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# Binary phase diagrams

## Binary phase diagrams and Gibbs free energy curves

Binary solutions with unlimited solubility
Relative proportion of phases (tie lines and the lever principle)
Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys
Binary eutectic systems (limited solid solubility)
Solid state reactions (eutectoid, peritectoid reactions)
Binary systems with intermediate phases/compounds
The iron-carbon system (steel and cast iron)
Gibbs phase rule
Temperature dependence of solubility
Three-component (ternary) phase diagrams

## Binary phase diagram and Gibbs free energy

A binary phase diagram is a temperature - composition map
which indicates the equilibrium phases present at a given
temperature and composition.
The equilibrium state can be found from the Gibbs free energy
dependence on temperature and composition.
G

## We have discussed the

dependence of G of a onecomponent system on T:

= S
T

2G
c
S
2 = = P
T
T P
T P

## We have also discussed the

dependence of the Gibbs free
energy from composition at a
given T:

GA
GB

## G = XAGA + XBGB + Hmix T Smix

0
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

XB

## Binary solutions with unlimited solubility

Lets construct a binary phase diagram for the simplest case: A
and B components are mutually soluble in any amounts in both
solid (isomorphous system) and liquid phases, and form ideal
solutions.
We have 2 phases liquid and solid. Lets consider Gibbs free
energy curves for the two phases at different T

## T1 is above the equilibrium melting temperatures of both

pure components: T1 > Tm(A) > Tm(B) the liquid phase
will be the stable phase for any composition.

G solid
B
G

T1

solid
A

G liquid
A

G liquid
B

G solid

G liquid

XB

## G id = X A G A + X BG B + RT[X A lnXA + X BlnXB ]

MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Binary solutions with unlimited solubility (II)

Decreasing the temperature below T1 will have two effects:
liquid

GA

solid
and G liquid
G
will
increase
more
rapidly
than
B
A

and G solid
B

Why?

## The curvature of the G(XB) curves will decrease.

Eventually we will reach

## T2 melting point of pure

solid
component A, where G liquid
=
G
A
A

liquid
A

=G

G solid
B

T2

solid
A

G liquid
B

G solid
G liquid

Why?

XB

## Binary solutions with unlimited solubility (III)

For even lower temperature T3 < T2 = Tm(A) the Gibbs free
energy curves for the liquid and solid phases will cross.

T3

G liquid
A

G solid
B
G solid

G solid
A

G liquid
B
G liquid
solid

X1

solid +
liquid

XB

liquid

X2

## As we discussed before, the common tangent construction can be

used to show that for compositions near cross-over of Gsolid and
Gliquid, the total Gibbs free energy can be minimized by
separation into two phases.

## Binary solutions with unlimited solubility (IV)

liquid
continue
Gliquid
and
G
A
B
solid
solid
to increase more rapidly than GA and GB

## Therefore, the intersection of the Gibbs free energy curves, as

well as points X1 and X2 are shifting to the right, until, at T4
= Tm(B) the curves will intersect at X1 = X2 = 1

T4

G liquid
A

G liquid

solid
G liquid
=
G
B
B

G solid
A
G solid

XB

## At T4 and below this temperature the Gibbs free energy of the

solid phase is lower than the G of the liquid phase in the whole
range of compositions the solid phase is the only stable phase.
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Binary solutions with unlimited solubility (V)

Based on the Gibbs free energy curves we can now construct a
phase diagram for a binary isomorphous systems

liquid
A

T3

G solid
A

G solid
B
G solid
G liquid
B
G liquid

T1
solid

solid +
liquid

liquid

l
s

T2

T1

T2

l
s

T3

T4

T4

T5

XB

## Binary solutions with unlimited solubility (VI)

Example of isomorphous system: Cu-Ni (the complete solubility
occurs because both Cu and Ni have the same crystal structure,
FCC, similar radii, electronegativity and valence).

Liquid

Liquidus line

Solidus line

Solid solution

MSE
3050, line
Phaseseparates
Diagrams and
Kinetics,
Leonid
Zhigilei
Solidus
solid
from
liquid
+ solid

## Binary solutions with unlimited solubility (VII)

In one-component system melting occurs at a well-defined
melting temperature.
In multi-component systems melting occurs over the range of
temperatures, between the solidus and liquidus lines. Solid and
liquid phases are at equilibrium in this temperature range.

Liquidus
Temperature

liquid solution

+L
Solidus
liquid solution
+
crystallites of
solid solution

polycrystal
solid solution

20 40 60 80
Composition, wt %

## Interpretation of Phase Diagrams

For a given temperature and composition we can use phase
diagram to determine:
1) The phases that are present
2) Compositions of the phases
3) The relative fractions of the phases
Finding the composition in a two phase region:
1.

2.

3.

## Note intersection with phase boundaries. Read compositions

at the intersections.

XB
Xliquid
B

Xsolid
B

## Interpretation of Phase Diagrams: the Lever Rule

Finding the amounts of phases in a two phase region:
1.

2.

3.

## Fraction of a phase is determined by taking the length of the

tie line to the phase boundary for the other phase, and
dividing by the total length of tie line

## The lever rule is a mechanical

analogy to the mass balance
calculation. The tie line in the twophase region is analogous to a lever
balanced on a fulcrum.

## Derivation of the lever rule:

1) All material must be in one phase or the other: W + W = 1
2) Mass of a component that is present in both phases equal to
the mass of the component in one phase + mass of the
component in the second phase: WC + WC = Co
3) Solution of these equations gives us the Lever rule.
W = (C0 - C) / (C - C) and W = (C- C0) / (C - C)
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Composition/Concentration:
weight fraction vs. molar fraction
Composition can be expressed in
Molar fraction, XB, or atom percent (at %) that is useful when
trying to understand the material at the atomic level. Atom
percent (at %) is a number of moles (atoms) of a particular
element relative to the total number of moles (atoms) in alloy.
For two-component system, concentration of element B in at. %
is
nB

C at =

n Bm + n Am

100

C at = X B 100

## Where nmA and nmB are numbers of moles of elements A and B in

the system.
Weight percent (C, wt %) that is useful when making the
solution. Weight percent is the weight of a particular component
relative to the total alloy weight. For two-component system,
concentration of element B in wt. % is

C wt =

mB
100
mB + mA

system.

n Am =

mA
AA

n Bm =

mB
AB

## where AA and AB are atomic

weights of elements A and B.

## MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Composition Conversions
Weight % to Atomic %:

C atB

C Bwt A A
= wt
100
wt
CB AA + CA AB

wt
C
at
A AB
C A = wt
100
wt
CB AA + CA A B

Atomic % to Weight %:

C Bwt

C atB A B
= at
100
at
CBA B + CAA A

wt
A

C atA A A
= at
100
at
CBA B + CAA A

of composition:

## ML = (XB - XB0)/(XB - XBL) = (Cat - Cato) / (Cat - CatL)

M = (XB0 - XBL)/(XB - XBL) = (Cat0 - CatL) / (Cat - CatL)
WL = (Cwt - Cwto) / (Cwt - CwtL)
W = (Cwto- CwtL) / (Cwt - CwtL)
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Co = 35 wt. %, CL = 31.5 wt. %, C = 42.5 wt. %

Mass fractions: WL = S / (R+S) = (C - Co) / (C - CL) = 0.68
W = R / (R+S) = (Co - CL) / (C - CL) = 0.32

## Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys

Equilibrium (very slow) cooling

## Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys

Equilibrium (very slow) cooling
Solidification in the solid + liquid phase occurs
gradually upon cooling from the liquidus line.
The composition of the solid and the liquid change
gradually during cooling (as can be determined by the
tie-line method.)
Nuclei of the solid phase form and they grow to
consume all the liquid at the solidus line.

## Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys

Non-equilibrium cooling

## Development of microstructure in isomorphous alloys

Non-equilibrium cooling

phases

## Diffusion in the solid state is very slow. The new layers

that solidify on top of the existing grains have the equilibrium
composition at that temperature but once they are solid their
composition does not change. Formation of layered grains
and the invalidity of the tie-line method to determine the
composition of the solid phase.

The tie-line method still works for the liquid phase, where
diffusion is fast. Average Ni content of solid grains is higher.
Application of the lever rule gives us a greater proportion
of liquid phase as compared to the one for equilibrium
cooling at the same T. Solidus line is shifted to the right
(higher Ni contents), solidification is complete at lower T, the
outer part of the grains are richer in the low-melting
component (Cu).

Upon heating grain boundaries will melt first. This can lead
to premature mechanical failure.

## Binary solutions with a miscibility gap

Lets consider a system in which the liquid phase is
approximately ideal, but for the solid phase we have Hmix > 0

T1

T2 < T1

G liquid

G solid
G solid

G liquid

XB

liquid

XB

T
T1

T3 < T2

liquid

T2
G solid

T3
0

XB

1+2

XB

## At low temperatures, there is a region where the solid solution is

most stable as a mixture of two phases 1 and 2 with
compositions X1 and X2. This region is called a miscibility gap.
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

T
G
liquid

T1
T2

XB

XB

1+2

XB

## Eutectic phase diagram

For an even larger Hmix the miscibility gap can extend into the
liquid phase region. In this case we have eutectic phase
diagram.

T1

liquid

G liquid

G solid

T3 < T2

G
G

G solid

XB

liquid

XB

0
T
T1
T2
T3

G solid

T2 < T1

XB

liquid
1+l

2+l

1+2

XB

## Eutectic phase diagram with different crystal

structures of pure phases
A similar eutectic phase diagram can result if pure A and B have
different crystal structures.

T1

T2 < T1

liquid

liquid

XB

T2
liquid

T3
XB

liquid

T1

XB

T3 < T2

+l

+l

XB

## Temperature dependence of solubility

There is limited solid solubility of A in B and B in A in the alloy
having eutectic phase diagram shown below.

T1

T
liquid

+l

liquid

T1
XB

+l

XB

## The closer is the minimum of the Gibbs free energy curve

G(XB) to the axes XB = 0, the smaller is the maximum possible
concentration of B in phase . Therefore, to discuss the
temperature dependence of solubility lets find the minimum of
G(XB).

## G reg = X A G A + X BG B + X A X B + RT[X A lnX A + X BlnX B ]

dG
=0
dX B

- Minimum of G(XB)

## Temperature dependence of solubility (II)

G reg = X A G A + X BG B + X A X B + RT[X A lnX A + X BlnX B ]
= (1 - X B )G A + X BG B + (1 - X B )X B + RT[(1 - X B )ln(1 - X B ) + X BlnXB ]

(1 - X B ) + lnX + X B =
dG
= -G A + G B + 2 X B + RT - ln(1 - X B )
B

(1 - X B )
dX B
XB

## = -GA + GB + 2 XB + RT[- ln(1- XB ) + lnXB ] =

X
= G B - G A + (1 2XB ) + RTln B GB - G A + + RTln(XB ) = 0
1 - XB
if XB is small (XB 0)
(GB >> GA)

G GA +
XB exp B

RT

## Solid solubility of B in increases

exponentially with temperature
(similar to vacancy concentration)

Minimum of G(XB)

## Temperature dependence of solubility (III)

+l

liquid
+l

T1

XB

G GA +
XB exp B

RT

XB

XB vs. T

T vs. XB

T
Te

XB
supersaturation with B
phase separation and
precipitation of B-rich intermediate
phase or compound

## Eutectic systems - alloys with limited solubility (I)

Liquidus

liquid

Temperature, C

Solidus

Solvus

+
Copper Silver phase diagram

Composition, wt% Ag

## Three single phase regions ( - solid solution of Ag in Cu matrix,

= solid solution of Cu in Ag matrix, L - liquid)
Three two-phase regions ( + L, +L, +)
Solvus line separates one solid solution from a mixture of solid
solutions. Solvus line shows limit of solubility
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Temperature, C

## Invariant or eutectic point

Eutectic isotherm

Composition, wt% Sn

Eutectic or invariant point - Liquid and two solid phases coexist in equilibrium at the eutectic composition CE and the
eutectic temperature TE.
Eutectic isotherm - the horizontal solidus line at TE.
Eutectic reaction transition between liquid and mixture of two
solid phases, + at eutectic concentration CE.
The melting point of the eutectic alloy is lower than that of the
components (eutectic = easy to melt in Greek).

## Eutectic systems - alloys with limited solubility (III)

Compositions and relative amounts of phases are determined
from the same tie lines and lever rule, as for isomorphous alloys

Temperature, C

A
B

Composition, wt% Sn

## For points A, B, and C calculate the compositions (wt. %) and

relative amounts (mass fractions) of phases present.

## MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Temperature, C

Composition, wt% Sn

## Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys (I)

Several different types of microstructure can be formed in slow
cooling an different compositions. Lets consider cooling of
liquid lead tin system as an example.

Temperature, C

## In the case of lead-rich alloy

(0-2
wt.
%
of
tin)
solidification proceeds in the
same
manner
as
for
isomorphous alloys (e.g. CuNi) that we discussed earlier.

L +L

Composition, wt% Sn

## Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys (II)

At compositions between the room temperature solubility limit
and the maximum solid solubility at the eutectic temperature,
phase nucleates as the solid solubility is exceeded upon
crossing the solvus line.

Temperature, C

+L

Composition, wt% Sn
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys (III)

Solidification at the eutectic composition

Temperature, C

## No changes above the eutectic temperature TE. At TE all the

liquid transforms to and phases (eutectic reaction).

Composition, wt% Sn

L +
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys (IV)

Solidification at the eutectic composition
Compositions of and phases are very different eutectic
reaction involves redistribution of Pb and Sn atoms by atomic
diffusion (we will learn about diffusion in the last part of this
course). This simultaneous formation of and phases result in
a layered (lamellar) microstructure that is called eutectic
structure.

## Formation of the eutectic structure in the lead-tin system.

In the micrograph, the dark layers are lead-reach phase, the
light layers are the tin-reach phase.
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys (V)

Compositions other than eutectic but within the range of
the eutectic isotherm
Primary phase is formed in the + L region, and the eutectic
structure that includes layers of and phases (called eutectic
and eutectic phases) is formed upon crossing the eutectic
isotherm.

Temperature, C

L + L +

Composition, wt% Sn
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Development of microstructure in eutectic alloys (VI)

Microconstituent element of the microstructure having a
distinctive structure. In the case described in the previous page,
microstructure consists of two microconstituents, primary
phase and the eutectic structure.

## Although the eutectic structure consists of two phases, it is a

microconstituent with distinct lamellar structure and fixed ratio
of the two phases.
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## How to calculate relative amounts of microconstituents?

Eutectic microconstituent forms from liquid having eutectic
composition (61.9 wt% Sn)
We can treat the eutectic as a separate phase and apply the lever
rule to find the relative fractions of primary phase (18.3 wt%
Sn) and the eutectic structure (61.9 wt% Sn):

W = Q / (P+Q) (primary)

Temperature, C

We = P / (P+Q) (eutectic)

Composition, wt% Sn
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Temperature, C

Composition, wt% Sn

## How to calculate the total amount of phase (both eutectic

and primary)?
Fraction of phase determined by application of the lever rule
across the entire + phase field:

## W = (Q+R) / (P+Q+R) ( phase)

Temperature, C

W = P / (P+Q+R) ( phase)

Composition, wt% Sn
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

liquid

XB

## MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Monotectic system

+ L1

Upper solidus

L1

Monotectic point
Lower solidus

Limit of liquid
immiscibility
Lower
liquidus

L1 + L2

L2

+ L2

+L2

Monotectic isotherm

0
F.N. Rhines, Phase Diagrams in Metallurgy, 1956

XB

## Binary solutions with Hmix < 0 - ordering

If Hmix < 0 bonding becomes stronger upon mixing melting
point of the mixture will be higher than the ones of the pure
components. For the solid phase strong interaction between
unlike atoms can lead to (partial) ordering |Hmix| can
become larger than |XAXB| and the Gibbs free energy curve for
the solid phase can become steeper than the one for liquid.

T1

T2 < T1

G
G liquid
G liquid

0
G G

XB
liquid

0
T
T1

T3 < T2

XB
liquid

T2

T3
G

XB

XB

## At low temperatures, strong attraction between

unlike atoms can lead to the formation of
MSE
3050, Phase
Diagrams
ordered
phase
`. and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Binary solutions with Hmix < 0 - intermediate phases

If attraction between unlike atoms is very strong, the ordered
phase may extend up to the liquid.

liquid

XB

## In simple eutectic systems, discussed above, there are only two

solid phases ( and ) that exist near the ends of phase
diagrams.
Phases that are separated from the composition extremes (0%
and 100%) are called intermediate phases. They can have
crystal structure different from structures of components A and
B.

liquid

XB

liquid

XB

liquid

XB

Increasing
negative Hmix

liquid

XB

liquid

## MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams

XBand Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Phase diagrams with intermediate phases: example

Example of intermediate solid solution phases: in Cu-Zn, and
are terminal solid solutions, , , , , are intermediate
solid solutions.

## Phase diagrams for systems containing compounds

For some systems, instead of an intermediate phase, an
intermetallic compound of specific composition forms.
Compound is represented on the phase diagram as a vertical line,
since the composition is a specific value.
When using the lever rule, compound is treated like any other
phase, except they appear not as a wide region but as a vertical
line

intermetallic
compound

## This diagram can be thought of as two joined eutectic diagrams,

for Mg-Mg2Pb and Mg2Pb-Pb. In this case compound Mg2Pb
(19 %wt Mg and 81 %wt Pb) can be considered as a component.
A sharp drop in the Gibbs free energy at the compound
composition should be added to Gibbs free energy curves for the
existing
phases
in theandsystem.
MSE
3050, Phase
Diagrams
Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric compounds

Compounds which have a single well-defined composition are
called stoichiometric compounds (typically denoted by their
chemical formula).
Compound with composition that can vary over a finite range are
called non-stoichiometric compounds or intermediate phase
(typically denoted by Greek letters).

T
liquid

liquid

+l
l+

l+AB

+ AB
AB

+l

XB

non-stoichiometric

+ AB

XB

stoichiometric

compound

AB

composition, at%

50.0

45.5

44.4

42.9

40.0

37.5

compound

A2B A5B2

A3B

A4B

A5B

A6B

composition, at%

33.3

25.0

20.0

16.7

14.3

28.6

## MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Eutectoid Reactions
The eutectoid (eutectic-like in Greek) reaction is similar to the
eutectic reaction but occurs from one solid phase to two new solid
phases.
Eutectoid structures are similar to eutectic structures but are much
finer in scale (diffusion is much slower in the solid state).
Upon cooling, a solid phase transforms into two other solid
phases ( + in the example below)
Looks as V on top of a horizontal tie line (eutectoid isotherm) in
the phase diagram.

Cu-Zn

Eutectoid

## Eutectic and Eutectoid Reactions

Temperature

Eutectoid
temperature

+l

Eutectic
temperature

l +

Eutectoid
composition

Eutectic
composition

Composition
The above phase diagram contains both an eutectic reaction and
its solid-state analog, an eutectoid reaction

Temperature

Eutectoid
temperature

+l

l +

+
Composition

## MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Peritectic Reactions
A peritectic reaction - solid phase and liquid phase will together
form a second solid phase at a particular temperature and
composition upon cooling - e.g. L +

Temperature

These reactions are rather slow as the product phase will form at
the boundary between the two reacting phases thus separating
them, and slowing down any further reaction.

+ liquid
+

liquid

+ liquid

## Peritectoid is a three-phase reaction similar to peritectic but

occurs from two solid phases to one new solid phase ( + = ).

Temperature

+ liquid
+

liquid

+ liquid

## Example: The IronIron Carbide (FeFe3C) Phase Diagram

In their simplest form, steels are alloys of Iron (Fe) and Carbon
(C). The Fe-C phase diagram is a fairly complex one, but we
will only consider the steel part of the diagram, up to around 7%
Carbon.

## Phases in FeFe3C Phase Diagram

-ferrite - solid solution of C in BCC Fe
Stable form of iron at room temperature.
The maximum solubility of C is 0.022 wt%
Transforms to FCC -austenite at 912 C
-austenite - solid solution of C in FCC Fe
The maximum solubility of C is 2.14 wt %.
Transforms to BCC -ferrite at 1395 C
Is not stable below the eutectic temperature
(727 C) unless cooled rapidly
-ferrite solid solution of C in BCC Fe
The same structure as -ferrite
Stable only at high T, above 1394 C
Melts at 1538 C
Fe3C (iron carbide or cementite)
This intermetallic compound is metastable, it remains
as a compound indefinitely at room T, but decomposes
(very slowly, within several years) into -Fe and C
(graphite) at 650 - 700 C
Fe-C liquid solution

## C is an interstitial impurity in Fe. It forms a solid solution with

, , phases of iron
Maximum solubility in BCC -ferrite is limited (max. 0.022 wt%
at 727 C) - BCC has relatively small interstitial positions
Maximum solubility in FCC austenite is 2.14 wt% at 1147 C FCC has larger interstitial positions
Mechanical properties: Cementite is very hard and brittle - can
strengthen steels. Mechanical properties of steel depend on the
microstructure, that is, how ferrite and cementite are mixed.
Magnetic properties: -ferrite is magnetic below 768 C,
austenite is non-magnetic
Classification. Three types of ferrous alloys:
Iron: less than 0.008 wt % C in ferrite at room T
Steels: 0.008 - 2.14 wt % C (usually < 1 wt % )
-ferrite + Fe3C at room T
Examples of tool steel (machine tools for cutting other metals):
Fe + 1wt % C + 2 wt% Cr
Fe + 1 wt% C + 5 wt% W + 6 wt % Mo
Stainless steel (food processing equipment, knives,
petrochemical equipment, etc.): 12-20 wt% Cr, ~\$1500/ton
Cast iron: 2.14 - 6.7 wt % (usually < 4.5 wt %)
heavy equipment casing
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Eutectic and eutectoid reactions in FeFe3C

Eutectic: 4.30 wt% C, 1147 C

L + Fe3C

## (0.76 wt% C) (0.022 wt% C) + Fe3C

Eutectic and eutectoid reactions are very important in heat
treatment of steels
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Development of Microstructure in Iron - Carbon alloys

Microstructure depends on composition (carbon content) and
heat treatment. In the discussion below we consider slow
cooling in which equilibrium is maintained.
Microstructure of eutectoid steel (I)

## Microstructure of eutectoid steel (II)

When alloy of eutectoid composition (0.76 wt % C) is cooled
slowly it forms perlite, a lamellar or layered structure of two
phases: -ferrite and cementite (Fe3C)
The layers of alternating phases in pearlite are formed for the
same reason as layered structure of eutectic structures:
redistribution C atoms between ferrite (0.022 wt%) and cementite
(6.7 wt%) by atomic diffusion.
Mechanically, pearlite has properties intermediate to soft, ductile
ferrite and hard, brittle cementite.

## In the micrograph, the dark areas are

Fe3C layers, the light phase is ferrite

## Microstructure of hypoeutectoid steel (I)

Compositions to the left of eutectoid (0.022 - 0.76 wt % C)
hypoeutectoid (less than eutectoid -Greek) alloys.

+ + Fe3C

## Microstructure of hypoeutectoid steel (II)

Hypoeutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid ferrite (formed above
the eutectoid temperature) plus the eutectoid perlite that contain
eutectoid ferrite and cementite.

## Microstructure of hypereutectoid steel (I)

Compositions to the right of eutectoid (0.76 - 2.14 wt % C)
hypereutectoid (more than eutectoid -Greek) alloys.

+ Fe3C + Fe3C

## Microstructure of hypereutectoid steel (II)

Hypereutectoid alloys contain proeutectoid cementite (formed
above the eutectoid temperature) plus perlite that contain
eutectoid ferrite and cementite.

## How to calculate the relative amounts of proeutectoid phase

( or Fe3C) and pearlite?
Application of the lever rule with tie line that extends from the
eutectoid composition (0.75 wt% C) to ( + Fe3C) boundary
(0.022 wt% C) for hypoeutectoid alloys and to ( + Fe3C) Fe3C
boundary (6.7 wt% C) for hipereutectoid alloys.

across
the
entire
( +and
Fe3Kinetics,
C) phase
field:
MSE 3050,
Phase
Diagrams
Leonid
Zhigilei

## Example for hypereutectoid alloy with composition C1

Fraction of pearlite:
WP = X / (V+X) = (6.7 C1) / (6.7 0.76)
Fraction of proeutectoid cementite:
WFe3C = V / (V+X) = (C1 0.76) / (6.7 0.76)

## The most important phase diagram in the history of civilization

pearlite
naturally formed composite:
hard & brittle ceramic (Fe3C)
+
soft BCC iron (ferrite)

## Reconstruction of Baroque organs (TRUESOUND EU project)

Baroque-style organ reconstructed in
rgryte Nya Kyrka, Gothenburg, Sweden

## Components of reed pipes

MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

MRS Bulletin
Vol 32, March
2007, 249-255

## Reconstruction of Baroque organs (TRUESOUND EU project)

nondestructive measurements of
composition on ~30 organs
produced from 1624 to 1880
(neutron, X-ray diffraction, SIMS)
Zn is soluble in Cu
Pb is insoluble in Cu and is
distributed non-uniformly in
the alloy

Cu Zn phase diagram

Cu Pb phase diagram

## Reconstruction of Baroque organs (TRUESOUND EU project)

Surprisingly constant Zn
concentration:
~26 wt.% from 1624 to 1790
~32.5 wt.% from 1750
All historical tongues and
(fcc solid solution of Zn in Cu)

## Reconstruction of Baroque organs (TRUESOUND EU project)

Before 1738 Zn was only available as zinc oxide (ZnO) or zinc carbonate
(ZnCO3) and brass was produced by mixing solid Cu and gas-phase Zn in a
process called cementation:
pieces of Cu, coal, and ZnCO3 are heated to above Tb of Zn (907C) but below
Tm of Cu (1083C)
ZnCO3 is reduced and evaporated Zn diffuses into hot solid Cu
Heating much above 907C was not economical temperature was kept slightly
above this temperature experienced craftsman can estimate temperature from
the color of a furnace within ~20C the process was taking place at ~920C
Zn concentration in brass is determined by solidus concentration maximum
solubility of Zn in solid Cu (26 wt.% at 920C)
1738: patent on distilling metallic Zn from ZnCO3, 1781: patent on alloying brass
from metallic Zn concentration of Zn in Cu is no longer limited by the
MSE 3050,at
Phase
Diagrams
and Kinetics,
Leonid Zhigilei
solubility
920C,
but is 32.5
wt.% - maximum
solubility after crystallization.

## The Gibbs phase rule (I)

Lets consider a simple one-component system.
P

solid

## In the areas where only one phase

is stable both pressure and
temperature can be independently
varied without upsetting the phase
equilibrium there are 2 degrees
of freedom.

liquid

gas
T

## Along the lines where two phases coexist in equilibrium, only

one variable can be independently varied without upsetting the
two-phase equilibrium (P and T are related by the Clapeyron
equation) there is only one degree of freedom.
At the triple point, where solid liquid and vapor coexist any
change in P or T would upset the three-phase equilibrium
there are no degrees of freedom.
In general, the number of degrees of freedom, F, in a system that
contains C components and can have Ph phases is given by the
Gibbs phase rule:

F = C Ph + 2
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## The Gibbs phase rule (II)

Lets now consider a multi-component system containing C
components and having Ph phases.
A thermodynamic state of each phase can be described by
pressure P, temperature T, and C - 1 composition variables. The
state of the system can be then described by Ph(C-1+2)
variables.
But how many of them are independent?
The condition for Ph phases to be at equilibrium are:
T = T = T =

- Ph-1 equations

P = P = P =

- Ph-1 equations

A = A = A = ...

- Ph-1 equations

= = = ...

- Ph-1 equations

C sets of equations

## Therefore we have (Ph 1)(C + 2) equations that connect the

variables in the system.
The number of degrees of freedom is the difference between the
total number of variables in the system and the minimum number
of equations among these variables that have to be satisfied in
order to maintain the equilibrium.

## F = Ph(C + 1) (Ph 1)(C + 2) = C Ph + 2

F = C Ph + 2 - Gibbs phase rule
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

F = C Ph + 2
P = const
F = C Ph + 1
C=2
F = 3 Ph

## In one-phase regions of the phase diagram T and XB can be

changed independently.
In two-phase regions, F = 1. If the temperature is chosen
independently, the compositions of both phases are fixed.
Three phases (L, , ) are in equilibrium only at the eutectic
point in this two component system (F = 0).

## Multicomponent systems (I)

The approach used for analysis of binary systems can be
extended to multi-component systems.

wt. %

wt. %

wt. %
Representation of the composition in a ternary system (the Gibbs
triangle). The total length of the red lines is 100% :
XA +XB + XC =1

## Multicomponent systems (II)

The Gibbs free energy surfaces (instead of curves for a binary
system) can be plotted for all the possible phases and for
different temperatures.
G

## The chemical potentials of A, B, and C of any phase in this

system are given by the points where the tangential plane to the
free energy surfaces intersects the A, B, and C axis.
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## Multicomponent systems (III)

A three-phase equilibrium in the ternary system for a given
temperature can be derived by means of the tangential plane
construction.
G

## For two phases to be in equilibrium, the chemical potentials

should be equal, that is the compositions of the two phases in
equilibrium must be given by points connected by a common
tangential plane (e.g. l and m).
The relative amounts of phases are given by the lever rule (e.g.
using tie-line l-m).
A three phase triangle can result from a common tangential plane
simultaneously touching the Gibbs free energies of three phases
(e.g. points x, y, and z).
Eutectic point: four-phase equilibrium between , , , and liquid
MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

## The ternary diagram of Ni-Cr-Fe. It includes Stainless Steel

(wt.% of Cr > 11.5 %, wt.% of Fe > 50 %) and Inconeltm (Nickel
based super alloys). Inconel have very good corrosion resistance,
but are more expensive and therefore used in corrosive
environments where Stainless Steels are not sufficient (Piping on
Nuclear Reactors or Steam Generators).

## Another example of ternary phase diagram:

oil water surfactant system

## Surfactants are surface-active molecules that can form interfaces

between immiscible fluids (such as oil and water). A large
number of structurally different phases can be formed, such as
droplet, rod-like, and bicontinuous microemulsions, along with
hexagonal, lamellar, and cubic liquid crystalline phases.

## MSE 3050, Phase Diagrams and Kinetics, Leonid Zhigilei

Summary
Make sure you understand
language and concepts:

Eutectic (L + )
L

## Common tangent construction

Separation into 2 phases
Eutectic structure
Eutectoid ( + )
Composition of phases

## Weight and atom percent

Miscibility gap
+
Solubility dependence on T
Intermediate solid solution
Peritectic ( + L )
Compound
+L
Isomorphous
L

## Liquidus & Solidus lines

Peritectoid ( + )
Microconstituent
+
Primary phase

## Austenite, Cementite, Ferrite

Compound, AnBm
Pearlite
Hypereutectoid alloy
Hypoeutectoid alloy