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CHITIN - CHITOSAN
CHITIN - CHITOSAN
CHITIN - CHITOSAN
Indonesia Aquaculture Production (tonnes) 2010. Indication Export (E) and Domestic Conssumption (D) Commodity 2010
Indonesia Aquaculture Production (tonnes) 2010.
Indication Export (E) and Domestic Conssumption (D)
Commodity
2010
Seaweed (E)
3,082,113
Tilapia (D)
469,173
Shrimp (E)
352,600
Milkfish (D)
483,948
Common Carp (D)
374,112
Clariid Catfish(D)
273,554
Pangasiid Catfish (D)
144,056
Giant Gourami (D)
74,912
Grouper (E)
18,805
Barramundi (E)
1,776
Other
203,015
Total
5,478,064
Fishery Waste to High Value Products The European fishery industry is a major source of

Fishery Waste to High Value Products

The European fishery industry is a major source of industrial biowaste in Europe. The processing of

crustaceans (e.g. shrimps and crabs) in the EU alone

results in more than ~750.000 t/a of shell waste 1 and globally it is estimated at 1.44 million metric tons

EU alone results in more than ~750.000 t/a of shell waste 1 and globally it is
Crustacean Waste • Protein • Calcium Carbonate • Carotenoids • Polysaccharides- Chitin > Chitosan

Crustacean Waste

Protein

Calcium Carbonate

Carotenoids

Polysaccharides- Chitin > Chitosan

Crustacean Waste • Protein • Calcium Carbonate • Carotenoids • Polysaccharides- Chitin > Chitosan
Chitin Sources
Chitin Sources
 

Crawfish/Crabs

Shrimp

Fungi

Chitin

25-30%

30-40%

15-40%

Protein

15%

35%

5-10%

CaCO 3

55%

30%

Glycans

Lipids

2-5%

5-10%

5-10%

Composition (Based upon Dry Weight)

Chitin • Naturally occurring polysaccharide, second most abundant in nature next to cellulose • Chitin

Chitin

Naturally occurring polysaccharide, second most

abundant in nature next to cellulose

Chitin and its deacetylated derivative chitosan are

exceptionally useful polymers

They are biodegradable, non-toxic and biocompatible

making them useful in a range of applications

useful polymers • They are biodegradable, non-toxic and biocompatible making them useful in a range of
CHITIN
CHITIN

POLIMER BETA GLUKOSAMIN DENGAN IKATAN BETA 1-4 GLIKOSIDIK

CHITOSAN

PRODUK DEASETILASI CHITIN

STRUKTUR MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL
CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL
CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL
CHITIN
STRUKTUR MOLEKUL CHITIN
KERANGKA MOLEKUL CHITIN
KERANGKA MOLEKUL
CHITIN
KERANGKA MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR 3 DIMENSI MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR 3 DIMENSI
MOLEKUL CHITIN
STRUKTUR 3 DIMENSI MOLEKUL CHITIN
Chitin : Poly (N-acétyl-D-glucosamine) Chitin is the second most abundant polymer in nature after cellulose.

Chitin : Poly (N-acétyl-D-glucosamine)

Chitin : Poly (N-acétyl-D-glucosamine) Chitin is the second most abundant polymer in nature after cellulose. It
Chitin : Poly (N-acétyl-D-glucosamine) Chitin is the second most abundant polymer in nature after cellulose. It

Chitin is the second most abundant

polymer in nature after cellulose.

the second most abundant polymer in nature after cellulose. It is present in the exoskeleton of

It is present in the exoskeleton of

crustaceans in the marine arthropods, in some seaweed and yeasts.

Chitin Uses • Agriculture- fertilizer to improve crops • Medicine- Wound and burn treatment- increases

Chitin Uses

Agriculture-fertilizer to improve crops

Medicine-Wound and burn treatment- increases healing time

Food-additive to stabilise foods

Water treatment, the paper and textile

industries and tissue engineering

time • Food- additive to stabilise foods • Water treatment, the paper and textile industries and

PERBANDINGAN STRUKTUR

MOLEKUL CHITIN-SELULOSA
MOLEKUL
CHITIN-SELULOSA
PERBANDINGAN STRUKTUR MOLEKUL CHITIN-SELULOSA
PERUBAHAN CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN
PERUBAHAN
CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN
PERUBAHAN CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN
PERUBAHAN CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN
PERUBAHAN
CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN
PERUBAHAN CHITIN MENJADI CHITOSAN
What are the biomedical applications?
What are the biomedical applications?

Chitosan is being evaluated in a number of

biomedical applications icluding wound healing and dressing, dialysis membranes,

contact lenses, fibers for digestible sutures,

liposome stabilization agents, antitumor uses and drug delivery uses and controlled-release

systems

In these uses chitosan’s key properties are :
In these uses chitosan’s key properties
are :

1) biocompatibility

2) nonantigenicity

3) nontoxicity (its degradation products are

known natural metabolites)

4) the ability to improve wound healing/or clot blood

5) the ability to absorb liquids and to form

protective films and coatings, and

6) selective binding of acidic liquids, thereby

lowering serum cholesterol levels.

How can Chitosan be used in orthopedics?
How can Chitosan be used in
orthopedics?

1- Its enzymatic degradability associated to

its structural similarity to extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycans makes it an attractive

biopolymer for bone tissue repair.

2- Numerous bone filling materials have been developed in which chitosan is used in

combination with calcium

phosphates,essentially as a binding agent, or associated to biological signaling molecules

Can Chitosan be used as nonprotein temporary scaffold?
Can Chitosan be used as nonprotein
temporary scaffold?

its versatility to be processed into injectable, porous and membran forms without use of toxic solvents makes chitosan

an interesting material to be used as a non-

protein temporary scaffold, for bone regeneration . Presently, an increasing number of anchorage-dependent cells,

including bone cells, are being cultured on

2-D and 3-D chitosan-based matrices, envisaging cell-based regenerative

therapies.

What is the effect of DA of chitosan on cell properties?
What is the effect of DA of chitosan on
cell properties?

Cell adhesion, migration and cell growth kinetics of a number of cells, including keratinocytes and fibroblasts, are known to depend on the DA of chitosan, lower DAs favoring cell adhesion. However, no osteoblast adhesion studies have been reported.

Apa Pentingnya DA?
Apa Pentingnya DA?

The degree of N-acetylation (DA) together

with the molecular weight are the most important parameters for its characterization.

The DA, which

fraction of N-acetylated units, is a structural parameter influencing charge density,

crystallinity and solubility, including the

is by definition

the molar

propensity to enzymatic degradation, with higher DAs leading to faster biodegradation

rates

 Kondisi terbaik proses deasetilasi khitin limbah cangkang rajungan ( Portunus pelagicus) menjadi khitosan diperoleh

Kondisi terbaik proses deasetilasi khitin limbah cangkang rajungan (Portunus pelagicus) menjadi khitosan diperoleh pada suhu 90 o C dan waktu proses 120 menit. Kondisi ini memberikan derajat deasetilasi tertinggi sebesar 79,65 %.

What are the properties of Chitosan ?
What are the properties of Chitosan ?

Chitosan is a linear polymer of mainly

anhydroglucosamine which behaves as a linear polyelectrolyte at acidic pH

Chitosan is nontoxic and bioabsorbable.

At pH below 6.5, chitosan in solution carries a high positive charge density, one charge per glucosamine unit.

Since chitosan is one of the few cationic

polyelectrolytes, it is an exception to the current industrial high molecular weight polysaccharides, which are mostly neutral or

polyanionic.

PERUBAHAN CHITIN MENJADI GLUKOSAMIN
PERUBAHAN CHITIN
MENJADI GLUKOSAMIN
PERUBAHAN CHITIN MENJADI GLUKOSAMIN
Produk Chitosan
Produk Chitosan
Produk Chitosan
Produk Chitosan
Produk Chitosan
Produk Chitosan
FARMAKOLOGI CHITOSAN
FARMAKOLOGI CHITOSAN

MENURUNKAN ABSORPSI LEMAK

ANTI OBESITAS

MENURUNKAN KADAR KOLESTEROL DARAH

MEKANISME AKTIVITAS CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS
CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS
CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS
CHITOSAN
MEKANISME AKTIVITAS CHITOSAN
STUDI KLINIK CHITOSAN
STUDI KLINIK CHITOSAN
CHITIN MANUFACTURING
CHITIN MANUFACTURING
CHITIN MANUFACTURING
CHITIN – CHITOSAN MANUFACTURING
CHITIN – CHITOSAN
MANUFACTURING
PEMBUATAN CHITOSAN
PEMBUATAN CHITOSAN
PEMBUATAN CHITOSAN
Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan Natural Crustacean Shell
Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan
Natural Crustacean Shell
Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan Natural Crustacean Shell  5 % H C l o r E D

5% HCl or EDTA (-CaCO3) Chitinoproteic complex

5% NaOH (- Proteins and lipids)

(40% NaOH, (NaBH4), 110 o C

Chitin +CaCO3 30% HCl ( CaCO3)

(- Proteins) + Deacetylation CH 2 OH NH 2 CH 2 OH O HO O
(- Proteins) + Deacetylation
CH 2 OH
NH 2
CH 2 OH
O
HO
O
O
O
HO
O
O HO
NH-C-CH 3
NH 2
CH 2 OH
O
x

Chitin

Chitosan

10% residual acetylation to 25% residual

acetylation

Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan from Fungal mycelium
Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan from Fungal mycelium
Isolation of Chitin/Chitosan from Fungal mycelium Proteins, Lipids, Pigments, Hemicelluloses 10% NaOH, 24 hr, RT Acetic

Proteins, Lipids, Pigments, Hemicelluloses

10% NaOH, 24 hr, RT Acetic acid Insolubles Solubles
10% NaOH,
24 hr, RT
Acetic
acid
Insolubles
Solubles

Chitin/glucan

50:50

KytoZyme Plant producing 100 tons/year

to open in 2005

Chitosan

Mixture of glucanases

pH = 5.5, 4 days, 37 C

50% NaOH to gel

Chitosan Mixture of glucanases pH = 5.5, 4 days, 37 C 50% NaOH to gel Chitin

Chitin

pH = 5.5, chitin deacetylase,

37 C, 5 days

Sources of Chitin/Chitosan
Sources of Chitin/Chitosan

USA

Company

Location

Products

Vanson

Halosource

8840 152nd Avenue Redmond, WA 98052 vanson@vanson.com

Chitin/ Chitosan N-Haloamines

AIDP, Inc.

1120 Coiner Court

City of Industry, CA 91748

Aminoacids

Herbal extracts Chitin/ Chitosan

Ferro Pfanstiehl

Laboratories, Inc.

1219 Glen Rock Avenue

Waukegan, IL 60085-0439

Glucosamine

Speciality

carbohydrates Chitin/ Chitosan

V-Labs, Inc

423 North Theard St Covington, LA 71433

N-Carboxymethyl chitosan (NCMC) N, O-Carboxymethyl chitosan (NOCC)

Sources of Chitin/Chitosan
Sources of Chitin/Chitosan

Europe

Company

Location

Products

Randburg

Oskarsgata 7

Chitosans

Primex

IS - 580 Siglufjordur Iceland

Marine proteins From Shrimp

Genis

Haugesund, Norway

 

KitoZyme

Rue Haute Claire 4 B4040 Herstal Belgium

Chitin-glucan

Chitosan-glucan

Chitin/Chitosan

 

From Aspergillis sp

Kraeber Gmbh

Waldhofstrasse 14 25474 Ellerbek

Biopharmaceutical raw materials

Germany

Chitin/Chitosan

Sources of Chitin/Chitosan
Sources of Chitin/Chitosan

Asia

Company

Location

Products

Industrial Research Ltd

(IRL)

5 Sheffield Crescent

Bishopdale

P.O. Box 20-028 Christchurch, NZ

b-chitin from squid pen

Meron Biopolymers

Santo Gopalan Road, Chullickal, Cochin - 682005 Kerala, India

Chitin/Chitosan

(Enzymatic

processing)

Yuhuan Ocean Biochemical Co., Ltd

89 Zhongxing Middle Road Li’ao, Yuhuan County Post Code: 317602, China

Glucosamine Chitin/Chitosan “Jinke” Chitosan

Korean Chitosan Co. Ltd.

San 2 Wonjig-Ri Kangku- Myun, Youngdeok-Kim

Kyoungbuk-Do, South

Korea

Chitin/Chitosan

Literatur Kitin-Kitosan
Literatur Kitin-Kitosan
Literatur Kitin-Kitosan
Literatur Kitin-Kitosan
Literatur Kitin-Kitosan
INFRA MERAH – NMR CHITIN-CHITOSAN
INFRA MERAH – NMR
CHITIN-CHITOSAN
INFRA MERAH – NMR CHITIN-CHITOSAN
PENGGUNAAN CHITOSAN
PENGGUNAAN CHITOSAN
PENGGUNAAN CHITOSAN
PENGGUNAAN CHITOSAN
PENGGUNAAN CHITOSAN
Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan Bidang Industri :
Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan
Bidang Industri :

Koagulan polielektrolit dan pengolahan limbah cair

Pengikat dan penyerap ion logam

Pewarna

Media kromatografi

Gel dan pertukaran ion

Penyalut berbagai serat alami dan sintetik

Pembentuk film

Meningkatkan kualitas kertas

Pulp dan produksi tekstil

berbagai serat alami dan sintetik  Pembentuk film  Meningkatkan kualitas kertas  Pulp dan produksi
Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan
Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan

Bidang Pertanian dan Pangan

Antimikroba

Antijamur

Serat bahan pangan

Penstabil

Pembentuk gel

Pembentuk tekstur

Flavor

Pestisida

Dll.

Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan
Kegunaan Kitin dan Kitosan

Bidang Kesehatan :

Anti koagulan

Anti tumor

Anti virus

Aditif kosmetik

Membran dialisis

Bahan orthopedik

Pembalut luka

Antiinfeksi

Lensa kontak

Dll.

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials Waste Treatment: Metal chelating cationic flocculating agent Sewage effluents

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials Waste Treatment:

Metal chelating cationic flocculating agent

Sewage effluents

Metal finishing/electroplating wastes Paper mills

Radioactive wastes

Protein flocculation for feed market from:

Rendering plants, Milk and Vegetable Processing

Poultry/Egg processing

Single Cell Protein Recovery

EPA approved

FDA/AAFCO approved

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials • Agricultural:  Seed Coatings -- Fungistatic  Potential Binder

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials Agricultural:

Seed Coatings -- Fungistatic

Potential Binder for Growth Stimulants and other

Agrochemicals

Anti-nemotode Treatment -- Chitin-Protein complex

Preservative Coating on Produce

Animal Feed Additives

Fertilizer complete with Trace Minerals

(Dried Shrimp Shells @ $100 per ton)

Biocompatibility
Biocompatibility

Biodegradable to normal metabolites Chitinases common in environment Chitosanases also available

Safe, Toxicity = sugar

Activity

Hemostatic

Spermicidal

Anticholesteremic

Bacteriostatic

Anti-cancer

Fungistatic

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials
Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials

Foods:

Dietary fiber, emulsifier, inert ingredient

carrier

Anti-cholesterol food additive ?

Clarification of Beverages and Fruit Juices

Removal of Dyes or Color Stabilization

Fat Blocker—Fat Zapper…!

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials
Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials

Health Care:

Anti-cholesterol Drugs

Controlled release matrix

Wound care

Bioabsorbable Sutures and Wound

Dressings derived from Chitosan

Artificial Skin

Bioengineering Materials

Orthopedic Devises

Contact Lenses

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials
Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials

Cosmetics:

Hair TreatmentClear solutions form clear films

Substantive to hair

Skin CareChitosan derivatives serve as emulsifiers, moisturizers, antistatic agents and emollients

Nail Polishes

Tooth Paste

Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials
Potential Markets for Chitinous Materials

Biotechnology

Enzyme Immobilization

Protein Separation

Cell Recovery/Culture/Immobilization Membrane Separations

Chromatography

CHITIN/CHITOSAN LIMITATIONS
CHITIN/CHITOSAN LIMITATIONS

1. High Isolation Costs

Dependent on NaOH price fluctuations

2. Consistent Raw Material Supply

Poor storage properties Drying reduces activity Easily contaminated by pathogens, exotoxins

3.

4.

High Price Markets have Selective Demands

High product purity

Non-toxic

Narrow range of specifications

Low end markets not ready to processing costs

pay