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AN ONFITNESS PUBLICATION

FOR THOSE SEEKING KNOWLEDGE

GET IN THE
BEST HEALTH
OF YOUR LIFE
WITH INFORMATION ON:
SPORTS NUTRITION, PROTEIN,
SUPPLEMENTS, MEDICINE,
DIET PLANS, VITAMINS,
HEALTH, AND FOOD

FOODS
THAT
HEAL
EATING
STRATEGIES
TO GET LEAN
AND FIT

FAT
LOSS
FOODS
THE GREAT
PROTEIN
DEBATE
IS PROTEIN THE
BEST ANTI-OBESITY
WEAPON WE HAVE?

VASCULAR
DISEASE
SIMPLIFIED
YOU ARE WHAT YOU EAT
WHY WE CRAVE
BAD FOODS

SUPER CHARGE YOUR NUTRITION KNOWLEDGE

GUIDE

CUTTING EDGE NUTRITION


AND HEALTH INFORMATION

THE
BIG DEAL
ABOUT RAW
FOODS

Greens for
immune
defense
An October 2011
report in the
journal Cell found
green vegetables
to be a source of a
chemical signal
that is essential to
a fully functioning
immune system.
Green vegetables
ensure that
immune cells in
the gut and the
skin, known as
intra-epithelial
lymphocytes,
function properly.
Just one more
reason to eat your
greens!

Foods that heal


6 smart eating strategies to get healthy, lean and fit, by leading nutritional experts

Copyright 2015,
Publisher Consultant,
Inc. All rights reserved.
Information appearing in
Clean Nutrition Guide, an
OnFitness publication,
may not be reproduced
in whole or in part
without express written
permission of the
publisher. OnFitness is a
trademark of Publisher
Consultant, Inc.,
established in 1999

This eBook is not


intended to provide
medical advice on
personal health
conditions or to replace
recommendations made
by health professionals.
The opinions expressed
by contributors and
sources quoted in articles
are not necessarily those
of the editor or the
publisher. Advertisers
and advertising agencies
assume liability for all
content of advertising
and for any claims
arising there from.

STRATEGY

1
Vascular disease
simplified: you are
what you eat

By Dr. Case Adams

uring the Dark Ages of medicine, dying from heart


disease meant the heart died. He died from a
broken heart was a popular saying.
Those days are gone, yet the mystery of heart disease
has continued for many.
Actually, most heart disease is vascular disease also
described as cardiovascular disease. Most problems
attributed to a weak and/or diseased heart are caused by
damaged blood vessels.
Like any part of the body, when the heart is deprived
of nutrition and oxygen rich blood it becomes
weaker. Decreased blood flow to the heart over a period
of time can thus weaken the heart. And shutting off blood
flow to the heart due to an occlusion (clogging) results in
ischemia heart attack.

When narrowed arteries that feed the brain become


clogged, this causes a stroke. The release of thrombin
blood vessel wall scar tissue can clog one or more of
the tiny vessels feeding brain tissues. The result is often
brain damage.
Damaged and narrowed arteries feeding the heart is
coronary artery disease. Likewise, cor pulmonale heart
disease is the obstruction of lung-heart blood vessels,
often related to high blood pressure.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is caused by a lack
of elasticity in the blood vessels produced by the
hardening (scarring) of damaged blood vessel walls.
Varicose veins occur when the blood vessels that return
blood to the heart become damaged. The lifter valves
within the veins become weak, and dont pump all the
blood back to the heart. This accumulates blood in the
veins and surrounding tissues seriously engorging veins.
Fibromuscular dysplasia, or FMD, is a swelling of the
blood vessel walls. Recent research from the Mayo Clinic
has found that at least 10 million Americans may
unknowingly suffer from FMD.
We can link most disorders related to heart disease or
cardiovascular disease to one issue: damaged and
weakened blood vessels: vascular disease, in other words.

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Kale for
weight loss
and health
Kale is one of the
most nutrient rich
foods on the
planet and one
that you should
eat at least a few
times a week if
you can manage
it.
Kale stands out in
its high number
of antioxidant
nutrients, antiinflammatory
nutrients and anticancer nutrients.
It has also been
known to lower
blood pressure. If
you are trying to
lose weight, kale is
your go-to
vegetable because
it provides more
nutritional value
for fewer calories
than any other
food around.
You can lightly
steam kale, add it
raw to soups and
smoothies, or
bake it in the oven
for a healthy kale
chip snack.

So what is vascular disease?


Atherosclerosis is the typical scenario relating to blood
vessel damage. Atherosclerosis occurs when the cells of
blood vessel walls are injured by:
1: oxidized low density lipoproteins (LDL)
2: oxidized very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)
3: other oxidative radicals.
The damage produces an immune response to heal the
injury site. The immune system sends macrophages, Tcells, fibrin, plasmin, platelet-aggregating factor and other
supporting players to the site to patch it up.
The result is not unlike a scab, but it occurs inside the walls
of blood vessels. This scabbing, or plaque, hardens the blood
vessel walls and removes their elasticity and flexibility.
It also results in a narrowing of the lumen the
opening through which blood flows. This loss of elasticity
and narrowed lumen size results in high blood pressure
and hardening of the arteries.
How do we know if we have
vascular disease?
There are several tests that can reveal by measuring
inflammation markers whether we have damaged,
hardened and/or scarred blood vessels.
These inflammation markers include homocysteine,
fibrinogen and C-reactive protein. High levels of these
indicate an increased immune response to blood vessel
wall damage.
As inflammation increases, the risk of thrombosis (and
embolism) increases. Two test markers for this are betathromboglobulin and platelet factor 4. These indicate
increased risk of heart attack, stroke and aneurysms.
Physicians also measure cholesterol levels to gauge the
oxidizing potential of LDL and VLDL. The ischemiamodified albumin marker measures a combination of
abnormal cholesterol, vascular damage, inflammation,
hypertension and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar
which can increase VLDL levels).
The last National Heart Lung and Blood Institutes
(NHLBI) National Cholesterol Education Report detailed
guidelines for serum cholesterol levels.
The report showed that risk for vascular damage
increases when total cholesterol is:
1: more than 200 mg/dL
2: triglycerides are more than 150 mg/dL
3: HDL-C is outside the 40 to 60 mg/dL range
4: LDL-C is above 100 mg/dL.
LDL levels above 130 mg/dL warrant therapeutic
intervention, according to the reports guidelines.
Cardiovascular disease is still the number one killer in
the U.S., and it is anticipated to remain number one
through 2020. The American Heart Association has
reported that one-third of Americans about 80 million
have some form of cardiovascular disease, and almost
half of Americans have cholesterol levels that increase
their risk for heart disease.
The link between diet and vascular disease
Why is cholesterol so important? Remember that LDL
cholesterol (and VLDL) easily oxidizes, and becomes a
free radical that damages blood vessel walls.
Foods that create high levels of LDL/VLDL in the body
include fried foods, overly processed foods, sugary foods,
saturated fats, hydrogenated oils especially partially
hydrogenated oils and low fiber refined foods. Because
the fatty acids in these foods have been degraded by high heat

and other processing, they lend to higher levels of LDL/VLDL.


A lack of fiber in the diet also lends to higher levels of
LDL/VLDL. This is because fiber helps regulate and
maintain healthy cholesterol levels by attaching to
LDL/VLDL in the gut.
Dietary strategies
A number of dietary strategies can significantly lower
LDL/VLDL cholesterol, thereby reducing vascular damage.
Even the conservative NHLBI has suggested
therapeutic lifestyle changes, including reducing
saturated fats to less than 7 percent of calories and
increasing soluble fiber to 10-25 g/day. It also
recommends plant sterols as therapeutic options to
enhance LDL lowering.
Lets clarify these a bit further. Reducing saturated fat
levels is an easy one. Most saturated fats are derived from
animal products, so we can easily reduce saturated fat
content in our diet by scaling these foods back.
Increasing soluble fiber means eating more fresh fruits,
vegetables and whole grains; and replacing processed
foods with the real thing whole foods. This means
preparing whole yourself, a complete meal, rather than
eating it in the form of a frozen dinner.
Most nutritionists agree that 35-45 grams of fiber a
day are important, with about three-quarters of that being
insoluble.
Yet, it is the soluble fiber that is most known for its
cholesterol reducing abilities.
Sterols and polyphenols
Plant sterols make up the cell membranes of plant
cells, and soluble plant fibers contain sterols. Research
from the University of Toronto has established that plant
sterols reduce LDL cholesterol levels.
Plant derived phenols have also been shown to reduce
lipoprotein oxidation and LDL/VLDL levels.
Sterols and phenols do this by stabilizing the oxidized
radicals that can damage blood vessels. They connect to
and carry these bad guys that damage blood vessel walls
out of the body.
Some of the polyphenols showing significant LDL
lowering benefits in the research include those from green
tea, grapes and pomegranates. Most antioxidant fruits
contain polyphenols and/or sterols.
Other heart healthy foods
Oats and barley contain significant portions of soluble
fibers called beta-glucans. A 2007 analysis from the UK
concluded that oats lowered total cholesterol and low
density lipoproteins an average of 7 mg/dL among 10
different clinical studies.
Despite its saturated fat content, healthy dairy reduces
LDL. A study of 51 healthy adults in 2002 illustrated that
CLA lowered VLDL-C and triglycerides. Probiotic dairy
such as yogurt and kefir have shown additional benefit.
These are rich in the blood-pressure lowering peptides
valine-prolyl-proline (VPP) and tripeptide isoleucineproline-proline (IPP).
USDA research has shown that polymethoxylated
flavones (PMFs) can reduce cholesterol, high blood
pressure and artery damage. PMFs are found in citrus
fruits, especially in the peels.
Apples have significant LDL lowering effects because
of their high pectin levels. Pectin is rich in soluble fiber.
Pectin has been shown to significantly absorb and remove

3
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LDL/VLDL in the gut.


Avocado is good for
vascular health. Avocados
are rich in monounsaturated
fats. They have been shown
to reduce LDL cholesterol
by as much as 18 percent.
Another vascular
friendly food is coconut
and coconut oil. Coconut
oils medium chain fatty
acids have been shown to
lower lipoprotein-A levels
and reduce artery plaque.
Garlic and onions have
also been shown to reduce
cholesterol levels and
increase artery health.
Many ascribe this benefit
to their high levels of the
antioxidant quercetin.
Vitamin D
Vitamin D has been
shown to significantly
reduce artery damage. A
15-year study that
followed 559 adult women
presented at an American
Heart Associations High
Blood Pressure Research
Conference found that
vitamin D deficient women
had triple the likelihood of
developing hypertension.
About 10-15 minutes a
day of sun exposure
produce the healthiest
form of vitamin D, D3.
Vascular disease and
exercise
Exercise is also critical
to preventing vascular
disease. Why? Because
exercise increases blood
flow, increases the nutrient
content of tissues, helps
slow oxidation, and
expands and contracts
blood vessel walls.
Use it or lose it is an
apt statement when it comes
to blood vessel health. When
we exercise, our faster
heart rate and blood flow
increase the elasticity of
blood vessels.
The bottom line is that
by eating a healthy diet
and exercising regularly, we
should be able to dodge
much of the vascular
damage bullet that most
Westerners face. Well feel a
heck of a lot better too. Z

Quality
protein for
cardiovascular
health

hard workout will create tiny muscle tears in


muscle fibers. These tears will be repaired
by the immune system using additional
motor proteins assembled by RNA from amino
acids. Our body needs a good supply of these
aminos to form proteins.
Most people think the body absorbs and utilizes
protein from foods. Not true. The body utilizes
amino acids and short chains of aminos, and
assembles its own protein complexes as needed for
our tissues.
The reason we each have slightly different genes
is because we each assemble slightly different
arrangements of aminos.
Aminos are called peptides and the simple
amino chains are called polypeptides. The process
of complex protein assembly is orchestrated by
RNA, and driven by special enzymes which also
happen to be proteins.
Each one of the bodys countless unique proteins
will contain thousands of peptides strung together
to form a unique combination. Myosin the
muscle contraction protein contains about 6,100
peptides, for example.
The body makes these incredibly long protein
chains from only 22 amino acids. So the better our
access to these single peptides, the more efficient
our bodys protein production will be.
Meanwhile, only 8-10 of these amino acids are
considered essential. The core eight essential
aminos are isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine,
phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine.
Without these in the diet, we can become protein
deficient.
What about the other aminos? The body has the
ability to produce the other amino acids using the
essential eight.
Nevertheless, a diet containing all of the 22, or
at least the essentials, is required to maintain the
bodys cell structures and enzymes.
The question becomes, how can we guarantee
we are getting all of these, and how can we best get
the most efficient forms the single peptides and
simple polypeptides?
The power of plant protein
The most efficient form of peptides comes from
plant foods. Most plant foods have from 10 percent
to 50 percent peptide or polypeptide-form protein
by weight. These simple polypeptide or single
peptide forms allow the body to quickly assimilate
proteins.
This sets up the RNA to more efficiently
organize and string together these peptides into the
bodys unique protein combinations.
Protein quality outranks protein content. Plant

based proteins provide excellent quality because


they typically contain a full spectrum of simple
peptides.
While the body can store the eight essential
aminos for a week or two, they all need to be
available in the diet. As the body degrades its
protein structures, most of the aminos are degraded
and run out of the body.
Many plant foods contain all eight essential
amino acids in their most efficient forms. A mixed
diet of plant foods will assure us of getting all
essential aminos as well as most if not all of the
non-essentials.
A mixed green salad with some sunflower seeds
will supply practically every amino acid, including
the essential eight. Sunflower seeds contain 19
amino acids, including all of the essential aminos,
and 22-27 percent protein content by weight.
How much protein?
The American Heart Association and several
research studies have suggested that 50-60 grams of
amino-protein per day are adequate for most adults,
and World Health Organization research has found
that even 30-40 grams of good quality aminoprotein per day is adequate.
Most Americans easily eat 100-200 grams of
rich, complex protein per day. Some bodybuilders
and low carb dieters consume two or three times
that amount.
As a result, Americans experience phenomenally
high levels of gout, gallstones, cardiovascular
disease and kidney stones all related to excess
uric acid produced by excessive protein intake.
Again, quality is better than quantity. The key is
eating good quality protein foods with easily
assimilated peptide forms. As a percentage of
calories, no more than 15 percent of daily calories
should be protein according to several notable
nutritional experts.
Its very easy to get enough
protein with plant foods
Lentils: one cup = 18 grams of good quality
protein.
Black beans: one cup = 15 grams.
Baked beans: one cup = 12 grams.
Cashews: one-half cup = 10 grams.
Peanut butter: two teaspoons = 8 grams.
Whole wheat bread: two slices = 5 grams.
Spinach: one cup = 5 grams.
Brown rice: one cup = 5 grams.
Broccoli: one cup = 4 grams.
While milk whey is also a great way to include
all the essential aminos into the diet, most of the
foods mentioned above also have all eight essential
aminos and more.
In general, good quality, high protein plant
foods include all the beans, nuts, whole grains and
leafy greens. A dinner that contains beans, a few
nuts, some grains and/or leafy greens will supply all
the protein we will ever need to assemble great
protein musculature.
Dr. Case Adams

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STRATEGY

2
Whats the big deal
about antioxidants?
Hope for
sufferers of
hepatic
encephalopathy

By Natasha Linton

s the word antioxidant just another health industry


marketing phrase? Because we hear it so much, is it
just another cool trend to even use it in a sentence and
drink the juices that contain antioxidants?
All over now in ads on TV, radio and in our

neighborhood supermarkets, we see that word. What


exactly are antioxidants other than the content of some
foods and drinks in hip designed packaging? Are they
really that good for us? Absolutely.
On a daily basis and no matter where we live, our
bodies are exposed to all sorts of intruders that aim to
only make us sick and damage our bodies. These
intruders are called free radicals: unstable oxygen
molecules. Free radicals damage cells and cause harm to
the immune system. Also, they can speed up the aging
process.
Yes, if you dont eat properly, your bodys aging process
can speed up and thus make you look older than your

A February 2011
study in the
American Journal
of Nutrition
offers some hope
for those suffering
from hepatic
encephalopathy, a
condition
associated with
liver cirrhosis. In
this condition, liver
function is
extremely poor
and the liver has a
hard time clearing
toxins from the
body.
Fatigue is one of
the most common
symptoms of the
disease.
Researchers found
that by taking the
supplement
acetyl-L-carnitine,
a nutritional
supplement that
has
neuroprotective
benefits, mitochondrial
energetics and
function were
improved, as was
overall liver
function.
The supplement
also improved the
livers ability to
remove toxins
from the body.
Patients in the
study showed a
decrease in both
physical and
mental fatigue and
an increase in
physical activity.

5
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Eat to
prevent
breast
cancer
You can do your
best to avoid
breast cancer by
eating and
drinking foods
high in
antioxidants and
other antiproliferative
compounds.
First, drink green
tea on a daily
basis. Ground
green tea provides
the most
concentrated
amount of
nutrients.
Otherwise, drink
four cups daily.
Also eat mostly
fruits and
vegetables. They
are loaded with
thousands of
polyphenols that
decrease
inflammation,
detoxify the liver
and stimulate the
immune system.

true age. By eating properly (consuming sufficient


amounts of antioxidants), not only would this help
minimize premature aging of the skin, but it would also
possibly reverse the effects of an aging mind.
Besides aging, among the other harmful effects of free
radicals are heart disease, cancer and diabetes. In
addition, recovery from athletic performance is negatively
affected.
Lets take a deeper look at free radicals
Free radicals are formed by a process called oxidation
(damage caused by oxygen). This is the same process that
causes rust on metals. You can slow down the oxidation
process by consuming antioxidants.
Exposure to toxins such as cigarette smoke, pollution,
chemicals and radiation aid in the development of free
radicals. These exposures cause the oxygen molecules in
our bodies to break down to eventually form the reactive
molecule known as a free radical.
As science discovers how to better fight free radicals,
we will be able to improve our lifespan by a number of
years.
Recommended preventive measures are to avoid
smoking, stick with a well-designed exercise program and
to stay away from pollutants, if possible. We must take
extra measures to ensure that we are indeed protecting
ourselves. As with any health and wellness goal, diet is an
important part, especially a diet containing plentiful
antioxidants.
Antioxidants, which neutralize free radicals, are natural
substances that we can use to fight and prevent any
damage to cells caused by the unstable oxygen molecules.
They also stop the chemical reactions that lead up to the
creation of free radicals.
So be sure to increase consumption of vegetables,
fruits, whole grains, nuts and fish, and reduce eating
processed foods and items with white sugar or high
fructose corn syrup.
Betacarotene (a form of vitamin A)
Carotenes are found in plant foods. They not only
protect plants, but also help protect the body from free
radicals.
Sources of betacarotene include apricots, carrots,
pumpkin, cantaloupe and broccoli. A darker color of the
fruit or vegetable means more betacarotene content.
Vitamin C
Vitamin C helps the body produce collagen, which is
important to skin health and skin aging. It also helps the
body absorb iron. Vitamin C also helps wounds repair
rather quickly.
Sources of vitamin C include many fruits (citrus and
strawberries), vegetables (Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale,
etc.) and also beef, poultry and fish.
Vitamin E
Some may say that vitamin E is known as the answer
to anti-aging. Sources of vitamin E include mangoes, eggs,
sunflower seeds, walnuts, hazelnuts, sesame oil and whole
grains. Vegetables such as spinach, broccoli and corn are
other great sources.
Green tea
Green tea is one of the most potent antioxidants. It
reduces risks of skin damage and skin cancer due to

radiation, and the risks of lung cancer due to smoking.


Green tea is unprocessed, while black tea and oolong tea
are partially processed.
Berries
From berries you will get vitamins and minerals full of
antioxidants. For fighting cancer and heart disease,
blueberries, blackberries and raspberries are great choices.
Blueberries also help keep the aging process away.
Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo extract has been known to reduce clots and
reduce blood pressure. It also hunts and destroys free
radicals and prevents the formation of them in the first
place.
Another duty of ginkgo biloba is to protect the brain,
as it promotes proper blood flow to the brain and
improves alertness. Z
STRATEGY

3
Be mindful
when you eat
The 10 step rule

By Aimee Hughes

indfulness in relation to eating is necessary now more


than ever. We live in a time when we are constantly
plugged in and over-stimulated. This affects every
aspect of our life especially our relation to food. We see this
in the widespread epidemic of eating disorders and obesity.
The super-sized nation is at the opposite end of the
spectrum in relation to mindful eating. Being mindful
means deliberately paying attention to our experiences,
both internal and external. It is awareness without
judgment or criticism.
This is a tall order given the state of our food system.
It can be done, of course. One just needs to wander off
the beaten path.

Are you hungry?


Before you sit down to eat a meal, ask yourself if
youre truly hungry. Take inventory. Maybe drink a couple
glasses of water first. Too often we eat because we are
tired, bored or distracted.
You want to be hungry but not famished, to avoid
scarfing down everything in sight. You may wish to eat
meals at the same time every day, thereby giving your
body a schedule its clock can rely upon.
Clear distractions
Its amazing how many of us take our meals with our
heads buried in cell phones or a dizzying array of other
distractions. I often find myself engrossed in a novel while
having lunch or dinner. Many a morning meals are spent
checking e-mails or reading news articles on the computer.
I am also guilty of vegging out in front of the TV with
dinner to watch a movie or my favorite show. Does this
sound at all familiar? If so, you are not alone. This type of
mindless eating is a pastime shared by millions.
Create a sacred space
Clear the kitchen table that is so often cluttered with
mail, magazines, newspapers and other distractions. Set a

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Eat your
beets
There are many
reasons to
incorporate beets
into your diet.
Here are some of
the most
important ones.
Beets help cleanse
the blood and
create more red
blood cells. Beets
contain lots of
lutein and
zeaxanthin. Both
help prevent
macular
degeneration and
other age-related
eye issues.
They are high in
fiber, iron,
potassium,
magnesium,
biotin, calcium and
niacin. They also
contain
phytonutrients
called betalains
which provide
antioxidant, antinflammatory and
detoxification
support.
Steaming beets is
an excellent way
to enjoy them.
Add a little lemon
juice, olive oil,
garlic and herbs
and you have a
lovely side dish.
Juicing beets is
another way to
go. Beet juice is
alkaline in nature
and prevents
acidosis, a
common cause of
many diseases.
Beet juice also
helps relieve
constipation while
stimulating liver
cells to cleanse
bile ducts.

mood that is pleasing to you. Give your meals meaning by


creating a ritual out of them. Light a few candles and set
the table in a way that is pleasing to your aesthetic.
Maybe you like a centerpiece of fresh cut flowers, or
perhaps a clean white tablecloth or some handmade
pottery from which to eat and drink.
When you have a beautifully set table, you will truly
enjoy sitting at it. Sitting is key as well.
Get centered
After you sit down, take several deep breaths. Its best
to eat while you are fully relaxed. You will eat slower and
digest more efficiently. Be grateful. Say a prayer or give a
blessing to show gratitude for the food and people and
animals that played a part in bringing it to your table.
Be aware of the connection between the earth, cultural
practices, living beings and the impact that your food
choices have on each of these aspects of life.
Silence
Try taking your meal like a monk in silence. If you
have meals as a family, take the first five minutes to eat in
silence. Youll find that youll better appreciate your food
when eating without external noise and will therefore eat
less.
Slow down
Pause for a couple minutes in the middle of your meal.
Take time to breathe a bit more and further relax.
Practice chewing your food. See what it feels like to
take 20-30 chews for each mouthful of food. You may
also want to take smaller bites. This will certainly slow
you down.

Use cutlery or chopsticks


You will inevitably slow down if you use a fork and
knife and set them down from time to time.
Chopsticks help us eat slower, as its nearly
impossible to eat a whole lot at once. They also provide
us a challenge and therefore something else to meditate
upon while we eat.
Get in touch with your senses
Think about eating in a way that nourishes not only
your body, but also your soul. Pay attention to texture,
taste, smell and appearance. Appreciate the beauty
inherent in food and express that to yourself and the
people around you.
Go for quality over quantity
Its better to spend money on high quality food
rather than spending less on junky food that fails to
nourish you while encouraging binge eating. All those
refined carbohydrate snacks are at the center of
mindless eating.
With smaller quantities of food you really enjoy, you
will be satisfied with less.
Expand your culinary horizons
When cooking is a pleasure, so is eating.
Experiment with various food traditions. Cook a
new dish every week and see how you pay more
attention to its unique tastes, aromas and textures.
The cooking process itself can be relaxing and
enjoyable.
Knowing exactly what goes on your plate will further
encourage a peaceful state of mind as you eat. Z

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STRATEGY

4
Effects of fitness on
the immune system
Eat to
prevent
arthritis
If youre
experiencing achy
joints youll want
to eat and drink
anti-inflammatory
foods. First, youll
want to stay
hydrated. Clean
water keeps joints
lubricated. Be sure
you stay properly
hydrated
throughout the
day by making
sure your urine is
clear
Cook with
turmeric, drink
turmeric tea or
take turmeric
capsules. The
Indian herb also
fights cancer.
Star antiinflammatory
foods include
sardines and
coldwater fish. If
youre opposed to
fish, take flax oil or
incorporate
flaxseeds into
soups, smoothies
and salads.
Eat lots of fruits
and vegetables
which also have
strong antiinflammatory
properties. Avoid
trans fats. These
are used to extend
the life of
processed foods
and promote
inflammation in
the body.

10

By Cathleen Kronemer

he human body is a complex machine, an intricate


balance of organic systems and structures. As
exercise professionals and enthusiasts, we readily
embrace the notion that a fit body is a healthy body.
Taking this idea to a deeper level, an emerging field
known as sports immunology has been gaining popularity
among scientists and athletes. We already accept the idea
that regular exercise can keep our bodies fit; now
scientists are questioning whether exercise can also keep
our immune systems in good shape.
In order to fully explore this premise, it is necessary to
have a basic understanding of the immune system and its
functions. Put simply, the immune system is what enables
the body to protect and defend itself from what it
considers to be foreign invaders germs, bacteria,
diseases, etc.
It accomplishes this through a cascade of complex
reactions during which it recruits an army of T-cells,
neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. Researchers are
just beginning to delve into these pathways in an attempt
to understand the effect of exercise on each individual
reaction as well as the system as a whole.
In 2005, a study conducted by Andrea Mastro et al
showed a promising result in patients with breast cancer.
These researchers looked to determine whether exercise
training would increase lymphocyte activation in patients
following chemotherapy, a
time when the immune
system is generally quite
compromised.
The patients participated
in a six-month moderate
exercise program, which
consisted of resistance training
and aerobic activity at 60-75
percent functional capacity,
three times a week with a
personal trainer.
The results, determined by
the presence of CD4+CD69+
T-helper lymphocytes,
indicated that exercise
improved the patients
immune function by
increasing lymphocyte
activation.
In another study
conducted in 2008, Mooren
et al demonstrated that
exercise induced a substantial
redistribution of T-cells within
lymphoid and non-lymphoid
organs, thereby enhancing the
bodys immune reaction
capabilities.
Moderate physical exercise
increases the bodys
consumption of oxygen. This
in turn enhances the

production of antioxidants such as superoxide and


catalase.
The macrophage, a cell of the immune system, releases
free radicals to destroy bacteria, parasites and viruses. If
these free radicals are overproduced, or the antioxidant
balance is low, they will in turn damage the macrophage
itself, thereby impairing its ability to fight off invaders.
Antioxidants stop this from happening while still
allowing the macrophage to do its job.
Research conducted in the kinesiology lab of Professor
Jeffrey Woods at the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign indicated that exercise increased the ratio of
nave T-cells to memory T-cells in the spleens of older
mice. From the point of view of the immune system, this
has the effect of turning older mice into younger mice.
The mouse model is often used in research due to its
striking similarity to the human body on many cellular
levels.
The finding is significant when we consider that older
individuals generally have a harder time responding to
new environmental pathogens; such a ratio shift could
potentially aid in fighting off illness caused by germs that
are perceived as new to ones system.
Moving from the cellular level to the larger view of the
human body, we see that there are many more easily
discernible effects of exercise on the immune system.
Moderate physical activity increases the core body
temperature, which is significant in killing the infecting
organisms. This is the same pathway by which a fever
serves as an adaptive measure to fight off foreign invaders.
Regular exercise also helps strengthen the
cardiovascular system. This improves blood flow, which in
turn helps flush toxins away from muscles and organs.
Circulating levels of antibodies will become more readily
available, further empowering
the immune system.
There are also external forces
in our lives which regularly
threaten to weaken the immune
systems abilities. A major culprit
of daily life is stress. We all face
it at differing levels of intensity.
Individuals who experience
high levels of stress on a regular
basis tend to suffer more
digestive tract problems and
experience less restful sleep.
Stress weakens the immune
systems defenses, making the
body a more vulnerable and
accessible host for opportunistic
germs. Regular exercise provides
an outlet for stress and its
accompanying nervous energy.
Thus, it seems as though the
positive effects on the bodys
immune system as a result of
regular exercise are certainly a
convincing reason to become
more than just a weekend
warrior.
While we are working hard
to excel in our sports and make
our bodies look aesthetically
pleasing, its nice to know we are
also fine-tuning our health from
the inside out! Z

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STRATEGY.

5
Guys,
watch that
prostate!
Resveratrol
for diabetes
According to a
March 2011 study
in the British
Journal of
Nutrition,
resveratrol, the
compound found
in grapes and
berries, is not only
known for
increasing lifespan,
but also improves
insulin resistance
in type 2 diabetics.
Researchers think
this is due to
resveratrols
potent antioxidant
activity. They also
found that
resveratrol
stimulates a
protein that helps
cells uptake sugar.

12

By Dr. Donald Ozello

utritional strategies are


essential for lifelong
prostate health. Nutrition
and exercise are valuable tools in
the prevention and management
of prostate disorders.
Prostate cancer is the most
common form of cancer in men.
About 240,000 U.S. men are
diagnosed with prostate cancer
each year. Predisposing genetic
factors exist in prostate health,
but dietary choices lower or raise
your risk of acquiring life
altering prostate conditions.
The prostate is a walnut sized
gland with two lobes enclosed
by an outer covering. Part of the
male reproductive system, the
prostate functions to produce a
fluid that protects and enriches
sperm. The prostate is located in
front of the rectum and directly
below the bladder.
The urethra, a tube from the
bladder to the penis, travels
through the prostate gland.
Enlargement of the prostate compresses the urethra and
leads to incomplete voiding of the bladder. This
frustrating symptom is often the first noticeable sign of
prostate inflammation.
The standard American diet (SAD) is excessive in
calories, inflammation promoting foods and simple
sugars. The diet of most American males is deficient in
fruits, vegetables and anti-inflammatory foods. Evidence is
showing that this type of diet turns on genes in the
prostate that make the cells more likely to become
inflamed and cancerous.
The combination of poor diet and limited exercise
increases the risk of prostate cancer, benign prostate
hypertrophy and chronic systemic inflammation.
Eat your way to better health and teach your training
clients to eat better by modifying the standard American
diet. Simple nutritional changes reap lifelong positive
health benefits. Proper nutrition and consistent exercise
are your best weapons against prostate disease.
Oxidation and inflammation are necessary ingredients
in the development of prostate cancer. Diet plays a key
role in limiting the damaging effect of oxidation and
inflammation.
Inflammation is a defense mechanism to fight infection
and injury. Systemic and chronic inflammation leads to
disease. Prostate inflammation leads to symptoms and/or
cancer. Nutrition is the best tool for reducing
inflammation.
Our bodies release anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory chemicals in response to the foods we

consume.
Staples of the standard
American diet, including
domestic conventional
beef, pork and dairy,
promote the release of proinflammatory chemicals.
Foods high in saturated fats
increase inflammation.
Ocean-caught fish are
protein rich foods that
result in the production of
anti-inflammatory
chemicals. Albacore tuna,
salmon and mackerel are
good choices. Decrease
inflammation levels by
consuming these antiinflammatory protein
sources two to three times a
week.
Choose game meats over
domestic meats. Buffalo,
elk, venison and rabbit
supply quality protein and
are lower in adipose fat than
domestic meats. Search for
free-range, hormone-free
and steroid-free sources of
protein. These additives
increase the inflammatory
response and should be
avoided at all costs.
Charred meats can
trigger prostate
inflammation. The
overcooking of meats and
chicken at high temperatures produces carcinogens shown
to elicit cancer in animal studies. When preparing chicken
always remove the skin before cooking. If not removed
beforehand, the skins fat soaks into the meat.
Decrease disease producing inflammation by cutting
back consumption of high saturated fat and preparing
food properly. Promote prostate health by eating high
protein, low fat sources of anti-inflammatory foods.
Oxidation produces disease. Oxidants or free radicals
can damage body cells. Antioxidants render disease
producing free radicals harmless. The best defense against
oxidation is your dietary strategies.
Consume high quantities of numerous fruits and
vegetables to acquire the necessary antioxidants ideally
nine servings daily. Each serving should be equal to one
cup.
For the best cancer fighting results, eat a wide array of
fruits and vegetables. They provide a large amount of
vitamins and minerals with minimal calories.
Brightly colored fruits and vegetables possess
antioxidants and phytochemicals that neutralize free
radicals. Red colored foods containing the antioxidant
lycopene are proven to benefit the prostate gland.
Consuming tomatoes, pink grapefruit and watermelon
increases your intake of lycopene.
A combination of your daily dietary strategies and
exercise is your best defense against prostate disease.
Increase the health of your prostate gland by consuming
healthy foods that decrease disease-causing inflammation
and oxidation. Z

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STRATEGY

6
Eat those salads
Stop
snacking
A June 2011 study
by researchers at
the University of
North Carolina at
Chapel Hill found
that rats that ate
snack foods
popular with U.S.
children and adults
ate more, gained
more weight, were
intolerant to
glucose and insulin,
and had higher
levels of tissue
inflammation than
rats whose diets
were high in fat
from lard.
This particular study
also showed that
the cafeteria diet
(an experimental
system that studies
obesity and mimics
buffet-style access
to junk food like
chips, processed
meats and cookies)
contributed more
to diet-induced
obesity than
common high fat
diets that came
from lard often
used in rodent
studies.

By Thomas Hammer

ating nutritiously plays a major role in supporting


good health and fitness. One of the best ways to eat
nutritiously is with a salad. Thats because the base
of most salads is leafy green vegetables. Most salads are
also topped off with other vegetables as well. Protein can
be added in the form of cheeses and/or lean meat cuts.
A salad can be a health side dish or fixed up to make a
main meal. However, not all salads are created equal. And
some people naively believe that simply ordering a salad is
automatically a healthy choice. Not so. The Achilles heel
in the salad choice lies primarily in the dressing.
Dressing can be good or bad, depending upon the
ingredients. The dressing is a critical factor, as it can
multiply the calorie count of the salad by a factor of 3 or
more if you are not careful. The best dressing adds a
touch of flavor with a moderate amount of calories. Dont
let a negative dressing choice overcome the benefits of a
good salad.
A small amount of saturated fat is just fine, but be on
the lookout for dressings that contain high fructose corn
syrup and/or trans fats. Also be aware that many salad
dressings contain sugar and soy important to know for
those wishing to avoid these ingredients. Do allow
yourself some latitude for taste after all, a few calories
from a tasty source wont kill your diet.
One of the other controlling elements on dressings is
the size of the serving. Use your dressing lightly to add
some taste; avoid dumping a large load of calories on top
of the salad. With that in mind, here are a few ideas for
super healthy thats also delicious from salads.
Popeyes pleasure
Popeyes favorite food
was spinach and its easy to
see why spinach is a
nutritional powerhouse. It
contains a good mix of
vitamins and minerals in
strong doses as well as
serving as a fiber source.
And its high in vitamin A.
Spinach makes a great base
for any of several different
salads.
Spinach Swiss salad
n Wash a head of spinach
and tear off enough leaves
to equate to 5-8 ounces.
Tear these into bite size
pieces.
n Slice up 3 ounces of
Swiss cheese into small
pieces.
n Cube 2 ounces of turkey
breast into one-half-inch
cubes.
n Slice up one quarter cup
of red onions.
n Slice up one quarter cup

13

of orange peppers.
n Mix in a bowl.
n Top with a low calorie dressing that has a natural base.
n Season (pepper, paprika, etc.) to flavor.
This salad has protein, fiber, complex carbohydrates, is
very high in calcium (spinach is full of calcium and
magnesium, and so is Swiss cheese), vitamin C (peppers
are one of natures best sources) and many other vitamins
and minerals in varying amounts.
The red salad
This salad is based on red leaf lettuce, which is great
when served fresh. It also has other healthy food items
based on the red color. Natural colorful foods are not only
flavorful, but they also are full of nutrients.
n Wash a head of red leaf salad and cut off 5-8 ounces.
Tear these into bite size pieces.
n Slice up a small tomato.
n Slice up a red pepper.
n Add a few pieces of chicken breast.
n Slice up 2-3 ounces of pepper jack cheese.
n Mix in a bowl.
n Top with a low calorie dressing that has a
natural base.
n Season (pepper, paprika, etc.) to flavor.
Super salmon salad
n Wash a head of spinach and tear off enough leaves to
equate to 5-8 ounces. Tear these into bite size pieces.
n Cut 4 ounces of salmon into small chunks.
n Slice one boiled egg into small rounds.
n Slice into pieces one quarter pound of mushrooms.
n One small can of baby corn on the cob
n Top with a low calorie dressing that has a natural base.
n Season (pepper, paprika, etc.) to flavor.
Look at these salad choices as ideas for creating dishes
rather than a list set in stone.
That is, if you dont like baby
corn on the cob, substitute
baby onions or carrots in its
place.
Use a great base such as
spinach or red leaf lettuce
and go from there. Peppers
red, orange, green, etc., are
also a great way to boost
nutrient density.
By adding quality protein
to your salad, you cover all
the nutritional bases. Again,
use your favorite protein
sources. If you use meat,
make it a lean cut (such as
flank steak strips) for the
most nutritious addition.
The same strategy can be
employed for any salad
simply tweak it to your own
personal tastes and add it to
your file for healthy eating.
And one more suggestion
consider concocting the
dressings rather than buying
them off the store shelf. By
making the dressings, you can
insure theyre nutritious. Z

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A Call to Lead

Why fitness professionals should


discuss nutrition with their clients
By Natalie Digate Muth,
M.D., M.P.H., R.D.

he statistics are staggering and well


known to most health and fitness
professionals: a global obesity epidemic is
underway, stubbornly refusing to improve
despite massive amounts of resources, attention
and advocacy. Millions of U.S. adults and
now a burgeoning number of children suffer
from prediabetes or diabetes. One study
estimates that one in three children born in
2000 will at some point develop diabetes
(Narayan et al., 2003). In addition,
cardiovascular disease is the leading killer in the
United States, responsible for nearly 600,000
deaths annually (Hoyert and Xu, 2013).
Each of these conditions is directly
impacted by lifestyle choices a
combination of physical inactivity and poor
nutritional intake. The prevalence of these
diseases can be dramatically improved, if not
reversed or wholly prevented, by a physically
active lifestyle and wholesome, balanced
nutrition choices. One recent study found
that individuals who follow a Mediterranean
eating plan, maintain a normal weight, remain
physically active and avoid smoking have an
80 percent decreased risk of death over eight
years (Ahmed et al., 2013).
Despite a relatively widespread
understanding of the role of activity and
nutrition in optimizing health, few people
actually follow physical-activity and dietary
guidelines. And millions of people walk
through the doors of health clubs, medical
fitness facilities, studios and other locals to
engage in some type of physical activity. They
want to achieve health and wellness goals and
learn about nutrition. Health and fitness
professionals who focus only on physical
activity and avoid discussing nutrition are
providing those client with less than optimal
service.
Health and fitness professionals, however,
are not nutrition experts. Generally, that
designation is reserved for registered dietitians
and others with advanced degrees in
nutrition. However, health and fitness
professionals dont have to be nutrition
novices either. With a clear understanding
of what is and is not within their scope of
practice, they can effectively help clients
achieve their individual goals, either through
direct provision or referral to a registered
dietitian, when appropriate.
Defining Scope of Practice
Scope of practice refers to the range and limit
of responsibilities normally associated with a
position, job or profession. Scope of practice
is determined by rules and regulations set by

state laws and statutes, roles and


responsibilities as outlined by a certifying or
accrediting body, and an individuals
education and training.
State Laws and Regulations
Most states have laws regulating the practice
of dietetics. Forty-seven states regulate
nutritionists in one of the following three
manners:
> Licensure, in which a state statute
articulates a clearly defined scope of practice.
Providing nutrition counseling without the
requisite training and possession of a license
is illegal. In these states, individuals who
practice the profession without a license and
specific exemption are subject to legal action.
Most states require licensure.
> Statutory certification, in which
individuals must meet specific requirements
to be eligible for certification; non-certified
individuals can still practice the profession.
Though the rules are much less stringent in
these states compared to those requiring
licensure, laws are constantly changing.
Health and fitness professionals practicing in
these states should carefully review the
legislation with the assistance of an attorney
to ensure full compliance with the rules.
> Registration, in which a state statute
limits who is allowed to refer to him- or
herself as a registered dietitian or dietitian,
but does not limit who can practice the
profession. California is the only state that
requires registration.
Only three states Arizona, Colorado
and New Jersey do not have any laws
regulating the field of nutrition. Up-to-date
information is available on the Commission
for Dietetic Registration website at
CDRNET.org.
In states without licensure, anyone can
legally provide nutrition services, though it
may be considered unprofessional or unethical
for individuals without the appropriate
education and training or competencies and
skills to do so. Ultimately, state requirements
take precedence in determining minimal scope
of practice requirements. For example, while a
health and fitness professional in Colorado
may legally be allowed to call him- or herself a
nutritionist and provide nutrition
counseling, a professional with the same
education in Illinois could face a $5,000
penalty each for calling him- or herself a
nutritionist or for providing nutrition
counseling.
Education and Training
The limitations to scope of practice dictated
by state laws trump other determinates of
scope of practice such as education and
training or expertise and skill level Regardless
of the presence or absence of legal
restrictions, however, any services offered
should be consistent with a health and fitness

14
A content sponsored advertisement

professionals education and training.


Beyond a fitness-related certification,
many professionals recognize the value in
receiving additional training or certification in
nutrition. In these cases, they have spent
many hours learning about nutrition and
have expanded their ability to effectively and
accurately answer clients questions. While
education such as the ACE Fitness Nutrition
Specialty Certification helps to broaden
expertise, health and fitness professionals
should be careful to follow scope of practice
guidelines set forth by the organization that
offered the advanced training.
Competencies and Skills
Health and fitness professionals should
work within their own set of competencies
and skills. For example, while one may have a
special interest and expertise in obesity
prevention, another may work primarily with
athletes and have an interest in nutrition to
improve sports performance. Prior to sharing
information or initiating nutrition discussions,
health and fitness professionals should ask
themselves whether the activity is within
scope of practice, training and skills. If the
answer is no or if the professional is unsure,
referral is likely warranted.
Nutrition Content All Health and Fitness
Professionals Should Share
Given the alarming worldwide obesity
epidemic, the public demand for nutrition
education, and the large amount of nutrition
misinformation readily available and
perpetuated in media and among misinformed
and unqualified individuals, health and fitness
professionals should discuss nutrition with
their clients. All professionals should share the
dietary recommendations and guidelines
endorsed by the federal government.
Relevant nutrition tools
Several other nutrition tools also are available
for health and fitness professionals to use
while staying well within scope of practice:
> MyPlate: choosemyplate.gov
> Dietary Guidelines for Americans:
cnpp.usda.gov/DietaryGuidelines
> SuperTracker: supertracker.usda.gov
> ACE Fitness Nutrition Specialty
Certification: ACEfitness.org/specialty
References
Ahmed, H.M. et al. (2013). Low-risk
lifestyle, coronary calcium, cardiovascular
events, and mortality: Results from MESA.
American Journal of Epidemiology, DOI:10.
1093/aje/kws453. aje.oxfordjournals.org.
Hoyert, D.L. & Xu, J. (2012). Deaths:
Preliminary Data for 2011. National Vital
Statistics Reports, 61, 6. Retrieved June 12,
2013:
Narayan, K.M. et al. (2003). Lifetime risk
for diabetes mellitus in the United States.
Journal of the American Medical Association,
290, 14, 18841890.

BROCCOLI IS
BRILLIANT
If you dont already
eat several servings
of broccoli each
week, you may want
to change your
habits. Broccoli is full
of nutrients and
phytochemicals
thought to reduce
cancer risk. Broccoli
helps maintain bone
structure, boosts the
immune system and
supports the
digestive system.
Broccoli is an
excellent vegetable to
eat if you are fighting
a cold or flu bug due
to its high vitamin C
content. A bowl of
steamed or cup of
juiced broccoli may
be more potent than
orange juice.
Broccoli is rich in
folate and
carotenoids, including
betacarotene and
lutein (great for the
eyes.) It is also rich in
vitamin K and has
adequate amounts of
zinc, calcium,
magnesium,
phosphorus,
potassium,
manganese, vitamins
B1, B2, B3, B5, B6,
sulforophane and
indole-carbinol.

The great
protein debate

Is protein perhaps the greatest anti-obesity weapon we have?


By Jade Teta and Keoni Teta
long with politics and religion, you can add
nutrition to the list of topics to avoid at your next
cocktail party. This is especially true of the latest
misunderstood bad boy of the nutrition world: protein.

Fat, carbs and protein


In the 1980s it was fat. In the 90s and 2000s it was
carbs. Now, you can add protein to the list of
macronutrients experts are telling you to avoid. The
experts made mistakes then, and are about to make the
biggest nutrition blunder of them all with their new take
on protein.
The protein crusaders have arrived, and they are every

bit as fanatical and misinformed as their fat phobic and


carb avoiding counterparts. But before you can
understand where things are headed and why they are
wrong, it will help to know where we have been.
Lessons from fat
Its not that these researchers are not acting on what they
think is good information. The 1980s fat scare was based
first on rat studies showing high fat diets induced
atherosclerosis. Population studies also showed a
correlation. This correlation was attached to cholesterol and
without the whole story; the fat phobic message was born.
The problem was that neither animal studies nor
population studies can prove causation, and often both

16
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CUT OUT THE


SUGAR IN
BAKING
Refined sugar
wreaks havoc on
the body. While
most of us have a
healthy sweet
tooth and love to
bake cakes and
cookies, we can do
so in more
intelligent ways.
Try using liquid
sweeteners like
honey, molasses,
maple syrup or
even orange juice
instead of sugar.
Try using half
honey and half a
mashed banana in
a recipe that calls
for sugar.
Unsweetened
applesauce and
sweet potatoes
are also excellent
substitutes when
it comes to
healthier treats.
Spices such as
cinnamon,
cardamom, cloves
and pumpkin spice
add flavor to
baked goods when
you want to
reduce the
amount of
sweetener.

forms of research can be


misleading. This is what
happened with fat. Over the
ensuing years we learned about
the differences between saturated
fat and other types of fat.
We learned about
hydrogenated oils, which many of
the initial fat studies did not
control for. We learned about the
protective effect of omega-3 fats.
We learned there is more to
cholesterol and fat than total
amounts. In short, we learned we
were wrong, but not before we
created an epidemic of carb
gorging that correlates perfectly
with the huge spike in obesity
and diabetes we have experienced
since the 80s fat scare.

The protein
crusaders have
arrived,
and they are
every bit as
fanatical and
misinformed
as their
fat phobic
and carb
avoiding
counterparts.

Good research
gone bad
Now we find the same things
that happened with fat and carbs
happening with protein. It
sounds good: Huge population
studies on Chinese populations
link protein with cancer, or,
Animal studies prove high
protein diets cause cancer.
But they dont mention the
same data shows low protein
diets are also correlated with
increased risk of cancer. What
they dont say is the animals were
poisoned first and then fed high
protein diets. No distinction is made between the dairy
protein casein and other animal proteins. They dont
explain why intervention trials on humans show protein
substituted for fat or carbs in human diets usually makes
people healthier.
Its important to briefly discuss the different types of
research so people can understand why nutrition can be
so confusing. First are the animal studies. Mice have
metabolisms that are similar enough to humans to get us
headed in the right direction. However, they also have
metabolisms dissimilar enough to not draw clear
conclusions.
In other words, if an animal study shows something,
we should not get too excited, but instead try it out in
humans. Then if it works, we can get a little excited. If we
then try it out on a lot of humans and it still works, we
can get very excited.
Population studies, called epidemiological studies, are
the most difficult to draw conclusions from. The reason?
People and the worlds they live in are so complex. If some
Chinese eat more protein than others, are they also more
stressed? Do they sleep less? Is the protein they eat
different from other types of protein? There is no way to
control for all this vast complexity.
Here is an example. Non-calorie sweeteners are highly
correlated with obesity. Does this mean they make people
fat? Or does it mean overweight people are the ones who
use them? The more likely truth is the latter, not the
former.

To really assess whether


something is valid or not,
intervention studies should be
done. These are studies done on
humans where one group is given
something while the other group
is not. Everything else is left the
same. These studies tell us the
most because we can be more
certain that what we see is a result
of the intervention and not
something else.

Protein causes cancer?


One of the most popular works
on protein and its supposed
negative effects is the China Study.
This research is actually very
important research and will go a
long way towards helping us
understand nutrition.
Where we believe it goes wrong
is its assumptions. Just like the fat
studies in the 80s, this research is
being interpreted as proof protein
causes cancer and should be
avoided. This is a big mistake.
The China Study was based on
two lines of research, one on
animals and the other a
population study. The animals
were essentially poisoned (with
aflatoxin) and then given a low or
high protein diet. Cancers were
increased in the protein fed group.
Does this show protein is a
cause of cancer? Would a high
carb or high fat diet compared to a low fat or low carb
diet show the same thing? Given cancer is a fast growing
tissue, wouldnt any extra nutrition increase cancer in a
susceptible animal? In other words, this proves nothing
and many questions remain.
The population studies showed Chinese consuming
higher protein diets got more of certain types of cancer
compared to those eating less protein. Is this because of
the protein? Could it be that in China much of the protein
sources are high in nitrates and other preservatives?
In looking at the research you can find certain types of
cancer are more prevalent in higher protein eaters. Other
types of cancers are more common in those who eat less
protein. If we are to blame higher incidence of some
cancers on protein consumption, then we must blame
higher rates of other cancers on low protein intake. In
reality, neither of these assumptions makes much sense.
It may be surprising to know that some data shows a
low protein diet is associated with an increased risk of
cancer. That is right; in the very research used by the
author it can be clearly shown that higher protein diets
are protective against the initiation of cancer.
This study was published in the 1983 Journal of Cancer
Research (Vol. 43 # 5). It also may be surprising to learn
that another study, by researchers involved in the China
Study, also contradicts the fact that there is any difference
between animal and plant proteins when the proteins are
complete. This was published in the Journal of National
Cancer Institute (1989, Vol. 81)

17
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Can walnuts
prevent
Alzheimers?
This may one day
be possible, says a
study appearing in
the Journal of
Alzheimer's Disease.
When mice were
fed walnuts, there
was great
improvement in
learning, memory
and motor
development, says
Abha Chauhans
report.
"These findings are
very promising and
help lay the
groundwork for
future human
studies on walnuts
and Alzheimer's
disease, says Dr.
Chauhan. The
amount of walnuts
given to the mice
(two quantities)
correlated to either
one ounce or one
and a half ounces
for humans.
One of the nuts
most promising
compounds is
alpha-linolenic acid.
Add chopped
walnuts to yogurt,
green salad, rice,
lentils and omelets.

18

This is not to refute the importance of the work


highlighted in the China Study; its simply to say there is
much more to this story, and the associations of protein
and cancer are not at all clear. However, the association
with obesity and cancer is very clear.
Protein, obesity, cancer
and everything else
Here is the most important consideration. Obesity is
the single biggest heath challenge in human history and
drastically increases the risk of the major killers: heart
disease, stroke and cancer. In fact, the best way to increase
your chances of getting sick, becoming dysfunctional in
old age and dying an early death is to get and stay fat.
Here is where protein comes in. Of all the
macronutrients, its not only the most filling, its also the
most likely to control cravings and balance blood sugar
levels. In short, its perhaps the greatest anti-obesity
weapon we have.
As shown in a recent study, substituting protein calories
for fat and carb calories aids not only weight loss, but also
more importantly fat loss. Dieters who ate more protein
had reduced insulin levels, less hunger, decreased food
cravings and were able to maintain their muscle mass,
resulting in less rebound weight gain. This study was
published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
(April 2010).
In a separate study published online in December 2010
(Journal of Nutrition), protein intake, and specifically
branched chain amino acids (BCAA), were shown to
increase longevity. Much of this effect is based on proteins
ability to detoxify the human body, aid weight loss and fat
loss, help maintain muscle mass and bolster antioxidant
defenses.
Another study on protein and its effect on the acid base
balance of the body and bone density calls into questions

old beliefs and biases. The study was published in


Nutrition Journal (Vol. 9 # 72). Participants receiving a
high protein meal replacement twice daily were compared
to those who were fed a non-protein meal replacement.
Each group was followed for 12 months. The
researchers wanted to look at bone density as well as liver
and kidney function. What they found was no difference
at all in any markers. This was despite a level of protein
many claim is detrimental.
Its interesting to note how persistent these negative
views on protein are. The issue should have been put to
rest in a May 2004 review article in the Sports Nutrition
Review Journal. The title of the study was High protein weight
loss diets and purported negative effects: where is the evidence?
The research in this study showed there is no evidence
that higher protein diets have any adverse effects on liver,
kidney or bone health. Given the fact protein can decrease
the need to overeat and help balance blood sugar, it may
actually be preventative for illnesses affecting these organs.
The number one cause of disease for liver and kidney is
diabetes, a disease of excess sugar more than of excess
protein.
Final thoughts
The protein story is far from over, but for serious
exercise enthusiasts and exercise professionals, its more
important than ever to watch this trend. The same
overzealous scapegoat mentality that dogged fat and carbs
is now descending on protein.
Its important to educate fat loss seekers and fitness
enthusiasts on the benefits of protein. Many of the claims
being made, even by prominent researchers, are
misinformed at best and inaccurate at worst. Perhaps with
a little common sense and self-education we can avoid
another nutrition blunder that simply leads us further into
the obesity abyss. Z

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WHEAT GRASS:
THE GREAT
DETOXIFIER
This great
detoxifier must be
consumed
immediately after
juicing. One ounce
of wheatgrass
juice has the
vitamin and
mineral equivalent
of 2.2 pounds of
fresh vegetables.
Helps cleanse the
lymph system and
remove toxic
metals from cells.
Contains all 17
amino acids.

ProMera Sports
Makers of CON-CRET and more
TM

By Thomas Hammer

roMera Sports makes a group of top quality


supplements, led by their patented version of

creatine, CON-CRET . For close to a decade


ProMera Sports has provided both health conscious
athletes and fitness enthusiasts an opportunity to
experience safe sports supplement products.
Not only are the products safe, ProMera Sports
guarantees that everything they make is compliant and
does not contain banned or illegal ingredients.
Their unique version of creatine is a highly pure creatine
hydrochloride. Creatine has been one of the top
supplements of all time, but ProMera Sports has managed to
top the other available lines. Their special type of creatine is
quite different than the other versions on the market.

The key difference lies in the fact that CON-CRET is


the most soluble form of creatine on the market today.
When it comes to creatine supplementation, the
solubility is essential. Thats because most creatine products
on the market (which typically come from creatine
monohydrate) cause cramping and other unwanted side
effects such as diarrhea, bloating and water retention.
This typically occurs from the loading phase: 10-20
grams of creatine monohydrate per day for two weeks.
This is then followed by the use of 5-10 grams of this type
of creatine every day. At the end of this period the user
comes off this cycle.
All of this creatine intake results in the bloating and
related effects that have been the bane of creatine users for
quite some time. Thats where ProMeras proprietary
creatine product stands out.

19

There is no loading time needed, nor does the user


have to cycle off. Thats because a small amount of CON
CRET is all thats necessary to get the job done. In fact,
only a micro-dose is needed to get the full effect.

CON-CRET is one of the most effective bio-available


creatine products on the market. Its a natural style
creatine that works with the body instead of against it.

CON-CRET is also one of the only creatine products to


be scientifically demonstrated to surpass other standard
creatines in the key plasma uptake measure marker.
ProMera Sports unique creatine provides a great
combination this product allows the user to generate
cellular energy very quickly and in a safe manner. And it
also works to enhance the recovery from a workout.
Workout recovery is vital for getting the most out of
training, and having adequate creatine at work enhances

this process greatly. CON-CRET is the best around in this


area as well.

CON-CRET isnt the only tool ProMera Sports


provides for the athlete wanting cutting edge nutritional
tools. ProMera also provides other energy enhancing
products. These products can be safely stacked with

CON-CRET for even better results.


Other ProMera Sports products include Creatine HCL,

Beta-Crat 2.0, Womans Elite , Pump Extram and Capsi

Blast . And CON-CRET can also be used in a mix with


other standard supplements such as protein powders,
protein shakes and more.
If you want safe, cutting edge nutrition for a super
boost to your training energy (and in turn your training
results), then check out the outstanding line of products
offered by ProMera Sports, starting with the top of the line

CON-CRET .
You can find ProMera Sports products at the main
nutrition supplement venues such as GNS, The Vitamin
Shoppe, Rite Aid, Live Well as well as at online retailers. Z

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POMEGRANATE
IS A
NUTRITIONAL
JEWEL
A study (Journal
of Clinical
Nutrition Sept.
2005) has found
that pomegranate
juice lowers bad
LDL cholesterol
while increasing
blood flow to the
heart among
people with heart
disease. Typically
fruit juices raise
blood sugar and
should be drank in
moderation.
However,
researchers in
Israel found that
natural sugars
found in
pomegranate juice
do not raise blood
sugar. These
particular sugars
are attached to
antioxidants and
make the sugars
act as protective
agents against
arthrosclerosis.
Pomegranates are
also helpful in
protecting against
prostate and
certain breast
cancers. They
alleviate
symptoms of
menopause and
boost the immune
system to fight
common ailments
such as colds and
flu.
Sprinkle
pomegranate
seeds on
pancakes, cereal,
waffles, pudding,
ice cream or cake.
Fold the seeds
into a bowl of
yogurt or a
guacamole dip.
Brighten up a fruit
or green salad by
sprinkling seeds as
a final touch.

Stress,
adrenal response
and fat loss
resistance
By Jillian Sarno Teta
f you are an astute fitness professional whos paying
attention, or if you are an avid participant in the fat loss
lifestyle, you have undoubtedly by now realized that
the calories in, calories out model, as the holy grail for
optimal body composition and performance, is at best an
incomplete picture, and at worst, a fallacy.
The fitness industry is catching up at long last with the
latest developments in exercise physiology and the
empirical experience of countless savvy trainers. A
broader landscape of fitness, fat loss and body change is

being elucidated to include not just calories, but other


factors including hormones, hormonal balance,
environmental inputs and lifestyle attributes.
Taken together, we have a much clearer, more
comprehensive insight into what it takes to achieve our
goals and the goals of our clients, and how these
individual factors can be harnessed to enhance positive
effects, and how to identify and mitigate negative
influences as well.
Along these lines, the role of stress, our stress response,
the cascade of hormonal signaling as a result of, and the
subsequent short and long term hormonal environment
created in response to stress is a topic quite worthy of
examination, especially in those individuals for whom
body change is exceedingly difficult.
Stress is unequivocally a part of life
The word stress itself is a non-specific term that is
used to describe external and internal challenges that have
the potential to negatively affect hormonal and

21
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COFFEE FOR
ASTHMA RELIEF?
Researchers found
that a small cup of
coffee may improve
breathing for up to
two hours and may
improve airway
function for up to
four hours in
asthmatic patients.
This may be due to
the fact that the
chemical structure of
coffee is similar to
the chemical
structure of
theophyline, a
common asthma
medication. Be
careful, though, as
excessive amounts of
caffeine can intensify
the side effects of
theophylline.
The current doctors
orders: coffee in
moderation, as well
as tea, chocolate and
other caffeinated
consumables.

22

biochemical balance, health and your physique goals.


Our bodys stress response has evolved to protect us
from acute danger. The world that we live in today has
ample food for most of us and few predators. However,
we have the same system that we had when we had to
catch and kill our food, run and hide from predators, and
fight enemies. The stressors of today are different. Many of
us may feel like we do not have relief from stress.
Stress could be anything ranging from acute events
like a long run, getting sad news, a minor car accident or
having a confrontation, to more chronic things like
deadlines, unhealthy relationships, overtraining, ongoing
sleep deprivation and poor diet.
Also very important is your psychological response to
them. If you view an event or situation as bad, the event
is much more likely to cause a physiological stress
response. How we interpret our lives and the things that
happen to us are major factors in determining the effects
our bodies feel from stress.
Our bodies are not well-suited for chronic, unrelenting
stress. As such, the response of our body will eventually
become maladaptive and not optimal. Chronic stress has
the potential to set the stage for hormonal imbalance that
has major consequences for our waistlines and physiology.
The adrenal glands are a key player of the endocrine
system and the central nervous system, and are the main
drivers of our response to stress. The endocrine system,
under the influence of the nervous system, secretes a wide
variety of hormones as an adaptive response to deal with
stress and restore order and balance to the body.
Cortisol and other hormones are secreted by the
adrenal glands, and cortisol is classically the prime
biochemical marker of stress. Under normal conditions,
stress will cause elevated secretion of cortisol and
epinephrine. Problems will begin to crop up when this
normal response becomes abnormal as a result of
unrelenting or dysfunctional stress and stress adaption.
Cortisol is a very important hormone, and
often misunderstood.
It is critical to understand that hormones have more
than one singular action, and act in different ways as a
response to the ratios of other hormones and signaling
molecules. Very much like a symphony, cortisols tune
will change in response to what is playing around it.
n One of cortisols main jobs is to maintain blood sugar
levels in ideal ranges, particularly when we are asleep or
have gone for a long time without eating.
n Cortisol also has very powerful anti-inflammatory
effects, helping blunt over-zealous immune response and
acting as an antihistamine.
n Additionally, when cortisol levels are optimal, and
when other hormones are in balance - such as insulin,
reproductive hormones and growth hormone - cortisol
will help you burn fat.
Over time, it is quite possible for stress to increase the
secretion of cortisol, leading to elevated levels in the
blood, and this is where problems can begin to pop up.
As with any hormone, an imbalance of cortisol has
ramifications throughout the body and can be
detrimental. With cortisol, adrenal balance and stress
response, this can signify that cortisol can be either
excessive or insufficient to spur negative health
consequences.
Excessive cortisol, from long-term maladaptive stress,
creates a plethora of problems, many of which will
prevent you from keeping your waistline slim and trim.

Excessive cortisol will impose a functional hypothyroid


state on the body. Elevated cortisol acts to decrease
hormones in the brain that stimulate the thyroid, and also
directly inhibits the conversion of active thyroid hormone.
These anti-thyroid effects of cortisol translate into a
lowered metabolism coupled with increased abdominal
fat deposition: a sure recipe for fat loss resistance. To add
insult to injury, excessive cortisol promotes insulin
resistance, which further spurs fat gain. Excessive
cortisol disrupts sleep, interrupts appropriate central
nervous system function and also overwhelms the action
of growth hormone one of our best fat burning
hormones.
Clients who are experiencing this will likely have a
hard time adding lean muscle to their frame, and may
even be losing muscle in their arms and legs, while at the
same time getting fatter in the midsection.
Over time, in response to elevated cortisol, our adrenals
are unable to adequately respond to the messages of the
central nervous system, including the brain. This
decoupling of the brain and adrenal glands signifies an
extremely dysfunctional hormonal environment and the
perfect storm for fat loss resistance.
Even though excessive cortisol has all of these negative
consequences, insufficient cortisol and/or very low cortisol
also present problems for optimal body composition.
After years and years of stress, dysfunctional stress
response, accelerated cortisol secretion, and the
decoupling of the central nervous system and the adrenal
glands, the adrenals begin to tire.
Likely, many of you have heard the term adrenal
fatigue, adrenal exhaustion or adrenal burnout. Very
much like a bank account, individuals have finite adrenal
reserve. When the adrenals are overproducing cortisol for
so long, are not responding to signals from the brain and
are bathed in an environment of insulin resistance, low
thyroid and blunted growth hormone, the adrenals begin
to tire and cortisol production begins to fall.
The typical pattern of adrenal burnout is years and
years of excessive cortisol production and the subjection
of the body to all of the dysfunctional physiological and
biochemical consequences it produces, followed by a
down spiral of cortisol and other adrenal hormone
production to very low levels.
These people have hit rock bottom
People at this stage are often overweight or morbidly
obese, and may be diabetic or have a diagnosis of
fibromyalgia.
Until normal hormonal signaling is re-established, fat
loss will be very difficult to achieve. Clients whom you
suspect are maladapted to stress should be evaluated by a
competent health care provider.
High and low cortisol levels are approached very
different clinically. The first step towards hormonal
balance is eating a high vegetable, adequate protein diet
with minimal refined carbohydrates and sugar.
Proper sleep and hydration are crucial for adrenal
health. Training programs may need to be temporarily
modified or shortened depending on levels of
decompensation. Exercises and movements that promote
human growth hormone secretion, such as resistance
training, will be an integral part of recovery.
Although stress has no calories, stress and our response
to it markedly affect the way that we look and feel.
Understanding and using these tools will enable us to
achieve the fitness goals of ourselves and our clients. Z

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[ SUPPLEMENTS]
Speed vs.
efficacy

Protein blends are superior


By Gabriel Wilson, Ph.D., C.S.C.S.

hotly debated topic for years has


centered on whether slow or fast
digesting proteins are ideal for
supporting optimal fitness and muscle health.
However, new research shows that athletes
who consume a blend of proteins with
different digestion speeds, rather than one
single source protein, can achieve superior
muscle building benefits. This article will
discuss the exciting new protein research and
how it can help you achieve your ultimate
fitness goals.
Protein Science
Of course, you know that protein is
essential for supporting optimal fitness and
athletic performance. People who eat more
protein are leaner, stronger and more
muscular. This is because protein helps to
build muscle, speed recovery and even
promotes satiety so you stay full longer.
When considering what types of protein to
consume, it is important to choose complete
protein sources that provide a full array of
amino acids. For muscle building and
athletic fitness, the BCAAs (leucine,
isoleucine and valine), as well as arginine and
glutamine, are particularly important and
have been classified by scientists as the
Critical 5 Amino Acids.
For this reason, milk protein is very popular
among athletes because it is a complete
protein that provides a potent dose of the
Critical 5 Amino Acids. In particular, milk
protein can be fractionated into casein and
whey protein. However, while both proteins
provide an excellent source of amino acids,
they are vastly different. Research shows
distinct benefits from each of these proteins,
with fast digesting whey protein providing an
immediate boost in muscle building within 12 hours and slow digesting casein protein
sustaining anabolism for up to 6 hours.
A protein blend thats 7X more
anabolic than whey
So which is best whey or casein?
Actually, the answer appears to be neither!
Rather, the most potent protein is actually a
blend that includes whey, casein and soy
protein. This was demonstrated in a
groundbreaking clinical study where subjects
were given whey or a precise blend of whey,
soy and casein proteins following a bout of
resistance exercise (Reidy, et al. JAP, 2014).

Results showed that over 4 hours postexercise, the muscle building response was
seven times greater following consumption of
the protein blend versus whey alone. This
research demonstrates that a combination
protein provides distinct benefits that single
source protein supplements cannot match.
You see, while whey provides athletes with
immediate muscle building needs, the blend
of fast (whey), medium (soy) and slow
(casein) digesting proteins helps to rapidly
increase and then sustain anabolism for hours
after exercise. This is critical, as your muscles
are extremely receptive to muscle building
nutrients for at least 6-8 hours post-exercise.
And guys, if you are worried about soy
protein, dont be! A mathematical review of 47
research reports covering 51 treatment groups
(known as a meta-analysis) demonstrated that
supplementation with soy proteins had no
effect on estrogen, testosterone, sex hormonebinding globulin, free testosterone or the free
androgen index (Hamilton-Reeves, et al.,
2010). Furthermore, research shows that
athletes who take soy protein post-exercise
have reduced oxidative damage to muscles,

23
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due to soys potent source of anti-oxidants,


which also supports general health and fitness.
So, if scientific analysis proves a
combination protein is superior to whey, how
do you take advantage of this exciting
research? After all, who has the time to buy
all three of these proteins and try to blend
them into the precise clinically tested ratio?
Fortunately, you dont have to. The
performance nutrition company MHP has
designed a protein powder called Probolic-SR
that features the exact blend and ratio of
casein, soy and whey protein shown to be so
effective in clinical research. In addition,
Probolic-SR has a patented Sustained Release
Muscle Feeder Technology that allows for a
continuous supply of amino acids to your
muscles for up to 12 hours.
The evidence is clear to maximize
muscle building, performance and recovery,
whey alone cant provide the benefits youre
looking for. Only Probolic-SR can satisfy your
bodys critical need for an extended release,
high performance combination protein. Z
Editors Note: for more information on
Probolic-SR, log onto MHPSTRONG.com.

24