and all metallic parts associated with the operating mechanism shall be
treated against rust and corrosion.
The service short-circuit breaking capacity (Ics) of the MCCB shall not be less than
the maximum prospective fault levels at the point where the MCCB is installed.
MCCBs connected to busbars shall have Ics not less than 50 kA at 415 volts unless
otherwise stated. The MCCBs shall be arranged so that the closed or open position
of all MCCBs shall be in the same direction pointing up or down. Incoming supply
shall be connected to the top terminals of the MCCB. All MCCBs shall be connected
to the circuit through cable lugs or copper bars. Incomer MCCBs shall be of
utilisation category B to provide discrimination with down stream circuit breakers.
The Contractor shall be responsible for the selection and provision of the correct
type of circuit breakers for protection of the various type of circuits involved.
MCCBs shall be provided with an extended operating handle to facilitate operation.
All MCCBs shall have provision for locking in the OFF position. All MCCBs shall
have an operating mechanism mounted on the breaker, an operating handle
mounted on the panel door and a square shaft to connect the mechanism to the
handle. The external operating handle shall also have facilities for padlocking the
MCCBs in the OFF position. The MCCBs operating handle shall also be interlocked
with the panel door such that the panel door can be opened when the handle is in
the OFF position.
A push to trip button shall be provided to test operation and opening of the MCCB
poles. Live terminal shields shall also be provided on the live side for protection
against accidental contact.
MCCBs shall be ambient temperature compensated which shall allow the breaker to
carry rated current between 20 and 50C with the tripping characteristics
approximately the same throughout this temperature range.
(d)

Miniature Circuit Breakers

Miniature Circuit Breakers (MCBs) shall comply with IEC 947-2 and shall be of DIN
rail mounted type. MCB shall not be used for controlling 3-phase equipment unless
prior approval has been obtained from the S.O.
The breaking capacities of the MCBs shall be at least equal to the prospective fault
level at the point of the distribution system where they are installed and the ultimate
service breaking capacity (Ics) shall be minimum 10 kA. Each pole shall be provided
with bi-metallic thermal element for inverse time delay protection and magnetic
element for short circuit protection. Where switching of neutral is required and for
DC circuit, the MCB shall be of double pole type.
MCBs shall be trip free type and shall be capable of sustaining 20,000 switching
operations.

S14-13

The operating mechanism shall be quick make, quick break and mechanically trip
free so as to prevent the contacts from being held closed against short circuit and
overload conditions. The operating mechanism shall be so constructed to operate all
poles in a multi-pole breaker simultaneously during opening, closing and tripping
conditions. The operating handle shall be of the toggle type.
14.2.8 415 VOLT ISOLATORS
Isolators shall comply with IEC 408. They shall be of the load breaking and fault
making rotary type, interlocked with the housing, and provided with means of
operation from the front so that all unshrouded live parts can be made dead with the
switch off. All fixed contacts shall be shrouded. Isolators shall comprise quick make
and break positive action mechanism. Isolators shall be mounted in the enclosure of
the panel with the operating handles only fitted to and interlocked with the cubicle
door. Door mounted isolators will not be accepted.
14.2.9 FUSES AND LINKS
Fuses and links shall be provided to enable any circuit to be isolated as necessary
for maintenance and test purposes without isolating the whole panel. All fuses shall
be of the HRC cartridge type to BS 88, 1361 or 2692 as applicable. Fuse carriers
and solid link carriers and bases shall be made of plastic moulded insulating
material of an approved make. Ceramic materials will not be accepted. All
accessible live connections shall be efficiently shrouded and it shall be possible to
change fuses with the circuit alive without danger of contact with live metal. The
fuses shall be rated to give maximum protection to the apparatus in circuit and the
rating shall be inscribed on the fuse label.
Earthing and neutral links in main supply circuits shall be of the solid copper bolted
pattern. Fuses and links functionally associated with the same circuit shall he
mounted side by side.
Descriptive circuit/function labels shall be mounted adjacent to all fuses and links,
the layout of which shall correspond with the wiring diagram.
14.2.10 CONTACTOR TYPE MOTOR STARTERS
(a)

General

All contactor starters shall comply with BS 5856 and BS EN 60947-4-1 and shall
incorporate contactors rated in accordance with BS 775 Part II BS EN 60947. Type
test certificates and evidence of similar performance tests on production for
contactors shall be provided by the Contractor. All starters shall incorporate triple
pole H.R.C. fuses complying with BS 88 (up to 1000V) and BS 2692 (above 1000V).
These fuses may be incorporated in the starter isolator as a composite fuse-switch
assembly. Over current and earth leakage protection relays shall be incorporated as
later specified together with all necessary auxiliary relays, contactors, timers,
auxiliary fuses, wiring and terminals. Control and indication facilities shall be
provided on each starter as specified elsewhere in the Specification.
Starters shall be mounted in starter board cubicles. Unless otherwise approved, the
metal surfaces of the cubicle wall adjacent to the contactors shall be protected by
fireproof insulating material. All secondary wiring shall be so arranged and protected
as to prevent it from being damaged by arcing.
Starters shall be of the automatic type complete with shrouded flush mounting
"Start/Stop" pushbuttons, emergency stop pushbuttons, control circuit fuses,
auxiliary contacts, indication lamps, local/remote and off/auto/manual selector
switches as appropriate.

S14-14

Starters in general shall be of the following types:(i)

Up to 3H.P motors - direct-on-line

(ii)

Up to 10H.P. motors Star Delta starter arranged to limit the starting current
to 2.5 times the normal full load current.

(iii)

Above 10 H.P. motors - closed transition auto-transformer type arranged to


limit the maximum starting current and subsequent peaks to 2.5 times the
normal full-load current.

(iv)

Above 150 H.P. motors - stator/rotor type arranged to limit the maximum
starting current and subsequent peaks to 1.5 times the normal full-load
current.

Starters for submersible pump motors rated above 7.5 kW shall be closed transition
auto-transformer type limiting the starting current to 2.5 times the full load current.
(b)

Low voltage starters (up to 660 V)

Motor starters shall comply with BS 607947-4-1 and shall be suitable for frequent
duty (40 operations per hour). Their performance shall be in accordance with BS EN
60439-1, and shall be to Form 4 construction.
Starters may be of the fixed or withdraw able pattern to manufacturer's standard. If
withdraw able, facilities shall be provided for testing starter control circuits and
operation when withdrawn without the necessity for complete removal of the starter
chassis. Where control circuit supplies and interlock circuits are broken via plugs on
withdrawal of the starter at least one jumper lead and plug assembly of each size
and type must be provided to facilitate testing in the withdrawn (isolated) position.
As a minimum, each low voltage starter shall incorporate the following features:
(i)

MCCB complete with thermal and magnetic unit for overload and short circuit
protection respectively.

(ii)

Main line power contactor with sufficient auxiliary contacts for control
indication and remote signalling. Motor heater and critical interlocking circuits
shall be controlled by auxiliary contacts mechanically activated by the motor
power contactors.

(iii)

Protection relays to protect motors against three phase overload, single


phasing and earth leakage.

(iv)

Capacitors with HRC fuses when necessary to correct the power factor of
motors rated more than 2.2 kW, to a minimum of 0.93 lagging. Ammeters
shall read uncorrected current.

(v)

Facilities shall be provided for testing the starter control circuits with the main
power circuit isolated for motors rated above 37 kW.

(c)

Starters for main pumps

Each pump starter shall be fitted with the following as a minimum:(i)

Motor protection relay similar to type M5AX of P & B Golds, U.K. make or
approved equivalent, providing protection against three phase overload,
single phasing and earth leakage.

(ii)

No volt protection

S14-15

(iii)

One CT operated ammeter with selector switch connected to read the three
phase currents.

(iv)

One hour run meter of the non-resettable cyclometer type register in


increment of 0.1 hour up to 99999.9 hour complete with running indicator

(v)

Panel heater with thermostat, switch and lamp indication.

(vi)

Motor heater off/on switch (mounted inside) and indication lamp (treated
water pumps only)

(vii)

Lamps to indicate the following:-

Raw water pumps


-

pump running

pump stopped

motor tripped

pump ready to start

delivery control valve remote control available

delivery control valve fully open

delivery control valve fully closed

delivery guard valve not fully open

raw water sump level low

Treated Water pumps


-

pump running

pump stopped

motor tripped

pump ready to start

pump motor heater on

delivery control valve remote control available

delivery control valve fully open

delivery control valve fully closed

delivery guard valve not fully open

suction guard valve not fully open

clear water tank sump level low

(viii)

Annunciators to indicate the following trip conditions:-

Raw water pumps


-

overload and earth fault conditions

undervoltage

motor winding temperature high

S14-16

upper bearing temperature high

lower bearing temperature high

auto-transformer overheating

motor stator leakage

oil bath leakage

auto-transformer thermostat operated

starting failure/incomplete

emergency stop operated

delivery pressure high

delivery control valve failed to open

delivery control valve failed to close

Treated Water pumps


-

overload and earth fault conditions

undervoltage

motor winding temperature high

emergency stop operated

delivery pressure high

suction pressure low

delivery control valve failed to open

delivery control valve failed to close

starting failure/incomplete

auto transformer temperature high

S14-17

The alarm system shall comply with relevant Clause at this specification. The
occurrence of any trip condition shall result in the motor stator contactor being
opened immediately. However for alarm conditions, the normal pump stopping
sequence shall be initiated automatically if the alarm conditions are not accepted
within an adjustable time.
(i)

Motor winding temperature indicator complete with alarm and trip settings
(treated water pumps only)

(ii)

Delivery control valve position indicator

(iii)

Off/auto/manual, local/remote and normal/test/off key selector switches


(Selector switches shall be of the maintained contact type).

(iv)

Power factor correction capacitors with HRC fuses to correct the power
factor of motor to a minimum of 0.93 lagging. Ammeters shall read
uncorrected current.

(v)

Volt-free contacts for remote indication of pump running, stopped, tripped


and common alarm conditions.

(vi)

Pump motor start, stop and emergency stop pushbuttons.

A weatherproof local control panel conforming to IP 65 incorporating a 300A isolator,


start and stop pushbuttons and an emergency stop pushbutton station shall be
provided adjacent to the raw water pumps. Isolator interlock auxiliary switches shall
be provided to prevent the starting of the pumps when the isolator is in the open
position.
For treated water pumps, a start, stop and emergency stop pushbutton station to
IP65 shall be pole mounted (1 metre height) adjacent to each pump.
The operation of the selector switches and pushbuttons shall be as follows:Local/Remote selector switch
Local position-

The pump shall only be started/stopped from the pushbuttons


on the starter board provided the Off/Auto/Manual selector
switch is in auto position.

Remote position-

The pump shall only be started/stopped the local control panel


(raw water pumps) or pushbutton station (treated water
pumps) located adjacent to the pump.

Off/Auto/Manual selector switch


Off position-

No operation shall be possible.

S14-18

Auto position-

When a pump start signal is initiated, the delivery control


valve opens automatically after the motor attains reasonable
speed and when the stop signal is initiated, the delivery
control valve shall fully close before the pump motor stops.
When pump trips, the delivery control valve shall
automatically close if power supply is available.

Manual position -

Pump shall be started without operation of delivery control


valve and delivery control valve shall be operated
independent of pump. This is an abnormal situation and shall
be used when pump/motor or valve is tested after
maintenance.

The emergency stop pushbutton shall be effective at all times.


Normal/Test/Off selector switch
Normal position-

The control supply shall be obtained downstream of me


solating MCCB.

Test position-

Starter control circuit can be tested for operation with the


control supply obtained upstream of the isolating MCCB which
has been switched off.

Off position-

No operation shall be possible.

Indication of 'pump ready to start" shall be provided when the following interlocks
are satisfied for each pump:
-

Protection relays are not activated (All faults have been manually reset).

Delivery control valve is in fully closed position and under automatic control
mode.

Suction guard valve is in fully open position (for treated water pumps)

Delivery guard valve is in fully open position

Suction water level above start level

(d)

Starters for other equipment

Each starter shall be fitted with the following as minimum:(i)

Motor protection relay providing three phase overload, single phasing and
earth leakage protection similar to type M5AX of P&B Golds, U.K. or
approved equal for motors rated greater than 37 kW. Thermal overload relay
shall be provided for motors rated 37 kW or below.

(ii)

For motor ratings greater than 7.5 kW and up 400 kW, earth leakage relay
with time delay similar to IME make Delta-4 series or approved equivalent.

(iii)

No volt protection.

(iv)

One ammeter connected to read Y phase current for motors rated up to 7.5
kW. For motor rating exceeding 7.5 kW, one CT operated ammeter with
selector switch connected to read the three phase currents.

S14-19

(v)

One hour run meter of the non-resettable cyclometer type register in


increment of 0.1 hour up to 99999.9 hour complete with running indicator for
motors exceeding 2.2 kW ratings and where specified.

(vi)

Panel heater with thermostat, switch and lamp indication.

(vii)

Motor heater on/off switch (mounted inside) and indication lamp for motors
exceeding 2.2 kW rating.

(viii)

Thermistor relay for motors rated above 7.5 kW.

(ix)

Lamps to indicate the following :

motor running

motor stopped

motor tripped on overload

equipment ready to start

(x)

Off/Auto/Manual and local/remote key selector switches as appropriate


(Selector switches shall be of the maintained contact type).

(xi)

Power factor correction capacitors with HRC fuses for motors rated above
2.2
kW.

(xii)

Motor start, stop and emergency stop pushbuttons.

(xiii) Alarms
Lamps shall be provided to indicate the following:-

motor tripped on over load

motor tripped on earth fault

motor thermistor operated

emergency stop operated

starting failure/incomplete

auto-transformer thermostat operated

rotor resistance temperature high

other fault condition as specified in the relevant Clauses

The alarm system operation shall comply with relevant Clause of this specification.
14.2.11

LOW VOLTAGE CONTACTORS

All low voltage contactors shall comply with the requirements of I EC 947-4 and
utilization category ACS and mechanical endurance not less than 3 million no-load
operating cycles and electrical life not less than 1.5 million operating cycles
The contactors shall be rated for continuous operation. The contactor coils shall
have Class B insulation and shall he suitable for operation on 240 volt AC.
The contactors shall be suitable for making and breaking at 0.35 power factor the
stalled current of the associated motors which shall be assumed equal to 8 times the
full load current of the motors.

S14-20

Contacts shall be renewable butt type, solid copper, hard silver faced, fully shrouded
for main and auxiliary contacts and the designs shall be such as to ensure effective
freedom from contact bounce and sticking of the fixed and moving portion of the
magnet assembly.
Contactors coils shall be fully tropicalised. The coils shall be arranged such that they
can be removed without having to remove the contactor.
The contactors shall have sufficient volt-free auxiliary contacts for control, indication
and other functions. In addition to the required number of auxiliary contacts needed
for the control and indication circuits, each contactor and motor starter shall be
provided with at least one make and one break contact element, double gap,
potential free and wired up to the auxiliary terminal blocks in the starter
compartment.
The contactors shall be suitable for co-ordination with the associated short circuit
protection device to give type 2 protection as defined in IEC 947-4 which states that
the starters are sufficiently protected by the short-circuit protection device, no
damage will occur to the starter in case of through fault current and continuity of
service is imperative.
14.2.12

AIR COOLED ROTOR RESISTANCE GRIDS

Rotor resistances shall be of stainless steel air insulated and incorporated in their
own ventilated housing mounted on the top or inside at the rear of the starter
boards, in which case additional louvres with fine mesh shall be provided. They shall
be rated for 15 starts per hour for 415 volt system. Contactor type closing shall be
provided to cut out resistance in the rotor circuit step by step. The closing shall be
under the control of dust-sealed timing devices enabling individual adjustment of
time on each step to be made.
Forced air cooling shall be provided if necessary to maintain the temperature rise
within permissible values of BS 587. Heat sensing elements shall be included to
protect the resistance units.
14.2.13

AUTO TRANSFORMERS

Auto transformers shall be of the three winding resin coated air insulated type and
shall incorporate a minimum of 3 tappings i.e. 40%, 60% and 75% taps. They shall
be rated for 15 starts per hour for 415 volt system. Heat sensing elements
(thermostats) shall he included to protect the auto-transformer units.
14.2.14

CAPACITORS

Capacitors for power factor improvement shall be suitable for operation on rated
voltage of 415 volt, which will he subjected to plus 5% or minus 10% voltage
variation.
Capacitors shall be manufactured and tested to BS 1650. Each capacitor element
shall be made of aluminium foil separated by two or more layers of polypropylene
film, with low losses. The capacitor bank formed with many units suitably connected
in series/ parallel and shall be enclosed in a steel container filled with noninflammable self impregnation oil and hermetically sealed. Current limiting reactors
shall also be supplied to reduce the inrush current to a value suitable for the
associated contactors.

S14-21

Capacitors shall be of low loss type with the level of losses not exceeding 0.5 watt
per kVAr. Each capacitor unit shall be fitted with a continuously rated low loss
discharge resistor assembly which shall ensure that the capacitor is discharged from
the 1.414 times rated voltage to 50 volt or less within one minute for low voltage
capacitors. The size of the capacitor chosen shall not exceed 90% of the
magnetizing kVAr of the motor. Should the rating of the capacitor exceed the
magnetizing kVAr of the motor, the capacitor shall be introduced into the circuit by a
separate contactor.
The size of the capacitor chosen shall not exceed 90% of the magnetizing kVAr of
the motor.
Capacitors shall be protected by means of HRC fuses. Capacitors with internal
fuses will not be acceptable. The fuses shall be mounted on top or side of the
capacitor.
Capacitor casings shall be connected to structural frames which in turn shall be
grounded.
14.2.15
(i)

ALARMS AND ALARM SYSTEM OPERATION

Alarm annunciators

Alarm functions shall be indicated on internally illuminated annunciator units bearing


appropriate legends and arranged on the panel in groups to be agreed with the S.O.
Each annunciator shall be as compact as possible without unnecessary decorative
trim.
The alarm indications on each annunciator shall be logically arranged in a format to
be agreed with the S.O. The legend area of each indication shall be 30 mm high and
60 mm wide. The wording of all legends shall be approved by the S.O. before
manufacture
"Alarm accept", "Alarm reset" and "Lamp test" pushbuttons shall be provided.
A common audible alarm (siren) of approved type and intensity and not less than 30
minutes rating shall be mounted within the panel with muting switches mounted in
the respective starter boards for commissioning and testing purpose. Audible
devices in the same room shall have distinguishable sounds and adjustable sound
levels.
(ii)

Alarm system operation

Visual alarm annunciators and audible alarms for the starter boards shall operate as
follows :(1)

When an alarm condition occurs the appropriate light shall flash on and off
intermittently and a common audible alarm shall sound.

(2)

On pressing the "alarm accept" pushbutton, the audible alarm shall be


silenced and the flashing light shall become steady. If not accepted manually,
the alarm shall be accepted automatically two to five minutes (adjustable)
after the condition.

(3)

The alarm annunciator shall remain illuminated whether or not the alarm
condition has returned to normal until the "alarm reset" pushbutton has been
operated whereupon the light shall be extinguished if the fault condition no
longer exists. The operation of the reset pushbutton shall not be effective if
the alarm accept pushbutton is not manually operated earlier than the reset
pushbutton for both manual and automatic acceptance of alarms.

S14-22

(4)

Operation of the "lamp test" pushbutton shall cause all the lamps and
annunciators to be illuminated simultaneously and the audible alarm to be
sounded.

(5)

The alarm system shall respond to any new condition that might arise while
an existing condition Is being indicated, whether accepted or not, and to any
that might occur during a "lamp test" period.

The alarm system shall be designed on the 'fail-safe' principle so that a fault in any
circuit component causes an alarm to be given.
14.2.16

LEVEL CONTROL RELAYS AND ELECTRODES

All the level electrode solid state control units and auxiliary relays shall be mounted
within the respective compartment of the starter boards and wired internally to each
pump motor starter.
All the control relays shall be suitable for operation on 240 volts AC supply and shall
have suitably rated contacts. Output voltage connected to electrodes must not
exceed 12V A.C. The design of the controller particularly the step down transformer
shall ensure that no electrical fault can cause a shocking voltage (40V or higher) to
appear at the output to electrodes.
The electrode assembly and holders shall comply with relevant Clause of the
Specification.
Electrodes in pressure vessels shall have robust water and air tight mounting heads
fitted to the top of the vessels. Suitable arrangements shall be made for withdrawal
of electrode assemblies without access to the inside of the vessel. Electrode heads
shall be suitable for the maximum working pressures to be encountered.
Level control system shall comprise three electrodes for each pump. One electrode
shall be common for earth return, the second shall stop the respective pump at predetermined water level, and the remaining one to ensure that the pump cannot be
manually restarted until the water level has reached another pre-determined level.
For sump drainage pumps, a suitable electrode arrangement shall be provided to
enable automatic control with facility for the automatic changeover of the units
should one of the duty pump fail to start or trip. Pump failure shall actuate an alarm
on the starter panel.
14.2.17

CONTROL RELAYS AND TIMERS

Relay shall be of either plug-in or block type. Relays shall be housed in dust-proof
and totally enclosed cases to BS 5490, IP64. The case shall be transparent plastic
capable of being replaced.
Plug-in relays shall be fitted with transparent plastic dust-proof covers, retaining
clips, a base into which the relay plugs and external connections shall be made
using easily accessible screw clamp terminals. Bases and relays shall be keyed to
prevent relays being plugged into incorrect bases. If mounted on DIN rails, blocking
pins shall be provided. Space and drillings shall be provided for a minimum of 10%
additional relays. Block type relays shall be totally encapsulated.
Relays shall be fitted with neon or LED indicator connected across the operating coil
and easily visible when the compartment door is open. Relays fitted with mechanical
indicators will not be accepted.
DC relays shall be ringed with a diode (1200V, 1A).

S14-23

Relays with different voltage coils or different configuration of contact shall not be
interchangeable.
Mixed voltages shall not be connected to different contacts of a particular relay. It
necessary, additional relays shall be used.
When voltages exceeding 55 volts to earth are employed in relay compartments or
non-door interlocked sections then such terminals shall be shrouded, segregated
and fitted with warning labels. Where supply voltages from remote are used, then
care shall be taken to ensure relays associated equipment, terminal fuses etc. shall
be shrouded and segregated where possible.
Timers shall be solid state, plug-in type, provided with cable connection sockets and
'energised' and timed out indications. They shall have linearly calibrated scales, in
units of time, each scale division being a maximum of 5% of full scale. Repeat
accuracy shall be within 0.5% of full scale. Timers shall be anchored by quick
fastening vibration proof devices. Pneumatic timers shall not be accepted.
Timers and bases shall be keyed to prevent mismatching. The pin configuration of
each timer shall be printed on the casing.
14.2.18

PUSHBUTTONS

All emergency stop pushbuttons, whether forming pan of the switchboards and
starter boards or supplied as separate control stations, shall be of the stay-put
pattern arranged to permanently open a circuit until deliberate reset action has been
carried out. All emergency stop pushbuttons shall have red mushroom headed
pushes of the stay-put pattern, shall be connected in control circuits such that they
are effective under all conditions.
They shall be capable of being locked in the 'depressed' position by means of an
external removable key. Resetting of the pushbutton shall not restart the device.
Pushbutton enclosure shall conform to IP54 degree of protection. Start, stop and
emergency stop pushbuttons shall be provided and positioned in the vicinity of
electrically driven plant where there is no direct line of sight between the motor and
the starter or where the distance between the motor and the starter exceeds 5
metres.
Pushbuttons shall comply with BS9564. Pushbuttons shall be individual flush
mounted units with chromium plated and polished solid brass or die cast aluminium
body and ring, circular in shape and the mounting hole shall be not less than 25 mm.
The start and stop pushbuttons shall be effective in manual mode of operation only.
Pushbutton colours shall adhere to following schedule:green

motor start valve open

red

motor stop valve close emergency stop

yellow

alarm accept

black

reset

blue

lamp test

Pole mounted pushbuttons shall be 1 metre above floor level. The pushbutton
enclosure shall be of glass fibre reinforced polyester and weatherproof to IP65 with
an internal mounting plate. The start, stop and emergency stop pushbuttons shall
also be weatherproof to IP65. Sunshades shall be provided for outdoor pushbutton
stations. The stand assembly and sunshade shall be hot dipped galvanised.
S14-24

14.2.19

CONTROL AND SELECTOR SWITCHES

Control and selector switches shall conform to BS EN 60947 or IEC 947


Control switches shall be of the three position type with spring return action to a
central neutral position. They shall be labelled.
Electrically operated circuit-breakers shall be fitted with control switches labelled
Open/N/Close. They shall be of the pistol grip push to operate type with a spring
return to the neutral position. The switch shall be lockable in the neutral position.
Control switches shall have different shape of handles like spade, tee or other
approved shape handles for each type of control function namely, Open/N/Close,
Lower/N/Raise, etc.
Selector switches shall make before break and shall remain in the position selected
and be key lockable in that position. They shall be rotary spring loaded type with
spade shaped handles and each position shall be labelled.
Contacts and terminals of all switches shall be shrouded with clear Perspex cover to
permit inspection without dismantling. A bezel shall be provided for each switch, at
least 50 mm square.
Where key operated switches are provided it shall be possible to operate them
without the key, but also be possible to lock them in any position and withdraw the
key.
14.2.20 INDICATING LAMPS AND FITTNGS
Indicating lamps fitted to the fascias of switch and instrument cubicles or panels
shall be adequately ventilated. They shall be uniform type as far as possible, to
minimise spares requirements.
Lamps shall be easily removable and replacement from the front of the panel by
manual means not requiring the use of extractors.
The bezel holding the lamp lens shall be of chromium plated and polished solid
brass or die cast aluminium and easily removable from the body of the fittings so as
to permit access to the lamp and lamp lens. Plastic bezels are not acceptable.
AC lamps shall be of neon type with life expectancy of not less than 25,000 hours
and fit into an accepted standard form of lamp-holder. The rated lamp voltage shall
be 10 volts in excess of the supply voltage. Alternatively, low voltage lamps with
series resistors will be acceptable.
Indicator lights shall be of the projecting (dome) type so they can be seen from the
front and side of the switchboard and the mounting hole diameter shall not be less
than 22 mm. They shall be visible under bright sunlight conditions.
Colour of indicator lights shall generally comply with BS 60073 (IEC 73). The
diffuser glasses shall be coloured and the bulbs shall be clear.
Indicating lamp circuits shall be separately fused.
DC lamps shall have a life expectancy of not less than 15,000 hours and shall be
made up by a cluster of LED lights.
The lamp lenses shall be in standard colours, red, green, blue, white and amber and
to S.O.'s approval. The colour shall be in the lens and not an applied coating and the
different coloured lenses shall be fully interchangeable.

S14-25

Lamp colour shall adhere to the following schedule:red

circuit-breaker closed motor running valve open

green

circuit-breaker open motor stopped valve closed

amber

urgent alarm (plant tripped)

yellow

non-urgent alarm

white

general, e.g. heater on

blue

duty

Each light shall have a descriptive label affixed above the light fitting or an engraving
on the screen of the fitting. All wording shall be approved by the S.O. before
manufacture.
Indication lamps shall correspond in position above respective pushbuttons.
14.2.21

ANTI-CONDENSATION HEATERS

Each floor mounting cubicle or panel section of the switchboards shall be fitted with
a rotary action ON/OFF heater isolating switch, indicating lamp and MCB to control
all panel heaters fed from that panel.
Individual floor mounting cubicles shall each be fitted with an anti-condensation
heater together with a suitably positioned adjustable thermostat, isolating switch and
indicating lamp. Heat resistant cables shall be used for connection to heaters.
Multi-tier type cubicles shall have a cubicle heater isolating switch, indicating lamp
and thermostat for each vertical panel section.
Heaters in exposed positions shall be fitted with a safety guard to prevent direct
contact with the heated surface.
Heaters shall not be placed close to cables or PVC trunkings.
14.2.22

SMALL WIRING AND AUXILIARY CONTROL SUPPLY

Switchboard panel small wiring shall be carried out in tinned copper multi-stranded
PVC insulated cable to BS 6231 with 1000 volt grade and shall have a minimum
cross-section of 1.5 sq.mm for voltage circuits and 2.5 sq.mm for current circuits.
Wiring shall be carried out in a neat and systematic manner and securely fixed by
insulated cleans 01 approved method and arranged so that access to any apparatus
or connection point is not impeded. Where inter-panel wiring passes through panel
side sheets etc., the access hole shall be fitted with a suitable grommet.
The wiring colour code shall be as given below:
Phases

Red, Yellow, Blue

Neutral

Black

DC circuit

Grey

Earth

Green

Connections to volt free contacts intended for external connections shall be coloured
white.

S14-26

Wiring shall not be mounted direct to panel steel plates. Panel wiring shall be run in
neat looms and shall be installed vertically and horizontally and not diagonally
across. Any framing cable looms shall be installed in PVC trunking. Not more than
70% of the trunking shall be used.
The busbar chambers of the equipment shall not be used as trunking for small
wiring.
Pre-insulated compression terminals or insulated sleeves shall be tight fitted at the
end of wirings. Terminals shall be manufactured from high conductivity tin plated
copper Insulated sleeves shall be of nylon or PVC and the latter shall not be less
than 0.8 mm thick. Sleeves shall be colour coded for different ranges of conductors.
Sleeve type identification ferrules shall be fitted on all wires at both ends; the
numbers and letters used shall correspond with the appropriate wiring diagram and
shall read from terminals outwards. Identification ferrules numbering shall not be
repeated The wires shall not be jointed or broken between terminal points.
Terminations for screw or stud terminals shall be of the Ross-Courtney claw washer
pattern or approved equal, or of the crimped-on ring type, the latter being preferred.
Terminations of stranded conductors to Klippon type of terminals or approved
equivalent shall be of the crimped-on rod type.
Not more than one core of either internal or external wiring shall terminate on any
outgoing terminal. Where duplication of terminal blocks is necessary suitable solid
bonding links shall be incorporated in the design of block selected.
Miniature circuit breakers of approved type shall be provided for all voltage
transformer secondary circuits, auxiliary supply circuits (control and indication). The
function and application of each MCB shall be clearly indicated. MCBs shall be
located at a convenient position for easy access and identification. For each
switchboard, suitably rated MCBs and terminal to receive control supply from
external source and outgoing bus wires to every panel shall be provided. All
outgoing circuits shall be protected by MCBs.
Each MCB shall be provided with volt-free spare auxiliary contact, wired to terminal
for remote indication purpose.
DC trip supply/closing supply/AC supplies wiring to different protective systems shall
be segregated from one another.
All wires associated with trip circuits shall have red ferrules marked 'TRIP'. All spare
relay contacts shall also be wired to spare terminal blocks.
Wiring between fixed and moving positions of the switch panel shall be run in
flexible conduits.
Small wiring used for extra low voltage and instrument signal which are likely to be
affected by interference shall be screened and/or spaced from power cables to
ensure no distortion or mal operation.
All spare cores of cables shall be terminated at terminal blocks.
14.2.23

COMPONENT ARRANGEMENT

Equipment and associated connections shall be arranged to facilitate easy access


for maintenance. Where this is not possible with fixed panels, draw-out or hinged
panel arrangements shall be provided.

S14-27

Parts which may require inspection at the installed position during maintenance i.e.
contactors, shall not be installed at the sides of cubicle except adjacent the access
door. Parts installed at sides of a panel, relays and instruments shall have
unimpeded access of 450 mm from other equipment at the direction of equipment
removal
The size of mounting plates shall be kept small. Separate mounting plates shall he
used for individual groups of components for ease of removal and access to
components Mounting plates shall be fixed by bolts and nuts and be arranged such
that it shall not he necessary to remove one section of equipment before another
section can he removed or fitted.
Modular components as relays that are mounted in a row shall be spaced for ready
removal, e.g. plug-in relays and fuse holders shall permit the insertion of fingers for
gripping the components for removal. Small components in a row shall be fitted with
wiring channels, between which a minimum space sufficient for wiring ferrules (6
digits) perpendicular to the wire run shall be provided.
Fittings for mounting equipment/components shall have no sharp edges/corners and
shall not protrude beyond what is necessary to avoid injury to maintenance
personnel servicing the equipment nearby e.g. studs shall not project beyond the
lock-nuts when the ends are not readily visible. Studs shall in all cases protrude no
longer than 6 mm beyond the lock nuts.
Screws shall only be used in the assembly of components unless there is
unimpeded access for assembly and dismantling by use of a standard screwdriver.
For the purpose of cabling and wiring ferrules, distance between rows of
components such as control relays shall not be less than 100 mm.
14.2.24

TERMINAL BLOCKS

Terminal for control wiring shall be of the Klippon type or equivalent which clamps
the wire securely and without damage between two plates by means of a captive
screw. Pinch screw type terminal blocks will not be acceptable. The minimum size of
terminal shall be as Klippon SAK-4 or equal. Terminals for incoming and outgoing
power connection shall be of the bolted type with brass nuts and locknuts, each core
being fitted with a suitable lug. Terminal blocks at different voltages shall be
segregated into groups and distinctively labelled, and the voltage grouping and
terminal board layout shall correspond with the wiring diagram. Only one wire shall
be terminated on each terminal block. Where duplication of terminals is necessary,
purpose made solid links shall be provided. Where approved barrier pattern screw
or stud-type terminal blocks are used covers of transparent insulating material which
does not sustain combustion shall be provided.
Insulating barriers when provided between adjacent terminal blocks shall also allow
easy access, in addition to adequate protection. Terminals which may be alive when
the main equipment is isolated from the mains supply shall be suitably labelled to
reduce the risk of accidental contact. All terminals shall bear a permanent
identification number or letter. Terminal blocks for protection and metering CT circuit
shall be spring loaded type complying with ESI standard 12-1.
All the wires of a multi-core cable shall be connected to terminal blocks including the
spare wires.
Adequate number of spare terminals (at least 20%) shall be provided for each group
of terminal blocks.

S14-28

Removable DIN rail terminals shall be provided for all wiring , mounted at an angle
to provide ease of access, with centre disconnecting link type terminals for analogue
signal circuits, isolation or test purposes, sufficient, suitably sized earth terminals at
the end.
Every terminal block shall have a clear plastic clip-on cover running the full length of
the block to prevent accidental contact with live terminals.
14.2.25

MILTI-CORE TERMINATIONS

On multi-panel switchboard, multi-core control circuit protection and indication


cables shall be terminated directly at the panel concerned wherever specified.
Terminal blocks shall be provided adjacent to the cable gland(s) at the point of entry
but adequate space shall be left free for tails of cables to be installed on site.
Where terminations are remote from the gland plate, easily accessible trunking or
cable tray shall be provided within the enclosure for securing the cores.
Where a terminal marshalling section is provided, e.g. on multi-tier panel
switchboard each group of unit terminal blocks shall be clearly marked and, where
appropriate, provided with an independent cover. A separate terminal shall be
provided and identified in compliance with relevant clause for each core (including
spares) of all multicore cables.
Boxes shall be of adequate dimensions to enable multicore tails to be separated and
made off in a neat and workmanlike manner. Boxes shall be provided with
removable covers as appropriate to facilitate free access to connections and shall
incorporate a removable undrilled gland plate.
Interconnections shall be routed via trunking or similar arrangement forming part of
the switchboard in a manner providing complete access to the wiring and
connections for maintenance purpose without requiring access to any other panel.
14.2.26

CABLE TERMINATIONS

All cable boxes, glands, gland plates and all other apparatus necessary to terminate
all incoming and outgoing power and control cables shall be provided. Non-magnetic
gland plates of not less than 6 mm thick shall be provided where single core cables
are terminated. For cable sizes 400 sq.mm and above, insulated cable glands shall
be fitted.
All cable boxes shall be suitable for air insulated termination of vertically ascending
power cables. Cable glands suitable for the sizes of cable used and supports shall
be provided with each cable box. Suitable approved cable cleats shall be provided
to ensure that weight of the cable will not be carried by cable gland. Aluminium cable
cores shall be terminated using approved bimetallic connectors.
Switchboards shall, unless otherwise specified, be provided with bottom cable entry.
Cable gland boxes, with removable side covers, of at least 300 mm high above the
base of the panel shall be provided, to enable easy termination of cables. The gland
plates shall be gasketted.
In view of the substantial cable derating that is normally applied, adequate terminals
and cable termination space shall be provided in the switchboards.
Each panel shall include all necessary copper down droppers, terminal blocks and
cable sockets. All terminals shall be numbered and me numbering shall conform
with the schematic and wiring diagram.

S14-29

Earth studs shall be welded inside and outside the terminal box, at the bottom plate.
Compression type cable lugs shall be provided.
14.2.27 POLARITY
The polarity of all apparatus specified shall be arranged as follows:(i)

For two pole apparatus the phase or 'live' pole at the top (or left hand side)
and the neutral or 'earthed' pole at the bottom (or right hand side) and:

(ii)

For three or four pole apparatus the phases in order, red, yellow, blue and
neutral reading from top to bottom or left to right in the case of vertical and
horizontal layouts respectively, as viewed from the front.

All cables shall be so connected between switchboards, plant and accessories so


that the correct sequence or phase colours are preserved throughout the system. All
cables cores shall be identified with phase colours for three and four wire circuits
and red and black for single phase circuits. Where more than one phase is
incorporated on a common system in one room then the live cores shall be red,
yellow, blue as appropriate and fittings and switch accessories shall be permanently
labelled and segregated in accordance with the I.E. E. Regulations.
14.2.28

SWITCHBOARD EARTHING ARRANGEMENTS

Panels and cubicles shall be provided with earthing facilities. An earth stud shall be
provided on single cubicles.
Multi-panel switchboards or composite enclosures comprising a suite of individual
sections or cubicles shall incorporate a continuous tinned copper earth bar along
inside of the entire length of the switchboards. Minimum earth bar size for panels
shall be 50 mm x 6 mm.
The earth bar shall extend to all panel/cubicle sections. All panels and individual
sections/cubicles, shall be earthed by direct connections to the earth bar, which shall
also include extensions and terminations for the earthing of the metal cladding and
armouring of all incoming and outgoing power cables. Holes shall be left at each end
of the bar for connections to the main station earth and future extension.
On equipment having only front access the main earth bar shall be internally
mounted, hut readily accessible.
The earth bar shall incorporate an external terminal assembly at each end of the bus
for the connection of a copper tape or cable from the station earthing system. A
minimum of two earth conductors shall be provided for connection of the
switchboard earth bar to the station earthing system.
A positive earthing conductor and termination shall be provided on all enclosure
doors on which electrical equipment is mounted. The conductor shall be connected
to the panel earth bar.
Earthing continuity conductors shall be at least 2.5 sq.mm in section.
The thermal rating of the earth bar and connections shall be not less than the shorttime current rating of the associated switchgear equipment, or the maximum
through-fault current of the power source, and based on a maximum temperature
which shall not cause damage to the bar and connections. The cross-sectional area
of the earth bar(s) shall not be less than the recommendations given in BS 7430.
No earth terminal bolts or studs shall be less than 8 mm in diameter.

S14-30

14.2.29

SAFETY ARRANGEMENTS

All terminals, connections, relays and other components which may be "live" when
front access doors are open shall be adequately screened. It shall not be possible to
obtain access to an adjacent cubicle when any door is opened.
Components within the cubicles shall be adequately labelled to facilitate testing.
Isolators, clearly labelled, shall be provided in such positions and connected so that
maintenance can be carried out with maximum safety.
This particularly applies to control circuits fed from a remote position. Where it is
necessary to maintain certain components in a cubicle in a live condition when the
isolator is in the "off" position, such apparatus shall be so screened and labelled as
to eliminate the possibility of accidents. Additionally, a system of removable
insulated links or isolating type terminal blocks shall be provided to enable particular
components to be isolated for maintenance purposes whilst retaining other essential
circuits energised.
14.2.30

LABELS AND INSTRUCTION PLATES

Labels shall be provided for every panel to describe the duty of or otherwise identify
every instrument, relay or item of control equipment mounted internally and
externally. Wording shall be clear, concise and unambiguous and shall be approved
by the S.O. before manufacture. Each label shall be permanently secured to the
panel surface beneath the item to which it refers. Dymo tapes or other self adhesive
labels and nameplates will not be accepted. All labels shall be bevelled and be fixed
with chrome plated screws. A label schedule shall be submitted for approval prior to
engraving the labels.
Labels for selector switch shall indicate the operating function of the switch and
Function identification of each selected position.
Instruments and relays need not be so labelled if the function of the device is
inherent in the manufacturer's own internal labelling.
Internally fitted labels shall be finished white with engraved letters and numbers
filled with black. Laminated material such as trifoliate rear engraved and filled plastic
may be used.
Labels shall be positioned not visibly obstructed by the mounted equipment,
components or structural components. Labels shall not be fixed on cable channels
or the like.
Externally fitted labels shall be of Perspex or other approved transparent plastic with
letters and numbers rear engraved and filled with black. The back surface of each
label shall be finished with a first coat of aluminium paint and a second coat of paint
of the same colour as the panel external finish.
Labels shall also be fitted to provide warnings or reminders of dangerous or
potentially dangerous circumstances, and wherever called for elsewhere in the
Specification.
Danger labels, e.g. 'DANGER - 415 Volt A.C.', shall be coloured red to BS 4800 Ref
04E 53 with white lettering.
Caution labels e.g. 'CAUTION - ISOLATE BEFORE REMOVING COVER' shall be
white to BS 4800 Ref. OOE 55 with red lettering.

S14-31

The sizes (height) of characters shall be as follows:Board nameplate

25 mm minimum

Panel nameplate

15 mm minimum

Cubicle nameplate

10 mm minimum

Selector, pushbuttons, lamps, alarm annunciators, legends

5 mm minimum

The ratio of height to width of character shall be 3:2 approximately.


If alternative labels are offered samples shall be submitted for approval; embossed
materials and techniques will not be accepted.
The following information shall be given on the switchboard nameplates, which shall
be fixed on the front of the switchboard assembly, e.g. on me incoming feeders or
bus section.
a)

Manufacturer's name

b)

Type designation

c)

Purchase order number

d)

Year of manufacture

e)

Rated voltage

f)

rated frequency

g)

Rated current of busbar system

h)

Rated voltage of auxiliary circuits (if applicable)

i)

Rated peak and short time withstand current and withstand time

The above information together with the other information of IEC 439-1 Clause 5.1
shall be given in the relevant documents of the manufacturer.
Each circuit shall be provided with circuit identification labels. The circuit labels shall
be installed on the front of the fixed and the removable pan of the withdraw able or
removable unit and repeated at the main and auxiliary cable terminations which are
not clearly identifiable from the physical layout, e.g. cable compartments at the rear
or bottom of the assembly.
When the operation sequence or procedure of certain equipment items in the
switchboard or the starter board is not evident e.g. mechanical interlocking features,
instruction plates shall be provided, fixed near the point of operation. The instruction
shall be given as far as possible in a pictorial manner.
14.2.31

PADLOCKING

Switchboard components on which provision is made for padlocking and on which


the padlock is normally fitted under service conditions, shall each be supplied with a
good quality padlock. The padlock for each type of component shall have the same
lock change number and three keys shall be provided.

S14-32

Each key shall be fitted with an identification disc or plate indelibly marked with the
component type or cubicle reference. All padlocks shall be of Yale or Abloy make
and the Contractor shall be responsible for submitting a detailed scheme describing
locking arrangements. Keys shall be non-interchangeable throughout. Key boxes
shall comprise a wall mounted panel with a glass-fronted lockable door. Key hooks
shall be provided for all keys and each hook shall be identified with the key number.
14.2.32

HANDLING, MAINTENANCE AND TESTING EQUIPMENT

(i)

Where necessary suitable handling equipment for drawing out circuit


breakers for testing and maintenance purposes shall be provided. Operation
tools like manual charging handle and earthing switch handle and
maintenance tools shall be also included.

(ii)

Black fluted rubber safety mat of 750 mm wide 5 mm thick to BS 921 running
the length of the switchboards, starter boards, MCC etc.

(iii)

415V electrical single line diagrams and first aid charts for electrical shock
treatment shall be framed up with aluminium frame and hung on the wall
next to each switchboard. The single line diagram shall be signed up by the
Professional Superintending Office (S.O.) who has designed and supervised
the installation of the electrical plant. The diagram shall be drawn in ink
which can resist fading.

The prices entered for the relevant switchboards in the Bill of Quantities shall
include supply of the above-mentioned items.
14.2.33

VOLT-FREE CONTACTS

Where "volt-free" contacts are specified on any equipment, e.g. a circuit-breaker, or


contactor contacts, these shall comprise a pair of contacts operated directly by the
equipment but electrically separated such that no potential derived from the
equipment appears at the contacts. Volt-free contacts will be used to complete
external control, alarm or indication circuits, the supplies for these circuits being
obtained from an external source.
Unless otherwise stated these supplies will be from low voltage AC or DC sources
and auxiliary isolating poles need not be provided.

S14-33

14.3

MOTORS

14.3.1 ELECTRIC MOTOR - GENERAL


All electric motors shall comply with the requirements of BS 4999 and BS 5000.
All motors shall be high efficiency types classified by CEMEP under EFF1 motors.
Constant speed AC motors shall be of the induction type suitable for operation on a
3 phase supply and shall be capable of operating continuously, at rated torque, at
any voltage between +5 and -10 percent of the nominal value, and nominal
frequency +2 and -2 Hertz.
The maximum motor speed shall be 1500 rpm. All AC motors rated 0.18 kW and
above shall be of the three phase type.
Motors up to 3H.P. shall be of the squirrel cage rotor type suitable for direct-on-line
starting having a starting current not greater than 6 times the full load current.
Motors above 10 H.P. up to 150 H.P. shall be of the squirrel cage type suitable for
closed transition auto-transformer type starting with the starting current limited to
250% of the full load current.
Non-submersible motors above 150 H.P. shall be of the slipping wound rotor type
suitable for rotor resistance type starting with the starting current limited to 150% of
the full load current. This motor shall be fitted with automatic brush lifting device.
Submersible motors above 7.5 kW shall be of the squirrel cage type suitable for
closed transition auto-transformer starting with the starting current limited to 250% of
the full load current.
Motors shall be designed for S1 duty to BS 4909
All motors shall be capable of running continuously at a brake horse power not less
than 20% in excess of that absorbed by the driven equipment under any operating
conditions. The reserve power requirements shall be added to the calculated power
prior to any other adjustments e.g. high ambient temperature at Site. In addition, all
motors shall be suitable for 15 starts per hour for 415 volt rated motors.
The motors shall be commercially silent in operation and the overall A-weighted
sound pressure level shall not exceed 83 dBA at 1 metre. In addition, the motors
shall run free from vibration and their rotors shall be perfectly balanced both
statically and dynamically in an approved manner. The motor bearing vibration shall
not exceed 20 micron peak to peak when measured in the direction of the three
mutually perpendicular axis at the bearings and mounting points of the motor.
Motors shall he balanced with the full key in the keyways.
14.3.2 ENCLOSURES AND METHODS OF COOLING
The enclosures of submersible pump motors shall afford a mechanical protection
not less than IP 68.
Enclosures for other motors shall afford a mechanical protection not less than IP 54
fur those installed indoor and IP 55 for those installed outdoor and in chemical or
chlorine plant areas. The method of cooling for these motors shall be to
classification IC 41 (totally enclosed fan ventilated, plain or ribbed frame).
The flow of cooling air shall be in the direction of the driven equipment.
The maximum temperature of the motor casing, normally accessible by hand shall
not be more than 80C at an ambient temperature of 40C.

S14-34

Thermoplastic fans and fan covers shall not be employed. All fans and fan covers
shall be made of metal and treated with a corrosion resistant coating.
Totally enclosed motors shall be provided with suitable means of breathing and
drainage to prevent accumulation of condensation.
All motors shall be given corrosion resistant paint finishes and shall have corrosion
resistant parts.
All motor frames and bearing end shields shall be constructed of ferrous metals.
Motor frames made of aluminium alloy will not be accepted. Frame sizes shall be in
accordance with IEC 72 and IEC 72A.
14.3.3 WINDINGS
Windings shall be made of copper and impregnated to render them non-hygroscopic
and oil resistant and shall be braced to prevent any movement of the coils during all
conditions of service.
Motors will be operating in an ambient temperature not exceeding 40C. Motor
insulation shall be to BS 2757 Class F, with the temperature rise (by resistance
method) limited to 80C.
14.3.4 BEARINGS
Bearings shall be plain or rolling type as appropriate. Vertical shafts shall have
approved guide and thrust bearings incorporated in the motor body to carry the
weight of the motor.
Bearings shall have a C3 internal radial clearance. The hearine temperature rise.
measured near the outer ring of the hearing shall never exceed 80C.
Bearings shall be designed to exclude the ingress of dust and water and sealed to
prevent leakage of lubricant along the shaft.
Motors up to 7.5 kW and submersible motors of all ratings shall have sealed hearing
housing without lubrication nipples. The grease which shall be supplied by the
manufacturers shall be sufficient for at least 30,000 hours of continuous operation.
Each motor above 7.5 kW shall have readily accessible lubricating valves which
shall enable the correct amount of lubrication (without over lubricating) when
regreasing whilst the motor is running. The interval between lubrication and the
requisite quantity and type of grease shall be given on the lubrication plate which
shall be mounted adjacent to the motor name plate.
Excess and old grease shall be forced out through an opening in the outer bearing
case. Any surplus grease shall be ejected out of the motor casing to a separate
container. Spent grease retaining systems will not be accepted. The lubrication
nipple shall be of the conical type. Where necessary for accessibility, nipples shall
be remotely mounted at a point as close to lubrication point as practical and
connected thereto by means of double-walled copper brazed steel tubing.
For submersible pump motors exceeding 37 kW rating, bearing temperature
monitoring system employing built in RTDs shall be provided. RTD sensors shall be
suitable for connection of 4 wire instrument cable. Dial type analogue indicators with
trip and alarm contacts shall be provided for each bearing on the respective starter
panel.

S14-35

14.3.5 WINDING TEMPERATURE DETECTORS


Each 415 volt motor rated above 75 kW shall be fitted with three PTC type
thermistors (one number per phase) and all the leads of these three thermistors
shall be terminated inside a separate terminal box with IP 55 degree of protection,
where the thermistors shall be connected in series. For 415 volt motors rated 100kW
and above, six PTC type thermistors (2 numbers per phase) shall be provided.
Individual thermistor resistance shall be approximately 1000 ohms at the tripping
temperature appropriate to the insulation class of the motor. The control unit of the
thermistors complete with alarm and trip contacts shall be mounted in the respective
starter panel.
Motors with thermistors shall be fitted with a non-corrodible metal thermistor data
plate which shall include the following information:
i)

Thermistor manufacturer

ii)

Type number

iii)

Tripping temperature (C)

iv)

Resistance of each thermistor at the tripping temperature

v)

Number of thermistors embedded per winding

In addition to the above a stainless steel warning plate with the inscription
WARNING! THERMISTORS INSTALLED. DO NOT MEGGER shall be installed in
a prominent position on the thermistor terminal box.
14.3.6 ANTI-CONDENSATION HEATERS
Anti-condensation space heaters shall be provided on all motors above 45 kW
unless otherwise specified. The heaters shall be suitable for use on a single phase
a.c. supply and wired to a separate terminal box. Each heater shall be provided with
a switch in the respective starter and automatic control to disconnect it when its
motor is in operation. Each heater shall be sufficiently rated to maintain the
temperature above dew point when the motor is stationary.
14.3.7 TERMINAL AND CABLE TERMINATION BOXES
Separate individual cable terminal boxes with IP 55 degree of protection shall be
provided for stator, heater and thermistor cables.
Terminal boxes shall be positioned to accept adequately supported cables which
rise vertically from below, or alternatively angled in such a way as to accept cables
from a cable tray without stress being introduced to the cable. The required position
of the cable boxes shall be approved before manufacture.
Each terminal box of stator shall be fitted with an approved phase segregated cable
termination and sealing/spreading box, cable glands and all fittings necessary to
terminate the cables and cores. Phase segregation shall he provided by earthed
metallic barriers forming completely distinct individual phase compartments, so as to
restrict any electrical break down to an earth fault.
Terminal and cable termination boxes shall provide sufficient space for segregating
the cores and maintaining the minimum insulation clearances and creepage
distances applicable.
Cable terminal and sealing/spreading boxes shall be suitable for a maximum fault
level of 31 MVA on 415 volt system.

S14-36

Cable sealing box to accommodate XLPE insulated cables shall be suitable for
housing heat shrinkable termination kits and shall be supplied with compression
glands. Gland plates and glands to be used for single core cables shall be made of
non-magnetic material.
Cable sealing box to accommodate PVCSWAPVC cable and mounted indoors shall
be air insulated, totally enclosed and sealed to exclude moisture and dust.
Approved indoor/outdoor type glands shall be provided in accordance with relevant
Section of the Specification for termination of PVCSWAPVC cables.
Internal surfaces of terminal boxes shall be painted white to aid detection of dust
and other foreign matter.
Stud terminals mounted on terminal boards shall be provided in terminal boxes.
Loose or flying leads shall not be used. An earthing terminal shall also be provided
in each terminal box.
14.3.8 NAME PLATES AND INSTRUCTION PLATES
Stainless steel name plates and instructions shall be provided.
Information provided on the rating plate shall be in accordance with IEC 34-I. The
values provided shall as far as possible be actually measured and shall be based on
the specified operating conditions The rating plates shall include, but not limited to
the data stated below:
-

Manufacturers name, serial number and year of manufacture

Purchase order number

degree of protection of motor and terminal boxes.

winding connection

rated output and voltage

rated current

rated frequency

number of phases

rated speed

class of insulation

temperature rise

power factor at full load

efficiency at full load

locked rotor current at rated voltage and frequency

locked rotor torque at rated voltage and frequency.

For motors with rated output exceeding 7.5 kW, the following additional information
shall be provided on a separate rating plate.
-

bearing size

bearing type

S14-37

clearance

type of lubricant

lubrication intervals, where applicable

minimum and maximum allowable quantity of lubricant for the DE and NDE
bearings

14.3.9 POWER FACTORS OF MOTOR


All motors larger than 2.2 kW shall be provided with power factor correction
capacitors in respective starter boards to correct the power factor of the motors to
not less than 0.93 lagging under all operating load conditions.
14.3.10

ELECTRIC ACTUATORS

Electrically operated actuators for valves shall be sized to guarantee closure at the
maximum possible differential pressure across the door. The safety margin of motor
power available for unseating the door shall be at least 50 percent in excess of
maximum closing torque at the nominal supply voltage. The closing and opening
shall take approximately 2 minutes for each operation unless otherwise specified. In
addition, for valve sizes 600 mm and above, the electric actuator shall include a
pulsing timer assembly. The pulsing timer assembly shall provide automatic inching
operation of the valve over a pre-selected portion of the valve travel to effectively
achieve 2-speed valve movement. The point at which change of speed shall occur
shall be selected by setting of a limit switch in each direction. The pulse timer shall
incorporate an adjustable approximate starting period of 0-15 seconds and an
adjustable approximate Stopping period of 0-120 seconds per pulse. The available
pulses shall not be less than 20.
The electric motors shall be Class F insulated and tropicalised and conform with the
specification with a time rating of 15 minutes or twice the valve stroking time
whichever is longer. Duty rating shall be S2 or S4.
Motor burn-out protection shall be provided by direct sensing of motor temperature
by a thermostat embedded in the motor winding. A changeover volt-free contact for
remote indication of motor tripped shall be provided.
A space heater shall be provided in the electric actuator. The heater shall be suitable
for use on a single phase AC supply and wired to the terminals compartment. The
heater shall be sufficiently rated to maintain the temperature above dew point when
the actuator motor is stationary.
The actuator gearbox shall be of totally enclosed oil bath lubricated type, suitable for
operation at any angle and provided with the appropriate filling and drain plugs. The
drive shall incorporate a lost motion hammerblow feature. The output shaft shall be
hollow to accept a rising stem. Thrust bearings of the ball or roller type shall be
provided in such a way that the gear case can be opened for inspection or
disassemble without releasing the stem thrust or taking the valve out of service.
A handwheel shall be provided for emergency operation and shall be arranged such
that when engaged, the motor shall be automatically disconnected mechanically and
electrically and the drive being restored to power only after disengaging the
handwheel and by starting the motor. The handwheel and any gearing shall be such
as to permit emergency manual operation in a fedsoflante nine and in any case shall
not exceed one hour. Clock wise operation of the handwheel shall give closing
movement of the valve unless otherwise stated.

S14-38

The actuator shall be furnished with a drive bushing easily detachable for machining
to suit the spindle or gearbox input shaft. The drive bushing shall preferably be
positioned to enable standard length stems to be used. The respective valve
manufacturer shall furnish stem details so that the actuator manufacturer can
machine the drive bushings to suit the valve extended spindles. Unless otherwise
specified, extended spindles, wherever required, shall be of hot dipped galvanised
mild steel construction coated with coal tar epoxy paint. Where the length of the
extended spindle exceeds 1 .5 m length, universal couplings shall be incorporated.
Electric actuators shall be provided with open and close torque and position limit
switches with separate changeover volt-free contacts at each end of travel for
remote indication and inter-locking. Means shall be provided to prevent the open
torque switch tripping while the initial unseating hammerblow effect is applied.
Two extra sets of limit switches shall he provided, as required, with at least three
switches per set, each set independently adjustable to any valve opening or closing
position.
A mechanical dial indicator (indicating 0-100 percent marking) shall be provided to
show continuous valve movement. In addition, a 4-20 mA analogue signal output
shall be provided for continuous remote position transmission to the associated
starter board supervisory panel or instrument panel as appropriate.
The reversing contactor starter and local controls shall be integral with the actuator,
suitably housed to prevent breathing and condensation build-up.
Static or solid state control components will not be accepted.
The starter shall be suitable for 60 starts per hour, and shall comprise mechanically
and electrically interlocked reversing contactors of appropriate rating to the motor
size with coils fed from a 110 volt control transformer of 40 VA minimum rating. The
common connection of the contactor coil at the transformer shall be earthed so that
the contactors drop out in the event of leakage to earth. The primary winding shall
be separated from the secondary by an earthed screen and the secondary output
shall be protected by an easily replaceable cartridge type fuse.
When the distance between the actuator and the remote control point exceeds 500
meters, the remote control voltage shall be 24V DC, derived from a rectified supply
from the remote control point. The required DC interposing relays shall be
incorporated in the actuator and shall be suitable for satisfactory operation within 80110% of the nominal DC voltage.
A phase discriminator shall be incorporated to ensure correct rotations.
Local controls shall comprise pushbutton switches to Open, Close and Stop and a
Local/Off/Remote selector switch padlockable in any one of three positions:
-

Local control only

Off-On electrical operation

Remote control plus local stop only

Padlocks shall be provided.


A monitoring relay with a normally open contact to indicate that the actuator is
available for remote operation shall be provided with the relay being energised from
the control transformer only when:
-

Local/Off/Remote selector switch is in Remote position

S14-39

3 phase power supply available

Control supply available

Phase rotation correct

Thermostat not tripped

Local stop button not locked off

Internal wiring shall be of tropical grade PVC insulated stranded cable of 5A


minimum rating for control circuits and of appropriate size for the control and 3phase power.
Each wire shall be clearly numbered and identified at each end. The terminals shall
be of the stud type. Cable entries shall be suitable for PVCSWAPVC cables.
The terminal compartment shall be separated from the inner electrical components
of the actuator by means of a watertight seal and the compartment shall be provided
with a minimum of three threaded cable entries. All wiring supplied as part of the
actuator shall be contained within the main enclosure for physical and environmental
protection. External conduit connections between components are not acceptable. A
durable terminal identification card showing plan of terminals shall be provided and
attached inside the terminal box cover indicating serial number, external voltage
values, wiring diagram number and terminal layout.
The actuator enclosure shall be weatherproof, hoseproof and water tight to IP 68 of
BS 5490 with sealing 0-rings. The terminal compartment shall be separately sealed
from the rest of the enclosure so that wiring and integral controls are not adversely
affected by water, while the cover is removed from site cabling or maintenance.
Each actuator shall be supplied complete with installation instructions and wiring
diagram and sufficient spare cover screen and seals to make good site losses.
Where power supply is not available at site, a socket and plug arrangement shall be
provided to receive power supply from a portable/mobile generator set. The sockets
shall be bulk head mounted on to the actuator and shall be provided with a hood.
The protection afforded by the socket shall be IP 67 even with the plugs
disconnected
The sockets mounted on the actuators shall be provided with male pins (8 pins rated
at 35 Amps to suit 415 V power supply). Plugs complete with hood cover to match
the sockets fitted on the actuators shall be provided. Plug/socket connectors fitted
on the end of flying leads will not be accepted.
Where the valve position is automatically adjusted, a proportional control unit shall
be provided with the electric actuator of the control valve to control the position of
the valve in proportion to a continuous current (analogue) signal. A voltage derived
from the actuator potentiometer position shall be electronically compared with a
voltage proportional to input signal and the difference between them (error) triggers
the open or close contactor via a relay to drive the actuator in the direction which
shall cancel the error.
A motion inhibitor circuit shall be incorporated which shall prevent excessively
frequent operation of the valve while maintaining continuous comparison of position
with changing input signal.
The control unit shall be housed in a deep cover attached to the actuator housing
whose enclosure shall be 0-ring sealed and watertight.

S14-40

The following setting adjustments and indicators shall be accessible and visible
through the transparent cover over the plug-in printed circuit hoard (PCB).
-

Zero and span

These controls shall enable the full travel of We valve to be matched to the required
input signal range.
Dead band (Adjustable from 1 % to 12.5%)
This control shall adjust the amount of signal change required to cause a raise or
lower output from the amplifier.
-

Motion inhibitor

This time adjuster shall enable the time interval during which operation shall be
disallowed or be varied.
-

Increase signal indicator (red)

This light shall illuminate when the valve is triggered as a result of increasing input
signal.
-

Decrease signal indicator (green)

This light shall illuminate when the valve is triggered as a result of decreasing input
signal.
The following failure conditions shall be monitored:
-

Loss of power

The valve shall stay put and a monitor relay shall provide an alarm output to the
respective panel.
-

Loss of analogue current signal

The control unit shall have a signal failure detector. This detector shall inhibit the
relay outputs in the event of loss of input signal and the valve shall stay put.
The control unit positioner accuracy shall be 1 % or better. The maximum signal
change required to cause response in the same direction (i.e. not through
deadhand) shall be 1 %.
A continuous remote position indication of the valve shall be made available at the
respective panel for onward transmission to the mimic panel. A summary alarm shall
be transmitted to the main supervisory panel for any failure condition.
A spare unit of the control unit shall be provided for every unit supplied.
8.3.11 VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES
Where process plant requires variable speed drives Operating in proportion to a
measured analogue signal, the drive shall utilise a standard squirrel cage induction
motor operating from a variable frequency static converter speed controller.
The converters shall be suitable for operation on a 415 volt 3 phase supply and shall
provide a 415 volt 3 phase variable frequency output suitable for driving standard
squirrel cage induction motors.
The converter shall be suitable for automatic control in response to a 4-20 mA input
signal and its frequency output of 0-50 Hz shall be in proportion to this signal range.

S14-41

The converter shall operate on the pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) or pulse width
modulation (PWM) principle. The current of the motor shall have a low content of
harmonics to ensure high motor efficiency. Slip compensation shall be provided so
that the speed holding accuracy shall be better than + 0.5.
Each converter shall be sized to drive all duty motors in a particular group to which it
is designated. The kVA rating of the converters shall exceed the total driven load
and shall make full allowance for the following operating conditions:
-

Operating frequency range 10-50 Hz

Allow for starting motors in cascade and assume starting current is not less
than eight times the motor full load current.

Take account of motor power factor and efficiency

Allow for high ambient temperatures

Allow for constant torque characteristics

Where the drive unit controls more than one motor, a standby drive unit shall be
provided.
The frequency converter shall incorporate: -

input and output circuit protection

fixed speed/off/variable speed switch for selection of control mode

panel mounted facility for local setting of frequency manually in the event of
a failure of the control signal

digital indication of output frequency

indication of output voltage

unit running/failed indicator

supply isolating switch

The converter unit shall include hut not limited to the following protections:
-

line-to-line and line-to-ground short circuit protection

line transient protection

3 phase short circuit at output terminals

insensitive to incoming power phase sequence

built-in thermal relay for excessive temperature and shall be reset manually

current limiting feature

Failure of the control signal, shall stop the drive. Facilities shall be provided for
indication of:
-

control signal failure alarm

variable frequency supply output failure alarm

variable frequency control unit failure alarm

A summary alarm volt-free contact shall be provided to initiate an alarm at the


appropriate supervisory panel when any one or more of these alarms are on.
S14-42

Diagnostic fault indicators shall also be provided.


The converter shall be housed in the respective MCC or control panel. Adequate
ventilation shall be ensured for continuous operations at the maximum specified
ambient temperature. Harmful deposition of dust shall be excluded by suitable
filters.
The driven motor frame size shall be selected to ensure that the motor will operate
correctly without overheating when fed from the frequency converter and operating
over the speed range of 10 to 50 Hz.
The converter shall operate with an input power factor not less than 0.95 throughout
the speed range.
Under any conditions of operation, the converter shall not emit signals that may
interfere with radio transmission or operation. The converters shall meet the
requirements of Class G of DIN 57875 regarding the emission of radio frequencies.
Radio frequencies emitted by other equipment according to Class G emission level
shall not hamper the correct operation of the converters.
The converter shall not produce harmonics and voltage distortion which may affect
the operation of other equipment connected to the MCC or control panel. Voltage
and current distortions produced by the converter at the input side shall be limited to
the values specified in the UK Engineering Recommendation G 5/3 and relevant
German Standards, which are applicable for industrial distribution systems.

S14-43

14.4

DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

14.4.1

CABLING

Cables and wires shall be supplied by an approved manufacturer and as far as


possible the same manufacturer shall be used for all cables and wires. Each drum
or coil shall be accompanied by a test certificate stating the manufacturer's name,
rating of cable, result and date of tests. Cables manufactured more than 12 months
before delivery will not be accepted.
As far as possible, cables interconnecting two switchboards/equipment shall be laid
in one continuous length without joint. Any cable damaged and requiring repair of
cable core or introduction of cable joint will result in the cable being rejected. Any
length of cable sustaining minor damage at 3 or more locations may also be
rejected.
Cabling between the various items of Plant shall be of the types as shown in the
Drawings.
a)

Delivery

All cables shall be delivered on robust cable drums with cable ends treated to form
an effective seal. When a cable is cut from a drum the cable end and the end left on
the drum shall be immediately sealed in an approved manner to prevent the ingress
of moisture.
b)

Conductors

All cables shall comprise high conductivity stranded copper conductors of the sizes
as shown in the Drawings and to BS 6360. The conductors of single core cables
shall be circular; those of multicore cables shall be generally shaped. Multicore
control cables shall have a cross section not less than 2.5 sq. mm.
c)

Insulant colours

Insulant colours shall generally be in accordance with the recommendation of the


I.E. E. Regulations.
d)

Rating

The fact that cable sizes are indicated on the Drawings shall not relieve the
Contractor of the responsibility to select adequately sized cables.
The Contractor shall ensure that each cable has sufficient rating for its duty under
both normal and possible fault conditions. Current rating and rating factor for cables
shall be in accordance with the cable manufacturers declared current ratings and
rating factors. For cables manufactured to British Standard, use can also be made of
ERA report 69-30 to establish the current rating and rating factors.
In assessing the rating and cross section required for each cable the following
factors shall be taken into account:(i)

Fault level and duration as governed by circuit protection relays and MCCBs
or MCBs.

(ii)

Ambient air temperature (40C)

(iii)

Soil temperature (25 C) and soil thermal resistivity.

(iv)

Voltage drop

S14-44

The system voltage drop shall be limited to 4% of nominal voltage under normal
operating conditions with a maximum of 2.5% allowable from source main 415 V
switchboard to sub-switchboard or MCC and 1.5% from sub-switchboard or MCC to
final sub-circuit.
The voltage drop shall be limited to 4% at motor terminals when operating at full
load and 15 % under transient (motor starting) conditions.
The voltage drop shall be limited to 2% for lighting and small power distribution
feeders. A maximum voltage drop of 2.5 % shall be allowable for lighting and small
power sub-circuits.
The voltage drop in DC cables shall be consistent with the minimum system voltage
at the DC distribution board and the minimum equipment operating voltage.
However, the voltage drop in the DC cables shall not exceed 5 % of the nominal
voltage in any case.
(v)

Loading under steady state and transient conditions.

(vi)

Over-current settings of circuit-breakers.

(vii)

Disposition of cables, whether in air or laid in the ground.

(viii)

Method of laying

(ix)

Route length.

(x)

Heating effect due to harmonic current.

e)

Types

(i)

PVCSWAPVC

Power and control cables specified as PVC insulated, galvanized steel wire
armoured cable with an overall PVC sheath are hereinafter referred to as
PVCSWAPVC and shall be manufactured and tested to BS 6346.
The cores of PVCSWAPVC cables shall be laid up to form a circular cable and,
where fillers are necessary for this purpose, they shall be of PVC. Textile or other
hygroscopic fillers are prohibited.
There shall be no adhesion between bedding or sheath and insulation. A
polyethylene terephthalate (PTP) binder tape over the laid up cores shall be
included by the manufacturer.
The armour bedding shall consist of an extruded layer of Type 6 or Type 1 PVC
compound complying with BS 6746. The radial thickness shall be in accordance with
BS 6346.
Armour shall consist of galvanized steel wires applied generally in accordance with
the requirements of BS 6346. Galvanizing shall meet the requirements of BS 1442.
The outer covering over the armour wires for all multicore control cables shall
consist of a black extruded PVC sheath which shall comply with the requirements of
BS 6746 for Type 1 compound. The thickness shall be in accordance with BS 6346.
Conductors used for AC and DC systems shall not be mixed in the same multicore
cable. Control cables shall be made up of the following standard numbers of cores:
4, 7, 12, 19, 27 and 37. All cores shall be coloured white and shall be identified by
black numbers arranged in sequence, e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc. These numerals shall
be lightly imprinted on the core insulation at intervals of not more than 75 mm

S14-45

throughout the core length. They shall be permanent in nature and not easily
removed without severe mechanical scraping. The figure '9' shall be distinguished
from the figure '6', thus 9
All PVCSWAPVC cables shall be terminated with mechanical elands which shall be
of a type as 10 provide adequate mechanical support by positively locking on the
armour and shall at the same time give a high level of earth continuity. The glands
shall be provided with earth tails for connection to earth continuity conductors and
PCP shrouds.
(II)

PVC

Power cables specified as single core PVC insulated are hereinafter referred to as
PVC cable and shall be manufactured and tested to BS 6004. Such cables shall be
terminated as specified elsewhere.
(iii)

PVCPVC

Power cables specified as single core PVC insulated and sheathed are hereinafter
referred to as PVCPVC cable and shall be manufactured and tested to BS Code
6004 or BS 6746 as appropriate. Such cables shall be terminated by mechanical
glands similar to that specified for PVCSWAPVC cables.
(iv)

XLPESWAPVC

Power cables specified as cross-linked polyethylene insulated, screened, teel wire


armoured and PVC sheathed shall hereinafter be referred to as XLPESWAPVC
cables. Such cables shall have round, stranded or shaped and compacted copper
conductors to BS 6360 and cross-linked polyethylene insulation to IEC.502. An inner
semi-conductive screen layer and an outer semi-conductive screen covering shall
both be extruded simultaneously with the insulation. A conductive tape over the
extruded outer screen covering shall form the insulation screen. The multicores
shall be assembled together with non-hygroscopic polypropylene fillers to form a
circular shape and a binder tape shall be applied helically over the laid up covers to
prevent the adhesion between insulation and bedding.
Armour bedding shall consist of type ST2 PVC compound complying with IEC 502.
Armour shall consist of galvanized steel wires. The outer sheath over the armour
wires shall be water proof type ST2 PVC or polyethylene complying with IEC 502.
As a protection against termite attack, the outer sheath shall contain termite
repellent additive. Gamma Benzene Hepachloride (BHC) at a concentration not
exceeding 0.5%. The additive used shall be subject to the approval of the relevant
local authorities and the S.O.
(v)

XLPEAWAPVC

Where single core cables are specified to be armoured, the armouring shall consist
of non-magnetic material such as aluminium wires and glanded with suitable
aluminium glands at terminations.
The requirement for insulation, conductive layer and covering, copper screening and
PVC sheath for single core cables shall be similar to that specified for multicore
cables.

S14-46

(vi)

Fire resistant cables

Cables which are to be used on fire detection circuits, shall be of fire resistant
design in accordance with IEC 331. Cables meeting this requirement, shall be of
mica glass taped ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) insulated, steel wire braided,
ultra violet stabilized CSP or EMA oversheath construction. Cables shall have
oxygen index greater than 30 and acidic emission less than 17%.
14.4.2 INSTALLATION METHODS
a)

General

Cables which are to be run on walls, ceilings or other building structures shall,
unless otherwise agreed by the S.O., be secured on cable trays or enclosed in
conduit as appropriate. The cables which are required to be protected against
mechanical damage or direct radiation of heat shall be protected by means of
galvanized steel or rigid PVC pipes.
Every cable shall be neatly run vertically or parallel to adjacent walls, beams or
other structural members.
Where the building structure incorporates purpose-built covered duct or trench
systems for cables, power cables and control cables shall be segregated and
installed on separate trays, secured to the walls and/or floor of the trenches.
However, over short distances, control cables may be run with the power cables,
rated not more than 600 volt with some spacing between the control and power
cables.
Where the structure incorporates general service ducts or trenches containing
pipework, chemical lines and other services, all cabling shall be segregated from the
other services and shall be run on the trench walls, secured to cable trays.
Crossover shall be kept to a minimum and cabling shall be taken above wet service
pipe work.
Throughout the installation, due regard shall be paid to the spacing of cables to
maintain current rating, to prevent interference between power and signal cables,
and to avoid unnecessary crossovers and deration.
The spacing of clips, saddles and cleats shall be such as to prevent the sagging of
the cables during their installed life. Fixing shall be made with raw bolts, rag bolts or
other patented fixing device of design approved by the S.O.
Cable hangers, cleats, saddles, brackets and similar supporting devices shall be of
an approved type and of adequate strength for the cables they are supporting. They
shall be treated to withstand site conditions without corroding. Self locking plastic
buckle clips and strapping shall not be used. Re-usable cable ties may however be
used. Cable ties shall be of nylon for indoor installations and stainless steel straps
covered with PVC/nylon for outdoor installations. Nylon straps shall be of ultra violet
stabilized type.
Where a number of cables are terminated in any particular item of equipment,
special care shall be taken to ensure that the cables finally approach the equipment
from a common direction and are individually terminated in an orderly and
symmetrical fashion.
Cables installed outside trenches, on the floor and walls shall be provided with
trunking covers to protect the cables against mechanical damage.
Cables installed in areas of direct sunlight shall be covered with cable tray trunking
covers.
S14-47

Wherever it is necessary to remove the PVC sheath of a cable, eg. at a joint, only
the minimum length necessary shall be removed and the exposed armour or copper
sheath shall be neatly protected by PVC tape or sleeves or other suitable means.
Where cables pass through walls below ground level, the Contractor shall ensure
that the point of entry is sealed against the ingress of moisture. Cables shall be
wrapped with "Denso-tape" or approved equal and any remaining spaces around
the cable filled with "Denso-mastic" or similar approved materials.
Cables for high level signals, low level signals, resistance thermometers and
thermocouples, shall be segregated from each other and each shall be separated
from cables for power, communications and other electrical services. Other cables
run in the vicinity of instrumentation cables shall be twisted at the rate of one twist
per 50 mm approximately and shall be separated from instrumentation cables by a
distance of not less than 1 % of the length of any parallel run, with a minimum of 600
mm and a maximum of 4000 mm.
Initiating devices for plant protection and personnel safety shall be connected by
individual cables direct to the tripping or safety device and shall not be routed via
any intermediate junction, marshalling box, cabinet, relay, etc. The outer sheaths of
such cables shall be colored orange. Other circuits may, subject to the provisions of
the above paragraph, be grouped in multipair cables. Terminals and glanding
facilities shall be provided in junction boxes, marshalling boxes, switchgear, etc. as
appropriate. Marshalling compartments in switchgear used for instrumentation
cabling shall be totally segregated from all power wiring and components and shall
give safe unimpeded access to instrumentation circuits whilst the switchgear is in
operation.
b)

Cable Tray

Cable tray shall be of the heavy duty, return flange perforated type, fabricated out of
electrogalvanised steel sheet and polyester powder coated.
The galvanized steel sheet shall be pretreated to remove oil, grease, dirt, rust. mill
scale and the metal surface passivated before polyester powder coating is applied
and cured at 200C. The polyester powder coat shall not be less than 80 micron
thick.
The thickness and support spacing of cable trays shall be as follows :-

Width

Sheet Steel

Support

Thickness

Spacing (Max.)

Up to 300 mm

1.5 mm

750 mm

above 300 mm to 600 mm

2.0 mm

800 mm

above 600 mm to 900 mm

2.5 mm

800 mm

The height of the return flange shall not be less than 50 mm and the lip length shall
not be less than 20 mm.
Loading on cable trays shall not cause at mid span a deflection greater than 4 mm.
All supports and tray work shall be suitable for withstanding a temporary weight of
125 kg. All precautions shall be taken to ensure that there are no bulges or twists in
the cable trays after installation of the cables.
S14-48

Cables shall be laid side by side. Width of trays shall be sufficient for this to be
effected.
The cable trays and accessories shall be sized to provide 25 % additional free
space available after installation of the cables. The minimum clearance behind the
tray shall be sufficient to allow for fixing of cables, which will relate to tray width, but
shall not be less than 25 mm. Where trays are tiered, clear access shall be available
to all trays, with minimum 300 mm separation between trays.
Spacer trays, bends and risers shall be of proprietary manufacture. Wherever
possible, cable trays shall be installed in full lengths without cutting. Cable tray shall
only be cut along a line of plain metal i.e. not through the perforations. Where trays
are cut and shaped on site, cut edges shall be painted with at least two coats of cold
galvanizing compound and two coats of polyester based paint. The first coat of the
protective treatment shall be applied immediately after cutting. The remaining coats
shall be applied in accordance with the paint manufacturer's instructions and the
treatment shall be completed before assembly of the cable trays. Bending links shall
be provided at each joint of steel tray which shall be secured by screws, shake proof
washers and nuts. The bending links shall make contact with the metal of the tray or
fitting. Continuity shall not depend on contact through fixing bolts or screws nor on
the removal of paint finish between section of tray.
Self tapping screws or other sharp projection shall not be used. All connections shall
be made using cadmium plated bolts, nuts and spring washers. The metal surfaces
shall be cleaned thoroughly until the metal shines.
All holes for fixing cable clips, racks, trays, cleats and appliances to the building
structure shall be made neatly with a rotary masonry drill. A single shot cartridge
tools shall not be used. Any damage caused by the Contractor to surfaces shall be
made good by the Contractor to the satisfaction of the Superintending Office (S.O.).
Arms and supporting channels for cable trays shall be hot dipped galvanized and
shall be Mill strut or approved equal. Where cable tray installation is to be fixed
under a floor slab galvanized unistrut channel supports shall be used. Fixings for
cable trays shall be disposed at regular intervals specified and not more than 200
mm from bends and intersections.
Mushroom head steel roofing bolts and nuts shall be used to fix together adjacent
sections of cable trays and/or accessories.
Cable trays, fittings and supports shall be bonded and connected to the earthing
system. Cable trays carrying the power cables shall be earthed at two points for
each tray run by means of copper cables of cross section not less than 25 sq. mm.
All power cables shall be laid in a single layer and no bunching is allowed. A
minimum spacing of one time the cable diameter shall be maintained for the power
cables. Control/signal cables may be bunched to a maximum of two layers.
c)

Conduit

All conduits shall be of Class B hot dipped galvanized and screwed steel type. Stove
enameled conduit shall not be used without the written permission of the S.O.
Conduit fittings shall be of malleable cast iron and be hot dipped galvanized. Fitting
with covers shall have a machined surface around the perimeter, mating with a
similar machined surface on the cover. The cover fixing screws shall be of brass.

S14-49

Conduit shall be run on the surface or sunk as specified and be neatly arranged,
and ways shall be provided for additional conduits at all distribution boards. The
sizes of conduit used shall be determined by the number of cables to be drawn in as
scheduled in the I.E. E. Regulations or as specified for a particular position but in no
case shall conduit smaller than 20 mm diameter be used. Sunk and concealed
conduit systems shall support fittings independently of any false ceiling. Conduit
shall be supported by hot dipped galvanized mild steel hangers fixed to walls/floors.
The conduits shall be screwed into spout outlets of conduit boxes or where fixed to
boxes drilled with properly sized clearance holes they shall be secured by means of
sockets and hexagon bushes. All threads shall be cut clean and all burrs shall be
removed with a reamer. Exposed threads and plates where galvanizing has been
damaged, shall be cleaned and painted with two coats of an approved metallic zinc
based paint. The treatment shall be applied as the work proceeds.
All bends and sets shall be formed in the conduit itself, factory made bends not
being installed without the written permission of the S.O. The radius of bends shall
not be less than that given in I.E. E. Regulations.
Standard rectangular junction or adaptor boxes shall be provided at all junctions and
at sharp changes of direction in addition to any other special positions where they
are called for by the S.O. on Site. Inspection couplers may be used in long runs to
facilitate drawing in cables, subject to the approval of the S.O.
Inspection type elbows, bends or tees shall not be used.
Particular care must be taken to ensure that no water is allowed to enter me conduit
at any time and all conduits shall be arranged with adequate ventilation and
drainage where necessary as directed by the S.O. Inaccessible junction boxes will
not be allowed.
Only continuous lengths of buried conduit shall be installed between boxes, no joint
boxes being allowed in the floor screeds. Conduits crossing expansion joints shall
be fitted with couplings of approved manufacture with an earthing clip at each side
of the coupling, connected by the correct size of tinned copper stranded wire.
The ends of conduits laid or set in formwork prior to concreting shall be temporarily
sealed off with a coupler and a solid brass plug.
Fixing to surfaces of walls shall be by means of galvanised steel stand-off saddles
or 25 mm x 3 mm aluminium strip saddles at intervals not exceeding 600 mm where
more than one conduit is run in parallel, securely fixed by brass screws and Hilti
nylon plugs. Conduits shall be supported at regular intervals not exceeding 750 mm
on horizontal runs and 900 mm on vertical runs. Where conduits are concealed or
laid in constructional floors, they shall be held in position with substantial fixings of a
make and pattern the approval of S.O. A junction or adaptor box shall be provided in
all conduit runs exceeding 10 metre in length or containing more than two right
angle bends or the equipment, to facilitate the draw-in of wires. Junction and
adaptor boxes shall be made from galvanized steel and be provided with gasketted
flat covers secured with brass screws.
Weatherproof boxes and accessories shall be used outdoors, where agreed on Site
by the S.O. or where indicated on the Drawings.
Conduit shall be installed such as to permit complete rewiring without the need to
remove false ceilings or carry out builders work.

S14-50

Cables for drawing into conduit shall be single core PVC insulated, non-sheathed,
1000 V grade and shall be supplied by an approved manufacturer. Insulation shall
be colored to indicate phase and neutral in accordance with the I.E.E. Regulations.
Care is to be taken in the number of cables in conduit and in no case shall conduits
enclose more cables than that set out in the I.E. E. Regulations. No single conduit
serving a single phase socket outlet, lighting point or switch shall contain more than
one phase. Switch wires shall be white in color.
Wiring shall be carried out on the looping-in systems and no joints other than at
looping-in points will be allowed. Cables shall be only drawn into the conduit after
the conduit installation has been completed.
All conduits before painting shall be washed with l.C .1. Lithoform or approved
material and shall then be primed with an approved chromate primer followed by
one undercoat and two coats of approved gloss finish for general areas. In chemical
building and other corrosive areas such as chlorine building, the undercoat and top
coats shall be resistant to corrosion.
Flexible conduits shall be of steel with PVC over-sheath and a separate earth wire
shall be provided for earth continuity and shall be water tight.
d)

Trunking

Trunking shall only be used with the written consent of the S.O., where large
multiple parallel conduit runs occur.
The trunking shall be manufactured from electrogalvanised steel of minimum
thickness 1.6 mm for cross section sizes up to and including 300 mm x 100 mm. For
sizes exceeding 300 mm x 100 mm, a minimum of 2.5 mm thick mild steel shall be
used and be epoxy coated. The trunking shall have two return flanges for rigidity
and removable cover. The covers shall overlap the trunking and be made of the
same gauge. Each length shall be supplied with necessary connection sleeves and
joggled sides to allow flush fining.
The number of cables installed in each trunking shall be such that space factor of 45
% is not exceeded as required in the lEE Regulations after making an allowance of
25% for installation of future cables. Under no circumstances shall circuit cables
from different distribution boards be run in the same trunking. Separate
compartment shall be allocated using sheet steel barriers welded to trunking for
circuits requiring segregation.
The Contractor shall ensure that the size of the trunking is adequate for the number
of cables passing through it, but as a minimum the size should be 50 mm x 50 mm.
Steel trunking shall be supplied in length of 2 metres or 4 metres with each length
being provided with a sleeve type coupling and external earth bonding link of
copper. The trunking shall have a smooth interior with cover plates overlapping the
sides of the trunking. In general, the trunking shall be designed for exceptional
strength and rigidity with trunking lengths fitted with butt-up joint to form the
necessary runs. All such adaptors used in the trunking installation shall he fabricated
from the same material as the trunking and fitted with sleeved type coupling at each
trunking connection point. All bends, tees and intersections shall be of the gusset
type and manufactured by the maker of the trunking and to a similar standard. The
trunking shall be fixed to the ceilings by means of a secure and permanent fastening
to be approved by the S.O.
Trunking shall be supported at intervals not exceeding 2 metre horizontally or 2.5
metre vertically.

S14-51

Where the trunking is installed in a vertical position insulated cable supports shall be
provided and packing shall be used at positions where trunking goes through floor.
Cables shall be retained in the trunking when the cover is removed, by means of
straps. Trunking covers shall be fixed with centre and sideways captive screws or
spring-on type and no self-tapping screws will be accepted.
When trunking passes through a fire wall, a floor slab, a barrier of adequate fire
rating shall be installed to prevent the possible spread of fire.
Cover plates shall be supplied in short lengths for easy removal. Every entry to
finished trunkings shall be so placed as to prevent the ingress of water. Cover plates
shall be securely fixed after wiring is completed.
Where standard lengths of steel trunking are cut, the Contractor prior to assembly
shall treat the cut edge with two coats of cold galvanizing compound followed by two
coats of polyester paint. Each trunking shall include a continuous copper tape of 25
mm x 3 mm cross section for earth continuity and shall be bonded to trunking at
every section and internal connecting sleeves shall be fitted across joints, in the
trunk.
Trunking system shall be at least 150 mm clear of plumbing and mechanical
services.
Where a conduit is tapped off from the trunking suitable brass smooth bore bushes
shall be fitted at all conduit terminations. Use of all insulated type plastic, fibre or
bakelite bushes for this purposed shall not be permitted.
e)

Joint and junction boxes

The use of through and tee joint boxes is prohibited on main and auxiliary control
cable installations.
Should the Contractor propose to use junction boxes in auxiliary control cable
circuits for the purpose of marshalling a number of cables feeding to a common item
of equipment full details shall be given to the S.O.. and the Contractor shall only
proceed after receipt of the S.Os written approval. Any such junction box shall be of
the wall mounting pattern with double terminals with cores ferruled and identified in
accordance with the system schematic and cable diagrams.
f)

Jointing and termination of PVCSWAPVC cables

Jointing of PVC insulated steel wire armoured cables shall be carried Out by
accredited and hilly experienced jointers and evidence of this shall be produced to
the satisfaction of the S.O. before jointing is started.
Compression type glands for the termination of PVCSWAPVC cables shall be
included with the terminating boxes supplied under the Contract. Each cable gland
shall be supplied with a brass gland backnut for plain hole fixing, slip-on copper
earth tag with brass bolt and nut for the connection of an earth strip and a
polychloroprene (PCP) outer gland shroud. Glands installed outdoor, in chlorine and
chemical plant areas and in installations likely to be subjected to accidental flooding,
shall be of weatherproof type, each comprising a gland body, inner sealing washer,
inner armour clamping cone, outer armour clamping cone, gland clamp, outer
sealing washer and a gland cap nut.

S14-52

The design of compression glands shall be such that the cable is not twisted when
the gland is tightened. They shall provide facilities for the efficient bonding and
termination of the armour wires and shall project at least 20 mm into the terminating
box so that any condensation collected on the inner surfaces of the boxes cannot
flow down between the cable cores. It shall be possible to erect and dismantle any
cable compression gland without the use of special tools.
At terminal sealing boxes, cable cores shall be carried through unbroken to
apparatus terminals.
All joints which are buried in the ground, shall be compound filled. The design of the
box and the composition shall provide an effective seal to prevent moisture gaining
access to the conductor ferrules and armour clamps.
Provision shall be made for earthing the wire armour to the main earth bar at the
supply by means of a metallic bond of adequate conductance, and the bonding
connection shall be as short and straight as possible.
The wire armouring shall be maintained electrically Continuous, and careful
attention shall be paid to the design of all bonding clamps in joints and terminations
to ensure that the resistance across a clamp is not higher than that of the equivalent
length of the complete wire armour of the cable.
g)

Jointing and termination of cross-linked polyethylene insulated cable.

Jointing of these cables shall be undertaken only by an accredited and fully


experienced jointer and evidence of this shall be produced to the satisfaction of the
S .0. before jointing is started.
At terminal sealing boxes, cables shall be terminated with mechanical glands which
shall be of a type that seals the cable against ingress of dirt and moisture and
provide mechanical support. Glands shall be complete with PCP shrouds. Cores
shall be carried through unbroken to apparatus terminals.
Care shall be exercised during delivery to Site and installation to avoid damage to
cable coverings and end caps shall be provided to prevent ingress of moisture.
Every cable joint shall be started and finished during the same day and whenever
cables are to be jointed during wet weather conditions in the indoor or outdoor,
suitable precautions shall be taken to preclude ingress of moisture.
Indoor type of terminations shall be suitable for use in air insulated situation and
shall comprise heat shrinkable stress control tubing, non-tracking, weather resistant
sleeve, sealing sleeve and other necessary materials as recommended by the cable
manufacturer.
In addition to materials specified for indoor type of terminations, the non-track
sealing sleeve shall be fitted with weather and tracking resistance water sheds for
terminations in outdoor situations.
Whenever a cable is cut during the course of installation, the open ends shall be
sealed immediately, unless jointing is to follow, using heat shrink end caps as
recommended by the cable manufacturer to form an air tight seal. Adequate
precaution shall be taken to ensure that the caps are kept dry.
Bends in cables shall be of a radius not less than that recommended by the cable
manufacturer and shall be not less than fifteen times the diameter of the cable for
cables of more than 50 mm in overall diameter. The cables shall be bent in the same
plane to avoid twisting of cable.

S14-53

The following minimum cable bending radii shall be maintained for low voltage
cables:
a).

Multicore

10 D

b).

Single core

20 D

where D is the overall diameter of the cable.


All cables shall be terminated in cable lugs using compression type connectors.
Soldered type connectors will not be permitted
h)

Straight joints

Straight joints in any of the cables installed under the Works will only be permitted
in very exceptional circumstances and only with the S.O. s approval in writing. The
cost of such straight joints, if permitted by the SO., shall be borne by the Contractor.
i)

Joint holes

Joint holes for straight joints shall be positioned to the approval of the
Superintending Office (S.O.) preferably on a firm dry level ground with no
obstructions. Joint holes shall normally be 3.5 metre long by 1.5 metre wide for one
joint with an additional 1 metre for every additional joint and having a finished
concrete 100 mm thick floor. Floor level shall be 300 mm below the bottom of
cables. Joint holes shall be kept free of water.
14.4.3 EMBOSSING
The outer sheath of each cable shall be embossed throughout the length of the
cable at intervals not greater than one metre with the identification of the
manufacturer and with the following information:Voltage Rating e.g. 1000V
Year of Manufacture e.g. 2000
Sequential number of length e.g. 10M
Manufacturers name
14.4.4 TEST CERTIFICATE FROM MANUFACTURERS
The Contractor shall submit to the S .0. for approval, prior to dispatch of cables from
the place of manufacture, test certificates in respect of all cables supplied under the
Works.
14.4.5 SEALING AND DRUMMING
Immediately after works test, both ends of every length of cable shall be sealed. The
ends of the factory lengths shall be marked. The cable end projecting from the drum
is to be adequately protected to prevent damage during handling and in transit, and
a thick PVC wrapper shall be placed over the cable to prevent the ingress of dirt,
dust and grit, etc.
Cable drums are to be lagged with closely fitting battens. Each drum is to bear a
distinguishing number which is to be branded with hot iron or neatly chiselled on the
outside of one flange. A painted identification number will not be accepted.

S14-54

Particulars of the cable i.e. voltage, length, conductor size, number of cores, length
number, gross and nett weights, name of manufacture, year of manufacture are to
be clearly shown on one flange of the drum. The direction of rolling is to be indicated
by an arrow.
For cables containing termite repellents, the drums shall bear a label on the outside.
warning that gloves shall be worn when handling the cable.
Cable drums are to be non-returnable and are to be thoroughly treated with cuprinol
or equal insecticide and wood preservative.
14.4.6 CABLE LENGTHS
Cable shall be supplied in maximum drum lengths. No drum shall contain more than
one length of cable.
14.4.7 CABLE PULLING
Winching of cables through ducts shall only be carried out with the approval of the
S.O. in which event a cable stocking of steel wire braid shall be employed on the
cable so that no undue stress in the sheath is likely to occur.
Care shall be taken to ensure that the pull strain is applied to the armouring and that
the armouring and serving are protected during drawing against damage.
When cables are laid in trench, they shall be unrolled from drums in such a manner
as to avoid loops and care shall be taken when laying to avoid damage to the outer
sheath by drawing over sharp obstacles such as stones. Cables shall be snaked into
the trenches to avoid tension in the cables during backfilling or subsequent
settlement. Sufficient number of rollers shall be provided so that the cable does not
touch the ground or twist during pulling.
In straight run trenches cable crossing is not allowed except where cables branch
from the main run.
14.4.8 EXCAVATION AND BACKFILLING OF TRENCHES
The exact location of each cable trench will be settled on the Site by the
Superintending Office (S.O.) when the Contractor is ready to commence work.
Route of cable trenches shall avoid above ground and below ground obstructions so
as to maintain a reasonable access to the buried cables.
Trenches shall be kept as straight as possible and shall be excavated to approved
formation and dimensions, and shall generally be 800 mm deep for cables of rated
voltage up to 1000 V. The depth of cable trenches shall be increased to 1250 mm
under road-crossing. Trenches shall have vertical sides and are to be timbered and
sheeted where necessary to prevent subsidence. The bottom of excavated trenches
shall be free of sharp stones and other obstacles.
At the end of the cable trenches or when cables leave trenches, ducts or pipes shall
slope down into the surrounding soil to avoid cable damage on the edges owing to
the settling of soil.
Where cables of different voltages are laid together, at the same depth. vertical
cable tiles shall be used to segregate the cables.
Where possible, complete length of the cables shall be laid and temporarily back
tilled within one day so as to minimise possibility of damage or theft. An experienced
and competent cable laying supervisor must be present at all time at site during
excavation. cable laying and backfilling.
S14-55

Before the cables are laid, the bottom of the trench shall be lined with sand which is
to be punned down to a thickness of 150 mm to form a bed. After the cables are laid,
the first 150 mm depth of cover backfill shall consist of sand, over which shall be
placed protective covers.
The Contractor shall give written notice of any underground services to be inspected
by the Superintending Office (S.O.)-In-Charge prior to backfill; otherwise the
Contractor would have to bear the cost for re-excavation for the purpose of
inspection.
The contract shall give written notice to the Superintending Office (S.O.) for
inspection of all underground services prior to backfilling and cover up.
After all cables and protective covers have been laid, the trenches shall be refilled in
150 mm layers, each layer being well rammed and consolidated.
The surfaces of refilled trenches shall be temporarily reinstated and maintained in a
thoroughly safe condition until complete consolidation of the soil is achieved.
The Contractor shall include for all materials and labour to reinstate the ground to
the same condition prior to excavation i.e. turfing, drains and roads, etc.
The excavation of trenches shall include, by way of amplification but not of limitation,
all timbering, pumping and bailing required and the provision of all necessary labour,
plant, tools, additional soil, fuel and motive power for such purposes and the cost of
the expendable materials shall be included.
UPVC cable ducts shall be provided and installed at road crossings. Only one cable
shall be permitted in each cable duct. The external diameter of cable duct shall be
150 mm for cables of overall diameter 65 mm or more. 100 mm diameter ducts may
be considered for smaller cables. These ducts shall be encased in a concrete jacket
of 150 mm thick. The ducts shall be laid at a minimum depth of 1000 mm. Spare
ducts shall be provided to accommodate future cables.
Cables shall normally go under all obstruction such as mains, sewers, drains,
conduits and the like which cross the trench. The trench bottom shall be ramped
firm. Where it is not practical to go underneath culverts and drains, cables shall at
the discretion of Superintending Office (S.O.) go over them. The cables shall be
adequately supported and protected at the crossing. The type of support and
protection proposed shall be subject to the approval of Superintending Office (S.O.).
If an existing cable lies along the route, the Contractor shall generally avoid
excavating the existing tiles. If it becomes inevitable to move the cable, the same
shall be done after seeking permission from Superintending Office (S.O.).
14.4.9 CABLE PROTECTIVE COVERS
Protective cable cover tiles shall be of precast concrete type of 1:2:4 mix complying
with BS 2484 and engraved Electrical LT or according to the service. They are to
be laid horizontally, interlocking successively one with the other both vertically and
laterally. Special covers shall be provided, if required. for short radius bends.
The protective covers shall be of the following dimensions, unless otherwise
approved:
1000 mm long x 300 mm wide x 50 mm thick - for one circuit of power cable.
1000 mm long x 150 mm wide x 50 mm thick - for control and instrumentation
cables

S14-56

The protective covers be shall be of such width as to extend beyond the outer
cables in the cable trench, on either side by at least 50 mm. Care shall be taken to
avoid damage to cable covers during delivery and placing. Covers damaged in any
way shall be removed and replaced with undamaged covers. The supply and laying
of cable protective covers shall be included in rate for cable laying.
14.4.10

TEST DURING LAYING

Where required by this Specification and as required from time to time by the S.O.,
the Contractor shall subject completed portions of the cable installation to voltage
tests to prove the soundness of the conductor insulation and the soundness of the
protective servings. The insulation of each power cable shall be checked
immediately prior to laying in soil, prior to jointing and prior to first time energisation
in the presence of the S.O. All these insulation values shall be recorded and
submitted to the S.O.
14.4.11

CABLE MARKERS

Cone shaped concrete cable markers of 150 mm top diameter, 230 nun base
diameter and 380 nun high and of 1:2:4 concrete mixture shall be provided and
installed 150 mm above the finished ground level to identify cable routes and cable
joints. Markers shall be inscribed with bold indented lettering indicating the type of
service, voltage rating of cable or cable joint if any, as appropriate -and installed at
every 30 m along the route and also at any changes in direction.
14.4.12

ERECTION OF CABLES

Rates for erection of cables shall include the to following: (a)

All measuring, marking off and cutting to length.

(b)

Temporary sealing of cable ends when necessary and testing of cut ends
prior to connection.

(c)

Supply, delivery and erection of all racks, clamps, saddles, trays, supports,
bushes and other items required for erection and fixing of cables, including
excavation, cable protective covers, backfilling, reinstatement and cable
markers wherever necessary.

(d)

Design, provision, erection and painting of all additional supporting


steelwork.

(e)

Bonding in the case of single core cables including supply of necessary


materials.

(f)

Forming of necessary bends, surface fixing at intervals as specified herein.

(g)

Sealing of cables in pipes or ducts using Densomastic compound or equal.


Cables shall preferably be wrapped with Denso-Cord or similar material and
remaining space around the cables filled with Densomastic.

(h)

Tests at site on completion including continuity phasing out and insulation


resistance between conductors, and between conductors and sheath
employing a 5000 volt, 1000 volt or 500 volt Megger tester as appropriate or
other approved type.

S14-57

14.4.13

FIXINGS

The necessary fixings for all cables, cable trays, cable trunking, etc. shall be
supplied under the Contract as follows:
i)

In woodwork by appropriate size of nylon screw.

ii)

In brickwork or concrete by appropriate approved size non-shrinkable rawl


plug or similar device and sheradised round head Wood screw.

iii)

On steelwork by an approved design of galvanized girder clip.

No drilling of structural steelwork will be permitted except as approved by the S.0.


14.4.14

CABLE AND CORE IDENTIFICATION

Every cable shall be permanently identified at each end by its cable number as
shown on the cable schedule. Cable markers shall comprise an approved system of
engraved plastic or stamped metal marker plates, secured to the cables by self
locking stainless steel buckle clips or similar fixings.
Cable marker plates shall be installed at exit and entry points of buried ducts, exits
from buildings and in such other positions as are necessary to identify and trace the
route of any cable.
Cable shall be identified with phase colours for three and four wire systems and red
and black for single phase. On rotating plant, where to achieve the required direction
of rotation it is not possible to connect the phase cores to the appropriately identified
terminals, special core ferrules shall be fitted to identify each core with the terminal
to which it is finally connected.
Control cables shall have individual cores identified by means of suitable permanent
ferrules bearing the same numbers at both ends. Core identification shall occur at
every point of termination using an approved system of ferrule markers such as
Critchley Bros. Ltd. Z-type, or similar. Numbering shall read from the terminal
outwards on all cores. At those points of interconnection between wiring where a
change of number cannot be avoided, double ferrules shall be provided on each
wire. The change of numbering shall be shown on wiring diagrams of the equipment
at which the change is made.
14.4.15ARRANGEMENTOF SINGLE CORE CABLES IN THREE PHASE SYSTEM
Three phase cable systems comprising two or more single core cables per phase
shall be arranged in three phase, that is red, yellow and blue, groups. This is to
equalize, as far as practicable, mutual inductance. The three phase groups may be
in trefoil or flat formation as dictated by the cable system design. Cables shall not be
arranged in groups comprising the same phase. Spacing between single-core
cables shall not be less than 1 cable diameter. The need to maintain correct
configuration and spacing shall be enforced throughout the entire length of the
cables.
14.4.16

CABLE SPACING

Unless otherwise specified, the minimum space between cables shall be as follows:High voltage

50 mm

Low voltage

Touching
unless
current
rating
considerations dictate otherwise.

High and low voltage

300 mm

S14-58

High voltage and control

300 mm

Low voltage and control

150 mm

High voltage and instrumentation

300 mm

150 mm

nil

Or telephone
Low voltage and instrumentation
or telephone
Control

Where cables are installed in close proximity to or cross those of authorities such as
telecommunication, electricity supply and railway, spacing shall comply with the
regulations of those authorities.
14.4.17

CABLE GLANDS

Cable glands shall comply with BS 6121 and unless otherwise specified, shall be
manufactured from brass. Glands for use with aluminium armoured cables shall
have zinc or nickel plated armour clamp and spigot.
Glands for single core armoured cables and armoured instrumentation cables shall
be insulated from earthed metalwork with facilities for shorting.
Glands for armoured cables shall be fitted with earth tags.
Cable glands for use outdoors shall have cable inner and outer sheath seals.
Glands for indoor use shall have a cable outer sheath seal.
All cable glands shall be fitted with PVC shrouds.
14.4.18

SIGNAL CABLES

Signal cables for electronic equipment (for systems operating on milliamperes or


voltage below 50 volt) e.g. pressure transmitter, PLC etc. shall be of twisted pairs
with individual and overall screen , galvanized wire armour and overall PVC sheath.
The conductor size shall not be less than 7/0.5 mm.
Signal cable shall be segregated from all power and control cables as described in
the equipment manufacturers installation manual or where the installation
instruction is not specified the signal cables shall be run in their own tray/trunking
separate from the power or control cable by at least 300mm.
14.4.19

RECORD DRAWINGS

Record drawings for cabling shall include cable route drawings, block diagrams and
cable schedules. Cable schedule shall include cable type, conductor size, number of
cores and voltage grade. Within buildings, record cable route drawings shall show to
scale the location of all items of electrical plant, the route and method of installation
of all cables e.g. on tray, in trench, on hangers, in ducts. conduit etc. External cable
route drawings shall show:
(i)

The route of the buried cable.

(ii)

The depth of laying including any deviations to avoid local obstructions


encountered during installation.

(iii)

Position of marker posts.

S14-59

(iv)

Position of joints, test terminal points, drawpits etc. located from marker
posts or other agreed key points.

(v)

Distances of cable runs from pipe runs or other buried services.

(vi)

Position of earth electrodes, earth rods disconnecting chamber and


interconnecting earth tapes.

14.4.20

CABLE SCHEDULES

The Contractor shall submit as part of the design a full cable schedule for all cables
including:
-

Cable tag number

Cable type/construction

Cross-section of conductor(s)

Start and finish point of cable

Number of cores (control cables only)

Voltage drop/amp/metre

Voltage drop

Current rating of cable

Rated voltage

Loading in kW

Route length

Load current

Circuit breakers/fuse rating

Derating factors for temperature, grouping and overall derating factor

Derated current

Installation method (in trench/duct/cable tray/buried underground)

S14-60

14.5

EARTHING SYSTEM

14.5.1 GENERAL
Earthing systems shall comply with the requirements of BS 7430 - Earthing, LEE
Wiring Regulations, SESCO and JBE as required
Earthing systems shall comprise earth bars, circuit protective conductors,
equipotential bonding conductors, main earthing copper tape networks and
electrodes shall be supplied and installed. The work shall include for measuring,
marking off, cutting, fitting and erecting, the supply of hardwares such as clamps,
rag bolts complete with all fixing screws and rivets for fixing and jointing the copper
tape including the necessary lugs, consumables and the use of jointers tools. All the
materials shall be of Furse manufacture or approved equivalent.
The design of earthing systems shall satisfy the following requirements:
(i)

It shall have adequate thermal capacity to withstand the full system fault
current for the duration for which the protective systems are designed to
clear the fault.

(ii)

The earth connections for all sections of each installation shall be continuous
throughout.

(iii)

The effective electrical earth loop impedance shall not be greater than one
(1) ohm.

14.5.2 SYSTEM EARTHING


Each earthing system shall comprise the following :I)

Main earth bars for each voltage system.

ii)

Separate tinned copper earth tapes connecting the frame at two extreme
ends of the equipment back to the respective voltage main earth bar.

iii)

Tinned copper earth tapes in the form of a ring installed along the cable
trench or wall.

iv)

Individual XLPEAWAPVC cables for transformer and generator neutral


earthing.

v)

Earth electrodes system installed in a ring circuit for each voltage system.
The earth resistance value shall be less than 1 ohm.

vi)

Interconnections with the other earthing systems.

Separate earthing system shall be provided for computer systems and


instrumentation system. The same arrangement for common earthing shall be
provided for the instrument and computer earths. Each individual instrument
earthing system shall achieve its required earth resistance value before being
interconnected with other earthing systems.
14.5.3 EQUIPMENT EARTHING
All non-current carrying metal framework associated with the electrical equipment,
each item of electrical plant, casings and cable sheaths, etc shall be earthed by
means of 25 mm x 3 mm tinned copper tape or copper conductors to the earthing
network comprising of a ring to be run around the electrical perimeter of each
location. The series earthing of one piece of equipment to another utilizing the
equipment casing will not be permitted.

S14-61

Circuit and main earthing and equipotent bonding conductors shall be high
conductivity copper tape or 1000 V grade PVC insulated multi-stranded cable. PVC
cable insulation shall be striped green/yellow. Cable lengths shall be continuous and
intermediate jointing is not permitted.
Non-electrical metallic equipment such as tanks, vessels, etc shall be bonded by
two independent earthing cables. The cross sectional area of the bonding cables for
non-electrical equipment exposed to lightning (e.g. tanks) shall not be less than 70
sq.mm and the bonding cables for other non-electrical plant shall not be less than 25
sq.mm. All connections shall be made using compression type cable lugs, taped on
completion to completely seal the lug and any bare copper from the atmosphere.
The earth network conductor comprising tinned copper tapes and/or cables shall be
securely supported and clamped in a neatly spaced manner on building structures,
cable trench walls all on cable trays. and neatly run vertically, horizontally, parallel to
adjacent walls, ceilings, beams, etc. appropriate. The earthing installation shall be
protected from any mechanical damage or corrosion.
14.5.4 MAIN EARTH BARS AND EARTH CONTINUITY CONDUCTORS
A main earth bar (complete with test links) shall be installed in a convenient location
preferably in cable trenches 600 mm above the finished floor level. The main earth
bar shall comprise a high conductivity copper bar supported on porcelain barrel type
insulators and wall mounted. The earth bar shall be of sufficient length to
accommodate bolted copper tape/cable connections to:
-

the earthing conductors between the earth bar and the earth electrodes

circuit protective conductors between the earth bar and exposed conductive
parts

main equipotential bonding conductors between exposed and extraneous


conductive parts

system neutral earthing conductors

Earth studs shall have a minimum size of M8.


The size of the main earth bars shall have a cross-sectional area not less than 300
sq.mm for the 415 volt system.
The main earth conductor shall also be provided with adequate number of spare
terminals including cable lugs, bolts, etc.
The sizes of earth continuity conductors shall be as follows :
For cable sizes above 70 sq.mm

25 mm x 6 mm tinned copper tape

25 mm x 3 mm tinned copper tape

For cable sizes 35 sq.mm and upto


70sq.mm

For cable sizes less than 35 sq.mm :

13 mm x 1.6mm tinned copper tape

Earthing tape connections shall be run in approved positions and fixed in an


approved manner generally in square and symmetrical lines using gun-metal
saddles of appropriate size for securing tapes at intervals not exceeding 900 mm.
The copper tapes shall be supplied in long unbroken lengths to avoid unnecessary
jointing.

S14-62

Particular care shall be taken on cable termination boxes to ensure that the cable
sheath and armour are adequately bonded to the frame of the item of plant to which
the cable is connected. The armour of the cable shall not be used as the sole earth
return path conductor. Cable armouring shall be bonded to earth at both ends.
For single point bonded installations, the bond shall be at the field and of the circuit,
i.e. the generator, motor or transformer terminations. Insulated cable glands shall be
provided at the switchboard termination. The standing voltages on the armouring at
the insulated glands shall not exceed. -

60 V under conditions of rated full load current.

430 V under conditions of maximum short circuit current.

Where under special circumstances rigid or flexible conduit is incorporated into the
Works, an internal earth conductor shall be run which shall be securely bonded to
the terminating or intermediate apparatus by means of a special earth terminal.
14.5.5 JOINTS
Bar to bar tee joints and tape to tape joints (for underground connections) shall be of
Furseweld or Cadweld method to the approval of S.O. All earthing tape
connections to electrical apparatus shall be made by using a bolted connection in a
visible and accessible position. Before the connection is made, the tape surfaces
shall be tinned.
14.5.6 EARTHINGS POINTS
Subject to determination by tests at site, earth electrodes shall be provided
comprising a system of vertical earthing rods interconnected with copper tape. The
electrodes shall be physically arranged and spaced to be electrically independent
and leads from each shall be interconnected to the next to form a network. The
electrodes shall be grouped together providing an effective earth and provide an
earth loop impedance value not greater than one (1) ohm.
The earth electrode system installed shall be in the form of a ring path, such that if
one earthing lead be inadvertently cut, there shall be at least another alternative
path available so that the electrical installation shall not be left without an earthing
system. The two earthing leads from the earth electrode ring system shall be
brought back to testing links which serve as their main connection to the main earth
bar in the substations, control rooms, MCC rooms, etc.
14.5.7 ELECTRODES
Each earth point shall comprise an extensible type earth electrode of diameter not
less than 16 mm, matte of hard drawn steel cored copper rods with internal screw
and socket joint, hardened steel tip driving heads and connector clamps. The rods
shall have an electrolytically bonded layer of copper of not less than 0.38 mm
thickness. The Contractor shall determine the length and number of electrodes
required for each earthing, after the resistivity of the soil at the particular location
has been measured at site and witnessed by S. 0. The electrodes shall be
interconnected by means 25 mm x 3 mm tinned copper tape laid at a depth of 750
mm below ground level.
Earth rods shall be driven by a earth rod hammer which is capable of delivering a
high rate of light blows to the driving head. The earth rod hammer shall be of Furse
make, catalogue type HMOO5 or similar. A hammer rig for mounting the earth rod
hammer shall also be provided. The hammer rig shall be similar to Furse make,
catalogue type HMl05 or similar.

S14-63

The minimum spacing between two adjacent electrodes shall be twice the length of
the longer electrode.
Where ground conditions make deep driving of a single earth electrode impossible
to achieve the desired earth resistance, a matrix arrangement of electrodes joined to
one another by 25 mm x 3 mm tinned copper tape buried at a depth of 600 mm shall
be used to form an earth mat in order to achieve the desired earth resistance value.
The Contract Rates shall be deemed to include for all the necessary electrodes,
tapes, interconnections, etc. required to achieve the earth resistance value.
All joints shall be protected against corrosion and the ingress of moisture by the
application of two coats of an approved anti-corrosion conductive paint.
14.5.8

EARTH CLAMPS AND INSPECTION CHAMBERS

At each earthing point an approved non-ferrous clamp shall be provided for the
connection of the tinned copper tapes to electrodes. These connections shall be
housed in individual electrode inspection chambers at every earthing point with a
cover set flush to ground level. The inspection chamber shall be of Furse make
type PT 205 or approved equivalent.
14.5.9

MARKER POSTS

Marker posts shall be provided to mark the position of the electrodes adjacent to the
earth chambers. The marker posts shall be similar to those provided for cable
routes.
14.5.10

EXCAVATION OF TRENCHES

In general the requirements and specification for trenching and associated works
shall be similar to the requirements in Section 3.4 of the Specification.
All excavation of trenches for the installation of the copper tapes, earth electrodes
and the inspection chamber shall be carried out by the Erection Contractor under a
separate Contract to the requirement of the S.O. The Contractor shall be
responsible for the backfilling and reinstatement of the trenches, setting and
alignment of the inspection chambers to the satisfaction of the S.O.
14.5.11

TESTING OF ELECTRODES

Testing of all earth electrodes shall be carried out to the satisfaction of the S.O. The
test instruments required for the tests shall he provided by the Contractor.
After the earthing installation has been completed, the Contractor shall demonstrate
to the S.O. that the resistance of the electrodes to earth and the continuity of the
earth network are within the limits specified. Any additional earth electrodes, if
required shall be provided by the Contractor. Earth tests shall also include
measurement of the resistance value of each individual earth point.
Earth resistance testing shall also be carried once in the driest period or any time
which is deemed suitable by the SO. during the Defects Liability Period. Should the
earth resistance value be less than the specified value, the Contractor shall install
additional earthing points in order to achieve the specified value. The Contract
Rates shall be deemed to have taken into account the additional earthing points
required arid there shall be no claims for cost in this respect.

S14-64

14.6

LIGHTING AND SMALL POWER

14.6.1 INTERNAL LIGHT FITTINGS


(a)

General

The light fittings, together with lamps, lamp holders, control gears, auxiliary and
other necessary equipment shall conform to the relevant parts of BS 4533 and other
relevant British Standard Specifications in all respect with regard to design,
construction, performance and testing unless otherwise specified herein.
All light fittings shall be fully assembled complete with internal heat resistant flexible
wirings and terminated with 2 Amps fused terminal blocks in an approved manner.
The interior of the light fittings shall be arranged such that control gears and
auxiliary wirings are separated from the lamp compartment by means of removable
covers which prevent inadvertent contact during re-lamping operations.
All components of the light fittings including cable entries, diffusers, and connection
shall be sealed with neoprene or similar gaskets of approved make to prevent the
ingress of moisture, water, vermin and insects.
All light fittings shall be adequately earthed. The earthing shall he extended to the
necessary control gears where applicable. At every lighting point an earthing
terminal shall be provided for connection to the earth continuity conductor of the
final sub-circuit.
All light fittings shall be designed to promote cooling, ensuring that in service,
temperatures in excess of the thermal ratings of any of the components are not
exceeded.
The Contractor shall install and connect the light fittings in the locations as shown in
the Drawings. All trimming, supports, suspension, etc. necessary for recessed,
surface and suspended mounting of the light fittings shall be provided by the
Contractor.
The final positions of lighting fittings shall only be decided after the consideration is
given to all the site conditions including presence of any structural, fire fighting, airconditioning and ventilation and other services installation(e.g. air-conditioning and
ventilation ducts grills, sprinkler heads).
It is the responsibility of the Contractor to submit to the S.O. for approval of the
proposed location of fittings and mounting details prior to the installation.
Before the order of the lighting fittings. the Contractor shall submit a sample of each
type of lighting fitting to the S.O.
All light fittings shall be provided with standard means of achieving satisfactory
fixings.
In the case of highbay pendant type of light fittings, the light fittings shall be provided
with welded, twisted link pattern type of chains. In the case of ceiling suspended
type of fluorescent light fittings, suspension rods in the form of suitably sized hot
dipped galvanized iron conduits shall be provided. For all corrosion resistant
fluorescent light fittings, the suspension rods shall be of stainless steel. All metallic
suspensions shall be effectively earthed.

S14-65

Attachment devices, including brackets, plaster rings, saddle hanger and tie bars
provided shall be made of formed, rolled, or cats metal shapes with the requisite
rigidity and strength to maintain continuous alignment of installed fixtures. Fixtures
shall be attached to ceiling support members and shall not depend upon lathing,
plaster or ceiling tile for alignment or support.
All recessed light fittings shall be connected to the fixed wiring system by a length of
flexible steel conduit. The cables within the conduit shall be looped into and
terminated only in the light fining.
Stems shall be vertically placed. At least two supports for individually mounted
fluorescent fixtures shall be provided. Where fixtures are ganged, provide supports
at 200mm minimum intervals, unless otherwise indicated.
Fastening devices of a positive locking type provided shall not require special tools
to apply or remove them. Tie wires shall not be used in place of fastening devices.
Visible hanging devices that are finished to match the fixture finish shall be provided
unless indicated otherwise.
Surface mounted light fittings shall be supplied complete with clamping grommets,
where required, to facilitate connection from an adjacent junction box.
Equipment such as junction and pull boxes, fixture housing, ballasts, switches and
controls and other apparatus that requires occasional access for operation and
maintenance shall be installed such as they can be easily accessible and
appropriate for mounting and ceiling conditions.
Where necessary to meet fire resistance requirements of the local fire authority,
enclosure housings shall be provided for fixtures that are constructed to provide
required fire resistance rating.
Contractor shall provide manpower and tools for final focusing and adjustment,
under the S.O. s supervision, of all adjustable fixtures with variable socket positions)
and whenever necessary, after regular working hours, at no additional cost to the
Employer.
Immediately prior to occupancy, the Contactor shall clean reflector cones, reflectors,
aperture plates, lenses, louvres, lamps and decorative elements. Destaticize lenses
after cleaning, installing them to leave no finger or dirt marks. At the time of final
inspection, fixture shall be clean and free from marks, dust, spotting or other
defects. Prior to final inspection any broken or defective parts shall be replaced. All
defects revealed by final inspection shall be replaced or make good.
(b)

Fluorescent light fittings

(i)

Housing

Fluorescent light fittings shall comply with BS 4533. The housing of the light fittings
shall be manufactured by an approved light fitting manufacturer as given in
Appendix 8.6.
The housing shall be of sound and rigid construction such that it shall withstand
deformation or warping under normal operating conditions. The housing shall be
made from the best quality mild steel sheet of thickness not less than 22 gauge.

S14-66

The housing shall be manufactured to metric dimensions, and in the case of


recessed units, to close modular tolerances to facilitate erection and form integrity
with the ceiling construction which might be an imperial or metric module. It shall be
adequate in dimensions to accommodate the equipment being contained within the
units in a manner such as to promote cooling and to facilitate erection.
All metal work shall be rust inhibited with phosphoric acid or similar solution before
thoroughly rinse with clean water. Electrostatic polyester powder coating shall then
be applied to a minimum thickness of 60 microns.
All internal light reflecting surfaces shall be gloss white unless specified otherwise.
All external surfaces shall be finished anodized, plated or enamel to colours
selected by the SO.
The interior of the light fittings shall be arranged such that control gears and
auxiliary wirings are separated from the lamp compartment by means of removable
covers which prevent inadvertent contact during re-lamping operations.
(ii)

Diffusers

Plastic diffusers shall be of acrylic material recommended for lighting service. The
diffuser shall be of opallic white pattern resistant to colour change and heat
distortion. The supplier shall guarantee in writing that no colour change or sagging
shall occur within a period of 5 years.
The diffuser shall be not less than 3 mm thick and shall have adequate strength to
prevent sagging under normal operating conditions. The diffusers offered shall be
similar to K-Lite make or approved equivalent.
(iii)

Wiring within fittings

Light fittings shall be supplied and be complete with all internal wiring properly
colour coded.
Wiring shall have Class F PVC insulation except where internal temperatures are
likely to exceed the safe limits of such insulation, in which case Class C insulation
shall be used. Conductors shall be of adequate size and rating for the particular
duties and terminations.
Multi-strand conductors shall be used for screw and clip connections. Wiring shall be
neatly arranged within the fittings and clipped to the metalware at intervals not
exceeding 200 mm.
Wires shall be kept clear of auxiliary components. The method of clipping shall be
such as to prevent damage to the insulation. Adhesive tape shall not be used for
clipping or looping of wires.
A fixed two terminal connector block with an earth terminal adjacent or integral shall
be provided near the incoming cable entry of each fluorescent fitting.
(iv)

Interference

All equipment shall comply with BS 5394 and be designed such that no radio
interference shall be caused to other equipment and apparatus.
The design of equipment shall be such that the effects of voltage and current
transients shall be minimised.

S14-67

(v)

Third harmonics

The third harmonic currents, where occurring, shall be limited to 15% of the
fundamental.
(vi)

Surge resistance

All equipment shall be capable of withstanding any transients which may occur.
(vii)

Lamps

Fluorescent lamps shall in general comply with BS 1853. They shall be hi-pin cap
and switch start type.
They shall have a guaranteed life of 8000 hours. All fluorescent lamp shall be Philips
TLD Cool Daylight type , colour rendering index 95, colour temperature 4000 K or
other approved equivalent manufacture for normal use except where specified or
scheduled otherwise.
(viii)

Lamp holders

Lamp holders for fluorescent lamps shall comply with the requirements of BS 5042
Pt 4. They shall be constructed such that positive indication is given when the tubes
are turned into the connected position. Lamp holders shall make positive electrical
connection with the lamp cap pins while in the connected position. In this respect
they shall have metal strip spring type contacts for connection by twist action of the
two-pin cap ends.
All lamp holders shall be of the non-flammable type and be constructed of high
impact resistant material.
(ix)

Ballasts

Fluorescent ballasts shall be of the best quality type from an approved


manufacturer and comply with BS 2818 Part 1. They shall be suitable for operating
in circuits with tubular fluorescent lamps which comply with BS 1853.
All ballasts shall be polyester-filled, low power loss, silent operation type and be
fitted with terminal block for easy wiring. Switch start ballasts shall be of low power
factor induction type. Separate ballasts shall be used for each fluorescent lamp.
The power loss for ballasts shall not exceed the following values when measured at
the maximum normal operating temperature: Lamp wattage

Maximum allowable ballast loss

18W

5.5W

36W

6.5W

58W

10.0W

Noisy or otherwise defective ballasts will not be accepted. Ballasts shall be of Philip
BTP low loss type or approved equivalent.
(x)

Power factor correction

All fluorescent light fittings shall be fined with approved capacitors to correct power
factor to 0.85 lagging or better. Capacitors shall comply with BS 4017 and shall be
indelibly labelled as such.

S14-68

(xi)

Starters

Where installed, starters must be compatible and in accordance with the ballast and
lamp or tube manufacturer s recommendations
Starter sockets shall have metal strip spring type contacts for connection by twist
action. Housings shall be of moulded plastic material.
Thermoplastic materials used in the construction of starter switches and holders
shall comply with BS 3772.
(c)

Bulkhead light fittings

In general mechanical protection of all bulkhead light fittings shall be to IP 54 or


better. The types and wattages of all bulkhead light fittings and bulbs shall be as
shown in the Drawings and shall comply with BS 4533. The body of bulkhead light
fittings shall, in general, be of pressurized die-cast aluminium alloy with stove
enameled finish.
Light fittings shall be supplied and installed complete with ballast if necessary
complying with the requirements of BS 4782. Diffuser shall be of toughen glass bowl
of the antivandal type.
(d)

Highbay light fittings

All highbay light fittings shall in general comply with BS 3677. The light fittings shall
be equipped with mounting ring for rod/conduit suspension. There shall be one
cable entry with an outside pipe thread in the light fitting ceiling and another cable
entry at the side for connection to a 3-terminal connector.
The light fitting housing shall be of hot-dipped galvanized or epoxy coated sheet
steel and be properly ventilated for controlled cooling of the auxiliary gear The
reflector shall be of anodized pure aluminium. The light fitting shall be complete with
all necessary accessories.
Discharge lamps shall be of the Edison screw type and shall comply with the
requirements of BS 3677. The lamp holders shall comply with the BS 5042 Part 2.
All discharge lamps shall have bodies formed from porcelain or like material
guaranteed not to deteriorate under the temperatures encountered in service.
Power factor correction capacitor to correct power factor to 0.85 or better shall be
provided. Such capacitors shall comply with BS 4017. Ballasts shall be
manufactured to BS 2818 as applicable and shall be of the manufacture to the S.O.
s approval.
(e)

Corrosion resistant type light fittings

Corrosion resistant type fluorescent light fittings shall be to IP 65 suitable for use in
chlorine environment. The body shall be made of glass reinforced polyester
material. The diffuser shall be of high impact resistant clear stippled acrylic type of
material or injection-moulded prismatic polycarbonate type of material. The diffuser
shall be properly fitted into the body of the fittings and shall be complete with a
neoprene or polyurethane gasket. All cover fixing clips that retain the diffuser to the
body shall be of high impact resistant acrylic or stainless steel material. The reflector
shall have white acrylic stove enameled finishes.
The requirements for control gears, and internal wirings in the corrosion resistant
type of fluorescent light fittings shall be similar to those specified for the normal
fluorescent light fittings unless otherwise specified.

S14-69

All suspension and support units shall be of chlorine resistant material. Cable gland
used for cable entry shall be of weatherproof nylon material.
(f)

KELUAR sign light fittings

KELUAR sign light fittings of the type approved by the local fire authority shall be
supplied and installed as shown n the Drawings. Acceptance certificate from the
relevant authority shall be submitted.
The KELUAR sign light fitting shall be to MS 983 and be a sustained, self
maintained unit i.e. the lamp shall be continuously lit from normal mains supply and
upon mains failure powered by a sealed nickel cadmium battery. The illumination
level shall be uniform throughout the sign fitting and with sufficient downward
illumination.
The word KELUAR shall be in letters 150 mm high, 75 mm wide and 19 mm wide
strokes. The lettering shall be illuminated white against green background to the
S.O.s requirement. KELUAR signs light fitting shall be the following types :
-

Single sided signs with the lettering KELUAR with or without directional
arrows to S.O.'s requirement.

Double sided sign with the lettering KELUAR with or without directional
arrows to S.O.s requirement.

The KELUAR sign light fittings shall be provided with 2x8 watt fluorescent lamps
and sealed nickel cadmium batteries of 6 AH minimum capacity capable o
maintaining the units in full illumination for a period of at least 3 hours when the
mains supply is interrupted. An automatic charger unit which maintains the battery in
a fully charged condition shall also be incorporated within each unit.
The units shall also be provided with long life LED mains failure and charger on
indications as well as a mains failure simulation push button test switch. An internal
switch shall be provided to disconnect the lamps when required.
(g)

Self contained emergency lights fittings

Self contained emergency light fittings of the type approved by the relevant authority
shall be supplied and installed as shown in the Drawings. Acceptance certificate
from the relevant authority shall be submitted.
The emergency light fittings shall be a non-maintained type i.e. the lamp is oft as
long as mains supply is on and the same lamp is illuminated from a nickel cadmium
battery or batteries when the mains supply is interrupted.
The emergency light fittings shall be provided with sealed nickel cadmium batteries
having a minimum capacity capable of maintaining the units in full illumination for a
period of at least 3 hours when the mains supply is interrupted. An automatic
charger unit which shall maintain the batteries in a fully charged condition shall also
be incorporated within each unit.
The units shall also be provided with long life LED mains failure and charger on
indications as well as a mains failure simulation press button test switch. An internal
switch shall be provided to disconnect the lamps when required.
(h)

Switches

All switches shall comply with BS 3676 & 5733 as appropriate.

S14-70

Switches shall be single pole, quick make and slow break, silent switch action type
with solid silver alloy contacts and totally enclosed switch action for flush mounting.
They shall be suitable for indoor or outdoor use according to location. All switches
shall have standardized purpose manufactured stoved enamel finished faces
complete with conduit knockouts.
Single pole switches shall be connected to break the phase wire of the supply. The
neutral wire shall not be routed through switchboxes.
Grid switches shall be adjustable for variation in depth of plaster and for squaring
errors.
Metal clad type of switches shall be of the type approved by the S.O. Weatherproof
type of lighting switches shall be of the fully metal cad industrial type to SO. s
approval.
Switches shall be rated for 5 Amps or more for circuit up to and including 5A and ISA
for circuit rated above 5A but not exceeding l5A. They shall be one way or two way
as indicated in the Drawings. They shall be installed at a height of 1370 mm from
floor level and where located in rooms, the switch shall, where possible be located
on the inside of the room on the handle side of the door as close to the door as is
practicable.
An earthing terminal shall be provided and connected to the earth continuity
conductor at every lighting switch position.
All switches and the accessories shall be similar to MK make or approved
equivalent.
14.6.2 EXTERNAL LIGHT FITTINGS
(a)

General

In general, all external light fittings shall comply with the relevant Sections of BS
4533.
External lighting system shall consist of area flood lighting, Street lighting and
perimeter lighting. All cables, conduits, trenches, joint-boxes, loop-in-loop-out
terminals, cut-out fuses, lighting columns, light fittings, lamps control gears and all
materials necessary to complete the installation shall be supplied, erected and
tested as specified herein.
All external light fittings shall be time-switch controlled with manual over-ride unless
shown otherwise in the Drawings. The various types and location of the fittings shall
be as indicated in the Drawings.
All cablings for external lighting installation shall be PVC insulated, steel wire
armoured and PVC sheathed type (PVCSWAPVC). The size and number of cores of
each cable shall be as shown in the Drawings.
All the light fittings shall operate from gear which can be adjusted to suit the input
voltage in steps of 10 volts from 200 to 240 volts. Ballasts shall be manufactured to
BS 2818 as applicable and shall be of the manufacture to the S.O. s approval.
Capacitors shall be used for each fitting which will raise the power factor of the
fittings to 0.85 or better. They shall be condensation proof and be supplied complete
with safety locks and sealed in cable tails or a shrouded terminal block.
All mounting accessories shall be manufactured by the respective light fittings. The
exact type of mounting accessories shall be suitable for the particular application
and shall in general be to the S.O.s requirements and approval.

S14-71

(b)

Area floodlight fittings

Floodlight fittings shall have general consist of high pressure type of lamps. The
exact types of lamps and their wattage shall be as shown in the Drawings. The
fittings shall be complete with control gears and power factor correction capacitors
within the light fitting housing. They shall produce a wide angle light distribution with
good optical control. The vertical beam angle shall be 30 deg. or less between the
half peak values. The horizontal beam angle between half peak values shall be 55
deg. or more. The overall optical efficiency shall be better than 65%. AU floodlight
fittings shall be of heavy duty corrosion resistant glass reinforced plastic material or
die-cast aluminium with clear toughened glass diffuser.
The toughened front glass panel shall be mounted into position with a rubber gasket
which renders the unit to IP 54 protection. They shall be suitable for outdoor use
with a rear lockable cover for access to the interior of the light fitting housing. Each
fitting shall have galvanized steel mounted bracket complete with protractor scale
which shall permit 180 deg. angular adjustments of fittings in the horizontal plane
and 90 deg. in the vertical plane.
Each floodlight fitting shall be provided with a sub-fuse mounted within the control
gear cabinet or lighting column base compartment to the S. 0. s requirement and
approval.
Where the floodlight fitting is to be located on the ground it shall be installed on
concrete bases. Where it is to be located on the roof it shall be properly secured
with stainless steel bracket to withstand wind velocity of at least 100 km/hr.
(c)

Street lighting fittings

All street lighting fittings shall be complete with 70W high pressure sodium SON-T
lamps and all the necessary control gears and power factor correction capacitor.
The lamp compartment of the light fittings shall be accessible via a hinged acrylic or
toughened glass bowl which shall, in the closed position, bed firmly upon soft
resilient gasket and shall be firmly secured to the lighting fittings by means of
stainless steel clips and hinge pins. In the released position the bowl shall be
restrained from becoming detached or blown against the other parts of the lighting
fittings or column arm or bracket.
Light fittings shall have a side entry socket to accept a lighting column arm spigot of
100mm length and 60mm overall diameter. At least four hardened steel spigot fixing
bolts shall be used or an approved equivalent method of fixing shall be adopted.
All control gears required for the light fittings shall be housed in the base
compartment of the lighting columns. The control gears shall consist of ballast with
multiple voltage tapping (200 - 240V) and power factor correction capacitors.
These gears shall be mounted on a 6 mm thick mild steel mounting plate. Together
with the loop in loop out termination block. A corrosion resistant stud of suitable
dimension complete with lock and nuts shall provide adjacent to the mounting block
for use as an earthing terminal.
(d)

Perimeter light fittings

In general the requirement for perimeter light fittings shall be similar to those
specified for street light fittings except that each perimeter light fitting shall consist of
2x150 watts SON-T lamp. The fitting shall be provided with facilities to adjust the
angle of light throws in vertical and horizontal plane.

S14-72

14.6.3

LIGHTING COLUMNS

All lighting columns shall be constructed and tested to BS 5649. They shall be made
of steel. All individual sections of columns, base plates and bracket arms shall be
hot dipped galvanized internally and externally to BS 729. Height of lighting columns
shall be as shown in the Drawings. The column shall have adequate strength to
carry the designed load with safety factor of 2.15 when subjected to a wind velocity
of 27m/sec at right angles to the column. When subject to this load, the column shall
comply with BS 5649 in regard to maximum stress and deflection of the column.
All columns shall be of tapered type and be provided with mild steel base plates of
minimum 450 mm square and 6 mm thick which shall be bolted onto concrete blocks
to ensure stability as shown in the Drawings.
Each column shall have a base compartment adequately sized to accommodate the
lamp control gears, power factor correction capacitors, terminal blocks, loop-in
boxes. cut-outs and other ancillary items. The base compartment shall be of
weatherproof construction fitted with a door complete with heavy duty neoprene
sealing gaskets. Each door shall be provided with a 5/16 inch Allen screw lock. The
components at the base compartment shall be mounted on a 6 mm thick steel
mounting plate of adequate dimensions. The components shall be so arranged on
the mounting plate that all components are at least 300 mm above finished ground
or floor level.
The base compartment of the columns shall be suitable to house a weatherproof
cable loop-in box for 5 core PVC/SWA/PVC cable of size as shown in the Drawings
and shall be complete with terminals, glands and other accessories. A fully shrouded
single pole and neutral single entry cut-out with a suitably rated HRC fuse complete
with all necessary accessories shall be provided for the out-going cables to the
fittings.
All lighting columns shall be securely earthed to the cables by means of bolted
earth terminals. The earthing shall be extended to the gear base plate and the
lanterns.
In general, the mid-hinged type of lighting columns shall be as shown in Drawings. A
finial shall be installed on top of the column for lightning protection and the column
shall be connected to a 25mm x 3 mm tinned earthing copper tape. The earth
resistance shall be less than 10 ohms.
14.6.4 FEEDER PILLARS
All feeder pillars shall be of sheet steel construction. They shall be of sufficient
mechanical strength with detachable roof suitable for outdoor mounting and be
complete with hinged lockable doors arranged to open through 180 deg. for
maximum access. The shell shall be provided with ample ventilation whilst at the
same time be vermin proof.
All busbars shall be of tinned copper material and the ratings shall be as shown in
the Drawing. Neutral busbars shall have the same size as those of the associated
phase busbars.
The construction of the busbars and busbar support shall be similar to the relevant
clauses in this Section. A tinned copper earth bar shall be provided.
Each feeder pillar shall be provided with one standard sheet steel front mounted
instrument panel complete with I set of steel framework, unit fixing straps, dividing
fillets, insulated phase barriers, labels, insulated operating handle and insulated
spanner as applicable and all relevant studs, bolts, nuts, washers, etc.

S14-73

14.6.5

TIME SWITCHES AND CONTACTORS

All time switches shall be of the circular dial type capable of two ON and OFF
opera ions per day and with a 24 hour hack-up reserve in case of power failure.
Time switch shall incorporate contacts of adequate continuous rating to cater for the
loads.
The contactors shall be totally enclosed, quick action type and of robust construction
to BS 5424 Part I. They shall be adequately rated to carry the full load currents of
the circuits.
A three position selector switch providing the following operation viz Automatic,
Manual On and Manual Off shall be provided to control the load contactor.
14.6.6

CEILING FANS AND WALL MOUNTED FANS

Ceiling fans shall comply with BS 4934 and BS 5060 and be of the totally enclosed
motor type, comprising a regulator, suitable down rod and shackle.
Suspension hooks (U brackets) shall be made of mild steel of not less than 12 mm
diameters and finished with two coats of metallic paint. Each ceiling fan shall be
controlled by a local switch mounted directly under each regulator.
The fans shall be 1524 mm sweep unless otherwise indicated in the Drawings and
shall be of KDK make or approved equivalent.
Power factor correction capacitors shall be provided within the motor housings to
give a resultant power factor of 0.85 or better at all speeds.
In general the requirements for wall mounted type of fans shall be similar to those
for the ceiling fans. The method and exact location of mounting shall be to the S.
0.S requirement. Wall mounted type of fans shall also be of KDK make or approved
equivalent.
14.6.7

SWITCHED SOCKET OUTLETS

All switched socket outlets shall in general conform to BS 1363:1984 and BS


546:1950 as appropriate. The general layout, mounting heights and types of
switched socket outlets are as shown in the Drawings. However, positions of
switched socket outlets shown in the Drawing are indicative only. In certain areas
the mounting heights shall be adjusted to achieve symmetry with brick courses, tiles
and other architectural features. Switched socket outlets shall not be erected across
the junction of different architectural surface finishes.
It shall be the responsibility of the Contractor to ensure that all necessary
consideration are given to structures, finishes and other services before installation
of switched socket outlets.
Switched socket outlets shall be of the rocker operated pattern, shuttered with a
quick-make quick-break action, enclosed within sheet steel boxes, complete with
high impact plates of a design to match other accessories being used. They shall
have 3 rectangular pins i.e. 2 pole and earth.
Base steel boxes shall be provided for all switched socket outlets. The boxes shall
all be zinc electroplated and shall be to BS 5733:1979.
In cases where the switched socket outlets cannot be flush mounted, switched
socket outlets of the metal clad type shall be used. Knock outs for conduits entry
shall be provided on the steel boxes. The cover plate shall also be of steel.

S14-74

In damp situations or where indicated, outlets shall be weatherproof of high impact


resistant polycarbonate material having mechanical protection of IP 65 or better
complete with a compatible plug top each. All switched socket outlets shall be fitted
with labels engraved with their circuit references, colored to designate their circuit
references, colored to designate their phase connection and where used for other
than general purposes, engraved as to their function.
In the chlorine building, corrosion resistant type of switched socket outlets, shall be
provided. They shall be of high impact resistant polycarbonate material. Each
corrosion resistant switched socket outlet shall be provided with a compatible plug
top.
Cover plates and matching operating mechanisms and inserts shall be of the colour
or metal finish to the S.O.s requirements.
The make of the various types of switched socket outlets shall be as follows:-

Type of switched socket outlet

Make

Decorative and metal clad type

MK or approved equivalent

Weatherproof type

Wilco or approved equivalent

Corrosion resistant type

Legrand or approved equivalent

14.6.8

POWER OUTLETS

Power outlets, namely those controlling circuits of ISA to 15A shall incorporate a
control switch of adequate size and shall be of the rating and phase configuration as
indicated in the Drawings. They shall all be accommodated within enclosure of IP 65
made of high impact resistant polycarbonate material flush or surface mounted type
with high impact resistant polycarbonate covers, complete with earthing and neutral
pin in all cases.
In general all power outlets, plugs and sockets alike shall comply with BS 5733 and
1363 as appropriate.
Power outlets shall be of Wilco make or approved equivalent.
14.6.9

DISTRIBUTION BOARDS

14.6.9.1

CONTRUCTION

Distribution boards shall comply with BS 5486 Part 12 and shall be fabricated from
minimum 14 gauge sheet steel and finished stoved enamel outside and inside. The
cover shall be hinged, the free end of which shall be secured by captive knurled
thumb screws. Gaskets shall be provided all round the door edges and on the
impressed surfaces of the board.
Special attention shall be given to insulation and finish of all items and no linseed oil
varnish, fibre or hygroscopic material shall be used in any position and all
components shall have a tropicalised finish including electro-tinning of non-ferrous
parts and vacuum impregnation of operating coils.
Distribution boards shall as far as possible utilise frames of standard dimensions in
depth, length and height and the front shall present a flush, clear appearance.

S14-75

Neutral bars and earth bars shall be of tinned copper bars and of rectangular crosssection. Adequate number of terminals cable lugs and bolts shall be provided at
each bar.
All control and other wirings shall be carried out and fixed in a neat and systematic
manner. Terminals at low voltage and extra low voltage shall be segregated and
clearly labelled.
14.6.9.2

ISOLATORS

In general, the isolators shall conform to the requirements as detailed relevant


section of this specification. Totally enclosed isolators, fuse switches and switches
shall be suitable for wall mounting. All live parts shall be shrouded when the switch
is in the off position.
14.6.9.3

FUSES

HRC fuses and links shall comply with BS 88. Fuse carriers shall be designed to
accept HRC cartridge fuses. The fuse carriers, link carriers and bases shall also
comply with the requirements of BS 88. Each bank of fuses shall be clearly
identified with its phase colour/code.
14.6.9.4

BUSBARS AND CONNECTIONS

Ratings of the busbars shall be as shown in the Drawings and neutral bar shall have
the same cross-sectional area as the phase busbars. The sizing of busbars shall be
based on 30 deg.C. Temperature rise over an ambient of 40 deg.C.
The mechanical and dielectric strength of busbars and connection supports shall be
able to withstand the worst conditions or electric surge or short circuit fault which
can occur on the installation.
Busbars marking and arrangement, connection and grade of copper used shall all
comply where appropriate with BS 159 and 1433.
The busbars shall be fabricated from hard drawn high conductivity tinned copper,
rigidly mounted on non-hygroscopic insulators with connection from the busbars to
the miniature circuit breakers and switches effected by means of copper bars or
cables securely clamped to the bars and identified by means of colored plastic
sleeving or painting to indicate the phase colors. The conductors shall be separated
and supported with appropriate clearances in air or shall be otherwise adequately
insulated or encapsulated.
14.6.9.5

MINIATURE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (MCBs)

Miniature circuit breakers (MCBs) shall comply with the requirements of BS 3871
and be of the ratings and types as indicated in the Drawings.
All units shall have breaking capacities adequate for the maximum prospective fault
currents to which they may be subjected or as specified in the Drawings whichever
is higher, MCBs of the same type shall exhibit the same time/current tripping
characteristic curves.
The switching action shall be quick-make, quick-break.
The number of poles accommodated within an integral moulding of rated current
shall be fitted as indicated in the Drawings.
Three pole units shall be physically equivalent to three single pole units such that
ready interchangeability can be achieved.

S14-76

MCBs shall be installed in the distribution boards in accordance with the


manufacturers instructions, standard fittings and accessories, such that a unit may
be installed or replaced without disturbing adjacent units.
Units shall be suitable for the intended duty of controlling and protecting the types of
circuits as recommended in BS 3871 Appendices A and B.
When future units (spares) are indicated in the Drawings, distribution hoards shall
be equipped with all requisite connections and mounting media.
14.6.9.6

MOULDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (MCCBs)

Moulded case circuit breakers (MCCBs) shall be similar to the requirements listed
for miniature circuit breakers except that they shall comply with the requirements of
BS 4752 Part I with earth leakage trip facilities where indicated in the Drawings.
14.6.9.7

EARTH LEAKAGE CIRCUIT BREAKERS (ELCBs)

Earth leakage circuit breakers (ELCBs) shall be fitted to the distribution hoards as
indicated on the Drawings to detect earth leakage currents. Sensitivity of the ELCBs
shall be 100mA for single and three phase systems unless indicated otherwise. All
ELCBs shall provide instantaneous tripping.
Each earth leakage circuit breaker shall be of the core balance type complying with
BS 4293.
14.6.9.8

Time switches and contactors

All time switches and contactors shall comply with the relevant specification.
14.6.9.9

EARTHING

All distribution boards shall be equipped with effective means of bonding the
armouring of cables, conduits and earth continuity conductors
Full length earth bars shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of lEE.
regulations.
14.6.9.10

INSTALLATION OF DISTRIBUTION BOARD

Distribution boards for lighting and power shall be installed on walls at the locations
indicated in the Drawings. The locations shown thereon are approximate only,
therefore the Contractor shall liaise with the S.O. with respect to the exact positions
and heights of the distribution boards, prior to commencing wiring installation works.
The distribution boards shall be held in position on walls by means of rag-bolts or
raw bolts (including nuts and washers) of sufficient length and gauge to withstand
the weights of the boards and cables connected to the boards.
Where the distribution boards are to be installed on steel columns or framework,
purpose made mild steel clamps of robust construction shall be used for holding the
boards in position. Drilling of holes in steel columns or steel structures for the
installation of boards shall not be permitted, except with the prior approval of the
S.O.
If it is not possible for a distribution board to be installed in either manner stipulated
above, then such board shall be installed on a floor mounted mild steel pedestal and
placed against the wall or column as the case may be.
There shall be a space of minimum 10 mm between the wall/steel frame and the
hack of the distribution board.

S14-77

All distribution boards shall be drilled for cable entries and exits by the Contractor.
Where conduit wiring is utilized, holes of sufficient diameters to suit the sizes of
conduits concerned shall be drilled. Terminations of conduits within boards shall be
by means of conduit lock-nuts and female brass bushes, or conduit sockets and
male brass bushes, whichever is preferred to suit the particular situation. Insulated
type hushes of bakelite, PVC, or other similar material shall not be utilized for the
termination of conduits within distribution boards.
All mild steel clamps and pedestals for the installation of distribution boards shall be
supplied by the Contractor. Such accessories and equipment shall be painted with
two (2) undercoats of a suitable anti-corrosive paint and finished with two (2) coats
of an approved type enamel paint to suit the colors or their respective surroundings,
or of a colour which may be stipulated by the S.O. prior to the commencement of the
installation work.
14.6.9.11

TERMINAL BOARDS

All terminal boards and terminal blocks shall comply with the requirements as
detailed in Section 8.
14.6.9.12

LABELLING

The labelling of distribution board shall in general conform to that detailed in relevant
section. All distribution boards shall be clearly labelled and a schedule of circuits
indicating details of all connected loads shall be provided on the inside cover of
each board to the approval of the S.O.

S14-78

14.7

LIGHTNING PROTECTION SYSTEM

14.7.1 GENERAL
The Contractor shall supply and deliver to Site a complete lightning protection
system as detailed in the Drawings. The lightning protection system shall comprise
air termination networks, down conductors, fixings, bonding, jointing, test clamps,
earth termination pits with electrodes conforming to BS 6651.
14.7.2 AIR TERMINATION NETWORK
Air termination network consisting of pointed air rods and roof conductors shall be
installed on the roof of all structures as indicated in the Drawings. The pointed air
rod shall be of 15 mm diameter x 500 mm long tinned copper complete with lock nut
and terminal base for screw-on type fixing similar to Furse catalogue nos. RA215
and SD1O5/SDI 15 or approved equivalent. The roof conductors shall be 25 mm x 3
mm tinned annealed copper tapes. They shall be fixed to building structures by
means of standard tape clips. All metallic projections on or above the main surface
of the roof which are connected to the general mass of the earth shall be bonded to
and form part of the air termination network in manner as specified in relevant
section of this specification.
14.7.3 DOWN CONDUCTORS
The air termination installed shall be bonded to down conductors in manner as
detailed in Clause 8.7.5. Down conductors shall be 25 mm x 3 mm tinned annealed
copper tapes. All down conductors shall be brought down to the testing clamps and
then to the earth termination pits by the most direct path possible.
14.7.4 FIXINGS
Fixings of all lightning conductors in the form of saddles shall in general be made at
intervals of not more than 1 metre or the values as recommended in the BS CP
6651 whichever is lower. All fixings shall be tinned overall and be complete with 38
mm phosphor screws and purpose made lead plugs. The saddles shall be to Furse
catalogue no. CP2 16 or approved equivalent.
14.7.5 BONDING AND JOINTING
All metal work on or around the building structures including water pipes and
metallic structures of the buildings shall be bonded to the lightning protection system
to avoid side-flashing. All bonds shall be mechanically and electrically effective and
protected from corrosion. Method of corrosion protection shall be to the S.O. s
requirements. Bonds used the bonding external metal to the lightning protection
system shall have cross sectional area of not less than 50mm square. These bonds
shall be similar to Furse catalogue no. BNIO5, BN1I5 or BN12O as appropriate or
approved equivalent.
All joints between lightning conductors shall be of the exothermal welding type
except for the testing clamps, the specification of which is detailed in the following
paragraph.
Exothermal welding shall be a result of a chemical reaction where copper oxide is
reduced by aluminium to produce molten superheated copper A semi-permanent
graphite mould shall be used to control the exothermic welding process. The
welding shall be able to produce a connection that can withstand corrosion that
normally occurs in the external environment. The connection shall not be affected by
a high current surge.

S14-79

14.7.6 TEST CLAMPS


Each down conductor shall be provided with a test clamp in a position convenient to
use when testing. Testing clamp shall be of the screw down pattern and shall be
tinned overall and be complete with bronze titting screws and purpose made lead
plug. The testing clamps shall be similar to Furse catalogue no. CT405 or approved
equivalent.
All rod/tape/clamp contact surfaces shall be heavily tinned prior to connection and
completion of earth resistance tests to the satisfaction of the S .0.
14.7.7 EARTH TERMINATION AND ELECTRODES
All down conductors of the lightning protection system shall be brought down to
earth termination pits complete with electrodes as shown in the Drawings. Each
electrode shall be of 16 mm diameter steel cored extensible rods in standard
multiple lengths with steel tip similar to Furse catalogue no. ST 200 with coupling
connector similar to Furse catalogue no. CG 270 and connection clamp similar to
Furse catalogue w. CR 105. The rods shall have an electrolytic ally bonded copper
layer of not less than 0.38 mm. The down conductor shall be clamped securely to
the earth electrode. Earth rods shall be driven by a Kango hammer or similar,
capable of delivering a high rate of light blows to the driving head and the Contractor
shall be deemed to have included in his Tender for use of such tools.
The top of each earth electrode shall be protected from damage by placing it in a
lightweight inspection chamber similar to Furse Catalogue No. PT205. The actual
connections of the conductor to the electrode shall be accessible and visible when
the cover is removed.
The minimum spacing of two adjacent electrodes shall be twice the length of the
longer electrode.
Earth terminations shall be located on the ground as close as possible to the
building. Locations shall be agreed with the SO. before electrodes are driven.
Each of the earth electrodes shall have a resistance value of not exceeding the
product given by 5 times the number of earth electrodes provided. The entire earth
termination network shall have a combined resistance to earth of not more than 5
ohm without taking account of any bonding to other services.
Where ground conditions make deep driving of a single earth electrode impossible
to achieve the desired earth resistance, a matrix arrangement of electrodes joined to
one another by 25 mm x 3 mm tinned annealed copper tape buried at a depth of
600 mm shall be used. The Contract Rate shall be deemed to include the necessary
number of earth points and interconnections to obtain an earth resistance less than
5 ohms.
All joints in exposed sections shall be protected against corrosion and the ingress of
moisture by the application of two coats of an approved anti-corrosion paint.

S14-80

14.8

STANDBY DIESEL GENERATOR SET

14.8.1 GENERAL
The Contractor shall provide one unit each of diesel engine driven standby
generator sets rated output of 900 kVA and 1500 kVA at the intake and treatment
works respectively complete with all associated equipment including fuel supply
system and bulk fuel storage tank to permit continuous operation of the intake and
treatment works during SESCO mains failure.
The diesel generator sets shall operate during periods when the mains supply has
failed or been interrupted for any reason. Mechanical and electrical interlocks must
be provided so that it is not possible for the set to operate in parallel with the
SESCO incoming mains. The generator sets shall be started automatically upon
detection of SESCO power failure.
All necessary switchgear and auxiliary equipment shall be included to provide a
complete functioning system.
The generator sets shall be fully tropicalised to CP 1014, protected against fungal
attack and shall have corrosion resistant finish.
14.8.2 RATING
The generator set at the intake works shall have a minimum continuous prime rating
of 900KVA shall be able to start sequentially four 15.75 Mld raw water pumps with
the base load of the works connected.
The generator set. at the treatment works shall have a minimum continuous prime
rating of 1500 KVA and shall be able to start sequentially two 15 Mld treated pump
motors with the base load of the works connected.
The rating of the generator set at each site shall be able to start up individually the
largest pump motor at each site without exceeding the voltage limits specified.
The Contractor shall include with his Tender, calculations to substantiate that the
rating of the generator set offered meets the above requirement. The rated output
shall take into account adjustments for derating due to high ambient conditions. The
set shall also be capable of producing an additional 10% rated output in excess of
the nominal rating for periods of 1 hour duration in every 12 hours of continuous
running.
The generator ratings shall be reconfirmed prior to seeking for manufacture and the
ratings shall be increased if necessary at no additional cost.
The engine BHP shall be sufficient for 10% overload of the Generator Set.
The normal operating speed of the diesel generator set shall not exceed 1500 rpm
Both the alternator and engine must be provided with stainless steel nameplates
bearing the serial numbers, rating and other relevant data.
14.8.3 ALTERNATOR
The alternator shall generate a 415 V. 50Hz, 3 phase supply at a power factor of 0.8
lagging. The alternator neutral shall be brought out to a disconnection link and
earthed down.

S14-81

The alternator shall be continuously rated and shall comply with the relevant parts of
BS 4999 and BS 5000. It shall be of the self-exciting, quick response brushless type.
Damping windings shall be incorporated in the pole faces to reduce effects of cyclic
irregularities of the diesel engine. The complete main field shall be dynamically
balanced.
Enclosure of the alternator shall conform to IP 23 degree of mechanical protection
and cooling to IC 01 as specified in BS 4999. End shields attached to the stator
frame shall be provided to protect the stator end windings and to promote efficient
ventilation.
Machine insulation shall be in accordance with BS 2457 Class F with temperature
rise limited to Class B which shall not exceed 80C including adjustments for service
conditions specified in Clause 32.6 of BS 4999.
The alternator shall be designed to take any rectifier and thyristor loads without any
waveform distortion or instability. The voltage and current waveform from no load to
full load shall be sinusoidal with total harmonic content not exceeding 5 percent as
defined in BS 5000 Part 99.
A static voltage regulator shall be fitted which, taking into account of the inherent
characteristics of the alternator, shall provide voltage control in accordance with
Grade VR2.22 in Table 40.3.6 of BS 4999 Part 40.
Voltage dip shall not exceed 15 percent on application of 100 percent load. Voltage
recovery shall be within 3 percent of steady state value within 0.3 seconds of
application of 100 percent load.
The alternator shall be designed to withstand overspeeds up to 1.2 times the rated
speed, in accordance with Table 41.7.1 in BS 4999 Part 41.
The rotor shall be statically and dynamically balanced, and account shall be taken of
the combined effect of the diesel engine crankshaft and flywheel/coupling system so
that the level of vibration of the complete diesel alternator shall not exceed the limits
specified in BS 4999 Part 50.
Winding terminations shall comply with BS 4999 Part 71 and terminals shall be
clearly marked and phase identification included. Terminal boxes shall be provided
and be positioned to facilitate ease of connection for the outgoing cables.
Full radio and TV interference suppression shall be incorporated to limits specified in
BS 800.
The alternator shall be fitted with anti-condensation heaters, operated from a 240
volt single phase supply rated to maintain the windings 5C above ambient
temperature. The heaters shall be arranged for automatic disconnection when the
alternator is in operation.
Thermistors shall be provided embedded in each of the phase windings. The
thermistor relay shall trip the main circuit breaker on reaching the maximum
temperature rise and initiate a time relay to shut down the generator set after a
preset period. The timer shall be adjustable from 0-10 minutes.
The alternator shall be designed and manufactured to operate throughout the load
range without the generation of undue noise, and evidence shall be provided that a
type test on a similar machine has complied with the limiting mean sound power
level in dB(A) specified in Appendix 51D of BS 4999 Part 51.

S14-82

14.8.4 ENGINE
The engine shall be radiator cooled, single acting, 4 stroke cycle compression
ignition, cold starting, direct injection type and shall be naturally aspirated or
pressure charged as appropriate. The engine shall fully comply with BS 5514 and
the noise level in the engine room, 1m away from the engine shall not exceed 105
dBA under all loading conditions. The noise level at the nearest boundary from the
exhaust outlet shall not exceed 60 dBA at day time and 55 dBA at night time.
The engine shall be designed to use Class B fuel oil to BS 2869 and subsequent
amendments. The fuel which will be used shall have the following typical
characteristics :-

Density @ 15c

0.84 average

Cetane Number

Min. 45

Kinematic Viscosity @
40C, cst
Sulphur % vol
Water % vol
Sediment % vol
Flash point pm (cc)C

Max.5.8*
Max.1.0
Max.0.05
Max.0.01
Min. 65.5

Copper corrosion
3 hr./100C
Calorific value
*

No.2
10,500 kCal/kg

Approx. 41 sees. Redwood 1 at l000F

The engines shall operate satisfactorily on this class of fuel at full load and all
fractional loads without adverse effect upon either flame propagation within the
cylinder or maximum cylinder pressures. Fuel consumption shall be declared in the
Schedules at the time of tendering.
The engine shall be so designed and constructed that all parts are easily accessible
for inspection, cleaning and maintenance. Big end bearings shall preferably be of
such dimension that they can pass through the cylinder. All moving parts shall be
adequately screened to prevent accidental contact.
Crankshafts shall be machined from single forgings and shall be provided with large
surface areas. The flywheel shall be constructed from a steel forging and shall be
both statically and dynamically balanced to ensure smooth operation through the
specified speed/load range. The flywheel shall be capable of limiting the cyclic
irregularity to comply with BS 5514. Manual flywheel barring facilities shall be
provided for maintenance purposes.
Each cylinder shall be fitted with an indicator cock to permit the measurement of the
maximum firing pressure.
Pistons shall be to the manufacturers normal standards but shall be supplied with
the top compression ring chromium plated.

S14-83

All major components which are subject to fluctuating forces shall be free from
internal stresses, and where stress relieving techniques are employed, full details
shall be provided.
The engine shall be directly coupled to the alternator and shall be mounted on a
sub-frame which shall be resiliently mounted on a skid-frame arranged for
installation on concrete foundations, complete with all necessary anti-vibration
mountings.
Flexible pipes shall be used for all connections between the resiliently mounted
machinery and rigid components. Couplings shall be adequately rated, and where
liable to contamination by oil shall be of the all metal flexible type. The Contractor
shall ensure that vibrations, torsional or otherwise, of the engine and alternator shall
not synchronise to build up serious vibration.
A stainless steel drip tray of adequate thickness and not less than 150 mm depth
shall be fitted beneath the engine clear of the floor with its top edge turned over. Its
area shall be sufficient to catch any fuel oil, lubricating oil, coolant or water which
may leak or be spilled from the engine or radiator. Its volume up to overflow levels
shall not be less than that of the engine lubricating oil or engine coolant, whichever
is greater. The drip tray shall be laid to fall and shall be fitted with a drain cock at its
lowest point.
The engine shall be provided with large filtration area air inlet filter for combustion air
supply. Air inlet filter element shall be covered with fine mesh screen and shall easily
removed for cleaning or replacement.
14.8.5 ENGINE STARTING SYSTEM
The engine shall be provided with an electric starter motor, a 24 volt heavy duty
maintenance free sealed lead acid battery and a battery charger.
A centrifugal switch mounted on and driven by the engine shall disconnect the
starter motor when the engine speed reaches 20 rev/mm above its minimum firing
speed, and also to shut down the engine when the speed reaches 15% above its
normal running speed.
The control shall be such that fail to start alarm shall be given after 3 attempts.
Cranking and rest periods shall however carry on for another 3 cycles.
In the event of power failure and with the charger out of service, the battery system
shall have sufficient capacity for the following duties :i)

to provide a minimum of six consecutive abortive starts of the engine with


each start having a minimum cranking period of 15 seconds.

ii)

for simultaneous operation of all alarms and indication on the AMF panel for
12 hours.

At the end of 12 hours, the battery voltage shall not drop below 85% of the nominal
voltage with the loads still connected.
The battery charger shall operate from the 4l5V mains supply.

S14-84

14.8.6 ENGINE COOLING SYSTEM


The engine shall be water cooled by radiator and cooling fan, belt driven from the
engine crankshaft and shall be of sufficient capacity to maintain normal working
temperature under continuous full load conditions in the prevailing climatic
conditions. The system shall be pressurized, thermostatically controlled and include
centrifugal water circulating pump, pipe work, temperature sensor and signalization.
The engine cylinder block shall be fitted with a thermostat to isolate the radiator and
ensure rapid engine warm-up. The blower-type fan shall be sized to maintain safe
operation at 45C maximum ambient temperature.
The engine radiator discharge air shall be directed outdoors through an approved
discharge duct that connects the engine radiator to an opening in an external wall.
The radiator shall be equipped with a duct adaptor flange. Air flow restriction across
the radiator shall not exceed 12 mm water gauge. The Contractor shall provide duct
work with flexible connecting sections between the radiator duct flange and the
spent cooling air outlet. The ducting shall be fabricated from mild steel, hot dipped
galvanized and fully supported, isolated from engine vibration and noise
transmission.
The cooling air outlet shall be provided as a complete unit comprising an automatic
self-opening and self-closing louvered shutter panel complete with frame and
external cowling, which shall be built into the wall of the generator room. The
Louvered shutter panel, frame and cowling shall be fabricated from stainless steel
and shall be so designed that bird nesting is prevented. The louvered shutter panel
shall be self-closing when the engine is not in operation. When the engine starts the
louvred shutters shall be opened outwards by the air discharged from the radiator.
The complete circulatory cooling system shall be filled with a mixture, suitable for
the prevailing temperature conditions, incorporating corrosion inhibiting agents and
having long life characteristics.
14.8.7 ENGINE EXHAUST SYSTEM
A complete exhaust system shall be included together with an efficient heavy duty
residential silencer system which shall be erected directly from the exhaust manifold
within the Generator Room. The silencers shall be of the high performance reactive
type and shall be capable of reducing the engine exhaust noise to 65 dBA at a
hemispherical distance of 10m from the exhaust discharge points.
The exhaust pipe work within the building shall be complete with expansion bellows
and all necessary support structures and brackets. The pipe work and silencers
shall be fully lagged and clad. The lagging shall be of the rock wool type resin
bonded. The cladding will be aluminium sheet not less than 0.9 mm thick with
lobster back finish on bends and suitably shaped sections to cover flanged joints.
The temperature of the cladding shall not exceed 55C.
Exhaust pipe work shall be free draining with suitable drain plugs being fitted at the
lowest points. The piping and fittings shall have a minimum thickness of 3 nun and
shall be suitably protected from corrosion by application of an aluminium based heat
resistant paint. A point shall be provided in the exhaust system for monitoring back
pressure and exhaust gas temperature. The total system back pressure shall be
determined by the Contractor and it shall not be more than the back pressure
allowable for the engine offered.

S14-85

A stainless steel weatherproof cowling, which shall discourage nest building by birds
shall be fitted to the exhaust outlet to prevent entry of rainwater when the engine is
not running.
Bellows shall be fitted between the engine manifolds and pipe work fixed to the
building to allow full articulation of the exhaust system.
Where the exhaust pipe work passes through the building walls, sleeves with split
circular cover plates properly fixed to each side of the wall shall be provided. The
space between the sleeve and the exhaust pipe shall be packed with noncombustible thermal insulation
14.8.8 ENGINE LUBRICATING SYSTEM
The engines shall have a forced lubricating oil system comprising a gear pump
directly driven from the engine crankshaft, full-flow oil filter with impregnated paper
elements of the replaceable type, lubricating oil cooler, suction strainer, bypass
release valve to the filter head and all the necessary pipe work, valves and fittings.
Oil filters shall be of the dual changeover type such that it shall be possible to clean
or replace the filter when the engines are running.
All necessary thermometers, pressure gauges including pressure indication across
the filters shall be fitted to the system. All high points in the pipe work shall be
provided with plugged air release bosses and low points with plugged drain bosses.
All drains, protective devices, valves and fittings necessary for safe and efficient
operation of the system shall be provided.
For replenishment of lubrication oil, a barrel mounted on a trolley with a hand pump
and flexible hose shall be provided.
The Contractor shall supply all pipe work, fittings and valves necessary to provide
an efficient and workable system. The first filling of lubricating oil shall be included in
the Contract and the Contractor shall give his recommendation with regard to any
special grades of oil that may be considered necessary.
14.8.9 FUEL SYSTEM
Bulk fuel oil storage tanks as shown on drawings.
The tank shall be a steel horizontal cylindrical and mounted within prepared
foundations. A catch pit shall also be provided in accordance with the requirements
of BS 5410. The tank shall be complete with manholes, filling and draw-off
connections, vent pipes, inspection holes, float operated level indicators, drain and
isolating valves and calibrated dipsticks.
The filling line shall be fitted with a suitable tanker connection and an integrating
flow meter of accuracy 1 % or better including a strainer. A hand pump shall be
provide for draining the tanks. Access to manhole shall be by means of internal and
external ladders.
A self-priming fuel transfer pump of the internal gear type shall be supplied,
installed and suitably valve. The fuel transfer pump shall be capable of delivering at
least twice the required rate of fuel oil for continuous operation of the generator set.
The fuel transfer pump, when in the automatic mode shall be controlled by the level
in the daily service tank by means of a float operated switch. When the
auto/off/manual switch is in the manual position, the pump shall be operated by
means of the start]stop pushbuttons on the control panel, wall mounted in the
generator room.

S14-86

Motors shall be suitable for use on 415 V, 3-phase 50 Hz system and shall be of the
squirrel cage type, suitable for operating pumps handling diesel oil.
The construction of the pump shall be of high quality, close grained cast iron body
with shaft and gears of suitable hardened steel. The pump shall be fitted with an
approved mechanical seal and a pressure relief valve.
The pump shall be direct coupled to its motor by means of an approved flexible
coupling. The coupling is to be generously sized to transmit the full motor torque
adequately. Indication of the presence of a fire in the Generator Room shall inhibit
the starting of the fuel transfer pump.
All rigid fuel pipes and fittings shall be of seamless stainless steel. All valves shall he
cast steel and designed for the duty they are required to pertbrm. Galvanized iron
pipes and fittings are not acceptable.
All flexible fuel pipes shall be of a flame retardant, armoured type with cone
connections at both ends. Fuel connecting pipe work to the engine shall incorporate
a flexible section not less than 250 mm long. All necessary pipe work valves and
fittings for the complete fuel installation shall be provided. A twin easily cleared fine
filtered and a Fail Safe quick closing emergency valve with replaceable fusible link
arrangement to shut-off the valve in the event of fire shall be incorporated in the
main fuel line.
The daily service tank shall have a capacity as stated on the drawings. It shall be
supplied complete with suitable supporting structures of sufficient height to provide
the necessary head to overcome friction losses in the piping system, strainers, etc.
to the engine.
The tank shall be fully enclosed and shall include the following as minimum :(i)

Air vent of not less than 30 mm bore, with pipe work

(ii)

Overflow connection of not less than 30 mm and not less than 30 mm from
the top of the tank. Overflow and drain plug connections shall be taken to a
common tank. The overflow and drain tank shall be equipped with a high
level alarm.

(iii)

Cleaning hand hole and cover of not less than 300 mm diameter.

(iv)

Contents gauge (150 mm diameter) graduated to read FULL-l/2 FULLEMPTY. The gauge shall be of the magnetically operated type and shall be
complete with a low level alarm contact.

(v)

Outlet connection to engine not less than 50 mm above tank base.

(vi)

Fuel outlet isolating valve lockable in open position.

(vii)

Excess fuel return connection, as necessary

(viii)

Inlet connection, fuel transfer pump, pipework, valves and fittings for transfer
of fuel from the bulk fuel storage tank. Pipework shall be not less than 25
mm bore.

(ix)

Float operated switch to automatically control starting and stopping of fuel


transfer pump.

A minimum of 5 % of the volume of the tank shall be allowed as ullage and the
capacity level of the tank shall be not less than 75 mm from the top of the tank.

S14-87

An integrating flow meter of accuracy 1 % or better, including a strainer shall be


fitted in the supply line to the engine. A full flow twin fuel oil filter with impregnated
paper element of the replacement type shall be provided at the entry to the engine
fuel system, in addition to the engine integral filter. It shall be possible to replace a
used cartridge while the engine is in service.
The air vents and overflows in both the daily service tank and bulk fuel storage tank
shall be protected by a fine gauze cage.
The bulk storage tank and daily service tank shall be protected suitable for outdoor
environment and their external surface shall be finished using 2 coats of miraculous
iron oxide paint.
At the manufacturers works the bulk storage and daily service tank and all fittings
shall be hydraulically tested.
On site, the whole system shall be tested and the Contractor shall ensure that all
necessary testing equipment is on site.
After successful testing, the tanks shall be cleaned and all tanks, pipelines and
fittings shall be flushed out with fuel oil under pressure and the Contractor shall
supply the fuel oil for this purpose. Any fuel oil for flushing shall not be returned for
use in the generator set.
14.8.10

AUTO-MAINS FAILURE PANEL

The auto-mains failure (AMF) panel shall be complete with all necessary relays,
timers and logic circuits to start automatically the generator sets in the event of
mains power failure and stop the generator sets when mains power supply is
restored.
The AMF panel shall also include all the meters, protection relays for the protection
of the alternator, circuit breaker as indicated on the Drawings. In addition to these,
the following instruments, relays, control switches and alarm annunciate system
shall also be provided in the AMF panel.
-

Thermistor relay for alternator winding protection.

Programmable logic controller (PLC) with all necessary logic circuits,


auxiliary relays, etc. for automatic starting and stopping operations of the
generator sets.

Annunciator system, complete with visual alarm annunciators, audible


alarms, pushbuttons, etc. for the following conditions:

(i)

Over current

(ii)

Earth fault

(iii)

Alternator winding temperature high

(iv)

Engine overspeed

(v)

Lubricating oil pressure low

(vi)

Jacket water temperature high

(vii)

Engine tripped

S14-88

(viii)

Engine failed to start

(ix)

Emergency stop operated

(x)

DC supply failure

(ix)

Low fuel oil level

The following front of door mounted instruments/controls shall be provided on the


door of the AMF panel :(a)

I No. voltmeter with line-to-line and line-to-neutral selector switch.

(b)

I No. Ammeter with phase selector switch

(c)

Frequency meter with combined rpm

(d)

Kilowatt hour meter

(e)

Hours run meter of the cyclometer type reading up to 9,999 hours.

(f)

Power factor meter

(g)

Kilowatt meter

(h)

Off/Test/Manual/Auto key operated selector switch. The mode of operation


shall be as follows :Auto

This places the generator set in its normal standby


mode.

Test

To test the auto-operation by simulating SESCO


Failure without load changeover.

Off

To cut out the starting circuit so that the engine cannot


be started.

Manual

To permit manual operation of the generator set.

(i)

On/Off control switch operating in the Test and Manual position.

(j)

Manual Start/Stop and Emergency pushbuttons.

(k)

Alarm accept, reset and lamp test pushbuttons.

(I)

Mains control supply on indicating lamp. (white)

(m)

Engine running indicating lamp. (red)

(n)

Engine Stopped indicate lamp. (green)

(o)

Standby supply available indicating lamp. (white)

(p)

Engine auxiliary supply on indicating lamp. (white)

(q)

Tripped on fault indicating lamp. (amber)

(r)

Circuit breaker on, off, tripped indication lamps.

(s)

Alternator heater on indicating lamp.

(t)

On/Off alternator heater control switch located inside the panel.

(u)

Panel space heater (with adjustable thermostat control) and indication light.
S14-89

A 24 volt battery charger complete with float/boost key operated selector switch, DC
ammeter, DC voltmeter and AC power supply on indication shall be provided in a
separate compartment in the panel.
14.8.11

STANDBY SUPPLY SYSTEM OPERATION

In the event of a mains supply failure the mains incoming circuit breakers shall trip
and initiate an adjustable timer providing a delay before initiating the diesel
generator start up. Should the mains supply revert to a healthy condition during this
delay period, the Mains circuit breakers shall be signalled to reclose, the timer
reverts to zero and the diesel alternator start sequence shall not be initiated. If the
failure condition still exists after this delay period, the diesel generator shall be
signalled to start.
To initiate the starting sequence, the start relays shall energise the engine electric
start system for approximately 15 seconds. Should the engine fail to start, the
electric start system shall be de-energized. After a rest period of 10 seconds, the
electric start system shall be re-energized and the panel shall repeat this sequence
for a total of six attempts and then sound the audible alarm and illuminate the fail to
start lamp on the engine control compartment annunciator.
When the diesel generator is at the correct speed, frequency and voltage and ready
to accept the load, the necessary control equipment shall lock out the Mains
Incoming Circuit Breakers and close the Generator Supply Circuit Breaker.
Controls shall be incorporated to prevent closure of the standby generator supply
circuit breaker until the control voltage and frequency have been achieved.
When the mains supply is restored i.e. all phase voltages return to 90% of its rated
value, the generating set shall continue to run on load for an adjustable period
(normally 0-60 secs) after which the load shall automatically be switched over to the
mains supply. The generating set shall then commence the shutdown sequence.
The shutdown sequence shall incorporate a time-delay to allow the engine to run
unloaded for a short period before stopping the engine (1-10 mins). All settings must
then return to the normal position for automatic operation.
If the mains fails during the shutdown sequence when the generating set is running
unloaded, then the generating set shall be able to take on the load after a
predetermined period of 0 -60 seconds. The delay is to guard against operation on
transient disturbance.
It shall be possible to start up and run the generator set manually, with or without the
mains supply fault conditions, to enable maintenance test runs, to be carried out.
On receipt of a mains failure signal, the audible alarm and a panel indicating light
shall warn the personnel in the generator room that the set may start within 30
seconds.
14.8.12

TESTS ON GENERATOR SETS

Each generator set shall be tested to certify the engine output and fuel consumption
in accordance with BS 5514 when using Class A2 fuel to BS 2869. The tests shall
be carried out as follows:a)

1 hour at 50% load

b)

1 hour at 75% load

c)

3 hours at 100% load

S14-90

d)

1 hour at 110% load

Full load acceptance and rejection tests shall be carried out. Transient recorders
shall be used to plot the frequency and voltage variations against time.
All the alarm functions shall be checked for correct operation.
Alternators shall be tested in accordance with BS 4999 and BS 5000 and shall
include the following:a)

Winding resistance tests

b)

Insulation resistance tests

c)

AC withstand voltage tests

d)

Windings temperature rise measurement

e)

Voltage balance on windings

f)

Current balance on windings

g)

Voltage adjustment range with regulator

h)

Phase sequence tests

i)

Vibration tests and noise level tests


-

Vibration and noise level measurements shall be made for the engine
and the alternator, with the engine running at full load.

14.8.13

MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT

14.8.13.1

STATION VENTILATION

A fan assisted ventilation system shall be provided for the generator building.
The Contractor shall supply all relevant data such as the amount of radiation from
engines and alternators and the quantity of ventilation air required. The ventilation
system shall be based on the following design conditions:
(i)

Permissible room temperature

40C maximum

(ii)

Intake air temperature

34C maximum

The capacity of the ventilation fans shall be increased if necessary to suit the
engines as recommended by the engines manufacturer.
Arrangement of the fans are as shown on Drawings.
The intake fans shall be of the axial flow type complete with intake ductwork,
ductwork silencers and ductwork for directing the supply air towards the alternators.
The inlet shall be provided with an insect proof screen.
The fans shall be supplied complete with suitable diaphragm plates to facilitate
mounting. Supporting brackets for the fan motors shall also be provided.
The fan motors shall be suitable for operation from 415 volt, 3 phase, 50 Hz supply.
Starters for these fans shall be provided in the power distribution board at each
generator building.
The ventilation fans shall automatically start when the generator set is started.

S14-91

14.8.13.2
(a)

VENTILATION FAN

General

Bearing shall be of precision anti-friction, pillow-block, either ball or roller type, and
shall be selected based on an average minimum life of 60,000 full-load hours.
Extended oilers shall be provided where bearings are inaccessible due to fan
arrangement or ductwork.
All fan motors shall be capable of varying the fan speed 10% higher or lower than
the rated point.
All fan wheel and shaft assemblies shall be statically and dynamically balanced. Any
misalignment shall be corrected.
All fan parts shall be given a bonding coat before painting. After the cleaning and
surface conditioning process, but before final assembly, parts shall be spray painted
with one coat of grey primer finisher. A second coat of the same paint shall be
applied to the exterior and all accessible interior surfaces after the fan is assembled.
Each fan assembly shall be supported by vibration isolators.
(b)

Axial fans

Each fan shall have an aerofoil blade impeller and the blade pitch shall be readily
and accurately adjustable on site. The fan design shall be such that the adjustment
of the blade pitch on site shall not affect the static or dynamic balance.
Each fan shall have a flanged casing extending for the length of the fan and motor
(unless specified or shown otherwise), complete with one or more airtight access
doors suitable placed for easy fan inspection. Each fan shall be fitted with inlet
and/or outlet cones and these cones shall be as supplied by the fan manufacturer.
(c)

Acoustic attenuators (silencers)

Packaged type sound silencers shall provide attenuation for the fans not to exceed
65 dBA.
Each silencer shall comprise of a galvanized steel case with internal sound
absorbing panels. Each panel shall consist of a high density fibre glass or rock wool
fill in a 0.6 mm thick perforated galvanize steel casing. The case shall be made from
1.6mm thick (minimum) galvanized steel with continuous welded or grooved seams
and with galvanized angle iron frame at each end fixed to the case. The case shall
be suitably braced so as to be completely air-tight and free from drumming or
distortion at pressure up to 1.25 kPa. Matching angle frames shall be supplied and
shall be jig drilled so as to be interchangeable.
The casing and cells shall have a smooth finish, with all edges neatly butted. Raw
edges, fixing straps or acres shall not protrude into the air stream.
14.8.13

DOE APPROVAL

The Contractor shall be responsible for submission of all relevant information,


catalogue, drawings, calculation etc. in relation to acoustic treatment installation to
Generator Room to Department of Environment for approval before installation.

S14-92

14.9

CABLE LAYING

14.9.1 CABLE TRENCH DEPTH BAND WIDTH


The trenches for cable are to be dug at least 2 feet 6 inches for street lighting and
LV cables and 3 feet 6 inches for HT cables in depth. The width depends upon the
number of cables in the trenches . Cables in trenches shall be layed at 150mm apart
from each other.
14.9.2 GENERAL PROTECTION
Cables are to sit on the bottom of the trenches, covered with approved type of
protection bricks throughout its whole length.
14.9.3 ROCKY GROUND
When rocky ground is encountered, apart from opening of road and paving, air
compressor is to be used, depth of the trenches may then be less than the above
specified depths and to be determined by the S.O.
14.9.4 ROAD CROSSING AND SAFETY
When cables are to be laid across roads, then they shall be sleeved with appropriate
size of galvanized pipes.
The Contractor shall be responsible for arranging temporary steel decking on road
crossings where trenches are opened, traffic control, men-at-work signs and to
execute works with utmost despatch and to avoid least inconvenience to the public.
Wherever required, warning lights should be placed at appropriate work sites to
minimize danger to the public and properties.
14.9.5 STORM DRAIN
When crossing storm drains, the cables are to be sleeved with galvanised pipes and
both ends of the pipes supported by concrete blocks. However, if the pipes are
going underneath the drain to the depth specified of which we prefer, pipe sleeving
are still required, but the concrete supports may be excluded. The Contractor will
supply all materials and workmanship for the concrete supports.
14.9.6 OTHER SERVCE MAINS
Galvanized pipe sleeving is again required for cable crossing other service mains,
such as water pipes Telecoms cable and sewage mains. The cables are to go 12
inches underneath the said mains and with the sleeving to cover at least 4 feet from
each side of the crossing.
14.9.7 CABLE ROUTE
Cable routes are to follow the plan provided for the works. Any deviation must have
prior approval from the S.O.
8.9.8

REINSTATEMENT

Compacting of trench must be done with hand compactor of at least 10 lbs. in


weight or other approved device all along the trench for the first time when the
reinstated fill is about 8 inches from the ground level, and a second time when the
trench is topped up. At areas where turfing are in existence before the cable laying
works, every effort must be made to reinstate turfing to the original state or to the
satisfaction of the SO. council or land owners.

S14-93

14.9.9

CABLE MARKERS

Cable markers shall be installed by the Contractor without additional charge at the
interval of 100 feet for straight route, on the point when route direction changes, and
on curve the interval is to be instructed by the SO. The cable markers shall he
provided by the Contractor to the SESCOs required standard.
14.9.10

CABLE HANDLING

The Contractor has to handle cable with great care and under no circumstances, the
cable is allowed to be bent to an arc with radius less than 20 times the overall
diameter of the cable itself.
14.9.11

SITE CLEARING

The Contractor is responsible to clear all waste materials, refuse from the site after
completion of works and to the satisfaction of the S.O.
14.9.12

CABLE JOINT MAN-HOLE

The Contractor shall excavate the man-hole for cable joint work. A sump hole for
collecting water shall be provided at one end. Water must be pumped out to form a
dry excavation before a cement base of 5 thick. In areas where the soil is soft, the
Contractor shall take appropriate step to prevent the collapse of soil by timber
sheltering.
14.10

UNINTERRUPTED POWER SUPPLY (UPS)

14.10.1

GENERAL

The UPS system shall comprise of a battery charger, storage battery, inverter, solid
state transfer switch, busbars, transformers and electronic protection; all housed in a
well ventilated galvanized steel cubicle of modular constructions.
The UPS system shall generally be used under air-condition environment but shall
be suitable for operation under the site condition as described earlier in the
specification during the breakdown of air-condition system without having any
adverse effect on the equipments.
Where required, additional filter elements such as tuned series resonant circuits
shall be installed parallel to the UPS equipment on the switchboard so as to reduce
the voltage distortion caused by higher order harmonics, to an acceptable level. The
Mean Time Between Failures shall be guaranteed to be not less than six (6) years.
14.10.2

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

The UPS shall operate as partially redundant system by consisting of a battery


charger, storage battery, inverter, static transfer switch and other accessories so that
during normal service the load is fed from the inverter. In the event of a fault
occurring in the inverter or charger and associated circuits and components, an
immediate changeover shall be affected by the static transfer switch to the mains.
The inverter, charger and all components shall be sized to take up the full connected
load as specified, but a device must be incorporated for the system to remain within
the tolerance voltage and frequency range during heavy starting load and
temporarily overload.

S14-94

14.10.3

SYSTEM COMPONENTS

The main components of the system shall be equipped with the following:1)

A battery charger comprising of transformer, 6 pulse or 12 pulse thyristor


rectifier, smoothing chokes, fuses, contactors and solid state voltage
regulator so as to supply, control and maintain a floating voltage charge to
the storage battery to within 1% of the float voltage.

2)

The inverter shall comprise of thyristor bridge transformer, solid state voltage
regulator, contactors, fuses and filter, so as to give a fundamental sinusoidal
output with all harmonics suppressed and constant voltage and frequency at
varying load current and varying battery voltage.

3)

The storage battery shall be of NiCad having a discharge time as specified


under. The battery shall be maintained at float voltage at all times and the
number of cells selected shall be equal to the maximum permissible inverter
input voltage. At no time shall the battery permissible minimum cell voltage
reach a combined total less than the minimum inverter input voltage
tolerance. The battery cells shall be arranged and installed neatly on either
single or multi tier rust-proof steel rack cabinet with adequate clearance for
maintenance.

4)

A thyristor transfer switch shall be designed to disconnect fault parts of the


equipments instantly and transfer the load to the mains without any
interruption.

5)

The busbar shall be of copper and housed in the same panel as the
incoming and outgoing feeders and circuits breakers. A manual bypass
service switch, ammeters, voltmeters, frequency meter, alarm and indicators,
battery charger time and mimic diagram shall be provided at a conspicuous
space of the panel.

14.10.4

OPERATIONAL DATA

The following operational data shall be minimum:1)

Input Voltage

200V 10%, Single Phase.

2)

Frequency

50 HZ 5%.

3)

Output Voltage

200V, Single Phase.

4)

Voltage regulation

1% from no load to full load.

5)

Frequency regulation -

0.5% from no load to full load.

6)

Load Power Factor

0.7 lead to 0.7 lag.

7)

Distortion Factor

less than 4%.

8)

Overload Capacity

150% for 5 minutes 1000% from line.

9)

Overall Efficiency

Greater than 90%.

10)

Output Power

5KVA.

11)

Battery Capacity

30 minutes of continuous operation at full load.

12)

Quantity Required

1 unit of UPS.

S14-95

14.11

ELECTRIC ACTUATORS FOR PENSTOCKS AND VALVES

Electrically operated actuators for penstock shall be sized to guarantee closure at the
maximum possible differential pressure across the door. The safety margin of motor power
available for unseating the door shall be at least 50 percent in excess of maximum closing
torque at the nominal supply voltage. The closing and opening shall take approximately 2
minutes for each operation unless otherwise specified. In addition, the electric actuator
shall include a pulsing timer assembly. The pulsing timer assembly shall provide automatic
inching operation of the valve over a pre-selected portion of the valve travel to effectively
achieve 2-speed valve movement. The point at which change of speed shall occur shall be
selected by setting of a limit switch in each direction. The pulse timer shall incorporate an
adjustable approximate starting period of 0-15 seconds and an adjustable approximate
Stopping period of 0-120 seconds per pulse. The available pulses shall not be less than
20.
The electric motors shall be Class F insulated and tropicalized and conform with the
specification with a time rating of 15 minutes or twice the stroking time whichever is longer.
Duty rating shall be S2 or S4.
Motor burn-out protection shall be provided by direct sensing of motor temperature by a
thermostat embedded in the motor winding. A changeover volt-free contact for remote
indication of motor tripped shall be provided.
A space heater shall be provided in the electric actuator. The heater shall be suitable for
use on a single phase AC supply and wired to the terminals compartment. The heater shall
be sufficiently rated to maintain the temperature above dew point when the actuator motor
is stationary.
The actuator gearbox shall be of totally enclosed oil bath lubricated type, suitable for
operation at any angle and provided with the appropriate filling and drain plugs. The drive
shall incorporate a lost motion hammerblow feature. The output shaft shall be hollow to
accept a rising stem. Thrust bearings of the ball or roller type shall be provided in such a
way that the gear case can be opened for inspection or disassemble without releasing the
stem thrust or taking the valve out of service.
A handwheel shall be provided for emergency operation and shall be arranged such that
when engaged, the motor shall be automatically disconnected mechanically and
electrically and the drive being restored to power only after disengaging the handwheel
and by starting the motor. The handwheel and any gearing shall be such as to permit
emergency manual operation in a reasonable time and in any case shall not exceed one
hour. Clock wise operation of the handwheel shall give closing movement of the valve
unless otherwise stated.
The actuator shall be furnished with a drive bushing easily detachable for machining to suit
the spindle or gearbox input shaft. The drive bushing shall preferably be positioned to
enable standard length stems to be used. The respective valve manufacturer shall furnish
stem details so that the actuator manufacturer can machine the drive bushings to suit the
valve extended spindles. Unless otherwise specified, extended spindles, wherever
required, shall be of hot dipped galvanized mild steel construction coated with coal tar
epoxy paint. Where the length of the extended spindle exceeds 1 .5 m length, universal
couplings shall be incorporated.
Electric actuators shall be provided with open and close torque and position limit switches
with separate changeover volt-free contacts at each end of travel for remote indication and
inter-locking. Means shall be provided to prevent the open torque switch tripping while the
initial unseating hammer blow effect is applied.

S14-96

Two extra sets of limit switches shall be provided, as required, with at least three switches
per set, each set independently adjustable to any opening or closing position.
The reversing contactor starter and local controls shall be integral with the actuator, suitably
housed to prevent breathing and condensation build-up.
Static or solid state control components will not be accepted.
The starter shall be suitable for 60 starts per hour, and shall comprise mechanically and
electrically interlocked reversing contactors of appropriate rating to the motor size with coils
fed from a 110 volt control transformer of 40 VA minimum rating. The common connection
of the contactor coil at the transformer shall be earthed so that the contactors drop out in
the event of leakage to earth. The primary winding shall be separated from the secondary
by an earthed screen and the secondary output shall be protected by an easily replaceable
cartridge type fuse.
When the distance between the actuator and the remote control point exceeds 500 meters,
the remote control voltage shall be 24V DC, derived from a rectified supply from the remote
control point. The required DC interposing relays shall be incorporated in the actuator and
shall be suitable for satisfactory operation within 80-110% of the nominal DC voltage.
A phase discriminator shall he incorporated to ensure correct rotations.
Local controls shall comprise pushbutton switches to Open, Close and Stop and a
Local/Off/Remote selector switch padlockable in any one of three positions:
-

Local control only

Off-On electrical operation

Remote control plus local stop only

Padlocks shall be provided.


A monitoring relay with a normally open contact to indicate that the actuator is available for
remote operation shall be provided with the relay being energized from the control
transformer only when:
-

Local/Off/Remote selector switch is in Remote position

3 phase power supply available

Control supply available

Phase rotation correct

Thermostat not tripped

Local stop button not locked off

Internal wiring shall be of tropical grade PVC insulated stranded cable of 5A minimum
rating for control circuits and of appropriate size for the control and 3-phase power.
Each wire shall be clearly numbered and identified at each end. The terminals shall he of
the stud type. Cable entries shall he suitable for PVCSWAPVC cables.

S14-97

The terminal compartment shall be separated from the inner electrical components of the
actuator by means of a watertight seal and the compartment shall he provided with a
minimum of three threaded cable entries. All wiring supplied as part of the actuator shall be
contained within the main enclosure for physical and environmental protection. External
conduit connections between components are not acceptable. A durable terminal
identification card showing plan of terminals shall be provided and attached inside the
terminal box cover indicating serial number, external voltage values, wiring diagram number
and terminal layout.
The actuator enclosure shall he weatherproof, hoseproof and water tight to IP 68 of BS
5490 with sealing 0-rings. The terminal compartment shall be separately sealed from the
rest of the enclosure so that wiring and integral controls are not adversely affected by
water, while the cover is removed from site cabling or maintenance.
Each actuator shall be supplied complete with installation instructions and wiring diagram
and sufficient spare cover screen and seals to make good site losses.
14.12

RING MAIN UNIT

14.12.1

SYSTEM AND FAULT LEVEL

Switchgears shall be suitable for operation on 3 phase, 50Hz systems of 11.0 KV


nominal voltage. The system highest voltage is 10 per cent in excess of the nominal
voltage. The neutral is solidly earthed. The symmetrical 3 phase short circuit rating
is to be 350 MVA r.m.s. at 11KV and all current carrying equipment shall be capable
of withstanding this fault level for a period of three seconds.
14.12.2

INSULATION LEBELS AND CLEARANCES

The impulse withstands level of the switchgear and equipment shall be not lower
than 75 KV when tested in accordance with B.S.
14.12.3

TEMPERATURE RISE

Each current carrying component of the equipment shall be capable of continuous


operation at the specified ratings without exceeding the maximum temperature rises
stated in the appropriate B.S. Tenderers are requested to state in the Schedule of
Particulars the permissible overload rating for the switchgear operating under
emergency conditions, together with the duration and ambient temperature for which
it applies.
14.12.4

BUSBARS AND CONNECTIONS

The busbars and connections shall be copper and shall comply with the
requirements of B.S. 159:1957.
The busbars are to be continuously rated in accordance with B.S. 159:1957 for the
site conditions and current specified.
Busbar connections dependent upon site welding techniques will not be permitted.
The busbars and connections shall be so connected and supported that under no
circumstances, including short circuit conditions can the clearances between other
conductors be less than the required clearances as specified in B.S. 159.
14.12.5

CABLE BOXES

Cable boxes shall be supplied for terminating the cables using thermofit heat
shrinkable materials. They shall be designed for ease of access for jointing and for
connecting the cable, preferably by removing half of box and cable gland separately.
Provision shall be made for earthing the cable box.
S14-98

14.12.6

INTERLOCKS

The ring main units shall be provided with an interlock system which ensures safe
operation of the equipment under all service conditions.
Mechanical interlocking shall be effective at the point where hand power is applied
so that stresses cannot be transferred to parts remote from that point.
14.12.7

EARTHING FACILITIES

Means shall be provided to earth the outgoing circuits.


14.12.8

CORONA

Equipment shall be designed so as to minimise corona or other electrical discharge


and radio interference.
14.12.9

DERUSTING PROCEDURE AND FINISHING

All metal parts of the Switchgear, after fabrications are to be de-greased and derusted with rust removal chemical or Sand blasting. After the de-rusting treatment,
the switchgear shall be applied with one coat of red oxide primer, followed by one
undercoat and a final finishing coat of water and oil resisting grey enamel paint as
specified in BS 381C Shade 631.
14.12.10

CIRCUIT LABELS

The Contractor shall provide detachable circuit labels. Circuit labels shall be blank,
engravable, and of a white background. Provisions shall be made by the Contractor
for labels to be attached to the switchgear at a prominent position.
14.13

TRANSFORMER

14.13.1

DESIGN

The transformers shall be double wound, oil immersed, naturally cooled and
designed, manufactured and tested in accordance with the British Standard
Specification Number 171-1978.
The transformer shall be the product of an acceptable manufacturer regularly
engaged in the fabrication of this type of equipment. The name of the proposed
manufacturer shall be stated in the tender.
The losses of the Transformer must comply to SESCo Engineering circular No.
5/2000.
14.13.2

SERVICE

The transformers shall be suitable for outdoor installation.


The design of the transformers shall permit their installation in electrically exposed
positions and must be suitable for impulse tests, with insulation levels in accordance
with Table 8 BS 171-1970 for system highest voltages 12KV.
14.13.3

NOISE LEVEL

Transformers shall comply with the requirements of Appendix 'B' of ESI Standard
35-1 and actual readings obtained shall be provided on the Transformer Test
Certificates.

S14-99

14.13.4

TANK AND FITTINGS

GENERAL
The tank shall be full oil tight and all joints shall be protected from the weather so
that even if the joint becomes loose, driving rain cannot force moisture into the tank.
In addition the construction shall be such as to prevent the collection of moisture in
pockets where corrosion is liable to occur, even if individual bolts happen to be
loose. All gaskets shall be of rubberised cork such as "Firefly" or "Nebar".
Transformer tanks shall be fitted with external cooling tubes or ribs and shall be of
sufficiently strong construction to allow the transformers to be delivered to site
completed with the winding covered by oil.
Tanks covers shall be designed and constructed to prevent the accumulation of
moisture on the outside.
Tanks shall be provided with lifting lugs strong enough to allow a transformer filled
with oil to be lifted by a crane.
14.13.5

FINISH

The following paint systems shall be used.


1.

The interior of the tank shall be thoroughly cleaned and scraped, preferably
by shot blasting.

2.

The exterior shall be thoroughly cleaned, scraped and wire brushed to


remove all rust, grease and dirt. Immediately after preparation the exterior
shall be primed with one coat of red oxide primer followed by two coats of
best quality anti-corrosive finishing paint.

Adequate clearance must be provided between high voltage and low voltage leads
within the transformer tank.
End clamping of the winding is to be achieved by means of adjustable tie rods in the
winding clamp frame.
The tapping switch operating shaft is to be provided with a universal joint between
the transformer tank and the switch contacts in order that correct alignment may be
ensured. The switch is to be of the multi-step rotary type and contacts are to be
provided with a spring mechanism which ensures their positive location in each
switch position. Indication of tap position is to be provided on the tapping switch
handle which is also to have provision for locking using a padlock.
14.13.6

TRANSFORMER FITTINGS

All transformers are to be provided with the following fittings:


a)

Rating and connection plate.

b)

Earthing terminal stud.

c)

Oil level gauge.

d)

Drain valve and plug.

e)

Lifting lugs.

f)

Breather.

g)

Oil filling hole and plug.

S14-100

h)

Thermometer pocket.

i)

Externally operated tapping switch.

14.13.7

SHORT CIRCUIT WITHSTAND

The transformers shall suitable for operation on a system with the specified primary
fault level of 350MVA.
The transformers shall be capable of withstanding, on any tapping, without damage
under service conditions, the electromagnetic forces arising under the specified
short circuit conditions, as determined from the asymmetrical peak value of the
current in the windings.
The asymmetrical peak value of current of the primary system is not specified it shall
be taken to be 2.55 times the symmetrical value.
Transformer shall also be capable of withstanding on any tapping, without damage
under the service conditions, the thermal effects of a short circuit at the terminals for
the durations as specified or stated in specified standards, which ever is the greater
without exceeding the maximum permissible average winding temperature for such
conditions.
Transformer to be short circuit and impulse type tested to BS 171-1978.
14.13.8

WINDINGS

Transformer windings shall be fully insulated.


14.13.9

TERMINALS

Terminals shall be arranged on opposite sides of the transformer in cable boxes.


They shall be located in such a manner that it shall be possible to remove the core
and windings from the tank without breaking the terminal oil seals. The terminals
arrangement shall be designed to prevent oil leakage.
It shall be possible to remove the cable boxes without lowering the oil in the main
tank.
14.13.10

CABLE TERMINATIONS

Transformers shall be complete with cable supports, cable boxes, glands, clamps,
lugs etc. for the complete termination of the primary and secondary cables and
cores using thermofit shrinkable materials.
14.13.11

OIL

The transformer shall be supplied with a complete fill of transformer oil to BS 148.
14.13.12

NAME PLATES

The transformer shall be provided with a rating plate and terminal marking plate.
14.13.13

INSTALLATION

The transformer shall be provided with holding down lugs and bolted to a foundation
pad.
14.13.14

FACTORY TESTS

The following tests and checks shall be carried out at the manufacturer's works as
part of this contract.

S14-101

a)

Visual check of complete transformer.

b)

Routine tests in accordance with BS 171.

c)
Verification that the transformer complies with the specification and
drawings.
The contractor shall allow the S.O. the option of witnessing the test. Seven working
days notice shall be provided before tests are due to commence.
Test certificates shall be submitted to the S.O. for acceptance.
Test certificates verifying type tests on this type of transformer, shall be provided for
review.
14.13.15

DOCUMENTATION

Fully detailed workshop drawings of the transformer shall be submitted for review
before manufacture commences. The drawing shall show the following details.
a)

Fully dimensioned drawing of the transformer with all auxiliaries and the
cable terminations shown.

b)

Weight of transformer with and without oil.

c)

Quantity of oil required for the transformer.

d)

Drawings of the nameplates complete with all details.

14.14

VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE (VSD)

14.14.1

GENERAL

This part of the specification describes the general requirements for the Variable
Speed Drives, the VSDs. The nominal values, the standard documents and the
drives minimum performance are defined in this part. The VSD does not include
motor in this specification. The specification uses the term Motor unit, which means
a combination of the VSD and the motor.
14.14.2

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE MANUFACTURER

14.14.2.1

CERTIFICATIONS

The Frequency Converter Manufacturer shall have a valid ISO 9001 certification and
an applicable quality assurance system.
The Frequency Converter Manufacturer shall have the Environment Certification
ISO 14001.
14.14.2.2

EXPERIENCE

The Frequency Converter Manufacturer shall have adequate experience in


frequency converter manufacturing and have adequate business volume in order to
provide credibility in his commitments and a capability of long term support.
14.14.2.3

LOCAL SUPPORT

The Supplier shall have a permanent representative office with a trained and skilled
support staff, in the country where the goods are delivered, in order to prove his
commitment for local support and to provide a channel for communication. The local
representatives shall be easily accessible.

S14-102

The engineers employed by the Suppliers regional office shall be certified by the
Manufacturer and provide start-up service including physical inspection of the drive,
connected wiring and final adjustments, to ensure that the VSD meets the required
performance.
The Supplier shall also be capable of solving most VSD problems quickly. He shall
also have a 24-hour support from the Drives Factory, to avoid any delays during
service or repair work on the site.
The Manufacturer shall be able to offer commissioning of the drive to be done by the
local office.
The most common spare parts like fuses, IGBTs as well as main control and I/Oboards shall be available through a regional service center of the Supplier. The more
rarely used spare parts should be available in maximum 7 days on site.
14.14.3

BASIC REQUIREMENTS FOR THE VSDs

14.14.3.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

The VSD shall be of the most modern design, yet user friendly and be simple to
install, commission and maintain. The VSD shall be able to start and control the
speed of a standard squirrel cage induction AC motor. The VSDs shall be CE
marked. The VSDs have to be built to comply with the IEC standards. In the
Australian market the VSDs shall have a C-tick.
The materials used in the VSD shall be recyclable, non-toxic and flame retardant.
The VSD shall be a digitally controlled drive, using, at least, the Pulse Width
Modulation (PWM) flux vector control, a Direct Torgue Control (DTC), or equivalent.
It shall have IGBTs in the inverter section of the throughout the power range, and it
shall have the following minimum specifications.
Operating conditions:
Rated Input Voltage

380V-415V, three-phase, 10%

Rated Input Frequency

48-63Hz

Fundamental Power Factor

0.97 or better at nominal load and speed

Efficiency

98% at nominal load and speed

Output Voltage

0-UN, three-phase

Output Frequency Range

0 to 300Hz, adjustable

Output Frequency Resolution

0.01Hz

Accel/Decel Time

0-1800s, adjustable

Overloadability (by load type)

Constant Torque

150% of nominal current for 1 min in every 5


mins.

Variable Torque (pump & fan)

No overloadability required

Ambient Temperature

Min -15C, max 40C, for higher temperatures


see below

Installation Altitude

1000m, for higher altitudes see below

S14-103

Max. Relative Humidity

95%, non-condensing. In presence of corrosive


gases, the max. relative humidity is 60%

Max. Corrosion Level of the


Cooling Air

Chemical Gases

IEC 721-3-3, class 3C2

Solid Particles

IEC 721-3-3, class 3S2

Max. Vibration Level (IEC 682-6)

2 to 9Hz

0.3mm

9 to 200Hz

1m/s2

Main Protections

Overcurrent, short circuit, input/output phase


loss,
motor
overload
and
underload,
over/under-voltage,
overspeed,
overtemperature, motor stall, other internal
fault.

The VSD shall be able to give a 100% output current continuously in the above
specified conditions. In order to ensure that the drive can provide the required output
current in the specified ambient conditions, the Manufacturer shall inform the
required derating, if the ambient temperature given in the project-specific
specification is higher than 40C or if the installation altitude is more than 1000m
above the sea level. The derating factor shall be specified so that neither the lifetime
of the VSD nor the units performance, overloadability included, nor the reliability of
the VSD shall suffer.
Storage conditions (in the protective package):
Ambient Temperature

-40 to +70C

Corrosion Level of the Cooling


Air

Chemical Gases

IEC 721-3-3, class 1C2

Solid Particles

IEC 721-3-3, class 1S3

Max. Vibration Level (IEC 682-6)

2 to 9Hz

1.5mm

9 to 200Hz

5m/s2

Shock (IEC 68-2-29)

Max. 100m/s2, 11 ms

Free fall

250mm for weight under 100kg


100mm for weight over 100kg

S14-104

14.14.3.2

VSD ACCURACY

The VSD shall have a minimum speed control accuracy of 10% of the nominal slip
of the motor without a pulse encoder feedback. In practice, this means e.g. for a
four-pole, 50Hz motor with a 45rpm slip speed, an accuracy of 0.3% of the motor
nominal speed. The VSD shall be capable of a dynamic accuracy of at least 0.4%
sec. without additional options. If this accuracy is not achieved without a speed
feedback, the Manufacturer shall specify the accuracy that can be reached and if
required, a pulse encoder with adequate control devices shall be included in the
motor unit at the VSD Suppliers expense. The dynamic accuracy means the drives
capability to response fast in a dynamic situation, for example, if the load changes. It
is measured by the change of speed and time, i.e. how long it takes to recover to the
reference speed.
14.14.3.3

STARTING TORQUE AND TORQUE STEP RISE TIME

Constant torque applications: The Starting Torque of the Motor unit without a pulse
encoder feedback shall be at least 150% of the rated Motor unit torque.
Variable torque applications: The Starting Torque of the Motor unit without a pulse
encoder feedback shall be at least 100% of the rated Motor unit torque.
In case of need of fast torque rise time, the torque step rise time from 10% to 90% of
the full nominal torque should be less than 5ms, when the motor is fully magnetized.
If the motor mechanical time constants are longer than that, the torque step rise time
should be according to mechanical time constant.
14.14.3.4

QUALITY ASSURANCE AND WARRANTY

Every VSD has to be tested functionally. The inverter part of the VSD or each
inverter module at least has to be tested by running it with a motor at full nominal
load. A test report of the tests made has to be included with the VSD.
The warranty period of the VSD has to be a minimum of 24 months from the date of
delivery or 12 months from the date of commissioning, whichever comes first.
14.14.4

ENCLOSURE AND MOUNTING

The VSDs up to 400kw in 400v or 500kw in 500v and 690v can be installed
separately in drive modules. The modules must be of booklshelf design. In drives
75kw there should be a possibility for flange mounting, to provide for cases, when
the drive is installed in a cabinet and to enable installation of the heatsink outside
the cabinet.
Above 400kw (500kw in 500v and 690v), the VSD shall be equipped with main
switch must be available either as standard or, at least, as an option. The switch
shall be equipped with a door interlocked handle, padlockable in the open position.
The Control Panel of the VSD shall be accessible for programming and controls with
the main door closed. The whole assembly shall be implemented with a strict
consideration of the EMC Compatibility and Regulations as described further in this
specification.

S14-105

Panel Design Specs:


Standards

IEC 439-1, EN6439 & VDE660 Part 500

Protection Class

IP21 or better

Cabinet access

From front

Cable entry and exit

Bottom antry as standard. Both bottom and top


entry have to be possible.

Colour, front

Light beige, RAL 7035 or NCS 1502-Y

14.14.5

USER INTERFACE

14.14.5.1

GENERAL

The user interface shall be similar throughout the power range to avoid confusion
amongst the users and need for training in several different units.
14.14.5.2

INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

The following standard Inputs and Outputs at least shall be provided, to be used in
interface with the control system:
Analog Inputs

Galvanically isolated as a group


1xProgrammable voltage input 0(2)-10v-must
be possible to use also a bipolar-10-+10v
2xProgrammable current input 0(4)-20mA

Analog Outputs

2xProgrammable current outputs 0(4)-20mA

Digital Inputs

6xProgrammable Digital Inputs, opto-isolated,


common or separate ground

Relay Outputs

3xProgrammable Digital
changeover dry contact

outputs

with

All the control terminals shall be clearly marked, they must be of plug-in type and
their size must be at least 1.5mm2 to make wiring easier. The control connections
must comply with PELV (Protective Extra Low Voltage) requirements.

S14-106

The following functions at least shall be available via the I/Os:


Input

Output

Analogue

Analogue

Speed reference

Motor speed

Torque reference

Motor torque

PID-control feedback (actual value)

Motor current

Correction signal to reference

Output frequency
Output voltage
Output of the process PID controller
Control deviation of the PID controller
Actual value of the PID controller
Process speed

Digital

Relay

Start

Fault

Stop

Running

Forward / reverse

Ready

Pre-programmed constant speeds

Rotation direction

Speed up / down (motor potentiometer)

Fault / warning

Start and stop from 2nd source

Warning

Selection of acceleration / deceleration


ramp

Stall fault or warning

Selection of user macro

VSD temperature fault or warning

Run enable

Motor temperature fault or warning

Selection of control place

Speed or torque limit reached

Fault reset

Motor magnetized
Controlled via serial communications

S14-107

14.14.5.3

SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS

The VSD shall as standard have a provision for communication with PC software
tools. In addition, the following serial communication protocols at least shall be
available as option: Modbus. Modbus+, Interbus-S, Profibus DP. LON Bus and
DeviceNet. It shall be possible to add the serial communication later.
14.14.5.4

VSD KEYPAD

The VSD shall have a detachable keypad with a back lit 4-line, 20-character
alphanumeric operating display for programming and controlling purposes. The
displayed messages shall be in user friendly, descriptive text. Coded messages are
not acceptable. Parameter setting shall be possible by using the keypad.
Parameter setting shall be easily accessible and user friendly with actual text
messages. Password protection shall be provided to avoid unauthorized tampering
with the set parameters. It shall be possible to read and write the set parameters
with the help of the control pad, enabling thus copying of parameters between the
VSDs of a similar application, to save time during the commissioning and to avoid
mistakes.
Direct keypad entry shall be provided to observe the following actual parameters.
Any three of the following parameters or actual values shall be selected to be
always displayed.
-

Input Voltage

Input Frequency

Output Voltage

Output Frequency

DC Bus Voltage

Output Power

Output Torque

Output Current

Motor Speed

Process Speed

The following parameters shall always be displayed during normal operation.


-

Speed Reference

Run/Stop/Fault

Remote/Local

The VSD shall have self-diagnostic properties to display faults and warnings as they
occur and be able to store at least 15 previous faults into the fault memory. The fault
memory shall be accessible by PC maintenance tools.
The following drive control functions at least shall be available from the keypad:
-

Run

Stop

Local/Remote selection
S14-108

Forward/Reverse (if function enabled)

Accelerate (manual/mode)

Decelerate (manual/mode)

Parameter setting

Scrolling & Viewing through Actual values

14.14.5.5

APPLICATION PROGRAMMING

The VSD shall be designed for both simple and the most complicated applications,
yet it shall be user friendly. The VSD shall have built-in application macros, to allow
selection of the range of pre-programmed control configurations and further, the
VSD shall enable storing of two customer modified macros at least, to suit the
specific application. It shall be possible to reset the parameter settings back to the
original macro settings through the keypad. The parameter readouts shall be in text
format and not coded.
For customizing purposes the drive must have a block programming possibility on
top of the standard parameters.
14.14.5.6

PC TOOLS

The VSD Supplier shall have a Windows based PC software available for monitoring
and controlling the VSDs, and the software shall be offered as an option. The
software shall be supplied with the necessary hardware and a provision for
connection a PC with the VSD. It shall be possible to set and modify parameters,
control the drive, read actual values and make trend analysis using the software.
14.14.6

SOFTWARE FEATURES

14.14.6.1

POWER LOSS RIDE-THROUGH

The drive shall have a power loss ride-through capability. This means that the drive
controls should stay alive during a power loss by means of the energy stored in the
load. The ride through time shall be the longer the higher the kinetic energy of the
load is. The motor shall be magnetized as long as there is kinetic energy in the
system.
14.14.6.2

FLYING START

The drive shall have a built-in Flying Start feature. This feature will allow a Motor unit
which is still rotating, to be restarted without first stopping it. The VSD shall restart
the motor from the rotating speed and then reaccelerate to the speed indicated by
the speed reference signal. The Flying Start feature shall be available in both
directions, to be able to start the drive in the required direction regardless of the
rotation direction of the motor.
14.14.6.3

FLUX OPTIMISATION

The VSD shall have a built-in automatic Flux Optimization function. The Flux
Optimization function minimizes the sum of the magnetizing current and the load
current so that the drive can still follow the given reference. This feature reduces
energy consumption and motor noise when driving at less than the nominal load.

S14-109

14.14.6.4

FLUX BRAKING

There shall be a possibility for Flux Braking, where VSD increases the motor
magnetization to dissipate the extra energy in case of need for small braking power.
It shall be possible to use the braking to decelerate the motor from one speed to
another-not only for stopping the motor.
14.14.6.5

CRITICAL SPEED JUMP-OVER

The VSD shall have programmable skip speeds to jump over critical resonance
speeds. If the speed reference is in the critical speed area, it is ignored and the
latest speed reference is maintained. Three programmable critical speeds at least
shall be available.
14.14.6.6

CURRENT/SPEED LIMITING

In case the acceleration or deceleration ramps are too fast for the drive capacity, the
drive shall be able to automatically reduce the ramp to prevent tripping. Also, in case
of transient overloads the drive shall automatically reduce speed to prevent an
overcurrent trip, if the drive capacity is not sufficient to handle the load.
14.14.6.7

PID-CONTROLLER

The drive shall have a built-in-PID-controller for control of the customer process.
14.14.6.8

RESTART

In the event of a fault trip due to overvoltage, overcurrent or loss of analogue signal,
the VSD shall be programmable to attempt an automatic restart. For safety reasons,
the maximum number of attempts shall be five (selectable) within a short time. If the
fault does not clear after the attempts, the drive shall lock out.
14.14.7

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

14.14.7.1

HARMONIC DISTORTION

The VSD shall have built-in AC or DC chokes to minimize the Total Harmonic
Distortion (THD). The VSD must comply to IEC 1800-3, IEC 1000-3-2 and IEC
1000-3-4 requirement.
14.14.7.2

EMC REGULATIONS AND COMPATIBILITY / C-TICK

The supplied VSDs shall carry the CE mark (or C-Tick in Australia) indicating that
they comply with the essential requirements of the relevant EU directives (or C-Tick
requirements in Australia). The VSDs shall meet the requirements set in EN 61800-3
for Industrial Low-Voltage Networks. If the project-specific specification states that
the requirements for Public Low-Voltage Networks stated in EN 61800-3 must be
met, the Supplier shall be able to provide such units at least up to 75kw in earthed
networks. If separate EMC filters are required, they shall be of built-in type.
A detailed description and other directions to maintain the EMC Compatibility during
the installation of the VSD and associated field cables and connections, shall be
given by the Supplier in conformance with the EMC Directives or C-Tick. The
Contractor shall follow the directions during installation, in order to achieve
attenuation of the RFI.

S14-110

14.14.7.3

AUDIBLE NOISE

The full load audible noise of the frequency converter shall not exceed 70dB (A) in
75kw applications and below. 75-400kw, the full load audible noise shall not exceed
72dB (A) and above that it shall not exceed 78dB (A). If the frequency converter is
installed in a cabinet and requires a separate cooling fan, these limits also include
the noise of the additional cooling fan. This requirement is made to keep the
electrical room quiet so that is not necessary to use hearing protection. The audible
noise of the motor should also be minimized. For that purpose the switching
frequency of the frequency converter shall be at least 2 kHz throughout the power
range.
14.14.7.4

EFFICIENCY

The full load efficiency of the VSD shall be at least 97.5% including all the additional
equipment which is needed to meet this specification.
14.14.8

DOCUMENTS

14.14.8.1

DOCUMENTS TO BE DELIVERED WITH THE QUOTATION

The following documents have to be delivered with the quotation:


Drawings

Dimension drawings, control connection diagram for a


standard unit. If order specific engineering is required, the
engineered drawings have to be sent for approval before
the delivery.

Quality assurance

Quality Plan

14.14.8.2

DOCUMENTS TO BE DELIVERED WITH THE DELIVERY

The following documents have to be delivered with the delivery:


Manuals

These must contain instructions on how to install and startup the VSD, how to program the VSD instructions for
maintenance and for trouble shooting. The VSD
Manufacturer must also present proper recycling
instructions for the VSDs.

Drawings

Dimension drawings, control connection diagram.

Quality assurance

Test reports

The VSD Manufacturer must also present proper recycling instructions for the
VSDs.

S14-111

14.15 PROJECTOR
Projector supplied shall have the follow specification:-

3LCD Display Technology

2600 ANSI Lumens

1024 x 768 Native Resolution (XGA)

4:3 Aspect Ratio

500:1 contrast ratio

Compact A4 size body

Light weight (less than 2.5kg)

Superb performance with 5000 hours lamp replacement cycle

With wired LAN connection

Low Standby Power Consumption

Quiet noise level (to be less than 30dB)

14.16 LED TV
LED televisions weight more advantages than any other television. The LED television is
able to perform refreshing rates faster than 240HZ. The faster the refresher rate, the
clearer the images will be. LED TV with a local dimming feature will reduce the level of
backlight in darker parts of images to allow for more details and contrast. The ratio range
for Panasonic Viera TH-L42E3K is 3,000,000:1. This gives the users a better chance to
adjust the display according to their personal preferences.
In order to display the status of the pump, Panasonic Viera TH-L42E3K will be chosen for
its details. The following specification is shown as below:
Screen Size:

42" (106cm) diagonal

Panel :

IPS LED LCD Panel (E-LED Backlight)

Contrast (Dynamic):

3,000,000:1

Resolution:

Full-HD 1,920 x 1,080 (16:9)

Applicable PC signals:

XGA, WXGA, SXGA 60Hz, 1920 x 1080


(HDMI)

Applicable Scanning Format :

Full-HD 1125p (50/60/24, HDMI), 1125i (50/60)


HD 750p (50/60) SD 625p (50), 525p (60),
625i (50), 525i (60)

Moving Picture Resolution:

300 lines

Sound:

Speakers 2 x 10 watt 1-Way Bottom Speakers

Dolby Digital/dts:

Dolby Digital

Input/Output SD Link:

Yes
(AVCHD/SD-VIDEO/Motion
JPEG
[Lumix] / MP4 [Xacti] / DivXHD/MKV /
MPEG4 / JPEG / MP3 /AAC/WMV/WMA
playback)

S14-112

USB 2 (1 rear, 1 side):

Mass Storage/Keyboard/WiFi

S14-113

HDMI Input:

3 (2 rear, 1 side)

Support Feature:

Audio Return Channel (Input 2)

PC Input:

Mini
D-sub
15-pin
Audio Input (HDMI, PC,

Composite, Component):

RCA phono type x 1 set (rear)

LAN Port:

Yes

Power Supply:

AC 110 - 240 V, 50/60 Hz

Rated Power Consumption:

N/A

Standby Power Consumption:

N/A

Dimensions (W x H x D):

1,002 x 611 x 75 mm (Panel depth: 41 mm)


(w/o stand)

Dimensions (W x H x D):

1,002 x 646 x 288 mm(with stand)

Weight (w/o stand):

15.0 kg

Weight (with stand):

17.0 kg

14.17

CCTV SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

14.17.1

GENERAL REQUIREMENT

14.17.1

The design, supply. Delivery, installation, testing, commissioning and


maintenance of the CCTV system shall include, but not limited to the
following:

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

EnviroDome day/night camera systems c/w compact zoom lens, PTZ motor,
extended receiver and accessories as specified.
Environ Dome PTZ controller
Remote positioning devices
Multiplexers
Color monitors
Digital Video Recorder -DVR
Lightning protection equipment
Low voltage 240Vac power cabling supplying power to all distributed CCTV
cameras and accessories
Distribution cabling (video, data and power), including armoured cables,
where applicable, cable ladders, racks and cable supporting systems (cable
trunking and concealed metal conduits); and Installation and termination of
all necessary cables. All other works and materials necessary for the efficient
operation of the whole CCTV system c/w power supply requirements and
surge arrestors and filters.

14.17.2

CCTV Location

The Contractor shall consider all the following in locating all remote site :
Each remote site shall be located at suitable and a safe location.
Cameras will normally be mounted on the existing buildings or structures subject to
acceptances.
All final remote site locations shall be acceptance by client.

S14-114

(rear)

The Contractor responsibility to locate all the necessary resources for the installation
and ensure the safety pre-caution during installation. All the necessary signboards
have to be erected during installation.
14.17.3

The primary objective of the system is to provide the security officers


clear and comprehensive View of the premises and locations of
equipment and field devices are as indicated in the schedules and/or
drawings.

14.17.4

The cameras are connected to the multiplexers and the DVR.

14.17.5

Each multiplexer shall have a DVR connected for recording purposes


and each DVR shall have a 21 color monitor connected to view 1, 4,
9, 16 or picture in picture.

14.17.6

The Control room shall have monitoring station c/w monitor and
keyboard with PTZ capability. The system shall have the flexibility of
partitioning the cameras so that certain stations can only view/control
certain cameras as well as full control as desired.

14.17.7

All control and switching equipment shall be centralized and located


in the Control Room unless otherwise specified.

14.17.8

All equipment supplied shall be from the same manufacturer.


Equipment supplied shall strictly be standard products from CCTV
suppliers. No tailor-made product shall be acceptable. The tenderer
shall submit catalogues of all equipment offered and Authorized
Appointment Certificate from manufacturer as a System Integrator.
Upon delivery, certificate of origin shall be submitted. Incomplete
tenders will run the risk of being rejected.

14.17.9

All products supplied must be UL listed and CSA approved.

14.18

MATERIALS

14.18.1

All materials shall be of new and unused quality. All equipment and
materials previously installed or used shall be rejected. Materials and
equipment shall be stored in such a manner-as to be in a new
condition when installed and to avoid damage from weather and site
conditions. Damaged, deformed and cracked equipment or materials
shall be rejected. Replacement shall be the responsibility of the
subcontractor at no additional cost to client.

14.18.2

Materials and equipment to be incorporated into the works (as called


for in this specification) are required to meet the quality / testing
standards of designated institutes, societies and standards
associations. However, equivalent materials and equipment items
meeting other authoritative standards which ensure an equal or
higher quality than the standards mentioned may also be accepted if
client gives his approval.

14.18.3

Should the subcontractor propose to furnish materials and equipment


other than those specified as permitted by the or approval equivalent
clause, he shall submit a written request for any such substitution.
Such requests shall be accompanied by complete descriptive
(manufacturers, brand name, catalog number, etc) and technical data
for all items, samples of both the specified and the proposed
substitute items.

S14-115

14.18.4

Acceptance or rejection of the proposed substitutions shall be


subjected to the approval of the client.

14.18.5

The expenses incurred by any such exercise shall be borne in full by


the subcontractor.

14.19

SYSTEM REQUIREMENT

14.19.1

The Cameras proposed shall be the latest model available and they
are to be installed as per tender drawings.

14.19.2

Tenderers shall substantiate with calculation showing that the lens


selected are sufficient and appropriate for the ample of coverage
desired by S.O.

14.19.3

All cameras shall be connected back to the control equipment in the


Control Room at Ground Floor of existing administration building.

14.19.4

In the Control Room, the officers shall be able to view multiple


cameras on the multiplexer and shall also be able to control the
DVRs functions such as stop, play, fast forward, record etc. from the
same keyboard that is used to switch the cameras on the monitor.
This keyboard shall be a standard product from the manufacturer.

14.19.5

The tenderer shall study the site and drawings to satisfy himself that
the cameras are installed in areas that shall give the best coverage
and also ease of maintenance in future.

14.20

SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS

14.20.1

The CCTV system shall be microprocessor controlled and shall be


flexible and easy to operate. Specified functions shall be easily
programmed and changed by the trained security supervisors.

14.20.2

The main monitoring equipment, monitors, multiplexer, DVRs etc.


shall be mounted in a console.

14.20.3

Cabling from the cameras to the control equipment shall be via


coaxial cable and tenderer shall ensure the type/size of the cable is
suitable for the cable run and that there is no interference from other
sources. The tenderer is to submit calculations to back up his
selection. Coaxial, data and power cables laid underground is to be
amoured.

14.20.4

The system shall be modular in design. The number of multiplexers


can be expanded up to 16 multiplexers.

14.20.5

The system shall have the flexibility of interfacing to a Graphical User


Interface (GUI) in future if (CLIENT) decides to purchase. This GUI
allows the operator to control and view and controls all cameras on
the PC.

14.20.6

The system shall also allow the provision of 1 keyboard which can
control the functions of any of the connected multiplexers as well as
the DVRs. The security officer shall be able to view full screen, quad,
16 or any combinations available on the multiplexer as well as the
DVRs functions such as stop, play, forward record etc. from one
single keyboard.

S14-116

14.21

EQUIPMENT SPECIFICATIONS

14.21.1

HIGH SPEED DAY/NIGHT ENVIRONDOME CAMERA

1)

This product shall be manufactured by a firm whose quality system is in


compliance with the I.S./ISO 9001/EN 29001, QUALITY SYSTEM.

2)

The AutoDome is a variable/high-speed, domed camera system consisting of


an integral 1/4-inch, high resolution, CCD camera with 18x (4.1 mm to 73.8
mm) optical zoom lens, pan/tilt, receiver/driver, and integral housing with
power supply. The camera shall be programmable to switch into night mode
(from color to b/w) by removing the IR filter when light levels drop below
specified threshold. From the keyboard, the user can also choose to switch
modes manually.

3)

The system is comprised of the following components, pre-assembled in an


outdoor pendant housing: (1) Camera and lens with covert inner liner, pan/tilt,
and receiver/driver; (2) Backbox/power supply module; and (3) 160 mm (6.3inch) dome module.

4)

The Auto Dome


switcher/controller.

5)

The camera system shall allow address setting remotely via Fast Address
or directly via the four digit thumbwheel on the unit.

system

shall

be

compatible

with

the

existing

6)

The camera system shall accept Biphase and RS-232 data formats.

7)

The camera system shall be available (120 VAC, 60 Hz and 230 VAC, 50 Hz
models only) with an integral 850nm fiber optic transmitter/receiver that
transmits video and receives data.

14.21.2

CAMERA

The following camera parameters may be remotely set or adjusted from the main
control site:
AGC
Zoom
Auto/manual focus and iris control
Backlight compensation
Auto pan speed
Camera address.
The camera shall provide continuous auto-focus and auto-iris zoom lens functions
which can be manually overridden by depressing their respective buttons on the
system controller keyboard.
14.21.3

Pan/Tilt:

The AutoDome contains an integral 360 pan/tilt. This variable speed pan/tilt is
capable of operating in the manual mode to speeds up to 120 per second.
The AutoDome system will store up to 99 preposition shots and seek any of those
preposition shots at the speed of 360 per second at an accuracy of 0.5 degrees.
The Auto Dome can be activated to autopan between two electronically-set limit
stops.
S14-117

The AutoDome system provides an AutoPivot feature which automatically rotates


the camera to simplify tracking of a person walking directly under the dome.
The AutoDome shall include Auto Scaling, allowing precise camera movement at all
zoom settings.
The AutoDome shall provide an Auto Playback (Guard Tour) feature which will
duplicate the exact control functions as programmed by the operator. The Playback
mode may be selected to operate one time or set to continuously repeat.
Two tours are available with a total duration of 15 minutes.
The AutoDome shall provide 16 programmable on-screen sector titles with a 16
character title for each sector and each preset position.
14.21.4

Housing

The EnviroDome housing shall be 9.625-inch (244.48 mm) outdoor, pendantmounted dome housing, with integral sunshield.
The housing shall allow for 360 degree viewing.
The housing shall be meet IP65 (NEMA 4) sealing requirements.
The housing shall be supplied with an internal heater and blower for environmental
applications.
The housing shall be available with clear or light-tinted lower dome capsules.
The top of the housing shall provide mechanical and electrical connection points for
the AutoDome.
The pole and wall mount models shall allow camera cabling to pass through the
mount's tubular body.
The roof parapet mount models shall include a 1191 mm H x 1045.8 mm L (46.88 H
x 41.18 L in) parapet mount that allows camera cabling to pass through its tubular
body.
14.21.5

Electrical Specification

Imager:

Interline transfer CCD, 1/4-inch format, 752 H x 582 V


active picture elements (NTSC), 752 H x 697 V active
picture elements (PAL).

Horizontal Resolution:

470 TVL (typical).

Video output:

1.0 Vp-p 0.1 Vp-p, 75 ohms.

Scene Illumination:
Usable Picture (f/1.4):

Frame integration off: day mode: 2.0 lux (.02 fc), night
mode: .2 lux (.02 fc)
Frame integration on: day mode: .13 lux (.013 fc),
night mode: .013 lux (.0013 fc).

Signal to Noise Ratio:

50 db minimum.

White Balance:

2000 to 10,000 K.

AGC:

18 db maximum gain.

Supply Voltage:

CCIR/PAL models: 230 VAC, 50 Hz.


S14-118

Power Requirement at supply voltage:


Camera:

20 watts maximum

Heater:

30 watts maximum

Total:

50 watts maximum.

14.21.6

Mechanical Specification

Connectors:
Video Out:

BNC

Data In:

Terminal block

Power:

Terminal block.

Lens Focal Range:

4.1 to 73.8 mm.

Angle of view:

48.0 (wide, no zoom), 2.7 (tele, full zoom).

Pan Range:

0 to 360 continuous.

Tilt Range:

0 to 90 from horizontal plane.

Pan/Tilt Speed:

variable to 120/second in manual mode, 360/second


in preposition seek mode.

Preposition Accuracy: .5.


Overall dimensions:

244.48 W x 324.36 H mm (9.625 W x 12.77 H in).

Weight:

5.9 kg (13 lb).

Construction:

Cast aluminum.

Finish:
Pendant housing:

Powder-coated white

Camera, liner:

Black

Dome capsule:

Clear.

14.21.7

Environmental Specifications

Operating Temperature:

-40 C to +50 C (-40 F to +122 F)

Storage Temperature:

-40 C to +60 C (-40 F to +140 F).

Humidity:

0% to 90% relative, noncondensing.

The housing shall be designed to meet NEMA-4, IP65 specifications.


14.21.8

Agency Approval

EMC Requirements:

CE Immunity, CE Emission Class A, FCC Class A.

Safety:

CE, UL, cUL.

S14-119

14.21.9

REMOTE RECEIVER/DRIVER

A)

General Requirements

1)

This product shall be manufactured by a firm whose quality system is in


compliance with the I.S./ISO 9001/EN 29001, QUALITY SYSTEM.

2)

The receiver/driver shall decode bi-phase control codes transmitted via


shielded twisted pair cable from a suitable device. The receiver/driver shall
also accept RS-232 control code data.

3)

The receiver/driver shall provide, but not be limited to, the following remote
camera site functions:

Pan, tilt, zoom, focus, and iris control


Dither function
Local Test Feature
Normal/reverse lens polarity selection
6 or 12 VDC lens drive selection
The ability to drive 360o continuous pan/tilt units
Zero crossing triac pan/tilt motor drive
Variable speed lens control
4)

The receiver/driver shall use cage clamp spring loaded terminal blocks for
ease of installation and connection reliability.

5)

The receiver/driver shall provide lockable enclosure latches.

14.21.10

Electrical Specifications

Supply voltage Input:

230 VAC, 50/60 Hz (198 to 264 VAC)

Pan/Tilt Output:
230 VAC, 50/60 Hz @ 2A OR
24 VAC, 50/60 Hz @ .4A
Power:
14.21.11

15 watts (not including pan/tilt unit)


16 x 2 COLOR DUPLEX SYSTEM 4 MULTIPLEXER

The product described in the following specification is the Color Video Multiplexer.
These multiplexers provide multi-camera recording and playback with the added
capability of multi screen viewing. Several camera sites may be monitored without
the need for multiple monitors and DVRs. Programming is easily accomplished with
on-screen display menus via the front panel control keys or by use of an optional
control keyboard.
The duplex multiplexer can encode up to 16 video inputs using a single DVR while
simultaneously displaying video in the full screen or in any of the multi-screen
modes.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
This product shall be manufactured by a firm whose quality system is in compliance
with the I.S./ISO 9001/EN 29001, QUANTITY SYSTEM.

S14-120

The multiplexer specified shall record (encode) and playback (decode) up to 16


cameras. The unit shall also have the capability of multi-screen viewing.
The multiplexer shall be capable of displaying any of sixteen (16) camera inputs to
either of two (2) monitor outputs.
The multiplexer, when used in conjunction with a optional full function keyboard,
shall provide pan/tilt/zoom control of receiver/drivers.
The multiplexer shall provide a quick setup feature to automatically configure itself
for recording, sequencing, and video loss list based on the number of cameras
connected to the unit.
In playback (DECODE mode), the multiplexer shall provide a full screen display of
any of the sixteen previously recorded cameras, or it can display a selection of any
of the cameras in one of the following multi-screen modes :
9 camera
16 camera
4 quarter size pictures (quad display)
12 camera + 1 quarter size picture
8 camera + 2 quarter size pictures
4camera + 3 quarter size pictures
The multiplexer shall provide up to four separate quad displays with the capability to
automatically sequence through all four quad displays.
The multiplexer shall provide a picture which is free of the annoying effects of onscreen flickering or aliasing.
Up to thirty multiplexers shall be programmable and controllable from one, optional,
full function keyboard.
The multiplexer shall provide a port that can be interfaced to a printer to provide a
copy of logged events. When used in conjunction with a full function keyboard, this
port of the multiplexer can also provide control of a DVR.
The multiplexer shall provide storage for six separate operational sets of preprogrammed parameters which may be stored in memory for manual call-up or time
activation.
The multiplexer shall provide the time and date, camera number, and a user
programmable 16 character camera title.
The multiplexer shall provide motion detection to analyze the motion content of all
camera inputs. To reduce the effects of false alarms, this digital action detection
function shall incorporate four levels of sensitivity.
The multiplexer shall provide, but not be limited to, the additional following features :
On-screen menu programming with help screens
Sequencing of cameras
Video Loss with on-screen indication and relay closure
Freeze function

S14-121

2X zoom function
Action/Alarm output relay contacts
Two levels of access to operation
Accepts sync pulse (VEXT) from DVRs.
The duplex models, while in the playback mode, shall be capable of providing a
multi-screen, quad, or full screen display of the recorded video on one monitor while
displaying a full-screen camera view of the recorded video on another monitor.
The duplex models, when not in the Record mode, shall be capable of viewing live,
full-screen, quad, or multi-screen displays on either or both monitors.
The duplex models shall also be capable of providing a live, full-screen, quad, or
multi-screen display on one monitor and, at the same time, while in the playback
mode, display a full-screen, quad, or multi-screen picture of recorded video on
another monitor.
The duplex models shall be capable of providing two encoded outputs so as to allow
two individually programmed camera lists to be recorded to videotape, using two
recorders.
The multiplexer shall contain a 720 H x 576 V (PAL) digital memory array.
AGC shall be individually adjusted for each input channel.
Rack mount kit shall be included with the product to mount one unit in a standard
EIA 19-inch rack.
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Video Input : 0.5 Vp-p to 2.0 Vp-p, composite video.
Rated voltage:
PAL : 230 VAC, 50/60 Hz
Power/Current:
PAL : 30 watts/.3 amps
MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Connectors :
Camera Inputs : 16 BNC with 16 looping BNC
VCR Output : 1 BNC
VCR Input : 1 BNC
Monitor Outputs : 2 BNC
Alarm : One 25-pin D
SDA : One 15-pin D for biphase control
Console : One 9-pin D for PC/Printer/VCR control
Power cord : 3-wire with grounded plug; 1.8 m (6 ft)
Dimensions : 440 W x 305 D x 40 H mm (17.3 x 12 x 1.7 in).

S14-122

Weight : 5.5 kg (12 Ib).


Construction : Steel chassis with sheet metal cover and plastic bezel.
Finish : Charcoal case.
ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
Temperature range : +0 C to +55 C (+32 F +131 F).
Humidity : 0 to 90% relative, non-condensing.
AGENCY APPROVALS
EMC Requirements : FCC Class A : CE Immunity : CE Emission Class A.
Safety : CE, UL, and cUL.
The System 4 duplex multiplexer should be Borch/Philips LTC2682/90/Approved
equivalent
14.21.12

ALARM INTERFACE UNIT

The product described in this specification shall be an Alarm Interface Unit. This
unit accepts up to 64 contact closures or logic levels from alarm sensing devices
such as door contacts, PIRs, etc., then reports alarm information to the main CPU
bay. This device is a supplementary system component for the microprocessorbased switcher/control systems.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
This product shall be manufactured by a firm whose quality system is in compliance
with the I.S./ISO 9001/EN 29001, QUALITY SYSTEM.
This alarm interface unit shall accept up to 64 contact closures selectable as either
normally open or normally closed. Active logic levels shall also be accepted.
The alarm interface unit shall provide eight (8) alarm relay outputs selectable as
normally open or closed contacts, The action of the output relays shall depend upon
the alarm contact applied to the system and on how the matrix system has been
programmed to respond to the alarm signals.
The alarm interface shall have an audible alarm buzzer capable of being disabled
via an internal dipswitch.
Unit shall selectable baud rates of 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, and 19200 bps.
Front panel shall have Power and Alarm LED indicators.
Switcher/controller bay shall be rack mountable conforming to EIA 19-inch rack
standards.
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Supply Voltage/Power : 12VAC @ 8 VA nominal (from main CPU bay via 5 ft.
interface cable supplied by manufacturer).
Alarm output relay rating : 1000VDC, 0.75A, 10 watts.
MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Dimensions : 89 H x 432 W x 254 D mm (3.5 x 17 x 10 inches). Supplied with
integral mounting flanges for EIA 19-inch rack.

S14-123

Weight : 1.8 kg (4 Ibs.)


Finish : Charcoal-colored case
Connectors : (1) 9-pin D and (10) 12-contact connectors with screw terminals.
14.21.13

AUTODOME PTZ CONTROLLER

This product shall be provided complete control of the AutoDome systems


advanced features including variable speed, auto tour, 99 presets and full
pan/tilt/zoom operation all from a single one-handed control unit.
Compact in size and user-friendly, the controller shall be provided control of a single
Autoome camera system, or up to eight AutoDome units when used in a daisy-chain
configuration. The controller shall be also compatible with standard Allegiant series
Receiver/Driver, using Allegiant biphase control code. The controller included a 22key control unit with integral vector-solving pan/tilt/zoom joystick, interface box, and
appropriate supply.
SYSTEM SPECIFICATION
Rated Voltage

: 230VAC, 50/60Hz

Transmission Distance

: 1.5km using 1 mm2 shield twisted pair cable (Belden


8760)

Operation Temperature

: 0 C to +40C

Control Unit
Indicators

: Camera/Entry Data; 4-digit 7-segment LED display

Controls

: Set, user, Camera, Shot, On, Off, Enter, Clear,


Focus, Iris, 10 Digit

Numeric keypad, Joystick


Connector

: RJ-11

Finish

: Charcoal

Dimension

: 220W x 51 D x 6.11 H mm

Weight

: 0.55 kg

Interface Box
Indicator

: Green data LED

The Auto Dome PTZ Controller should be Borch/Philips KBD-Mux /Approved


equivalent
14.21.14

DIGITAL VIDEO RECORDER (DVR)

The product described in this specification shall be High Quality Images Digital
Video Recorder. This DVR shall provide high density real time and time-lapse
recording.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
This product shall be manufactured by a firm whose quality system is in compliance
with the I.S./ISO 9001/EN 29001, QUANTITY SYSTEM.

S14-124

This product shall include a four digit year display.


This video recorder shall include a one (1) year warranty from date of purchase by
original user provided claim is presented within 15 months from date of shipment.
The recorder shall be recorded the images in the internal hard drives and shall
provide the LCD status display and choice of common time-lapse recording speeds.
The recorder shall include Time/date search/programmable timer and compatible
with Philips and other manufacturers multiplexers.
The recorder shall provide high density recording in all speeds.
The recorder shall provide slow motion playback.
The recorder shall have a seven day programmable timer which starts and stops the
recording for any two selectable periods for each day of the week.
Alarm recording duration shall be pre-programmable for a period of 15, 30 seconds,
1 minute, 3 minutes or until alarm is manually discontinued.
The recorder shall have an audible alarm. When an alarm is received, the unit shall
begin recording from the READY mode in less than 1 second and approximately 1
second from the STOP mode.
The recorder shall provide high speed alarm search.
The recorder shall be capable of producing a black and white horizontal resolution of
350 lines and 300 lines color.
The recorder shall have a master clock function to synchronize all recorders when
linked in a daisy chain configuration.
The recorder shall have time/date titling set to off by default for use with digital
products.
The recorder shall provide an external camera switching pulse for optional switching
synchronization with multiplexers.
The recorder shall be designed to allow multiple units to be connected in series, so
that when the end of hard drive is reached on the first unit in the series, the next unit
will begin recording.
The recorder shall provide a raster generator for programming the unit without the
need for an external video input.
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Video Input : 1 Vp-p composite video, 75 ohm, unbalanced.
Video Output : 1 Vp-p composite video, 75 ohm, unbalanced.
Rated Voltages:
PAL model : 207 to 253 VAC, 50 Hz.
Nominal power requirement : 35 watts.
Syn System : Automatically detected
Digital Memory : 720 x 474 NTSC, 720 x 586 PAL.
Recording system : digital; internal hard drive.

S14-125

Optional DAT, AIT, or CD writer can be added through the SCSI connector using
standard SCSI-2 protocol
Capacity : 160 GB Min.
Search features : Time/date, alarm search. Rew/Fwd search mode
Recording speed : Event, 60 IPS, 20, 10, 5, 1, 0.5 and 0.02
Network : RJ45, 10/100 base T compatible.
MECHANICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Connectors :
Video In : 1 BNC
Video Out : 1 BNC
Audio In and Out : RCA phono jacks
External Interface : 15-pin D (with terminal strip adapter)
Dimensions : 444.5 W x 355.6 D x 44.45 H mm
ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
Operating temperature limits shall be +5 C to +40 C (+41 F to +104 F).
AGENCY APROVALS
UL Listed and CSA approved.
Complies with the limits for a Class B digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC
Rules and ICES-003 of Industry Canada.
The Digital Video Recorder should be Borch/Philips DVR1EP2/Approved
equivalent
14.21.15

MONITORS

21 Color Monitors
The product described in this specification shall be a 21 color video monitor. This
monitor is ideal for any CCTV surveillance application including educational,
industrial, retail, and commercial installations.
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
This product shall be manufactured by a firm whose quality system is in compliance
with the I.S./ISO 9001/EN 29001, QUANTITY SYSTEM.
The display tube shall provide a viewable picture area of 50 cm (20 in).
The horizontal resolution of this monitor shall be 50 TV lines.
The monitor shall allow selection of any two PAL video inputs via the BNC
connections to be displayed on the screen.
The monitor shall allow selection of any Y/C video input via the Y/C connection to be
displayed on the screen.
The monitor shall provide loudspeaker volume with front panel adjustment.

S14-126

The monitor shall be designed for desk top use or may be rack mounted using an
optional rack mount kit.
The monitor controls for adjusting contrast, brightness, color, tint, and input source
shal be located on the front panel.
The monitor shall provide controls for vertical and horizontal hold.
The monitor power shall be controlled via a front panel push-button.
ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATIONS
Video Inputs:
Composite : 0.5 to 1.5 Vpp, negative sync, composite video. Automatic switching
from 75 ohms termination to Hi-Z for looped through operation.
Y/C : 75 ohms unbalanced, Y signal : 0.7 Vpp, C signal : 0.3 Vpp.
Audio Input : Line level, 300mV. Impedance 47,000 ohms.
Rated Supply Voltage:
230 VAC, 50 Hz (198 to 264 VAC).
Power consumption at power at rated voltage : 0.72A.
Mechanical Specifications
AC Power Cord:
230 VAC: Euro standard 3 wire with grounded plug ; 1.5 m (5 ft) long.
Connectors :
4BNC (two looping per input).
5RCA phone jacks for audio inputs (two per input).
Cabinet :
Material Sheet metal with plastic front.
Finish charcoal.
Dimensions : 490 W x 428 D x 444 H mm (19.3 x 16.9 x 17.5 inches).
Weight : 28.5 kg (63 Ib)
ENVIRONMENTAL SPECIFICATIONS
Temperature:
Operating : 0 C to +40 C (+32 to +104 F)
Storage : -10 C to +50 C (-14 to 122 F)
Humidity : 90% relative, non-condensing.
AGENCY APPROVALS
EMC Requirements : FCC Part 15, Class B
Product complies with DHHS Rules 21 CFR applicable at the date of manufacture.

S14-127

Safety :
CE, LVD Requirements : EN60065 1993
UL : UL1410
cUL : CSA 22.2, No. 1.-M94.
The 21 Color Monitor should be Borch/Philips LTC2821/90/Approved
equivalent
14.21.16

POWER SUPPLY

14.21.16.1

The subcontractor shall make provision for all necessary power


supply units, voltage regulators, etc, to ensure that the equipment will
perform satisfactorily c/w necessary surge arrestors and filters.

14.21.16.2

All necessary power supply (s/s/os etc) required for the operation of
the CCTV equipment shall be designed, supplied and installed by the
subcontractor.

14.21.17

MOUNTING REQUIREMENT

The technical specification for the hardware components as listed below are the
minimum requirements. Tenderers are allowed to proposed alternative hardware
equipment which will meet the minimum requirements.
At each remote site, the CCTV camera, its housing, associated accessories and
controller shall be mounted in accordance with the following :CCTV Camera shall be mounted at a nominal height above grade unless authority is
otherwise received from the Engineer.
Total height of pole camera (including any aerials, lightning system elements, or any
other hardware) shall not exceed 20m above grade.
Mid-hinge collapsible pole shall be installed with approval foundation by authority.
Poles or other structure in CC shall be installed in compliance with local regulations
for roadside structure, i.e. protective barriers, minimum distance from shoulder of
road etc.
Supporting structures shall not fitted with any rungs ladders or any other fixture that
might allow the general public to climb the structure.
14.21.18

OUTDOOR CABINET

The outdoor cabinet shall be environmental proof and complete with ventilation fan
and electrical isolator and power surge protection.
Cabinet should be made from stainless steel material complete with accessory and
ready to install at site with the termination of power cable only.
Size : 42 x 24 x 25
14.21.19

LIGHTNING SURGE PROTECTION

The technical specification for the hardware components as listed below are the
minimum requirements. Tenderers are allowed to proposed alternative hardware
equipment which will meet the minimum requirements.

S14-128

14.21.20
A.

VIDEO SURGE PROTECTION

Electrical Specification

Nominal voltage ( peak peak)

1V

Maximum working voltage (peak)

6.45V

Current rating (signal)

300mA

In-line resistance (+ 10%)

1 ohm inserted in coax inner

Bandwidth (-3dB 75 ohm system)

> 20MHz

Voltage standing wave radio

< 1.2

17V

10kA

B.

Transient Specification

Let-through voltage (all conductors)


(5kV, 10/700 micro second)
Maximum surge current
C.

Mechanical Specification

Temperature range

-25oC to +70oC

Connection type

Coaxial BNC female

Conductor size (stranded)

Not applicable

Earth connection

M6 stud

Weight

- unit

0.08kg

14.21.21

DATA SURGE PROTECTION

A.

Electrical Specification

Nominal voltage ( peak peak)

6V

Maximum working voltage (peak)

7.79V

Current rating (signal)

300mA

In-line resistance (per line + 10%)

9.4 ohm

Bandwidth (-3dB 50 ohm system)

800kHz

10.5V

- per signal wire

10kA

- per pair

20kA

Temperature range

-25oC to +70oC

Connection type

Screw terminal

B.

Transient Specification

Let-through voltage (all conductors)


(5kV, 10/700 micro second)
Maximum surge current

C.

Mechanical Specification

S14-129

Conductor size (stranded)

1.5mm2

Earth connection

M6 stud

Weight

- unit

0.08kg

14.21.22

POWER SURGE PROTECTION

A.

Electrical Specification

Nominal voltage ( RMS)

240V

Working voltage (RMS)

200 - 280V

Frequency range

40 60Hz

Current rating (supply)

5A or less

Leakage current (to earth)

< 0.5mA

590V

B.

Transient Specification

Let-through voltage (all conductors)

(6kV, 1.2/50 micro second open circuit voltage, 3kA 8/20 micro second short circuit
current)
Maximum surge current

10kA

Temperature range

-40oC to +70oC

Connection type

Screw terminal

Conductor size (solid)

4mm2

Earth connection

Via earth terminal or M6 stud

Weight

0.23kg

C.

Mechanical Specification

- unit

S14-130