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# Mathcad in Column Design.

xmcd

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Column Design
Type of columns :
1. Axially loaded columns

e=

Mu
Pu

=0

2. Eccentric columns
e=

Mu

Pu

## 2.1. Short columns (without P- and P-)

Pu M u
2.2. Long (slender) columns (with P- and P- or P- only)

Pu M c = ns M ns s M s

Pu M c = ns M ns

or

Safety Provision
Pu Pn.max
where

Pu

Pn.max

with

= 0.65

with
where

Ag
Ast

= 0.70

## = area of gross section

= area of steel reinforcements

Ag Ast = Ac

page 1

Tie arrangements

## For tied columns

diameter of tie

spacing of tie

d bs = 10 mm

for

d b 32 mm

d bs = 13 mm

for

d b 32 mm

s = min 48 d bs 16 d b b

## Column Steel Ratio

diameter of spiral

d bsp 10 mm

clear spacing

10 mm s 75 mm

Ast
g =
= 1% 8%
Ag

page 2

Pu
0.8

Ag =
0.85 fc 1 g fy g

Pu
0.8

Ast =

0.85 fc Ag

0.85 fc fy

Example 1
Tributary Area

B 4 m

Slab thickness

t 120 mm

Beam B1

b 1 250 mm

h 1 500 mm

Beam B2

b 2 200 mm

h 2 350 mm

LL 3

L 6m

kN
2

m
Materials

f'c 25 MPa

fy 400 MPa

Cover 50 mm 22

kN
3

m
Ceiling 0.4

kN
2

1.1

kN
2

Slab 120 mm 25

kN
3

Mechanical 0.2

kN
2

kN
2

page 3

kN
2

m
kN
2

m
LL 3

Partition 1

kN

## Live Load Reduction

2

AT B L 24 m

Tributary area
for Interior Column

KLL 4
2

AI KLL AT 96 m

Influenced area

LL 0.25

4.572

0.717

AI
2

kN
LL0 LL LL 2.15
2
m

## Reduced Live Load

Brick 2.5

kN
2

m

PD.slab DL B L 136.8 kN
PL.slab LL0 B L 51.597 kN

kN
PB1 b 1 h 1 t 25
L 14.25 kN
3
m
kN
PB2 b 2 h 2 t 25
B 4.6 kN
3
m

## Pwall.1 Brick 3.5 m h 1 L 45 kN

Pwall.2 Brick 3.5 m h 2 B 31.5 kN
number of floors

n 6

## PD PD.slab PB1 PB2 Pwall.1 Pwall.2 1.05 n 1462.545 kN

PL PL.slab n 309.583 kN

Note
SW = ( 5% 7%) PD

page 4

## Determination of column section

g 0.03

assume

k=

300
500

0.6

0.65

Pu
0.8

Ag
0.13416 m
0.85 f'c 1 g fy g

Ag
k

472.864 mm

b k h 283.718 mm
h Ceil( h 50 mm) 500 mm

## Determination of Steel Area

Pu
Ast
use

0.8

0.85 f'c Ag

0.85 f'c fy
6

( 20 mm)

3136.094 mm

( 16mm)

3091.327 mm

Stirrups
main bars

d b 20 mm

Stirrup diameter

d bs 10 mm

Spacing of tie

s min 16 d b 48 d bs b 300 mm

page 5

Ag b h 0.15 m

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

2. Short Column

Safety provision

Pu Pn

M u Mn

Equilibrium in Forces
a = 1 c
Pn = Cc Cs T = 0.85 f'c a b A's f's As fs
Equilibrium in moments
a
h
h
h
M n = Pn e = Cc Cs d' T d
2
2 2
2

a
h
h
h
M n = 0.85 f'c a b A's f's d' As fs d
2
2 2
2

## Condition of strain compatibility

s
u
's
u

dc
c
c d'

Unknown = 5

s = u

's = u

dc
c
c d'
c

fs = Es u

dc
c

f's = Es 's = Es u

c d'
c

a As A's fs f's

Equations = 4
plus

page 6

As = A's

fs = fy

## B. Determination of Steel Area

Given :

M u Pu b x h f'c fy

Find :

As = A's

As = AsN( a) = AsM( a)
Pu
AsN( a) =

0.85 f'c a b
f's fs

Mu
AsM ( a) =

a
h
0.85 f'c a b

2 2

h
h
f's d' fs d
2
2

f's( a) = Es u

fs( a) = Es u

c d'
c
dc
c

fy

fy

page 7

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Example 2

cover 40 mm
b 300 mm

Concrete dimension
Steel reinforcements

As 5

h 500 mm

( 19 mm)

d b 19 mm

d bs 10 mm

1.418 10 mm

A's As 1.418 10 mm

db
d' cover d bs
59.5 mm
2
d h d' 440.5 mm
Materials

f'c 25 MPa

fy 400 MPa

d t d
u 0.003 Es 200000 MPa

Solution
Case of axially loaded column
2

Ag b h 0.15 m

0.65

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 0.85
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

fs( a) min Es u

d c( a)

( a)

t u

fy

c( a)

c( a)

f's( a) min Es u

a
1

c( a) d'

c( a)

fy

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.45 250 t
0.9
3

max0.65 min

## Pn ( a) min( a) 0.85 f'c a b A's f's( a) As fs( a) Pn.max

Mn ( a) ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

2
2

page 8

Nominal Strength

## Pn ( a) min 0.85 f'c a b A's f's( a) As fs( a) Pn.max

a
h
h
h
M n ( a) 0.85 f'c a b A's f's( a) d' As fs( a) d
2

2 2
2

Interaction Diagram
a 0

h
100

3500

Pn( a)

3500

2916.667

2916.667

2333.333

2333.333

1750

1750

kN

Pn( a)
kN

1166.667

1166.667

583.333

583.333

100

200
Mn( a) M n( a)

kN m kN m

page 9

300

400

Example 3

## Determination of steel area

Required strength

Pu 1152.27 kN

Concrete dimension

b 250 mm

Materials

f'c 25 MPa

M u 112.64 kN m
h 400 mm
fy 400 MPa

d b 16 mm

## Concrete cover to main bars

d bs 10 mm

cover 40 mm

db
cc cover d bs
58 mm
2

Solution
Location of steel re-bars
d' cc 58 mm

d h cc 342 mm

d t d

5

Ag b h 1 10 mm
Pu

0.85 f'c Ag

0.8

Ast

0.65

0.85 f'c fy

240.01 mm

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 0.85
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

fs( a) min Es u

d c( a)

f's( a) min Es u

c( a) d'

c( a)

( a)

t u

c( a)

fy

fy

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.45 250 t
0.9
3

max0.65 min

page 10

c( a)

a
1

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Pu

AsN( a)

Mu

0.85 f'c a b
( a)

AsM ( a)

f's( a) fs( a)

Direct Method
Given

a
h
0.85 f'c a b
( a)
2 2
h
h
f's( a) d' fs( a) d
2
2

a 200 mm

## AsN( a) AsM( a) = 0.0 mm

hasil Find( a)

a hasil
3

AsN( a) 1.159 10 mm

As

AsN( a) AsM ( a)
2

## n bars Ceil n bars 1

n bars

a 261.1999601 mm

As

d 2
b
4

n bars 6

page 11

AsM ( a) 1.159 10 mm

n bars 5.765

## C. Case Distributed Reinforcements

Equilibrium in forces
n

Pn = Cc

As if s i

T = 0.85f'c a b
i

i 1

i 1

Equilibrium in moments
n

a
h
M n = Pn e = Cc
2 2

i 1
n

a
h
M n = 0.85 f'c a b
2 2

i 1

T d h
i i

2

A f d
s i s i i

s i

d c
=

d c

s i

d c
u

= Es = Es
s i
s i

page 12

Example 4

## Checking for Column Strength

Required strength

Pu 13994.6 kN

M u 157.53 kN m

Materials

f'c 35 MPa

fy 400 MPa

d b 32 mm
d bs 10 mm

0.65

## Case of axially loaded column

g 0.04

assume

Pu
0.8

Ag
6.04 10 mm
0.85 f'c 1 g fy g

k 1

Ag

h 777.152 mm

b k h 777.152 mm

## h Ceil( h 50 mm) 800 mm b Ceil( b 50 mm) 800 mm

5

Ag b h 6.4 10 mm
Pu
0.85 f'c Ag
0.8
Ast
0.85 f'c fy

Steel area

n bars

Ast
d b

spacing

db
cc cover d bs
2
2

Ast 21263.17976 mm

n bars 26.439

800 mm cc 2
7

95.429 mm

Distribution of reinforcements

32
32

32
32
Bars
32
32
32

32

32 32 32 32 32 32 32

32
32
mm
32

32
Number of reinf row
32

32
n cols( Bars) 8

0 32

32 32 32 32 32 32

page 13

## Interaction Diagram for Column Strength

origin = 1

Steel area
As0

Bars
4

i 1 n
Ast

As
i

As0

As

Ast 22518.936141 mm

db
cc cover d bs
2

cc 66 mm
h 2 d

d cc 66 mm
1
i 2 n

d d
i

n1

95.429 mm

i 1

## reverse ( d ) ( 0.734 0.639 0.543 0.448 0.352 0.257 0.161 0.066 ) m

d t max( d ) 734 mm

## Pn.max 0.8 0.85 f'c Ag Ast fy Ast

Pn.max 14236.3707752 kN

## Case of eccentric column

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 0.8
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

d c( a)
fs( i a)

s u

c( a)

sign s min Es s fy

( a)

t u

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.45 250 t
0.9
3

max0.65 min

page 14

c( a)

a
1

h
100

## Asi fs( i a) Pn.max

i 1

Mn ( a) ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

a 0 mm

i 1

A f ( i a) d
si s
i

15000

15000

10000

10000

Pn( a)

Pu

kN

kN
5000

5000

1000

2000
Mn( a)
kN m

Pu 13994.6 kN

3000
Mu

kN m

M u 157.53 kN m

page 15

0
4000

i 1 n
1. Point 1

## P 0.65 0.8 0.85 f'c Ag Ast fy Ast

1

P 14236.3707752 kN
1

M 0 kN m

2. Point 2

Assume a=0.9 h
a 0.9 h

Given

P = ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

a Find( a)

P 1.424 10 N
1

fs( i a) Asi

i 1

a if ( a h h a)

a 671.299 mm

Find Moment:
Steel

s c d
i

0.003

c
Ms Fs d

Fs fs( i a) As
i
i
d
i

mm

fs( i a)

s
i

MPa

Fs

kN

Ms

kN m

66

0.00278

-400

-2.574103

859.58

161.429

0.0024619

-400

-643.398

153.496

256.857

0.0021438

-400

-643.398

92.098

352.286

0.0018257

-348.105

-559.925

26.716

447.714

0.0015076

-279.87

-450.17

-21.48

543.143

0.0011895

-211.636

-340.415

-48.728

638.571

0.0008714

-143.402

-230.661

-55.029

734

0.0005533

-75.167

-483.624

-161.53

Mst

Ms

Mst 845.12371 kN m

i 1

Concrete
Total

a
h
Mc 0.85 f'c a b
2 2

M ( a) ( Mc Mst)
2

M 1217.6085 kN m
2

## P min( a) 0.85 f'c a b

2

Mc 1028.120137 kN m

i 1

page 16

Fs Pn.max

P 14236 kN
2

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

3. Point 3
t 0

c d t

a 1 c

Find Moment:
Steel

s c d
i

0.003

Ms Fs d

Fs fs( i a) As
i
i
d
i

mm

fs( i a)

s
i

MPa

Fs

kN

Ms

kN m

66

0.0027302

-400

-2.574103

859.58

161.429

0.0023402

-400

-643.398

153.496

256.857

0.0019502

-390.035

-627.37

89.803

352.286

0.0015601

-312.028

-501.896

23.948

447.714

0.0011701

-234.021

-376.422

-17.961

543.143

0.0007801

-156.014

-250.948

-35.921

638.571

0.00039

-78.007

-125.474

-29.934

734

Mst

Ms

Mst 1043.01088 kN m

i 1

a
h
Mc 0.85 f'c a b
2
2

Concrete
Total

M ( a) ( Mc Mst)
3

M 1644.493 kN m
3

## P min( a) 0.85 f'c a b

3

Mc 1486.978304 kN m

Fs Pn.max

i 1

P 12398 kN
3

4. Point 4
t 0.5

fy

dt
a 1 u
t u

Es

a 440.4 mm

Find Moment:
Steel

s c d
i

0.003

Ms Fs d
i

Fs fs( i a) As
i
i

2
page 17

a
1

d
i

mm

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

fs( i a)

s
i

Fs

MPa

kN

Ms

kN m

66

0.0026403

-400

-2.574103

859.58

161.429

0.0021203

-400

-643.398

153.496

256.857

0.0016002

-320.047

-514.794

73.689

352.286

0.0010802

-216.037

-347.495

16.58

447.714

0.0005601

-112.028

-180.197

-8.598

543.143

0.0000401

-8.019

-12.898

-1.846

638.571

-0.00048

95.991

154.401

36.836

200

1.287103

429.79

734

-0.001
n

Mst

Ms

Mst 1559.52723 kN m

i 1

a
h
Mc 0.85 f'c a b
2 2

Concrete
Total

M ( a) ( Mc Mst)
4

M 2238.6679 kN m
4

## P min( a) 0.85 f'c a b

4

Mc 1884.577296 kN m

Fs Pn.max

i 1

P 8653 kN
4

5. Point 5
fy

dt
a 1 u
t u

Es

Find Moment:
Steel

s c d
i

0.003

Ms Fs d
i

d
i

mm

Fs fs( i a) As
i
i

2
fs( i a)

s
i

MPa

Fs

kN

Ms

kN m

66

0.0026403

-400

-2.574103

859.58

161.429

0.0021203

-380.07

-611.341

145.848

256.857

0.0016002

-250.058

-402.218

57.575

352.286

0.0010802

-120.047

-193.095

9.213

447.714

0.0005601

9.965

16.029

0.765

543.143

0.0000401

139.977

225.152

32.229

638.571

-0.00048

269.988

434.275

103.606

734

-0.001

400

2.574103

859.58

page 18

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Mst

Ms

Mst 2068.39565 kN m

i 1

a
h
Mc 0.85 f'c a b
2
2

Concrete
Total

M ( a) ( Mc Mst)

M 2564.4726 kN m

## P min( a) 0.85 f'c a b

5

Mc 1876.946749 kN m

Fs Pn.max

i 1

P 5796 kN
5

6. Point 6.
dt
a 1 u
t u

t 0.005

a 220.2 mm

Find Moment:
Steel

s c d
i

0.003

Ms Fs d
i

d
i

mm

Fs fs( i a) As
i
i

c
i

2
fs( i a)

s
i

MPa

Fs

kN

Ms

kN m

66

0.0026403

-400

-2.574103

859.58

161.429

0.0021203

-248.112

-399.087

95.211

256.857

0.0016002

-40.093

-64.49

9.231

352.286

0.0010802

167.925

270.107

-12.888

447.714

0.0005601

375.944

604.704

28.853

543.143

0.0000401

400

643.398

92.098

638.571

-0.00048

400

643.398

153.496

400

2.574103

859.58

734

-0.001
n

Mst

Ms

Mst 2085.16136 kN m

i 1

Concrete
Total

a
h
Mc 0.85 f'c a b
2 2

M ( a) ( Mc Mst)
6

Mc 1519.296324 kN m

M 3244.0119 kN m
6

Fs Pn.max
6
i

i 1

page 19

P 3188 kN
6

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

P 0.0000000 kN

7. Point

Assume a=0.2 h

a 0.2 h

a 0.16 m

Given

P = ( ( a) ) 0.85 f'c a b

fs( i a) Asi

i 1

a Find( a) 0.136 m a if ( a h h a)

a 0.14 m

Find Moment:
Steel

s c d
i

0.003

Ms Fs d
i

d
i

mm

Fs fs( i a) As
i
i

2
fs( i a)

s
i

MPa

Fs

kN

Ms

kN m

66

0.0026403

-366.835

-2.36103

788.31

161.429

0.0021203

-29.704

-47.779

11.399

256.857

0.0016002

307.426

494.494

-70.783

352.286

0.0010802

400

643.398

-30.699

447.714

0.0005601

400

643.398

30.699

543.143

0.0000401

400

643.398

92.098

638.571

-0.00048

400

643.398

153.496

400

2.574103

859.58

734

-0.001
n

Mst

Ms

Mst 1834.09951 kN m

i 1

Concrete
Total

a
h
Mc 0.85 f'c a b
2 2

M ( a) ( Mc Mst)
7

M 2617.1065 kN m
7

## P min( a) 0.85 f'c a b

7

Mc 1073.796619 kN m

i 1

page 20

Fs Pn.max

P 0 kN
7

j 1 7

a 0

h
100

1.5 10

1 10

1.5 10

1 10
Pj

Pn( a)

kN

kN
3

5 10

5 10

0
0

1 10

2 10

Mj
kN m

3 10

Mn( a)
kN m

page 21

4 10

0
3
5 10

## D. Design of Circular Columns

Synmbols
ns

= number of re-bars

Dc
Ds

= column diameter
= diameter of re-bar circle

Dc
Ds
rc =
rs =
2
2

s i

2
ns

(i 1)

page 22

d i = rc rs cos
s i

rc a

rc

= acos

## Area and centroid of compression concrete

1
1
2
Asector = x Radius x Arch = x rc x rc 2 = rc
2
2
x1 =

r
3 c

sin( )

1
1
2
Atriangle = x Base x Height = .x 2 rc sin( ) x rc cos( ) = rc sin( ) cos( )
2
2
x2 =

r cos( )
3 c
2

## Ac = Asegment = Asector Atriangle = rc ( sin( ) . cos( ) )

xc =
xc =

Asector x Atriangle x
1
2
Ac
2 rc
3

sin( )

2
3

rc

## sin( ) sin( ) cos( )

sin( ) cos( )

sin( ) cos( )

Equilibrium in forces
ns

Pn = Cc

ns

T = 0.85 f'c Ac
i

i 1

As if s i
i 1

Equilibrium in moments
ns

M n = Pn e = Cc x c

i 1
ns

M n = 0.85 f'c Ac x c

i 1

Dc

Ti d i
2

As i f s i di rc

s i

d c
=

d c
f

= Es = Es u
s i
s i

with
c

page 23

s i

fy

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Example 5
Required Strength

Pu 3437.31 kN

Materials

f'c 20 MPa

M u 42.53 kN m
fy 400 MPa

d b 22 mm cover 40 mm

Solution

0.7

## Determination of concrete dimension

g 0.02

Assume

Pu
0.85

Ag
234265.6770737 mm
0.85 f'c 1 g fy g

Ag

Dc Ceil
50 mm 550 mm

Pu
Ast

0.85

0.85 f'c Ag

0.85 f'c fy

Ag

As0
s

4
Ds
ns

2
2

237582.9444277 mm

4.538 10 mm

Ds
14
100 mm

db

Ds Dc cover d bs
2 428 mm
2

d b

Dc

n s ceil

2
2

380.133 mm

96.043 mm

## Pn.max 0.85 0.85 f'c Ag Ast fy Ast 3615.923083 kN u 0.003

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 0.85
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

i 1 n s

2
s
( i 1)
i
ns

d
i

Dc
2

d t max( d ) 489 mm

page 24

Ds
2

c( a)

cos s

a
1

Es 200000 MPa

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

d c( a)
fs( i a)

s u

( a)

c( a)

sign s min Es s fy

t u

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.7 200 t
0.9
3

max0.7 min

Dc
rc
2

rc a

rc

( a) acos

x c( a)

2
3

sin( ( a) )

rc

( a) sin( ( a) ) cos( ( a) )

ns

## Pn ( a) min ( a) 0.85 f'c Ac( a)

As0 fs( i a) Pn.max

i 1

ns

## Mn ( a) ( a) 0.85 f'c Ac( a) x c( a)

As0 fs( i a) d i rc

i 1

a 0

Dc
100

Dc

4 10

3 10

2 10

4 10

3 10

Pn( a)

2 10

kN

Pu
kN

1 10

1 10

100

200
Mn( a)
kN m

page 25

300
Mu
kN m

0
400

page 26

Stability Index
Q=
where

Pu0
Vu Lc

Pu Vu

0
Lc

Q 0.05

Q 0.05

## = center-to-center length of column

Slenderness of column
The column is short, if
in nonsway frame

k ns Lu
r
k s Lu

in sway frame

M1

M2

min 34 12

40

22

## Ratio M1 /M2 is considered positive if the member is bent in single curvature

and negative for double curvature

page 27

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

where

M 1 = min M A M B

M 2 = max M A M B

Lu

page 28

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

= radius of gyration

I Ag

r=

Ag

k = k A B

## A B = degree of end restraint (release)

EIc

Lc
EIb

Lb

=1

: column is fixed

= 10

: column is pinned

Ig

for column

Ic = 0.70Ig

for beam

Ib = 0.35 Ig

page 29

## Determination of Effective Length Factor

Way 1. Using Graph

page 30

## Way 2. Using equations

For braced frame:

2
A B
A
B

k

4
2

k ns
tan

kns

A B

36

6 A B

2 tan
2 kns = 1

kns

ks

tan

ks

## Way 3. Using approximate relations

In nonsway frames:

## k ns = 0.7 0.05 A B 1.0

k ns = 0.85 0.05 min 1.0

min = min A B

In sway frames:
Case

m 2
ks =

20 m
20

1 m

m 2
k s = 0.9 1 m
Case of column is hinged at one end
k s = 2.0 0.3

page 31

## Moment Magnification Procedure

a. Moment Magification on Non Sway Frame
M c = M 2 ns M 2min ns
where

Cm

ns =
1

Pu

1.0

0.75 Pcns
2

Pcns =

EI =

or

EI =

EI

kns Lu

0.2 Ec Ig Es Ise
1 dns
0.4 Ec Ig

dns =

1 dns

Coefficient
Cm = 0.6 0.4

M1
M2

1.2 PD
Pu

0.4

## Ratio M1 /M2 is considered positive if the member is bent in single curvature

and negative for double curvature

page 32

Example 6

## Non Sway Column

PD
Pu 6402 kN

PL

Required strength

M A 77.75 kN m
Length of column

4273.41 kN

796.25 kN

M B 122.68 kN m

Lc 7.8 m

ba

ha
L
a

600 mm
600 mm

3.6 m

bb

hb
L
b

650 mm
650 mm

1.5 m

ba1

ha1
L
a1

300 mm
500 mm

6 m

ba2

ha2
L
a2

300 mm
500 mm

6 m

bb1

hb1
L
b1

300 mm
500 mm

6 m

bb2

hb2
L
b2

300 mm
500 mm

6 m

## Upper and lower beams

Materials

f'c 30 MPa

fy 400 MPa

Solution
Determination of concrete dimension
0.65

assume

g 0.03

Pu
0.8

Ag
3.351 10 mm
0.85 f'c 1 g fy g

h

Ag
k

578.917 mm

k=

b
h

600
600

b k h 578.917 mm

## h Ceil( h 50 mm) 600 mm

b Ceil( b 50 mm) 600 mm

b 600 mm

h 600

page 33

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

origin = 1
Determination of steel area
5

Ag b h 3.6 10 mm
d b 25 mm
Pu
0.85 f'c Ag
0.80
3
2
Ast
8.362 10 mm
0.85 f'c fy

Ast
1
4

25
25

25
Bars
25
25

25

n s rows As

25 25 25 25 25
0

0 25

25
mm
25

25

25

25 25 25 25

As0

Bars

i 1 cols As0
Ast

ns 6

As

Ast
Ag

h cc 2
s
0.095 m
ns 1
d1 d1
i

As0

i 1

0.027

62.5
157.5

252.5

d
mm
347.5
442.5

537.5

d d1

Slenderness of column
stability index

Q 0
r

173.205 mm

12
Modulus of elasticity
kN
wc 24
3
m

wc
Ec 44 MPa
kN
m3

page 34

1.5

As As1
2

cc cover d bs
62.5 mm
2

i 2 n s

As1
i

Ast 9817.477 mm

db

d1 cc
1

d b

17.035
2

f'c
MPa

2.834 10 MPa

At point A
3

Ia1 0.35

Ica 0.7

Ia2 0.35

12

b a h a

La
Ec Ia1
La1

La1 6 m

12

La2 6 m

Lc 7.8 m

Ec Ic
Lc
Ec Ia2

b a2 h a2

b h
Ic 0.7
12

La 3.6 m

12

Ec Ica
A

b a1 h a1

8.418

La2

At point B
3

Ib1 0.35

Icb 0.7

Lb1 6 m

12
bb hb

Lb
Ec Ib1
Lb1

Ib2 0.35

b b2 h b2
12

Lb2 6 m

Lb 1.5 m

12

Ec Icb
B

b b1 h b1

Ec Ic
Lc
Ec Ib2

21.699

Lb2

## Effective length factor

k ns A B

f (k)

A B
4

A
B

k

1

2
k

tan

k
2

2 k
tan

2 k

k 0.5001

k root( f ( k ) k )
k
Checking for long column
M 1

MA MB

MA

if

MB

otherwise

k ns k ns A B 0.969

M 2

page 35

MA MB

MB

if

MA

otherwise

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Curve 2
If column is bent in bent in single curvature, M 1 , the smaller of top and bot second order
magnified moment is to be taken as positive. Otherwise, M 1 is to be taken as negative.

Ratio if Curve = 1

Lu Lc
k ns Lu
r

M1

M2
M2
M1

Ratio 0.634

max h a1 h a2 max h b1 h b2

40.834

The_column

7.3 m

"is short" if

k ns Lu
r

M1

M2

min 34 12

40

## "is long" otherwise

The_column "is long"

dns

1.2 PD
Pu

b h

0.801

Ig
12

EI

0.4 Ec Ig
1 dns

Pcns

EI

k ns Lu

13409.868891 kN

ns max

Cm

Pu

0.75 Pcns

1 1.101

M c

## ns max M2 M2.min if The_column = "is long"

max M 2 M 2.min otherwise

M c 232.509 kN m

page 36

## Interaction diagram for column strength

c( a)

a
1

d t max( d ) 537.5 mm

## Case of eccentric column

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 0.836
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

d c( a)
fs( i a)

s u

c( a)

sign s min Es s fy

( a)

t u

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.45 250 t
0.9
3

max0.65 min

page 37

Pn.max 6685.4554793 kN

ns

## Pn ( a) min ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

A

f
(
i

a
)
si s
n.max

i 1

ns

h
a

Mn ( a) ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

2 2
i 1

a 0 mm

h
100

A f ( i a) d h
si s
i

6 10

Pn( a)
kN

4 10

Pu
kN
3

2 10

0
0

1 10

500
Mn( a)
kN m

page 38

Mc
kN m

## b. Moment Magnification-Sway Frames

The magnified sway moments are added to the unmagnified nonsway moments M ns
at each end of the column:
M 1 = M 1ns s M 1s
M 2 = M 2ns s M 2s
The nonsway moments and the sway moments M s are computed using a first-order
elastic analysis

Calculation of sMs
The code provides two different methods to compute the magnified sway moments sMs

1

s =
1
1Q

Q=

Puo
Vus Lc

1

s =
1

1
Pu

Pcs

0.75
where

Pu

2

Pcs

## = summation of the critical buckling loads for

all sway-resisting columns in a story

page 39

Pcs =

EI

ks Lu

Geometry:
Width along X:
Reinforcement:
b h
Ix
12

## b 450 mm Width along Y:

4-D32, All sides Equal

Clear height:

Ix 3417187500 mm

h 450 mm Ag b h

Ag 202500 mm

d b 32 mm
Ix

Ag

r 129.904 mm

lu 5 m

Concrete:
f'c 35 MPa

wc
Ec 44 MPa
kN
m3

kN
wc 24
3
m

Reinforcing Steel:
fy 400 MPa

1.5

f'c
MPa

30605.787688 MPa

Es 200000 MPa

Type

Axial
PD 1690 kN

Bending Moments
(Top & Bottom)

Sustained

M D.top 43.5 kN m

StD 0.635

M D.bot 73.25 kN m

PL 623 kN

M L.top 27.2 kN m

StL 0

M L.bot 48.8 kN m

PW 0 kN

M W.top 68 kN m
M W.bot 68 kN m

Pu 1.2 PD 0.5 PL 1.6 PW

Pu 2.34 10 kN

page 40

StW 0

## Factor end moments

due to loads that cause no
appreciable sidesway
Factored end moments
due to loads that cause
appreciable sideway
Factored total end
moments

## M ns.top 1.2 M D.top 0.5 M L.top

M ns.top 65.8 kN m

## M ns.bot 1.2 M D.bot 0.5 M L.bot

M ns.bot 112.3 kN m

## M s.top 1.6 M W.top

M s.top 108.8 kN m

## M s.bot 1.6 M W.bot

M s.bot 108.8 kN m

## M u.top.1st M ns.top M s.top

M u.top.1st 174.6 kN m

## M u.bot.1st M ns.bot M s.bot

M u.bot.1st 221.1 kN m

## Story Loads for all columns:

Assume an exterior column load of two-third the interior column load, a corner column load of
one-third the interior column load.
The total factored vertical story load
2
1
Pu 14Pu 18 Pu 4 Pu
3
3

Pu 63946.333333 kN

## 3. Determination column designation as sway/non sway and slenderness considerations

Determine kns (nonsway frame) and ks (sway frame) from the alignment charts
[ACI 318 Fig 10.10.1.1. (a) and (b) respectively.
Relatif Stiff of Beams EIb/L
4

## k b 4.067 10 kN m k be 0.35 k b 1.423 10 kN m

For a 5 m
k c1
For a 3.4 m

0.7 Ix Ec

k c2

lu
0.7 Ix Ec
3.4 m

k c1 1.464 10 kN m
4

k c2 2.153 10 kN m

page 41

k c1 k c2

B A

2 k be

A 1.271

Given
try
A B
4

k ns 0.51

k ns

A B
2

k
1

tan

kns

k ns Find k ns

2 tan
2 k ns

=1

kns

k ns 0.819

Given

try

k s 1.1
2

A B 36
k
=

6 A B

ks

tan

k s Find k s

ks

k s 1.478
k s lu

Check

## 4. Moment maginification at ends of compression member (Sway)

Ise 2

EIs

2 d b
4

h 2 cc

2
7

Ise 8.495 10 mm

0.2 Ec Ix Es Ise

1 ds

ds 0 No sustained Lateral
Shear

EIs 3.791 10 kN m
2

Pcs

EIs

ks lu

2
Pcs 14 Pcs 22 Pcs
3

Pcs 6.848 10 kN
5

Pcs 1.963 10 kN

page 42

s max

1
Pu

0.75 Pcs

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

s 1.768

Magnify column moments M 1 and M2 due to second order effects at the ends:
M u.top.second M ns.top s M s.top

M u.top.second 258.13 kN m

## M u.bot.second M ns.bot s M s.bot

M u.bot.second 304.63 kN m

Set M2 to the larger of the absolute value of top and bot second order magnified moments

## M 2.2nd max M u.top.second M u.bot.second

M 1.2nd min M u.top.second M u.bot.second

M 2.2nd 304.63 kN m
M 1.2nd 258.13 kN m

Determine the first order factored moment, M 2first at the end at which the larger second order
moment, M2second acts.

Mu.top.second
M 1.1st if M u.top.second
M 2.1st if

M u.top.1st

## M u.bot.second M u.top.1st M u.bot.1st

M 2.1st 221.1 kN m

M u.bot.second M u.bot.1st

M 1.1st 174.6 kN m

The ratio of second order moments to first order moments after moment magnification
at column ends (sway effect) is
M 2.2nd
M 2.1st

M 1.2nd

1.378

M 1.1st

## 5. Moment magnification along length of compression member (nonsway)

continue to magnify column moments per aci 10.10.6 for second order effects along
the length of member as required by aci 10.10.2.2
3

## Pu.st 1.2 PD StD

Pu.st 1.288 10 kN

Pu.st
dns min
1
Pu
4

dns 0.55

0.2 Ec Ix Es Ise

1 dns

EIns 2.445 10 kN m

EIns

Pcns

EIns

kns lu

page 43

Pcns 1.44 10 kN

## Determine and select whether the column is bent in single (1) or

double (2) curvature due to second order moments
Curve 1
If column is bent in bent in single curvature, M 1 , the smaller of top and bot second order
magnified moment is to be taken as positive. Otherwise, M 1 is to be taken as negative.

## M 1.2nd if Curve = 1 M 1.2nd M 1.2nd

Cm 0.6 0.4

M 1.2nd

M 1.2nd 258.13 kN m

Cm 0.939

M 2.2nd

M 1.2nd

M 2.2nd

## Cm if M 2.2nd = 0 0 0.6 0.4

Cm 0.939

Pu

1 0.75 P
cns

Cm

ns max 1

Cm max Cm 0.4

M min Pu ( 15 mm 0.03 h )

ns 1.19853

M min 66.676 kN m

Final Moment

Check

Mc

1.651

## 6. Check column strength Interaction Diagram

Distribution of reinforcements

Rebars
Number of reinf
columns

32 32 mm

32 32
n cols( Rebars) 2

page 44

Cm min Cm 1

M c 365.108 kN m

## Interaction Diagram for Column Strength

0.65

Steel area

As0

Rebars

i 1 n

4
i

Aa
i

As0

Ast

Aa

Ast 3216.990877 mm

## Location of reinforcement rows

initialize to zero
db
cc cover d bs
2

cc 66 mm
h 2 d

d cc 66 mm
1
i 2 n
d

d d
i

n1

318 mm

0 mm

0

d 0.066 m
1

i 1

0.066 m d max( d )

t
0.384

d t 384 mm

## Pn.max 0.8 0.85 f'c Ag Ast fy Ast

Pn.max 3752.0422536 kN

f'c

28

MPa

## 1 min 0.85 0.05

0.85 0.8
7

d c( a)
fs( i a)

s u

c( a)

sign s min Es s fy
( a)

t u

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.45 250 t
0.9
3

max0.65 min

page 45

c( a)

a
1

## Pn ( a) min( a) 0.85 f'c a b

Mn ( a) ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

a 0 mm

h
100

i 1

i 1

A f ( i a) d
si s
i

5000

5000

4000

4000

3000

3000

Pn( a)

Pu

kN

kN
2000

2000

1000

1000

100

200

300

Mn( a)
kN m

Pu 2339.5 kN

0
500

400

Mc
kN m

M c 365.108 kN m

Given
h

100

a Find( a)

## Asi fs( i a) Pn.max

i 1

a 0.203 m

Mn Mn ( a) 371.079 kN m

greater than

REVISE TheSection

page 46

M c 365.108 kN m

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Example 8
Material Data

f'c 30 MPa

Ec 4700

fy 400 MPa
Column Dimension
Beam Dimension

f'c
MPa

MPa

Ec 2.574 10 MPa

cover 40 mm

Es 200000 MPa
b 350 mm

h 450 mm

8D16

d b 16 mm

d bs 10 mm

Floor Beams
b bf 300 mm h bf 500 mm
Roof Beams
b br 300 mm

h br 450 mm

## a. For Wind from Left (1,2D+0,5L+1,6W)

Pu1 ( 1.2 368720.8 0.5 188116.2 1.6 4342.847) N
M ns.top.left [ 1.2 ( 31871.21) 0.5 ( 20288.17) ] N m
M ns.bot.left [ 1.2 ( 15872.84) 0.5 ( 10103.1 ) ] N m

Pu1 529.5745048 kN
M ns.top.left 48.39 kN m
M ns.bot.left 24.099 kN m

## M s.top.left 1.6 3607.705 N m 5.77233 kN m

M s.bot.left 1.6 ( 8757.81 ) N m 14.0125 kN m
b. For Wind from right (1,2D+0,5L-1,6W)
Pu2 ( 1.2 368720.8 0.5 188116.2 1.6 4342.847) N

Pu2 543.4716152 kN

## M ns.top.right [ 1.2 ( 31871.21) 0.5 ( 20288.17) ] N m M ns.top.right 48.39 kN m

M ns.bot.right [ 1.2 ( 15872.84) 0.5 ( 10103.1 ) ] N m
M s.top.right 1.6 ( 3607.705) N m 5.77233 kN m
M s.bot.right 1.6 ( 8757.81 ) N m 14.0125 kN m

page 47

M ns.bot.right 24.099 kN m

5
4
Lc m
4
4

9600
7200
Vu
N
4800
2400

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

2054374
1501864
Pu
N
959560
417256

1.36
1.27
o
mm
0.93
0.58

1. Direct P- Analysis
i 1 4
Pu o
Q
i

Vu Lc
i

s
i

1
1Q

0.0582073

1.0618047

Q 2

0.066228

s 2

1.0709253

0.0464787

1.0487443

0.0252092

1.0258612

## 2. Magnify Moments, 2nd order Moments

2.1. For Wind from Left (1.2D+0.5L+1.6W)
Pu1 529.575 kN
M u.top M ns.top.left M s.top.left 42.617209 kN m
M u.bot M ns.bot.left M s.bot.left 10.086 kN m
Magnify column moments M 1 and M2 due to second order effects at the ends:
M u.top.second M ns.top.left s M s.top.left
1

M u.top.second 42.260452 kN m

## M u.bot.second M ns.bot.left s M s.bot.left

1

M u.bot.second 9.22 kN m

Set M2 to the larger of the absolute value of top and bot second order magnified moments

## M 1.second min M u.top.second M u.bot.second

page 48

M 2.second 42.2604517 kN m

M 1.second 9.22 kN m

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Determine the first order factored moment, M 2first at the end at which the larger second order
moment, M2second acts.

Mu.top.second
M 1.first if M u.top.second
M 2.first if

## M u.bot.second M u.top M u.bot

M u.bot.second M u.bot M u.top

M 2.first 42.61721 kN m
M 1.first 10.086 kN m

The ratio of second order moments to first order moments after moment magnification
at column ends (sway effect) is
M 2.second
M 2.first

M 1.second

0.992

M 1.first

0.914

## Moment magnification along length of compression member (nonsway)

continue to magnify column moments per aci 10.10.6 for second order effects along
the length of member as required by aci 10.10.2.2
At point A

Ib 0.35

b bf h bf

b h

Lb 7 m

12

Ic 0.7
12

Lc Lc

Ec Ic

Lc

Ec Ib

Lb

2.381

B 1

## Effective length factor

k ns A B

f (k)

A B
4

k
1

tan

A B
2

2 k
tan

1
2 k

k 0.5001
k root( f ( k ) k )

dns min

1.2 368720.8 N
Pu1

k ns k ns A B 0.821

k
1

dns 0.836

page 49

db
cc cover d bs
2

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

d 2
2

b h
Ise 2 3
cc
4 2

EIns

0.2 Ec Ic Es Ise

1 dns

EIns 8.885 10 kN mm

Pcns

EIns

kns Lc1

Pcns 5.201 10 kN

## Determine and select whether the column is bent in single (1) or

double (2) curvature due to second order moments
Curve 1
If column is bent in bent in single curvature, M 1 , the smaller of top and bot second order
magnified moment is to be taken as positive. Otherwise, M 1 is to be taken as negative.

## M 1.second if Curve = 1 M 1.second M 1.second

Cm 0.6 0.4

M 1.second

M 1.second 9.22 kN m

Cm 0.687

M 2.second

M 1.second

M 2.second

Cm 0.687

Pu1

1 0.75 P
cns

Cm

ns max 1

Cm max Cm 0.4

Cm min Cm 1

ns 1

## M min Pu1 ( 15 mm 0.03 h )

M min 15.093 kN m

Final Moment

Check

M c1

## max M 2.first M min

M c1 42.2604517 kN m

page 50

Pu2 543.472 kN

## M u.top M ns.top.right M s.top.right 54.162 kN m

M u.bot M ns.bot.right M s.bot.right 38.111 kN m

Magnify column moments M 1 and M2 due to second order effects at the ends:
M u.top.second M ns.top.right s M s.top.right
1

M u.top.second 54.519 kN m

## M u.bot.second M ns.bot.right s M s.bot.right

1

M u.bot.second 38.977 kN m

Set M2 to the larger of the absolute value of top and bot second order magnified moments

## M 2.second max M u.top.second M u.bot.second

M 2.second 54.5186223 kN m

## M 1.second min M u.top.second M u.bot.second

M 1.second 38.977 kN m

Determine the first order factored moment, M 2first at the end at which the larger second order
moment, M2second acts.

Mu.top.second
M 1.first if M u.top.second
M 2.first if

## M u.bot.second M u.top M u.bot

M u.bot.second M u.bot M u.top

M 2.first 54.16186 kN m
M 1.first 38.111 kN m

The ratio of second order moments to first order moments after moment magnification
at column ends (sway effect) is
M 2.second
M 2.first

1.007

M 1.second
M 1.first

1.023

## Moment magnification along length of compression member (nonsway)

continue to magnify column moments per aci 10.10.6 for second order effects along
the length of member as required by aci 10.10.2.2
1.2 368720.8 N
dns min
1
Pu1

EIns

0.2 Ec Ic Es Ise

1 dns

dns 0.836

Pcns

k ns Lc

EIns 8.885 10 kN mm

EIns

d 2
2

b h

Ise 2 3
c c
4 2

Pcns 5200.825458 kN

page 51

## Determine and select whether the column is bent in single (1) or

double (2) curvature due to second order moments
Curve 1
If column is bent in bent in single curvature, M 1 , the smaller of top and bot second order
magnified moment is to be taken as positive. Otherwise, M 1 is to be taken as negative.

## M 1.second if Curve = 1 M 1.second M 1.second

Cm 0.6 0.4

M 1.second

M 1.second 38.977 kN m

Cm 0.886

M 2.second

M 1.second

M 2.second

Cm 0.886

Pu1

1 0.75 P
cns

Cm

ns max 1

Cm max Cm 0.4

Cm min Cm 1

ns 1.025

## M min Pu2 ( 15 mm 0.03 h )

M min 15.489 kN m

Final Moment

Check

M c2

## max M 2.first M min

M c2 55.8902036 kN m

page 52

## Check with Interaction Diagram

5

Ag b h 1.575 10 mm

Ast
Ag

As0

i 2 n s

As0

n s rows As0
d d
i

Tul

i 1

Ast
ns 3

i 1 cols As0

As Aa

0.01

u 0.003

db
cc cover d bs
58 mm
2

d b 16 mm

16 16 16
Tul 16 0 16 mm

16 16 16
Aa
i

0.65

As

d cc
1

0.058
d 0.225 m

0.392

Ast 1.608 10 mm

h cc 2
s
0.167 m
ns 1

d t max( d ) 392 mm

f'c

28

MPa
a

0.85 0.836 c( a)
7
1

## Case of eccentric column

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 0.836
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

d c( a)
fs( i a)

s u

c( a)

sign s min Es s fy

( a)

t u

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.45 250 t
0.9
3

max0.65 min

page 53

Pn.max 2401.6884017 kN

ns

## Pn ( a) min ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

Asi fs( i a) Pn.max

i 1

ns

h
a

A f ( i a) d
Mn ( a) ( a) 0.85 f'c a b
si s
i

2 2

i 1

a 0 mm

h
100

3 10

2 10

3 10

Pn( a)

2 10

kN

Pu2

Pu1
kN

kN
3

1 10

1 10

100
Mn( a)
kN m

200

M c1

M c2

kN m kN m

page 54

0
300

## Biaxial Bending of Column

Biaxial bending of columns occurs when the loading causes bending simultaneously about
both principal axes.

## Biaxial Interaction Strength

A uniaxial interaction diagram defines the load-moment strength along a single plane of a
section under an axial load P and a uniaxial moment M. The biaxial bending resistance of an
axially loaded column can be represented schematically as a surface formed by a series of
uniaxial interaction curves drawn radially from P axis.

page 55

## A. Bresler Reciprocal Load Method

This method approximate the ordinate 1/Pn on the surface S 2 (1/P n , ex, ey) by a corresponding
ordinate 1/P'n on the plane S'2 ehich is defined by the characteristic points A, B and C, as
indicated :

page 56

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

The general expression for axial load strength for any values of ex and ey is as follows:
1
Pn

P'n

1
Pox

1
Poy

1
Po

## Rearranging variables yields:

Pn =

where

1 1 1
P

ox Poy Po

for

Pu

= Pn 0.1 f'c Ag

0.65

Pox = Maximum uniaxial load strength of the column with a moment of M nx=Pn .ey
Poy = Maximum uniaxial load strength of the column with a moment of M ny=Pn .ex
Po = maximum axial load strength with no applied moments
B. Bresler Load Contour Method
In this method, the surface S 3 (Pn , Mnx, Mny) is aproximated by a family of curves corresponding
to constant values of P n . These curves may be regarded as "load contours"

on error

page 57

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

The general expression for these curves can be approximated by a nondimensional interaction
equation of the form:

Mnx
Mny
M M = 1.0
nox
noy
when M nx and Mny are the nominal biaxial moment strength in the direction of the x and y axes,
respectively. The moment M nox is the nominal uniaxial moment strength about the x-axis, and
Mnoy is the nominal uniaxial moment strength about the y-axis.
The values of the exponents and are a function of the amount, distribution and location of
reinforcement, the dimensions of the columns, and the strength and elastic properties of the steel
and concrete.
Bresler indicates that it is reasonably accurate to assume that =

Mnx
Mny
M M = 1.0
nox
noy

Bresler indicated that, typically, varied from 1.15 to 1.55, which a value 1.5 being resonably
accurate for most square and rectangular sections having uniformly distributed reinforcement.
With set at unity, the interaction equation becomes linear:

Mnx Mny
M M = 1.0
nox noy
This equation as shown in figure above, would always yield conservative results since it
underestimates the column capacity, especially for high axial loads or low percentages of
reinforcement.
Pu
It should only be used when
= Pn 0.1 f'c Ag

page 58

## C. PCA Load Contour Method

The PCA approach described below was developed as an extension of the the Bresler Load
Contour Method.

A typical Bresler Load Contour for a certain P n is shown above. In the PCA Method, point B
is defined such that the nominal biaxial moment strengths M nx and Mny at this point are the
same ratio as the uniaxial moment strengths M nox and Mnoy. Therefore, at point B
Mnx
Mny

Mnox
Mnoy

log( 0.5)
log( )

page 59

log( 0.5)

Mnx

Mnox

log( )

log( 0.5)

Mny

Mnoy

page 60

log( )

= 1.0

Mnx

ny

1.0 for

Mnox Mnoy

Mny

Mnx

Mny

Mnox

Mny

Mnx

1.0 for
Mnoy

Mnx

Mnoy
Mnox
Mnoy
Mnox

## Manual Design Procedure for Rectangular Sections

1. Choose the value of at 0.65 and Given P u , Mcx and Mcy
2. Calculate an approximate equivalent uniaxial momen strength Mnox or Mnoy
M nx =

M cx
0.65

M ny =

M cy
0.65

Pu
Pn =
0.65

## If Mny/Mnx greater than b/h

b 1
M noy = M nx
Mny
h
If Mny/Mnx is less than b/h,
h 1
M nox = M nx M ny

b
3. Design the section and reinforcement for equivalent uniaxial bending M nox or Mnoy
with corresponding axial load, P n.
4. Verify the section chosen by any one of the three methods

page 61

Diameter

Dc 500 mm

d bs 10 mm

cover 40 mm

Pu 300 kN

Solution

f'c 25 MPa

Ag 0.25 Dc

M ux 120 kN m

d b
4

Es 200000 MPa

0.7
2

M u

380.133 mm

n s 8 d b 22 mm

M uy 100 kN m

db

Ds Dc cover d bs
2
2

As0

fy 380 MPa

Ds

M ux M uy

148.44 mm

ns

M u 156.205 kN m

Ast n s As0

## Pn.max 0.85 0.85 f'c Ag Ast fy Ast

u 0.003

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 0.85
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

i 1 n s

2
s
( i 1)
i
ns

Dc

Ds
2

c( a)

Es 200000 MPa

cos s

d t max( d ) 439 mm
d c( a)
fs( i a)

s u

( a)

c( a)

sign s min Es s fy

t u

d t c( a)
c( a)

1.7 200 t
0.9
3

max0.7 min

Dc
rc
2

rc a

rc

( a) acos

x c( a)

2
3

rc

## Ac( a) rc ( ( a) sin( ( a) ) cos( ( a) ) )

page 62

sin( ( a) )

( a) sin( ( a) ) cos( ( a) )

ns

## Pn ( a) min ( a) 0.85 f'c Ac( a)

As0 fs( i a) Pn.max

i 1

ns

## Mn ( a) ( a) 0.85 f'c Ac( a) x c( a)

As0 fs( i a) d i rc

i 1

a 0

Dc
100

Dc

4 10

4 10
3500

3 10

2 10

3 10

Pn( a)

2 10

Pu
kN

kN

1 10

1 10

100

200
Mn( a)
kN m

page 63

Mu
kN m

0
300

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Example 10.
ORIGIN 1
0.65

u 0.003

f'c 30 MPa

fy 400 MPa

Es 200000MPa

M cx 20 kN m M cy 25 kN m cover 40 mm
Pu 650 kN

greater than

b 400 mm

P 0.1 f'c b h

h b

P 312 kN

Column Data
n 8
2

Ag b h 160000 mm

d b 16 mm

db
cc cover d bs
58 mm
2

d b 16 mm

16 16 16
Tul 16 0 16 mm

16 16 16
X- Axis

0
d 0 mm

0

As0

d bs 10 mm

Tul
4

i 1 cols As0

n sx rows As0
i 2 n sx

n sx 3
d d
i

i 1

d cc
1
sx

d 200 mm

342

i 1 n sx
Ax
i

h cc 2
sx
0.142 m
n sx 1
58

i
As0

Ast

n sy 3

d tx max( d ) 342 mm
Ast

Ast 1608.495 mm

Ax

Ag

Y- Axis
n sy cols As0

j 2 n sy

z z
j

j 1

z cc
1

sy

b cc 2
sy
0.142 m
n sy 1
58
z 200 mm

A T
s0

Ast

Ay

342

j 1 n sy
Ay
j

0.01

Ast 1608.495 mm

f'c

28

MPa
0.85 1 0.836
1 min 0.85 0.05
7

page 64

Ast
Ag

0.01

## Po 0.85 f'c Ag Ast Ast fy 0.65 0.8

Po 2434.8384017 kN

## Case of eccentric column

X- Axis
a

cx ( a)

fsx ( i a)

s u

d cx ( a)
i

x ( a)

tx u

cx ( a)

sign s min Es s fy

fsy ( j a)

1.45 250 tx
0.9
3

max0.65 min

a
1

s u

cx ( a)

Y- Axis
cy ( a)

d tx cx ( a)

z cy ( a)
j

y ( a)

ty u

cy ( a)

sign s min Es s fy

zty cy ( a)

cx ( a)

1.45 250 ty
0.9
3

max0.65 min

Po 2434.838 kN

X-axis
Mnx M cx
Given
a

h
1.5

Mnx 20 kN m
a 0.267 m

nsx

h
a

2 2
i 1

a Find( a)

A f ( i a) d
x i sx
i

a 394.692 mm

nsx

## Pox min x ( a) 0.85 f'c a b

Ax i fsx( i a) Po

i 1

page 65

Pox 2434.838 kN

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Y-axis
Mny M cy
Given
a

Mny 25 kN m

a 0.267 m

1.5

nsy

b
a

A f ( j a) z
Mny = y ( a) 0.85 f'c a b
yj sy
j

2 2

j1

a Find( a)

a 390.961 mm

## from interaction diagram

nsy

P
Poy min y ( a) 0.85 f'c a b
A

f
(
j

a
)
yj sy
o

j1

Pno

1
1
Pox

1
Poy

Poy 2434.838 kN

## Pno 2434.838 kN greater than

Pu 650 kN

Po
Pu
RatioReciprocal
Pno

page 66

RatioReciprocal 0.267

spColumn Result
Mcy
51.34 deg
Mcx

Pu
RatioReciprocal
0.267
Pno

atan

P ( k N)

(Pmax)

(Pmax)

3000

2000

1000
1

-16 0

-120

-80

-40

40

80

120
M (51) ( k Nm)

(Pmin)

(Pmin)
-1000

## "Bressler Load Contour Method"

Due to a lack of available data, a conservative value of 1.0 is chosen.
Although Pn less than o.1. f` c .Ag, the necessary calculation will be carried out for example
purpose. Since the section is symetrical, Mnox is equal to M noy
Given
a

h
100

a 4 mm

nsx

## Pu = min 0.85 f'c a b

Ax i fsx( i a) Po a Find( a)

i 1

a 87.356 mm

nsx

h
a
A f ( i a) d
Mnox x ( a) 0.85 f'c a b
x i sx
i

2 2

i 1

page 67

ratiobressler

Mnx
Mnox

## prepared by Djoni Simanta

Mny

ratiobressler 0.255

Mnoy

200

My ( k Nm)

100

1
-20 0

-10 0

Mx ( k Nm)
100

-100

-200
P = 650 k N

page 68

200

Pox
Vx
Ag f'c
aksen

kanan

Poy
Vy
Ag f'c

Ast fy
Ag f'c

0.02 if n 4
0 otherwise

## 0.545 0.35 ( 0.5 q) 2 m if q 0.5

0.485 0.03 m otherwise

aksen 0.592

if Vx 0.25
V Vx
aksen 0.2

V 0.25

0.85 q

otherwise
if Vy 0.25
V Vx
aksen 0.2

V 0.25

0.85 q

otherwise
V Vy
aksen ( 0.85 0.5 q ) ( 0.25 V)
kiri

kanan 0.644

if Vy 0.25
V Vy
aksen 0.2

V 0.25

0.85 q

otherwise
if Vx 0.25
V Vx
aksen ( 0.85 0.5 q ) ( 0.25 V)

otherwise
V Vy
aksen 0.2

V 0.25

0.85 q

kiri 0.644

page 69

m0

Calculate

kanan if Vx Vy
0.644

kiri

ratioPCA

Mnx
M
nox

log( 0.5)

log( )

Mny
M
noy

log( 0.5)

log( )
ratioPCA 0.078

spColumn Results

200

My ( k Nm)

100

1
-20 0

-10 0

Mx ( k Nm)
100

-100

-200
P = 650 k N

page 70

200