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# Experimental Stress Analysis

Elective Course

Lecture Notes

Prepared by

Dr. S. M. Murigendrappa
Department of Mechanical Engineering
NITK, Surathkal

03-08-2016

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO STRESS ANALSYS
PART A: FRACTURE MECHANICS
1)
Introduction
2)
Failure Criterions
PART B: STRAIN GAUGES
1)
Introduction
2)
Types of Strain Gauge
3)
Electrical Resistance Strain Gauge
PART C: PHOTOELASTICITY
1)
Nature of Light
2)
Crystal Optics
3)
Two Dimensional Photoelasticity
Part II Review of Stress and Strain

## Stress analysis is an engineering discipline that determines the stress in

materials and structures subjected to static or dynamic forces or loads.

A stress analysis is required for the study and design of structures, under
prescribed or expected loads.

Stress analysis may be applied as a design step to structures that dont yet
exist.

## The aim of the analysis is usually to determine whether the member or

collection of members, usually referred to as a system, behaves as desired

For example, this might be achieved when the determined stress from the
applied forces(s) is less than the tensile yield strength or below the fatigue of
the material.

## Analysis may be performed through experimental testing techniques, through

analytical mathematical modelling or computational simulation or a
combination of methods.

## Stress analysis may be carried out based on:

1) Analytical Methods
i) Strength of Materials
ii) Solid Mechanics:
Theory of Elasticity
Theory of Plasticity
Theory of thermo-elasticity
Fracture Mechanics
2) Numerical Methods
i) Finite Element Methods
ii) Boundary Element Methods
iii) Mesh-free Element Method
iv) Finite Difference Method
3) Experimental methods

## Role of experiments in stress-strain analysis and in assessment of failure risk:

 To acquire input data for computations (material characteristics, limit
values of the relevant quantities, assessment of the character and
 To verify the results of computational models,

##  To obtain some results in the fields of problems, where no computational

modelling is possible(problems of abrasion, corrosion, erosion,
cavitations, pitting, etc.)


## As a whole in mechanics no computation can exist without experiments and

only simple experiments can exist without computations.

## Systemization of measuring methods are

methods for evaluation of stresses and strains,
methods for monitoring of the fracture process,
methods for evaluation of the body movements, including its distortions
(displacements),
methods for evaluation of external loads acting upon bodies.

## It is impossible to measure stresses directly

The evaluation of stresses is always based on calculations:
Strains can be measured directly or calculated from the measured
displacements. For the calculation of stresses, knowledge of constitutive
relations and their parameters is necessary.
To obtain the constitutive relations (between stresses and strains) and
their parameters, some basic mechanics tests are necessary. In these
tests the stress values are calculated on the basis of the measured force
and
some
assumptions
on
the
stress
distribution(uni-axial
tension, bending, etc.)

## Experimental methods for stress analysis may be classified as:

a) Point-by-point methods:
The method which give stress or strain or displacement details at selected
points only in the body under loading.
Examples:


Mechanical extensometers
 Optical extensometers
 Variable capacitance transducers
 Electric strain gauges

b) Whole-field methods:
The method which give stress or strain distribution details in the wholefield of body under loading.
Examples:
 Tensometry method

 Photoelasticimetry or Photoelasticity






## Brittle lacquers or Grid lacquers method

Moire method
Holographic method
Radiographic strain measuring method
Stress pattern analysis

Tensometry method
This method is most frequent method adopted in practical applications.
In contrast to other methods it is local, it does not measure a strain
field(strains in the whole body or on its whole surface) but only the change
of a specified length, which is recalculated in to the average strain value
specific for the gauge location.
Therefore, the accuracy depends on the gauge size and on the strain
Photoelasticimetry method
Involves complex experiment with a transparent model using a polarized
light.
It is based on the photoelastic effect: some transparent material become
optically anisotropic under load.
Brittle lacquers method
This method based on the low ultimate strain of some resins, which crack
at a certain value of strain.
These strain indicating lacquers(or films) are advantageous for finding
dangerous locations of the body and the direction of the maximum
principal strain (stress) here.

Moire method
is based on the light interference when passing diffraction lattices: the
difference between the deformed and reference lattices creates the moire
strips corresponding to displacements equal to the lattice span.
Holographic method
is based on the laser light interference between the hologram of an
undeformed body and the real deformed body.
The created interference strips are proportional to the displacement
magnitude.
Disadvantage is that an accurate mutual positioning of the hologram and
the body is extremely difficult.
Radiographic strain measuring method
is based on the diffraction of a monochromatic X-ray on the crystallic
lattice(with span on the order 10-10 m) which acts as a diffraction lattice.
Stress pattern analysis
it exploits the transformation of the strain energy in to heat.
It evaluates temperatures in different points of the body under conditions
of repeated deformation caused by a cyclic loading.

## Images of Stress Distribution in Simply Supported

Beams subjected to Point Load applied at the Centre

## Solution is based on strength of material approach for the cases of

uniform cross-section geometries.

## Solution is based on Stress

Concentration approach for the
case only when hole geometry is
comparable with depth of beam

Enlarged
view
showing
the
distribution of stress around
circular hole

## Solution is based on theory of

elasticity approach for the case by
treating the hole geometry is very
small compared with depth of
beam.

Enlarged
view
showing
the
distribution of stress around
circular hole

Solution is based on
mechanics approach.

Enlarged
view
showing
the
distribution of stress around crack
zone.

fracture

Boundary line of
the disc

P
Corner

Corners

Corner

Fringe pattern
P

## Zebra- Smaller size of the contours on legs and

head portions and remaining places are larger..

## (a) Load, P Number of contours

(b) Size of contour increases from the loading point

## Its been 84 years

In young age
In old age
P

(a) Load, P Number of contours(Reversible) Wrinkles around eyes and lips are smaller in size and crowdie
whereas on cheeks and chin, larger size and less crowd;.
(b) Age Number of wrinkles(Irreversible)

## Respect Load (ESA) and Age (Nature)

Moire Patterns

Moire Patterns
Reference

Uniform uniaxial
tension

Local maximum of
displacements

Local manimum of
displacements

by
isolated force, P

Moire pattern

Moire pattern

Moire Patterns

## Examples of identification of dent in automobile.

Moire Patterns

PART A
FRACTURE MECHANICS

24

MOTIVATION

## Failure of Load Bearing Structures

a) Excessive Deformation

b) Breakage of Structure

## i) Yielding Irreversible deformation

ii) Buckling- Sudden loss of shape
due to excess deformation

## i) Fracture of the structurecausing material separation

(with or without yielding)

## We want to know the safety or load carrying capability of

damaged/flawed/cracked structure

25

Examples of failure

## Liberty ship failure during WW-II

(http://www.sozogaku.com/fkd/en/cfen/CB1011020.html)

Crankshaft failure

## Aloha airline flight 243 failure

(http://www.disastercity.info/ghost/sequence/)

Crack in wall

26

## On April 14, 1912, the R.M.S. Titanic

collided with a massive iceberg and
sank in less than three hours.
At the time, more than 2200 passengers
and crew were aboard the Titanic for
her maiden voyage to the United
States.
Only 705 survived.
According to the builders of the Titanic,
even in the worst possible accident at
sea, the ship should have stayed afloat
for two to three days.
The material failures and design flaws
that contributed to the rapid sinking of
the Titanic.
In addition, the changes that have been
made in both the design of ships and
the safety regulations governing ships
at sea as a result of the Titanic disaster
(Source from following URL).

## For more details: http://writing.engr.psu.edu/uer/bassett.html

http://www.charlesapple.com/2012/04/a-terrific-titanic-anniversary-graphic-from-south-africa/

27

## For more details: http://writing.engr.psu.edu/uer/bassett.html

http://www.charlesapple.com/2012/04/a-terrific-titanic-anniversary-graphic-from-south-africa/

28

Examples of failure

HCF in turbine

Spring failure

## For more cases visit 1), http://plane-truth.com/fatigue_details.htm

2) http://www.disastercity.info/

29

INTRODUCTION

## For component subjected to uniaxial loading system, conventional

design failures observed during the tensile testing are:
 Yielding (yield) and
 Necking (ultimate)

Lo

do

## Onset of yielding is characterized by the applied stress reaching a

critical value y the yield strength of the materials.
Similarly the necking phenomenon begins when the applied stress
reaches the value u, ultimate strength of the material.
For designing a component against permanent deformation, yield
strength y becomes the basis for selecting the allowable stress.
Similarly, for designing against the aforesaid mechanical instability
ultimate strength, u, is the basis for selecting the allowable stress.
30

d
f = ys

Pure brittle
d
e Tough

Stress,

c
ys

a
ys

Ductile

b
ys

a
E

e
fd f ts

fg

Strain,

## For components subjected to complex loading system, the classical design

based on the prevention of failure initiation at the most critical point.
This is done by using the one of the conventional failure criteria:
 Max normal stress theory
 Max shear stress theory, etc.

## Classical approach to design, which is based on the assumptions that the

material is homogeneous and defect-free
According to such design requirements, materials with any defect are
useless
These design practices dont provide any basis for the prevention of failure,
initiation of the flaws.
31

## A component containing flaws/defects may not lead to a catastrophic

failure immediately on loading There may be a stable crack growth before the instability sets in
there is possibility that crack may not grow at all if the load is below a
certain critical value

The classical approaches dont give any basis for the calculation of this
critical load or the stable crack growth rate

Thus, there is a tremendous scope for the material utilization if one can
predict the failure behaviour or provide the basis for calculation of
strength of components containing crack-like defects.

Such a filling-up of the gap will enable one to design reliably even if the
flaws were to come up during manufacturing or fabrication.

32

## Theoretically, strength of material is of the order E/10 to E/100 (where E

is the modulus of elasticity).

But, actual fracture strength of material which occurs without any plastic
deformation of the order E/100 to E/1000 and much below yield point of
the material
Such a situation could not be explained using classical failure theories

## This leads to the two important enquiry

These are the questions which have given rise to the discipline of
Fracture Mechanics

This subject has given rise to the new material parameters, in terms of
which brittle fracture of bodies containing crack-like defects is defined.
It has widened the scope of design and it has resulted in designing even
with defective materials.

##  Why is there so much weakening of the material?

 Is this type of failure governed by a certain parameter reaching a critical
value?

33

FRACTURE

## Fracture is the separation or fragmentation of a solid body in to two or more

parts under the action of load
Process of fracture

Classification

 Crack initiation
 Crack propagation
 Fracture/separation

## i) Ductile fracture ii) Brittle fracture iii) Mixed fracture

 Ductile fracture:
- It is characterized by appreciable plastic deformation prior to and during the
propagation of the crack
- An appreciable amount of gross deformation is usually present at the fracture
surfaces.
- It is high-energy process in which a large amount of energy dissipation is
associated with a plastic before crack instability occurs
 Brittle fracture
- It is characterized by a rapid rate of crack propagation (catastrophic
failure) and with very little micro deformation
- it is similar to cleavage in ionic crystals
- It is low-energy process in which a low energy dissipation occurs
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(i)
Cast iron

(ii)
Bronze

(iii)
Copper

Aluminium

(iv)

## Fig. 3 Types of fractures observed in metals

i) Brittle fracture ii) Shearing fracture iii) Completely ductile fracture in polycrystals and iv)
Ductile fracture in polycrystals

35

FRACTURE MECHANICS

## Strength of Material, Theory of Elasticity and Theory of Plasticity are used to

serve the purpose of illustrating the close form of analytical procedures in
order to develop constitutive equations for predicting failure of crack-free
solids.
However, when solids contain flaws or cracks, the field equations are not
completely defined by these theories since they do not consider the stress
singularity phenomenon near a crack tip.
They only provides the means to predict general yielding as a failure
criterion.
Despite the usefulness of predicting yielding, it is necessary to use the
principles of fracture mechanics to predict fracture of solid components
containing cracks.
Fracture Mechanics is an interdisciplinary subject which is concerned with
the effect of loading, configuration and size of the fracture of a load-bearing
body containing a flaw or crack

36

Most static failure theories assume that the solid material to be analyzed is
perfectly homogeneous, isotropic and free of stress risers or defects, such
as voids, cracks, inclusions and mechanical discontinuities (indentations,
scratches or gouges).
Actually, fracture mechanics considers structural components having small
flaws or cracks which are introduced during processing of materials and
manufacturing (e.g. solidification, quenching, welding, machining or
handling) . However, cracks that develop in service are difficult to predict and
account for preventing crack growth.
Important aspect of this field is failure analysis where it able to answer the
following questions
What is the residual strength as a function of crack size?
What size of crack can be tolerated at the expected service load?
How long does it take for a crack to grow from a certain initial size to the critical
size?
What size of pre-existing flaw can be permitted at the moment the structure starts
its service life?
How often should the structure be inspected for cracks?
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Comparison

Applied Stress

## Fig. 4a Traditional approach to structural design

Applied Stress

Flaw Size

Fracture Toughness

## Fig. 4b Fracture mechanics approach to structural design

38

FRACTURE TERMINOLOGIES

## Some basic concepts referring to fracture will be defined as follows.

a) Fracture Process Zone: It is a small region surrounding the crack
where fracture develops through the successive stages of
inhomogeneous slip, void growth and coalescence, and bond braking
on the atomic scale
b) Crack Front: It is the line connecting all adjacent sites where separation
may occur subsequently
c) Fracture Surface: During continued separation, crack front will move
along a geometric surface termed the fracture surface. Area of this
surface i.e., the developed crack area, will increase as the crack grows.

Crack
Front

Crack
Surface

Stage
I

## Plate under load,

Crack
Stage II

39

d) Fracture Mode:
- Fracture mode designates the separation of geometrically
- In Irwins notation,
1) Mode I: It denotes a symmetric opening, the relative
displacements between corresponding pairs being normal to the
fracture surface, i.e., when two surfaces of a crack are being
separated by tensile forces which are applied perpendicularly to the
plane of the crack
2) Mode II: Occurs when in-plane shear forces are applied
3) Mode III: Occurs when out-of-plane shear forces are acting
y

FI
z
Fracture
surface

FII
Crack tip

FI

FIII

FIII

FII

Mode I

Mode II

Mode III

(Opening or
Bending mode)

(In-plane shear or
Sliding mode)

(Out-of-plane shear
or Tearing mode)

40

## 1.1 FRACTURE CRITERION

I. Theoretical Cohesive Strength (An Atomic View of Fracture)
Metals are of great technology value, primarily of their high strength
combined with a certain measure of plasticity
In most basic terms, strength is due to cohesive stress between atoms
In general, high cohesive stresses are related to large elastic
constants, high melting points and small coefficients of thermal
expansion
Following Fig.9 shows the variation of the cohesive stress between two
atoms as function of the separation between these atoms
x0

Atoms

Cohesive strength,

max
x0
0

## A good approximation to the theoretical cohesive strength can be

obtained, if it is assumed that the cohesive strength curve can be
represented by a sine curve,

x
= max sin

/2

## and slope of the curve in this region becomes

x
max

/
2

L(1.1)

Cohesive strength,

2max
=
x

max
x0
0

/2

42

42

## From Hookes law for a brittle elastic solid,

x
E = Stress = = 0
Strain x / x0
x
Rearranging above equation and differentiating we get
E
=
L(1.2)
x x0
By combining equations (1.1) and (1.2),
E
E

Max =
L(1.3)
2x0
If we make that x0 /2,
Max = E E
3
where x0 - distance between the atoms in the unstrained condition, and E Youngs modulus.

## Therefore, the potential for withstanding extremely high stresses before

fracture.
43

2x
WS = Max sin
dx

0
Max
=

Cohesive strength,

## When fracture occurs in a brittle solid all of the work expanded in

producing the fracture goes into the creation of two new surfaces.
Each of these surfaces has a surface energy of S
Work done per unit area of surface in creating the fracture is the area
+
under the stress-displacement curve.
max
i.e.,
x0
0

/2

Fig.10
Cohesive strength as a
function of the separation on
between atoms

But this energy is equal to the energy required to create the two new
fracture surfaces, thus

or

Max
= 2 S

2 S
=
L(1.4)
Max

44

## Substituting equation (1.4) in to equation (1.3), we get the maximum

cohesive strength in the material as
i.e.,

Max

2 S
E
=

2 x0 Max

Max =

E S
x0

L(1.5)

## Using expressions for the stress-displacement curve which are more

complicated than the sine-wave approximation results in estimation of
maximum stress from E/4 to E/15.

45

II.

## Stress Concentration Effect of Flaw

Materials possess low fracture strengths relative to their theoretical
capacity because most materials deform plastically at much lower
stress levels and eventually fail by an accumulation of this irreversible
damage
In addition, components and structures are not perfect
They contain infinite material defects (e.g., pores, slag particles,
inclusions, and brittle particles), manufacturing flaws (e.g., scratches,
gouges, weld torch arc strikes, weld under cutting and machining
marks), and design defects (e.g., excessive stress concentrations
resulting from inadequate fillet radii and discontinuous changes in
section size).
Stress concentration factor describes the effect of crack or flaw
geometry on the local crack tip stress level in a plate containing a hole
which represents a crack or flaw.

46

In an infinite plate containing an elliptical hole with major axis 2a and minor axis
2b, expressions for the stress distribution are given by (Inglis)

1 x( x 2 a2 + b2 )1 2 a2 x( x 2 a2 + b2 )3 2
x = 2 +

A
A
A

a2 x( x 2 a2 + b2 )3 2
2
2
2 1 2
y = 1 B + Bx( x a + b )

1 2b a
A = 1 b , B =
where,
2 and is the minimum radius of curvature
a
(1 b a )
at the end of major axis.

y
2a
x

2b

W
- Radius of curvature,

47

max = 1 + 2a
b

b2
=
a

max = 1 + 2 a /

Max = 2
Kt

L(1.6)

## where Kt is the stress concentration factor

By substituting = x0 into equation (1.6), we obtain an estimate of the local stress
concentration at the tip of an atomically sharp crack

Max = 2

a
x0

L(1.7)
48

If it is assumed that facture occurs when the local stress concentration at the tip of
an atomically sharp crack equal to the theoretical cohesive strength.

Thus equating equations (1.5) and (1.7), resulting in the following expression for the
fracture stress at the failure.
i.e., rough estimate of failure stress, f is obtained by

E S
= 2 f
x0

f =

a
x0

E s
4a

## Thus, rough estimate of failure stress

Es
a
Because of the continuum assumptions upon which the Inglis is based is not valid at
the atomic level.
f =

49

## III. Griffith Energy Balance (1921)

 Griffith's main achievement in providing a basis for the fracture
strengths of bodies containing cracks.





## He proposes approach based on First law of Thermodynamics criterion

for fracture by considering the total change in energy of a cracked body
as the crack length increases.
First law of thermodynamics gives: The change in energy is proportional
to the amount of work performed.
Since, only the change of energy is involved, any datum can be used as
a basis for measure of energy. Hence energy is neither created nor
consumed.
Griffith showed that material fail not because of a maximum stress, but
rather because a certain energy criteria was met.

50

## If we consider an initial crack length 2a, is increased to a length of 2a+2da in

a plate of elastic material under arbitrary loading P, then according to the
first law thermodynamics, a balance must be struck between the decrease in
the potential energy (related to the release of stored elastic energy and work
done by movement of the external loads) and the increase in surface energy
resulting from the presence of the crack.
Thus, the Griffith model for elastic solids show that crack propagation is
caused by a transfer of energy from external work and/or strain energy to
surface energy.
An existing crack would grow by some increment if the necessary additional
surface energy is supplied by the system.
Surface energy results from the presence of a crack as shown in figure
below.
- Radius of curvature,

2a
2b

2a

2a+2da

W
Inglis plate with elliptical hole.

Representation of crack by
collapsing minor axis to zero.

51

## Problem statement: A large plate containing a crack is subjected to a

remote and uniform tensile load in the direction of the y-axis and
perpendicular to the crack line along the x-axis. What is the external
stress that will cause crack instability value?
Solution:

Surface energy is required to create two new surfaces,
ES = 2 [2a B ] S = 4a B S
L(1.8)


## Using Ingliss Stress analysis approach,

Total release of strain energy,
2
1

ER = 2 (2a ) (2a ) B
2
2E

2a
2a

If = /2, then
a 2B 2
ER =
E

Stress free
zone

L(1.9)

## Large plate containing a crack is

subjected to a remote and 52

 For an incremental increase in the crack area, dA (=2 da B), under the
equilibrium conditions:
dE = d + dES = 0
dA dA dA
d dES

=
L(1.10)
or
dA
dA
 Potential energy of a body with crack,

= 0 ER

a 2 2B
= 0
E

d d 0 d a 2 2B
1 d 0
1 d a 2 2B

dA
dA dA E
2B da 2B da E
d
2a

=
dA
E

L(1.11a)

##  Differentiating equation (1.8) w.r.t. crack area A, we get

dES
d
(4a B S ) = 1 d (4a B S ) = 2 S
=
dA dA
2B da

L(1.11b)
53

##  Substitution of equations (1.11a) and (1.11b) into equation (1.10), yields

2a
= 2 S
E
 above equation can be written for fracture stress for the plane stress case as

f =

2E S
a

L(1.12a)

f =

2E S
a (1 2 )

L(1.12b)

## where f is the failure strength to cause crack instability.

 Griffith equation (1.12) shows a strong dependence of fracture strength on
crack length
 Griffith equation satisfactory predicts the fracture strength of a completely
brittle material such as glass.
 However, the Griffith equation severely underestimates the fracture strength of
metals.
54

## III. Modified Griffith Theory

It is well-known that plastic deformation occurs in engineering metal, alloys and
some polymers prior to fracture.
This is substantiated by x-ray diffraction studies of fracture surfaces and metals
graphic studies of fracture.
Therefore Griffith equation for the fracture strength doesnt apply for metals.
Orowan modified the Griffith equation to account for materials that are capable
of plastic flow by the inclusion of a term plastic deformation energy or plastic
strain work denoted by P, expressing the plastic work required to extend per
unit crack area of surface created.
Revised expression for fracture strength for plane stress case, is given by

f =

2 E ( S + P )
a

L(1.12c)

Plastic zone

Thickness, B

55

V.



## Energy Release Rate

In 1956, Irwin proposed an energy approach for fracture
He defined an energy release rate: energy released per unit increase
in area during crack growth

Mathematical formulation;
with an advancing crack, the following happen in a general case:
Strain energy in the component decreases or increases
Stiffness of the component decreases
Points of the component at which external loads are applied may or
may not move, work is being done on the component by these
forces if the points move
Energy is being consumed to create new crack surfaces.

56

## To cause an incremental increase in the crack area A, an external

incremental work is done, Wext and the strain energy within the body
increases by U.
Thus, the available energy provides the energy balance as
G A = (U Wext )

G=


Thickness, B

G=


d
(U Wext )
dA

d
dA

da

L(1.13)

## In many cases, fracture mechanics is applied to plates of uniform

thickness and then crack area A can be expressed as Ba , where B is
the thickness and a is the incremental in crack length, we have

1 d
G=
B da

2a
=
E

L(1.14)

57

f2ac
G GC =
E

L(1.15)

## where GC - critical energy release rate and is measure of the fracture

toughness of the material and is constant, aC- critical crack length, and
C- failure stress


i.

ii.

## Change in compliance approach

a) Constant load method
b) Constant displacement method
Change in strain energy approach
a) Constant load method
b) Constant displacement method

58

## Displacement u of the point at which the load is applied can be expressed as

u=

P
=CP
K

L(1.16)

where P is the applied load, K is the stiffness of the body and C is compliance
Change in Compliance Approach

Strain energy,
External Work,

U = 1 Pu
2

u+du

and

a +da
P

Wext = P u

dU =

## Potential energy of the component,

1
= U - Wext = P u
L(1.17)
2
Substituting eqns. (1.16) and (1.17) into eq. (1.13),

1 d Pu
1 d
d
=
=
G=

B
da
2
B
da
dA

P du
=

2B da

P 2 dC
=
2 B da

1
P du
2

P
dWext= P du

i.

du
u
Displacement

L(1.18)

Strain energy,
U = 1 P u and
2

External Work,

Wext = 0

## Potential energy of the component,

1
= U - Wext = P u
L(1.19)
2
Substituting eq. (1.19) into eq. (1.13), we have

1 d
d
=

G=
B da
dA

1 d Pu
=

B da 2
=

u dP

2B da

u
a+da

dU =
P

1
u dP
2

dP

b)

u
Displacement

u
d u
u2 d 1
G=

2B da C
2B da C

u 2 dC
G=
L(1.20)
2
2 BC da

60

## Substituting value of displacement u from equation (1.16) in to equation

(1.20) we obtain energy release rate in terms of rate of change of
compliance as ,
(CP )2 dC
G=
2 BC 2 da

ii.

P 2 dC
=
2 B da

## Change in Strain Energy Approach

a)
In this case we have
Strain energy, U = 1 P u = 1 Wext
2

## or External Work, Wext = 2 U

Thus the potential energy of the component with crack is given by
= U - Wext
Energy release rate,
d
d
dU
=
(U - Wext ) =
L(1.21)
dA
dA
dA
Thus the strain energy increases with as the crack advances
G=

61

b)

## In this case we have

U = 1 Pu
Strain energy,
2
or External Work,

Wext = 0

= U - Wext

G=

d
d
dU
=
(U - Wext ) =
dA
dA
dA

L(1.22)

62

VI.

## Stress Intensity Approach

Certain cracked configurations, expressions for stress components in
the vicinity of crack tip in the body under external load were reported by
Irwin, Sneddon, Williams and Westergaard
Stress components in the vicinity of crack tip is given by

ij = f (, a, r , , geometry )

## For the case of flat plate with a crack of length,

2a and for field stress, , the stress field at a
general point H near the crack tip for Mode I
case is given by

11 =

and

(a)
f11() ,
2r
12 =

22 =

(a)
f12()
2r

22
H
r

(a)
f22()
2r

12

2a

63

11

Displacement field for plane strain near the crack tip for the Mode I problem
is given by

( )

( )

( a ) r 1 / 2
( a ) r 1 / 2
u11 =
f11() , u 22 =
f22 () and

u12 = 0

## where is the shear modulus

 Irwin pointed out that the local stresses near a crack in an elastic body
with crack depend on the product of the normal stress () and the
square root of the half-flaw length (a)
 He called this relationship as Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) denoted by K
 For the crack configuration shown in figure, the SIF is given by

K =





L(1.23)

## It defines the amplitudes of the crack tip singularity

It characterizes the crack tip conditions in a linear elastic material
If K is known, it is possible to solve for all components of stress, strain
and displacement
If two different flaw configurations have same value of K, then stress
field around each flaw are identical
64

K =

L(1.24)

## where - crack parameter that depends on the specimen and crack

geometry.
 Critical SIF (KC)
 If SIF of a crack approaches or exceeds an upper limit of SIF, the crack
may grow. The Upper limit is known as critical SIF or Fracture
toughness
 Critical values of SIF can be used to define the condition for failure, i.e
K KC

L (1.25)

##  Critical SIF is considered as material property which describes the

inherent resistance of the material to failure in presence of a crack



In comparison with SIF, the energy release rate, G has a more direct
physical significances to the fracture process.
However, SIF is preferred in working with fracture mechanics because
it is more agreeable to analytical determinations.
65




## Comparing equations (1.14) and (1.23) results in a relationship

between energy release rate, G and SIF, K.
i.e., we have from equation (1.14) for energy release rate as

2a
G=
E
GE = 2a

or

## Squaring equation (1.23) on both sides, we get,

K2 = 2 a

L(i)

L(ii)

Equating equations (i) and (ii), we obtain relationship between SIF and
energy release rate for mode I loading as

K2
G=
E

L(1.26)

## This same relationship holds for critical values, as

KC2
GC =
E

L(1.27)
66

In general for Mode I, II and III, the stress intensity factor is written as
KI, KII, and KIII, respectively.
Stress fields ahead of a crack tip in linear elastic material can be
written as

K II
KI
K
fij( II )() and (ijIII ) = III fij(III )()
fij( I )() , (ijII ) =
2r
2 r
2r
In a mixed-mode problem (more than one loading mode is present),
then the stress components are additive:
(ijI ) =

()
()
()

For Mode I:
K IC = f aC =
or = f aC f a
h
For Mode II:
or = f aC f a
K IIC = f aC
h
For Mode III:
K IIIC = f aC
or = f aC f a
h

## where - crack parameter, f - failure normal stress, f - failure shear

stress, f(a/h) - geometrical parameter and h - depth of component
67

SIGNIFICANCE OF KI

The stress intensity factor defines the amplitude of the crack tip singularity that is,
stresses near the crack tip increase in proportion to KI
Moreover, KI is known, it is possible to solve for all components of stresses, strains
and displacements as a function of r and
Referring to figure is a schematic plot of the stress normal to the crack plane, y
versus distance from the crack tip, r in the plane of crack (i.e., =0), equation
(1.45b) is only valid near the crack tip where the 1/r1/2 singularity dominates the
stress field.
KI

3
y =
cos
1
+
sin
sin
L (1.45b)

1/ 2
( 2 r )
2
2
2

KI
2r
=

2a

x
Singularity dominated zone

68

## Fracture Toughness KC in Plane Stress and Plane Strain cases

It is found that the critical SIF or fracture toughness (KC) is strongly dependent on
the material thickness up to a limiting value.
For a thin plate, plane stress condition (z=0) governs the fracture process
because the plate is too thin to sustain through-the-thickness stress thus the
fracture toughness is depends on the thickness up to a limiting value
For a thick plate, plane strain condition ((z0) prevails in which fracture
toughness becomes a materials property, i.e., fracture toughness is independent
of the thickness beyond limiting value
It is this property, KC, that the designer must use to assure structural integrity.

B
x

y
x
z

z=0

x
z

## Plane strain case

Illustration of the state of stress at the crack tip for plane stress
and strain conditions

69

Figure (i) shows the variation in fracture toughness for three regions called plane strain,
mixed mode and plane stress as a function of the materials thickness with the amount
of the flat and slanted surfaces corresponding to each region
Figure (ii) shows the variation in the amount of flat fracture as a function of thickness.

## Maximum flat surface

B1<B2 < B3

Thin

B1

B2 Medium
B3

KIC

Plane stress
(Ductile fracture)

## (Mixed mode fracture)

Thick

Plane strain
(Brittle fracture)

## Amount of flat fracture (%)

B1

B2

B3

Almost
slanted

Mixed

Almost flat

Plane stress
(Ductile fracture)

## (Mixed mode fracture)

Thickness, B (mm)

Plane strain
(Brittle fracture)

70
Fig. (ii) Effect of specimen thickness over flat fracture surface

For thin sections where the state of stress at the crack tip is not triaxial, the
constraint to plastic deformation lessens and failure is associated with plane stress
For the plane strain failure, the portion of the flat surfaces is much larger than the
slanted section
For sections with adequate thickness, in which plane strain and plane stress are
combined, the state of stress is termed mixed mode

B1

B2 Medium
B3

KIC

## (Mixed mode fracture)

Thick

Plane strain
(Brittle fracture)

## Amount of flat fracture (%)

B1<B2 < B3

Thin

Plane stress
(Ductile fracture)

## Specimen under load

B1

B2

B3

Almost
slanted

Mixed

Almost flat

Plane stress
(Ductile fracture)

## (Mixed mode fracture)

Thickness, B (mm)

Plane strain
(Brittle fracture)

71
Fig. (ii) Effect of specimen thickness over flat fracture surface

R-Curve
Crack Resistance:
Energy required for a crack to grow per unit area extension is called crack
resistance and is denoted by the symbol, R.
It characterizes the material behaviour.
For most of the engineering materials crack resistance increases with crack
length as shown in Fig (i).
A minimum value, Ri is needed to make the crack to grow.
Crack resistance depends on the plastic zone size: for a large plastic zone
size, high energy is required to grow the crack because more material is
subjected to plastic deformation
As the crack advances, plastic zone size becomes larger which in turn
requires higher energy for growth of the crack.
R-curve

Ri
a0

Crack size, a

72

72

PART B
STRAIN GAUGES

STRAIN GAUGE

A strain gauge is device used to measure the strains on the free surface of a

## State-of-strain at any point on the free surface of a three-dimensional body

can be characterized in terms of six Cartesian components as
=
x

u
,
x

u v
=
+
,
y x
xy

=
y

v
,
y

v w
=
+
,
z y
yz

=
z

w
,
z

=
zx

u w
+
z x

L(1)

## Above equations suggest that if the three displacements can be measured at

all points on the surface of a body strains, at any point on the surface can be
determined.

In strains given in equation (1) are the slopes of the displacement surfaces u,
v and w.

For precision in the estimation of the slopes of the displacement surface, the
in-plane displacements u, v and w should be determined quite accurately.

However, for small strains, the in-plane displacements are quite small.

No versatile and easy method is yet available for the direct measure of these
displacements over the entire surface of a body.

This difficulty is overcome partially by using the strain gauges to measure the
changes in the distance between two points on the surface of the body due to
straining.

shown in Fig. 1.

2
1
x

Px

2'
u

Fig. 1

## Change in length is converted to axial strain by the following relationship.

Change in length
u
=
L (2)
Original length
x
where u is the change in length over a original length or the gauge length, x.
=
x

Note that the strain measured in this manner represents only the average
strain over the gauge length x.
Magnitude of error in the strain measured this way depends on the strain
gradient along the gauge length x and the length x.
Strain gauges usually sense the change in length, magnify it and indicate it in
some form.

## Types of Strain Gauges

Depending upon the magnification of change in length, the strain gauges may
be classified as
a) Mechanical based
i) Wedge and screw
ii) Lever-simple and compound
iii) Rack and pinion
iv) Combination of lever and, rack and pinion
v) Dial indicators
b) Optical based
c) Electrical based
i) Inductance
ii) Capacitance
iii) Resistance
iv) Piezoelectric and Piezoresistive
d) Pneumatic based
e) Acoustical based.

## Characteristic of a Strain Gauge

A strain gauge has following basic characteristics:
a) Sensitivity:
It is the smallest value of strain which can be read on the scale
associated with the strain gauge.
Sensitivity can defined in two waySmallest reading of scale
i) Deformatio n sensitivit y =
Multiplication factor
ii) Strain sensitivit y =

Deformatio n sensitivit y
Base length

## Choice of a gauge is dependent upon the degree of sensitivity required,

same times, the selection of gauge with very high sensitivity increases
the complexity of the measuring method.
b) Range:
This represents the maximum strain which can be recorded without
resetting or replacing the strain gauge.

c) Accuracy or precision:
Sensitivity does not ensure accuracy usually the very sensitive
instruments are quite lead to errors unless they are employed with the
utmost care.
d) Gauge length:
Strain cannot be measured at a point with any type of gauge and as a
consequence, non-linear strain fields cannot be measured without some
degree-of error being introduced.
In these cases, the error will depend on the gauge length, x.
In selecting a gauge for a given application, gauge length is one of the
most important consideration.
Selection of strain gauges
Some of the optimum characteristics commonly used to select the adequacy
of a strain gauge for a particular application are the following:
 Calibration constant for the gauge should be stable; it should not vary
with either time or temperature.
 Gauge should be able to measure strains with an a accuracy of 1m/m
over a strain range of 10%.
 Gauge size i.e., the gauge length x should be small so that strain at a
point is adequately approximated.

##  Response of the gauge, largely controlled by its inertia, should be

sufficient to permit recording of dynamic strains.
 Gauge system should permit on-location or remote readout.
 Output from the gauge during the readout period should be independent
of temperature and other environmental parameters such as vibration,
humidity, etc.
 Gauge and the associate auxiliary equipment should be economically
feasible.
 Gauge system should not involve over complex installation and
operational techniques.
 Gauge should exhibit a linear response to strain.
 Gauge should suitable for use as the sensing element in other
transducer systems where an unknown quantity such as pressure is
measured in terms of strain.

## Electrical Strain Gauge

Electrical strain gauges are most frequently used devices in the stress
analysis work through out the world today, because they exhibits all the
properties required for an optimum system.
These devices produces a change in some electrical characteristics relative
to the change in mechanical properties such as length.
Electrical strain gauges may be classified as follows:
a) Inductance or magnetic strain gauge
b) Capacitance strain gauge
c) Electrical resistance strain gauge
d) Piezoelectric and piezoresistive strain gauge.
Out of these four types, electrical resistance strain gauges have become
more popular and reliable.
In the electrical resistance strain gauges the displacement or strain is
measured as a function of the resistance change produced by the
displacement in the gauge circuit.

## There are three important advantages of electrical resistance strain gauges

are:
a) Their small size enables them to be used in situation where other types
of gauges cannot be used
b) As they have negligible mass, their effect on the quantity being
measured is insignificant. Further, they respond faithfully to rapidly
fluctuating strains.
c) As the output is electrical, remote observation is possible. Further, the
output can be displayed, recorded or processed as required.

Applications:
a) Experimental study of stresses in transport vehicles- Aircrafts, Ships,
Automobiles, etc.
b) Experimental analysis of stresses in structures and machines- Buildings,
Bridges, Pressure vessels, Transmission towers, Machine tools,
Engines, etc.
c) Experimental verification of theoretical or numerical analyses.
d) Aid design and development of machines and structures
e) Assist failure or fracture analyses
f) As a sensing element in transducers for measurement of force, pressure,
displacement, torque, etc.

## Principle on which the electrical resistance strain gauge operates was

discovered in 1856 by Lord Kelvin.

## Using a Wheatstone bridge he measured the change in resistance in copper

and iron wires due to a tensile strain.

## He established that the change in resistance is a function of strain and that

different materials have different sensitivity.

## In 1938, Simmons developed a strain gauge consisting of a length of wire

glued to the test specimen so that the surface strain in the test specimen is
transferred to the wire through the glue.
At the same time, Ruge developed the concept of mounting the wire on a thin
piece of paper and then bonding the paper to the test specimen.
Modern bonded strain gauge is similar to the type developed by Ruge as
shown in Fig.2.
To Wheatstone bridge

Specimen

Solder tabs
Backing/bonding paper

Filament or wire

## Fig. 2 Strain gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

## It is theoretically possible to measure strain with a single length of wire as the

sensing element of the strain gauge, however, circuit requirements needed to
prevent overloading of the power supply and to minimize heat generated by
the gauge current place, a lower limit of approximately, 100 on the gauge
resistance.
As a result, 100 strain gauge fabricated from wire having a diameter of
0.025mm and a resistance of 1000/m requires a single length of wire
100mm long.
To Wheatstone bridge

Specimen

Solder tabs
Backing/bonding paper

Filament or wire

## Fig. 2 Strain gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

## Types of Electrical Resistance Strain Gauges

There are basically four types of electrical resistance strain gauges
:
1) Unbonded strain gauges
i) Non-metallic
ii) Metallic
2) Bonded strain gauges
i) Non-metallic
ii) Metallic
a) Wire type
b) Foil type
3) Weldable strain gauges
4) Peizoresistive gauges

## 1 (i) Undbonded Non-metallic Strain Gauge

Unbonded non-metallic strain gauge is a mechanically actuated gauge that
contains a resistance element so arranged that when one part of the gauge
is displaced with respect to another there is developed a change in pressure
on the measuring element of the gauge.

This change in pressure, changes the resistance of the element which may
be recorded by electrical means.

Fig. 3 depicts the gauge consists of carbon plates, actuated rod and
terminal block.

## Stack is so adjusted that a displacement of one part of the gauge relative to

another changes the pressure on the stack of plates.
Terminal block

Carbon plates

Actuated rod

Terminal block

Specimen
Fig. 3 Unbonded non-metallic strain gauge

When load is applied on the structure to which the gauge is attached, the
change in length is communicated to the carbon plates stack.

## This change in length leads to a change in pressure in the stack and

thereby resistance of the stack changes.

This type of gauges have been used to determine displacements, loads and
strains in flexible cables, vibrating components, bridges, etc.

Terminal block

Carbon plates

Actuated rod

Terminal block

Specimen
Fig. 3 Unbonded non-metallic strain gauge

## 1 (ii) Unbonded Metallic Strain Gauge

Working principle of the gauge is based on the change in electrical
resistance of a metallic wire due to the change in tension of the wire.
Fig. 4 show the gauge constructed by winding wire in three coils, the first
providing a coil unaffected by the gauge motion and other two having tension
attached by the gauge motion, each in an opposite manner.
Whole gauge is mounted in a sleeve that allows only longitudinal movement.
Coils are placed under initial tension in to a four arm Wheatstone bridge .
As the compressive strain is applied the pre-strain will be relieved and the
unbonded element will be remain taut.
This type of gauges are usually used for experimental stress analysis.
Movable frame
Fixed frame

## 2 (i) Bonded Non-metallic Strain Gauge

In this gauge a non-metallic resister element is directly bonded to the surface
of the specimen in which strain is to be measured.
Carbon is usually used as non-metallic resister element.
Carbon coating is applied directly to the surface of the specimen.
If the underlying surface such as coating is stretched, the carbon particles,
will move apart, the coating is under compression the particles move closer,
thereby, the resistance will change.
This resistance change can be interpreted in terms of strain.
Fig. 5 shows the gauge.
Carbon particles

Plastic sheet

Specimen

## Generally these type of gauges are made by impregnating carbon particles

in plastic sheets.

These sheets are then cut into strips about 6mm wide and 25mm long.

On each end of the strip a silver band is plated so that loaded wires may be
attached.

Carbon particles

Plastic sheet

Specimen

## The gauge consists of a length of a strain-sensitive conductor mounted on a

small piece of paper or plastic sheet.

## These gauges are further categorized into two types:

a) bonded-wire strain gauge
b) bonded-foil strain gauge

## In the case of bonded-wire strain gauge, the filament consists of a long

length of wire in the form of a gird fixed in place with a suitable cement.

## Wire grid may be either of the flat type or wrap-around type.

After attaching the lead wires to the two ends of the wire flat grid as shown in
Fig. 6.
To Wheatstone bridge
Backing/bonding paper
Specimen
Solder tabs

Filament or wire
Fig. 6 Bonded -wire flat gird strain gauge

## In the wrap-around type, strain-sensitivity wire is wound around a cylinder

core in the form of a close-wound helix as shown in Fig. 7.
This core is then flattened and cemented between layers of paper for
purpose of protection and insulation.
Wrap-gauge are not suitable for use on thin sections subjected to bending as
the strain indicated by it is inaccurate due to thickness effect.
Generally, flat-grid gauges are preferred as they are superior to wraparound gauges, in terms of hysteresis creep, elevated temperature
performance, stability under hydrostatic pressure fluctuation and current
carrying capacity.
Backing/bonding paper
Specimen
Solder tabs

Filament or wire
Plated cylinder
(insulated material)

To Wheatstone bridge
Fig. 7 Bonded wrap around flat grid Strain gauge

## b) Bonded-foil metallic strain gauge

Fig. 8 depicts the gauge has a grid made from a very thin strain-sensitive foil
only a few microns in thickness.
Width of foil only very large as compared to the thickness so that the gauge
provides a much larger area for cementing the gauge
Since the are of bonding is greater, thereby they have enhanced heat
dissipation properties.
As this permits use of higher voltage levels for gauges excitation, higher
sensitivity can be achieved.
To Wheatstone bridge
Backing/bonding paper
Specimen
Solder tabs

Filament
(Foil grid)
Fig. 8 Bonded foil gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

As the foil gauge has a larger contact area for bonding on to the specimen,
the stress in the adhesive is lower, consequently, the stress relaxation and
hysteresis are significantly less in foil gauges.
For these reason, the performance of the foil gauge is superior to that of the
wire-gauge.
Advantages of foil type gauge over the wire type gauge:
 Width of the foil at the end of each loop can be greatly increased to
reduce the sensitivity of the gauge to transverse strains.
 Gauge factor is higher by 4 to 10% than the other.
To Wheatstone bridge
Backing/bonding paper
Specimen
Solder tabs

Filament
(Foil grid)
Fig. 8 Bonded foil gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

##  Cross-section of the gauge conductor is rectangular resulting in the high

ratio of surface area to cross0section area. This increases heat
dissipation and avoids adhesion between the grid and the backing
material.
 These gauges are easier to manufacture.
 These gauges can be used to measure strain in curved surfaces.
 These gauges are suitable for static and dynamic strain measurements.
 They have very good fatigue properties.
To Wheatstone bridge
Backing/bonding paper
Specimen
Solder tabs

Filament
(Foil grid)
Fig. 8 Bonded foil gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

## 3 Weldable Strain Gauge

Some of limitations of the bonded type of metallic gauges are their
comparatively, costly and time consuming due to complicated method of
bonding.
This realization lead to the development of the weldable wire resistance
strain gauges.
A strain gauge is capable of being installed in minute and in any
environment.
Weldable strain gauge consists of a strain sensitive element, nickel chrome
or platinum tungsten, housed within a small diameter stainless steel tube.
Strain is insulated from tube with highly compacted ceramic insulation or
metallic oxide powder normally high purity magnesium oxide.
Powder

Filament

Strain tube

Mounting flange

Specimen
A
Fig. 9 Weldable strain gauge

Section A-A

Gauges are equipped with a thin flange spot welded to the strain tube.
This flange is subsequently spot welded to the structure under test and
provides the bond required to transfer strain when the gauge is welded to the
specimen and the specimen put in to tension or compression, the stress is
transmitted through the weld to the mounting flange, into the strain tube and
through the magnesium oxide powder.
Weldable strain gauges can be used for a wide range of static and dynamic
measurement applications.
Their construction and positive attachment make it possible to measure
strain at high or low temperatures and in sever environment including shock
and vibration, steam, salt water, etc.
Powder

Filament

Strain tube

Mounting flange

Specimen
A
Fig. 9 Weldable strain gauge

Section A-A

## 4 Piezoresistive Strain Gauge

Piezoresistive strain gauge consists of crystals of silicon germanium, quartz
or Rochelle salt which show a change in resistance when deformed by
applying the pressure.
This effect can be utilized to measure the strain.

Gauge Factor

## Strain sensitivity of a metal, FA is defined as the ratio of the resistance change

in a conductor per unit of its initial resistance to the applied axial strain. It is
also known as gauge factor.
dR R
FA =
L(3)
a
where R is the resistance of a wire and a is axial strain.
Resistance of a wire is given by
L
L
=
L(4)
R=
A
cD 2
where L is the length of wire, is specific resistance of wire and cD2 = A, area
of cross-section of the wire.
Here, D is a sectional dimension and c is a proportionality constant.
For example, c =1 and /4 for square and circular cross-sections, respectively.
Taking logarithms to equation (4), we get,
log R = log + log L log c 2 log D

L(5)

where the wire is strained axially each of the variables in equation (4) may
change.
Therefore, differentiation of equation (5) yields,
dR d dL
dD
=
+
02

R
L
D

Or

dR d dL
dD
=
+
2
R

L
D

L(6)

dR R
dD D d
= 1 2
+
dL L
dL L dL L
dL
=
L

L(7)

FA =

## and lateral strain in the wire is

dD D
dL L

dR R
d
= (1 + 2 ) +
a
a

dD
= t
D

L(8)

L(9)

In this equation, the first term (1+2 ) represents the change in resistance
due to geometrical changes in wire due to strain.

FA =

dR R
d
= (1 + 2 ) +
a
a

L(9)

The second term of the right-hand side of equation (9) is positive for most
of the materials and nearly zero for some; in a few cases it is negative.

The value of Poissons ratio is nearly 0.3 for most of the materials.

Therefore, if we take the value of second term as zero , the value of gauge
factor should be equal to 1.6 for most of the materials.

However, due to effect of second terms, the value of gauge factor ranges
from -12 to +4 for most of the materials, with a most common value of
approximately 2.0 for the materials generally used for strain gauge
construction.

## Bonded type of resistance strain gauge of either wire or foil construction is

a high quality precision resistor which must be attached to the specimen
with a suitable adhesive.
For precise strain measurements both the correct adhesive and proper
manufacturing procedure must be employed .
Adhesive serve a vital function in the strain measuring system, it must
transmit the strain from the specimen to the gauge sensing element without
distortion.
Following are the desirable characteristics of the adhesives:
a) High mechanical, creep resistance and electric strength
b) Minimum temperature restrictions
c) Good adherence giving shear strength of 10 to 14 MPa
d) Minimum moisture absorption
e) Ease of application
f) Low settling time.
A wide variety of adhesives are available for bonding strain gauges
Cellulose nitrate, Epoxy, Cyanacrylate and ceramic cements serve fairly
well bonding materials.

## When mounting a strain gauge, it is important to carefully prepare the

surface of the specimen where the gauge to be located.
 Preparation consists of sanding way any paint or rust to obtain a smooth
but not highly polished surface.
 Next, solvents are employed to remove all traces of oil or grease.
 Finally, the clean, sanded and degreased surface is treated with a basic
solution to give the surface the proper chemical affinity for the adhesive.
 Gauge location is then marked on the specimen and the gauge is
positioned by using a rigid transparent tape.
 Position and orientation of the gauge are maintained by the tape as the
adhesive is applied and as the gauge is pressed into place by
squeezing out the excess adhesive.
 After the gauge is installed, the adhesive must be exposed to a proper
combination of pressure and temperature for a suitable length of time to
ensure a complete cure.

## Having simulated the mechanical strain by a strain gauge in the form of an

electrical signal, this quantity is to be processed further to convert electrical
signal to reliable data.
This requires a strain gauge circuit.
Simplest measuring system consists of three functional units as shown in Fig.
10
First stage or primary detector system serves the desired input signal with the
exclusion of all others and provides an analogous output signal.
It receives the input quantity by self generation or voltage or current
conversion and produces a second physical quantity capable of amplification.
For strain measurements, these include resistance, capacitance, etc.
First Stage

Primary sensor
or
Transducer

Intermediate Stage
Signal Conditioner
Fig. 10 Basic measuring circuit

Terminating Stage
Recorder
or
Indicator

## Next stage or Intermediate stage modifies transducer signal into form of

usable by final stage and may perform one or more basic operation, such
as selective filtering, interpretation, differentiation, amplifying and matching.

## Terminating stage provides an indication or recording in form which may be

evaluated by an unaided human sense or by a controller.

## Readout may be analogue, digital or recording type.

Analogue indicators are of the moving pointer and scale, moving scale and
index, and light beam and scale types.

## Digital indicators are of the numbered drum devices or electronic digital

readouts of the null balance type.

## There are two types of strains to be measured, they are

1) Static strain
2) Dynamic Strain
a) Transient strain
b) Periodic strain
c) Random strain

Static strain:
Static strains are primarily those which dont change rapidly, are not
subjected to discontinuities and are related to continuous process or steady
state system conditions.
These are time independent and there is no necessity to record each point
at all times.
Dynamic Strain
Dynamic strain contains rapid fluctuations of both periodic and random
nature.
Amplitudes of these rapid fluctuations may be systematic and ordered and
unstable in nature.

Types of Circuits:
There are two types of circuits used for strain measurements. They are
a) Wheatstone bridge
b) Potentiometer
Wheatstone bridge circuit is preferred for the static strain measurements
and the potentiometer for dynamic strain only.
Both these circuits operated either on DC or AC supply.
A complete strain gauge instrumentation diagram is shown in Fig.11.
DC Battery
Static strain

Wheatstone bridge

DC Amplifier

DC Battery
Dynamic strain

Potentiometer

DC Amplifier

## (ii) Dynamic Strain gauge instrument

Fig. 11 Strain gauge instrumentation diagram.

C.R. Oscillograph
C.R. Oscilloscope

C.R. Oscillograph
C.R. Oscilloscope

Wheatstone Bridge

## Wheatstone bridge consisting of four resistance arms with a battery and a

meter is as shown in Fig. 12.
In this bridge, each of the resistance arms can represent a strain gauge.
A voltage V is applied to the bridge.
Some measuring instrument or meter such as a Galvanometer is used to
measure the output of the bridge.
B
R1

R2
i2

i1
A

C
i4

i3

R4
i

Galvanometer

R3
D
V

## Balanced and Unbalanced Bridges

(i) Balanced Bridge:
Requirement for balance, i.e., zero potential difference E between points B
and D can be determined as follows:
V
Voltage drop VAB across R1 is VAB = i1R1 =
R1
L(10)
R1 + R2
V
Similarly, the voltage drop VAD across R4 is VAD = i 4R4 =
R4
L(11)
R3 + R4
Potential difference between B and D, VBD is given by
VBD = VAB VAD = E

L(12)

R1

R2
i2

i1
A

C
i4

i3

R4
i

Galvanometer

R3
D
V

## By substitution of equations (10) and (11) in to (12), we get

R1
R4

E =V

R
+
R
R
+
R
1
2
3
4

R1R3 R2R4
=V

(
)(
)
R
+
R
R
+
R
1
2
3
4

L(13)

The condition for balance is that the voltage E should be zero, i.e., the
numerator in equation (13) should be zero, thus

0 = R1R3 R2R4
or

R1 R4
=
R2 R3

L(14a)

R1 R2
=
R4 R3

or
or

L(14b)

R4
R2
L(15)
R3
Equation (14) gives the condition for the Wheatstone bridge to balance.
i.e., the ratio of resistances of any two adjacent arms of the bridge must
be equal to the ratio of the resistances of the remaining two arms taken in
the same order.
If the resistance, R1 is strain gauge mounted on a specimen, the bridge
can be balanced first under no load by altering the ratio of resistances,
R4/R3 suitably.
After, the specimen is loaded, the bridge can be balanced again by
adjusting the ratio of resistances, R4/R3.
If the change in this ratio is known, then the change in the strain gauge
resistance, dR1 due to the load can be determined.
The corresponding strain can be calculated using equation (3). i.e.,
R1 =

FA =

dR1 R1
a

or

a =

dR1 1
R1 FA

L(16)

where the gauge axis coincides with the axis of the specimen.

## (ii) Unbalanced Bridge:

Consider again an initially balanced bridge and then change, for example,
the resistance R1 by an incremental amount dR1.
As the bridge will then be unbalanced a voltage dE will be produced
between the B and D which can be measured with a suitable meter.
As the bridge is initially balanced, from equation (14b)

R1 R2
=
R4 R3

L(17)

R1

R2
i2

i1
A

i2

i3

R4
i

R2
i1

Galvanometer
C

i4

R1+dR1

i4
R3

i3

R4
i

R3
D

dE

## When the bridge is unbalanced due to R1 changing from R1 to R1 + dR1,

the voltage dE across B and D is from equation (13)

dE = V

(
)(
)
R
+
dR
+
R
R
+
R
1
1
2
3
4

L(18)

## Dividing both numerator and denominator on right-hand-side of equation

(18) by R1R3 and noting that R1R3 = R2R4, we get,

dR1 R2R4

1 +

R1 R1R3

dE = V

dR
R
R
1 + 1 + 2 1 + 4

R1 R1 R3

dR1

R1

=V

1 + dR1 + R2 1 + R4

R1 R1 R3

B
R1+dR1

R2
i2

i1
A

C
i4

i3

R4
i

R3
D
V

## Fig. 12 Wheatstone bridge

dE

Put

R2 R3
=
= m into above equation and simplifying the denominator,
R1 R4

we get,

Or

dR1
m
R1
dE =
V
(1 + m )2 1 + dR1 R1
(1 + m )

dE =

where (1 ) =

m
dR1
(1 )
V
2
(1 + m ) R1

1
1 dR1
1+

(1 + m ) R1

L(19)

## A general expression for dE can be derived in a similar manner for the

case where all the four resistances R1, R2, R3 and R4 change by
incremental amounts dR1, dR2, dR3 and dR4, respectively.

m
V

dE =
(1 )
2
R
R
R
R
(1 + m ) 1
2
3
4

where (1 ) =

L(20)

1
.
dR dR3
1 dR1 dR4

1+
+
+ m 2 +

(1 + m ) R1 R4
R3
R2

## The error introduced by the nonlinearity of the Wheatstone bridge circuit is

negligibly small when the strain measured by normal metallic strain
gauges.
If the nonlinear term is ignored, when strains are less than about 5% then,

dE =

## dR1 dR2 dR3 dR4

m

2
(1 + m ) R1 R2 R3 R4

L(21)

Equation (21) shows that the unbalance of the bridge is proportional to the
sum of strains in opposite arms and to the difference of strains in adjacent
arms.

## Sensitivity of the Wheatstone bridge is defined as the out-of-balance or

unbalance voltage dE produced by unit strain.
From equation (21), the bridge sensitivity SV is

## m dR1 dR2 dR3 dR4

dE V
=

SV =

2
a (1 + m ) R1
R2
R3
R4
a

In a multiple gauge circuit with n strain gauges, the strain gauges are usually
so connected that their outputs add up.
Hence, one can write

dR1

=
R1
R2
R3
R4
R1

L(23)

## where is the bridge factor.

L(22)

dR1
= Fa a into above equation, we get
Substituting the value for
R1
dR1 dR2 dR3 dR4

= Fa a
R1
R2
R3
R4

L(24)

## Substituting equation (24) in to equation (22), yields,

SV = V

m
Fa
2
(1 + m )

L(25)

It may be noted that equation (25) is applicable in cases where the bridge
voltage V is fixed or constant and is independent of the gauge current.
It is also seen that the bridge sensitivity is dependent on
a) Magnitude of the bridge voltage, V
b) Gauge factor, Fa
c) Bridge factor, and
d) Ratio of resistances, m.

Potentiometer Circuit

Potentiometer circuit is as shown in Fig. 13, the increment in the open circuit
voltage dE of the potentiometer circuit can be derived as follows:

When the resistances in the circuit are R1 and R2, the open circuit voltage E
across AB is

E =V

R1
1
=V
R1 + R2
1+ m

## where m = R2/R1 and V is the excitation voltage.

C
R2
Capacitor
B
V
R1

A
Fig. 13 Potentiometer Circuit

L(26)

respectively,

E + dE = V

L(27)

## Substituting equation (26) into equation (27), we get

R1 + dR1
R1 + dR1 + R2 + dR2

Thus,

R1
R1 + dR1
+ dE = V
R1 + R2
R1 + dR1 + R2 + dR2

R1 + dR1
R1

dE = V
R1 + dR1 + R2 + dR2 R1 + R2
1 dR1 dR2

2
R
R2
(
1+ m) 1
dE = V
1 dR1
dR2
+
1+
m

(1 + m ) R1
R2

On simplification,

R2+dR2
Capacitor
B
V

R1+dR1
dE

A
Fig. 14 Potentiometer Circuit

Or

dE = V

m dR1 dR2

(1 )
2
R
R
(1 + m ) 1
2

L(28)

## If the nonlinear term is ignored, then the dE can be determined as

dE = V

m dR1 dR2

2
(1 + m ) R1 R2

L(29)
C
R2+dR2
Capacitor
B
V

R1+dR1
dE

A
Fig. 14 Potentiometer Circuit

## Potentiometer Circuit Sensitivity

Potentiometer circuit sensitivity is defined as the output signal per unit strain.
It is given by

SV =

V
m dR1 dR2

2
a (1 + m ) R1
R2

L(30)

SV =

dE
a

V
m dR1
m
=
VF
a
a (1 + m )2 R1
(1 + m )2

L(31)

## Thus, the circuit sensitivity of the potentiometer circuit is dependent on the

voltage V and ratio m = R2/R1 .
Sensitivity, SV is limited by the maximum power P that can be dissipated by
the gauge without unfavourable effects on its performance.

## STATIC STRAIN ANALYSIS

Strain gauges are used to measure quantities like axial load, bending
moment, torque, etc.
Special circuit required for measurement of some of these quantities
considered here are:
a) Measurement of axial force
b) Measurement of torque

## Arrangement of four gauges on a bar with square cross-section is shown in

Fig. 14.

Strain gauges

R1

R2
1

2
dE

R3

R4
3
(a)

3
(b)

Fig. 14

V
(c)

Location of these gauges in the Wheatstone bridge such that the output is
proportional only to the strain due to axial load is shown in Fig.(a).
The output dE from a Wheatstone bridge is

dE =

As =

## dR1 dR2 dR3 dR4

m

2
R
R
R
R
(1 + m ) 1
2
3
4

dR R
, the output dE in terms of strain is given by
FA

dE =

m
VFA { 1 2 + 3 4 }
2
(1 + m )

Strain gauges

L(32)

R1

R2
1

2
dE

R3

R4
3
(a)

3
(b)

Fig. 14

V
(c)

(i)






## Response to axial load:

P
The axial strain a in the bar due to load P is a = a =
E AE
As gauges 1 and 3 senses axial strain, thus a = 1 = 3
Gauges 2 and 4 sense the transverse strain t which is equal to -a.
Hence,
t = a = 2 = 4
Noting that all gauges have the same resistance, m =1, thus,

1
1
1
{
}
VF

{
}
=
VF

2
1
+

=
VFA a (1 + )
A
a
a
a
a
2
A a
4
2
(1 + 1)
V FA P
(1 + ) L(33)
dE =
2EA
dE =

Strain gauges

R1

R2
1

2
dE

R3

R4
3
(a)

3
(b)

Fig. 14

V
(c)

## (ii) Elimination of bending effect :

 If a bending moment is acting on the beam as shown Fig (b),the bridge
output due to this can be determine as follows:
 Resolving this moment M into components M1 and M2, it is seen that gauges
1 and 3 are subjected to equal to and opposite bending strain proportional to
moment M2.
 Also, gauges 2 and 4 are subjected to bending strain proportional to moment
M1 .
( ) = ( + )
and ( ) = ( ) = 0
1 M2




3 M2

( 2 )M = ( + 4 )M
1

2 M2

and

4 M2

( 1 )M = ( 3 )M = 0
1

Hence,
( 1 )M = ( 3 )M
and ( 2 )M = ( 4 )M
Therefore, the output due to bending moment M is

dE M =

m
VFA {( 1 )M ( 2 )M + ( 1 )M ( 2 )M } = 0
2
(1 + m )
M1
1

Strain gauges

L(34)
R1
1

R2
2
dE

M2

2
4

3
(a)

3
R3

R4

3
(b)

V
(c)

## (ii) Elimination of torque effect :

 Stresses in the square beam due to a torque T Fig (e), are




max =

Hence,

4.81T
b3

and x = y = z = 0

L(35)

1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 0

## Thus, output of the bridge due to a torque is zero.

Thus, the output of the bridge is directly proportional to the axial load and is
independent of the torque and bending moment.

x
x
1

Strain gauges

1
T
4

4
3
(d)

3
(e)

Measurement of torque

## In a shaft subjected to pure torsion, the principal stresses/strains on the

surface act along directions inclined at 45 to the axis of the shaft.

## Further, the principal stresses/strains will be equal in magnitude but opposite

in sign.

Four gauges are mounted so that a pair of them (gauges 1 and 2) are along
the principal directions at selected point on the surface of the shaft, the other
pair of gauges (gauges 3 and 4) are mounted diametrically opposite to the
former pair of gauges as shown in Fig. 15.

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

## Directly proportional to the applied torque,

Independent of the axial load and bending moment,
Independent of temperature variations and
Four times the output from a circuit with a single gauge mounted
along the direction of one of the principal axes.

R1

R2
1

1
4

dE

45
3

45
1

3
R3

R4

2
T

Right-hand
Side View

Front View
Fig. 15

Left-hand
Side View

V
Fig. 16

D3
D 3
T =
= G( 1 2 )
16
16
D 3
= G ( 1 + 1 )
16
3
G D
= 1
8
E 1D 3
=
2(1 + ) 8

since 1 = 2

## where G- shear modulus, - maximum shear stress, D diameter of the

shaft, 1 and 2 are the principal strains on the surface (1 =- 2) and
also 3 = -4 = 1.
R1

R2
1

1
4

dE

45
3

45
1

3
R3

R4

2
T

Side View

Front View
Fig. 15

Side View
V
Fig. 16

## Gauges 1, 2, 3 and 4 sense the strains 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

Therefore,

dE =

m
VFA { 1 ( 1 ) + 1 ( 1 )}
2
(1 + m )
since m = 1.

= VFA 1

T 16(1 + )
since
= VFA

3
E D
16(1 + )
dE =
VFAT
L(36)
3
E D

1 =

T 16(1 + )
E D 3

Thus, the output of the bridge is directly proportional to the torque applied to
the shaft.
R1

R2
1

1
4

dE

45
3

45
1

3
R3

R4

2
T

Side View

Front View
Fig. 15

Side View
V
Fig. 16

## (i) Elimination of Bending moment:

 Assume that the shaft besides being subjected to torque, T, is also subjected
to a bending moment M and axial load P as shown in Fig. 17.
 Cross-section of the shaft with the diameter AB along which all the gauges
are located, making an angle with the axis.
 Bending strains 1b and 2b in gauges 1 and 2, respectively are equal (tensile)
and proportional to the distance y from the neutral axis.
 Bending strain 3b and 4b in gauges 3 and 4, respectively also equal in
magnitude to strains 1b and 2b but are compressive.
 Therefore, 1b = 2b = - 3b = - 4b.
 Hence, the output (dE) due to being moment M is given by

dE =


m
VFA { 1b 1b + ( 1b ) ( 1b )} = 0
2
(1 + m )

L(37)

Thus, the output indicated from the strain gauges is independent of any
bending moment acting on the shaft.
1
B
3
A

2
T

M
3
Front View

Side View
Fig. 17

## (ii) Elimination of axial load:

 The strain in the gauges 1 and 4 due to axial load P on the shaft are equal in
the magnitude and same sign.
 Therefore, 1a = 2a = 3a = 4a.
 Hence, the output (dE) due to axial load P is given by

dE =


m
VFA { 1a 1b + 1a 1a } = 0
2
(1 + m )

L(38)

Thus, the output from the bridge is independent of any axial load acting on
the shaft.

1
B
3
A

T
P

P
T
3

Front View

Side View
Fig. 17

## When the state-of-strain at a point and the direction of principal strains is

known, then the strain gauges can be oriented along these directions, and
strain measurements may be made.

However, when the state-of-strain is not known, then three or more gauges
may be used at the point to measure the state-of-strain at a point.

## Strain gauge rosette analysis is based on the assumption of isotropic,

homogeneous and linear material, and of strain gradients so small that the
strain can be considered as substantially uniform over the area covered by the
rosette gauges.

Stress-Strain Relationship:
Consider the case where the three gauges in the rosette are placed at
arbitrary angles relative to the x- and y-axes as shown in Fig. 18.
The strains along these directions A, B and C are related to strains x, y and
xy. That is,

+ y x y
A = x
+
cos 2 A + xy sin 2 A
2
2 2
xy
x + y x y
B =
sin 2 B
+
cos 2 B +
2
2
2

+ y x y
C = x
+
cos 2C + xy sin 2C
2
2 2

L(39)

where A, B and C are the angles between the x-axis and the directions A, B
and C, respectively.
y

Strain gauges

A
C

B
C

## Magnitude of strains A, B and C are obtained through measurements on

gauges oriented along these directions.
Hence, x, y and xy can be found out by solving the simultaneous equations
(39).
Principal strains and principal directions are then determined through

1
( x + y ) + 1
2
2
1
1
2 = ( x + y )
2
2
xy
tan 2 =
x y

1 =

and

2
y ) + xy

L(40)

2
y ) + xy
2

y
Strain gauges

A
C

B
C

## Fig. 18 Strain gauges rosette

Here is the angle between the x-axis and the principal axis corresponding
to strain 1.
From the principal strains 1 and 2, the principal stress 1 and 2 can be
determined from

1 = E

(1 + 2 )

L(41)

1 2
( + )
2 = E 2 2 1
1

y
Strain gauges

A
C

B
C

## Strain Gauge Rosette Configuration:

Strain gauges may be arranged in the following ways to obtain the strain
rosettes:
a) Two gauge rosette
b) Rectangular rosette
C
C=90
i) Three-element
B
B
ii) Four-element
B=45
B=90
c) Delta or Equiangular rosette
A
d) T-delta rosette
A=0
(i) Two-gauges rosette

D
D=120

C C=90

B
B=60

A
A=0

B=120

B=120
C=60

C=60
C

(iii) Four-gauges
rectangular rosette

A
A=0
(ii) Three-gauges
rectangular rosette

A=0

A
A=0

D D=90

## (v) T-Delta rosette

Fig. 19 Strain gauge rosettes

## Three-element Rectangular Rosette

In this rosette, the three gauges are laid out so that the axes of gauges at B
and C are 45 and 90, respectively to the axis of gauge A.
Thus,

## Substituting these angles into equation (39), we get,

A = 0, B = 45 and C = 90

A = x

B = x

x
C =

+ y x
+
2
+ y x
+
2
+ y x
+
2

## cos 2(0) + xy sin 2(0) = x

2
2
y

1
cos 2( 45) + xy sin 2( 45) = ( x + y + xy )
2
2
2
y
xy
sin 2(90) = y
cos 2(90) +
2
2

## Thus, strains are

y = C
L(42)

xy = 2 B ( A + C )

x = A

C=90
B
B=45

A
A=0
Fig. 19(ii) Three-gauges rectangular rosette

## Substituting above values of strains in to equations (40) and (41), we get

principal strains, principal stresses and their direction as

1
( A + C ) + 1
2
2
1
1
2 = ( A + C )
2
2
1 =

( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2
( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2

1
( + )
1 = E A C +
2(1 ) 2(1 + )

1
( + )
2 = E A C
2(1 ) 2(1 + )
tan 2 =

2 B ( A + C )
A C

( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2

( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2

L(43)

## Two-element Rectangular Rosette

In this rosette, the two gauges are placed at an angle of 90, as shown in Fig (i)
Thus,
= 0 and = 90

## Substituting these angles into equation (39), we get,

+ y x y
A = x
+
cos 2(0) + xy sin 2(0)
2
2 2

= x

xy
x + y x y
B =
sin 2(90) = y
+
cos 2(90) +
2
2 2

## Thus, principal strains, principal stresses and there direction are

1 = x = A
2 = y = B
( + )
1 = E A 2 B
1
( + A )
2 = E B
1 2
0
tan 2 =
A B

L(44)

= 90

B
B=90
A

A=0
Fig. 19 (i) Two-gauges rosette

## In this rosette, the three gauges are placed at an angular difference of 0,

120 and 240, respectively to the axis of gauge A.
Thus,

## A = 0, B = 120 and C = 240

+ y x y
= x
A = x
+
cos 2(0) + xy sin 2(0)
2
2 2

1
+ y x y
B = x
+
cos 2(120) + xy sin 2(120) = ( x + 3 y 3 xy )
4
2
2 2
xy
1
x + y x y
(
=
x + 3 y + 3 xy )
C =
sin 2( 240)
+
cos 2(240) +
4
2
2 2
B

## Thus, strains are

y = {2( B + C ) A }
L(45)
4

xy =
( C B )

x = A

B=120
C=240
C

A=0

## Substituting above values of strains in to equations (40) and (41), we get

principal strains, principal stresses and their direction as

1
( A + B + C ) +
3
1
2 = ( A + B + C )
3
1 =

2
3
2
3

( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2
( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2

( + B + C )
2
1 = E A
+
3(1 + )
3(1 )

( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2

( + B + C )
2
2 = E A

3(1 + )
3(1 )

( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2

tan 2 =

3( C B )
2 A ( B + C )

L(46)

Transverse Sensitivity

## Transverse sensitivity of a strain gauge is a measure of its response to strains

perpendicular to the primary sensing axis, a-a of the gauge as shown in Fig.
20.
Practically, all gauges possess some degree of transverse sensitivity.
However, their transverse sensitivity is a small fraction of their axial sensitivity.
In wire strain gauges the response of the wire to the strain perpendicular to
the wire axis is negligibly small.
Hence, transverse sensitivity of wire strain gauges is due to almost entirely to
the portion of the wire in the end loops lying in the transverse direction.
While flat gird wire gauges exhibit only positive transverse sensitivity.
In foil gauges, the end loops in a foil gauge have a relatively large crosssection, hence their contribution to transverse sensitivity is quite small.
t

a a

## Bonded -wire flat gird strain gauge

Fig. 20 Strain gauges

## Bonded-wire foil strain gauge

However, the axial segments of the grid have a large width-to-thickness ratio.
Hence, in these gauges the response of axial segments to the transverse
strain transmitted to the axial segments is largely a function of the relative
thickness and elastic modulii of the backing and the foil.
It is common practice to calibrate a strain gauge in a uniaxial stress field, i.e.,
in a biaxial strain field with the ratio of the transverse-to-axial strain equal to
the Poissons ratio of the specimen material.
Thus, the manufacturers gauge factor Fa is strictly valid only for this strain
field.
Output of the strain gauge in any biaxial strain field can be expressed as
dR
L(47)
= Fa a + Ft t
R
where a and t respectively, are strain parallel and perpendicular to the gauge
t
axis.
a

t
Bonded -wire flat gird strain gauge
Fig. 20 Strain gauges

a =0
t

## Transverse gauge factor, Ft =

dR R
t

dR
F
L(48)
= Fa a + t t = Fa { a + K t t }
R
F

a
where Kt is the transverse sensitivity factor for the gauge.
The manufacturers gauge factor F is determined in a uniaxial stress field on a
material with Poissons ratio, o.
t = o a
L(49)
a

=0

Therefore,

and

F=

dR R
a

L(50)

## Substituting equations (48) and (49) into equation (50), we get,

Fa ( a K t o a )
= Fa (1 K t o )
L(51)
a
It is noted that equation (50) is strictly valid for the uniaxial stress field used by
manufacturer to calibrate the strain gauge.
In all other strain fields, the strain determined through equation (50) with the
manufacturers gauge factor, F will be in error.
F=

The magnitude of this error for a strain gauge in a biaxial strain field with
strains a and t can be determined as follows:

dR
F a
t
=
1
+
K

t
R (1 K t o )
a

L(52)

dR R (1 K t o )
a =
L(53)

t
F
1
+
K

t
a

## From equation (50), the measured strain is given by

dR R
a =
L(54)

F
Substituting equation (54) into equation (53), we get

a = a

(1 K t o )

t
1
+
K

L(55)

The error a percentage of the actual strain along the gauge axis, t is given
by
a
t = a
100
L(56)
a

## Substituting equation (55) in to equation (56), we get,

t =

K t ( o + t a )
100
(1 K t o )

L(57)

Equation (57) shows that the error t is a function of Kt and the strain biaxiality, t /a.

## Corrections for Transverse Strain Effects in Rosettes

In the analysis, the strain gauge readings were assumed to be free from errors
due to transverse sensitivity effects.
In actual practice, the effects of transverse sensitivity should always be
studied while measuring the stresses in a biaxial stress field with strain
gauges.
If it is found that the error due to transverse sensitivity effects is significant, the
strain gauge readings should be corrected for it.
(a) Two-element Rectangular Rosette:
 Consider two-element rectangular rosette with gauge axes aligned with
two perpendicular axes x and y on the test surface.
 It is assumed that the individual gauge elements in the rosette have the
same transverse sensitivity.
 From equation (52), noting that the axes are x and y and, not a and t, we
get,
y
B=90
(dR R )x = = x + K t y
L
(58a)
x
F
1 K t o
x

(dR R )y
F

y + Kt x
= y =
1 K t o

A=0

L(58b)

## Fig. 19 (i) Two-gauges rosette

where strains with bar are indicated by gauges along x and y directions
respectively. Strains without bar are the corresponding corrected strains.

##  Solving equation (58) for x and y we get

1 K t o
{ x K t y } L(59a)
x =
1 K t2

1 K t o
{ y K t x } L(59b)
2
1 Kt
 As the (1-K2t ) generally in excess of 0.995, it can be taken as unity. Then

y =

x = (1 K t o ){ x K t y }

y = (1 K t o ){ y K t x }

L(60a)
L(60b)

 The analysis of data can be further simplified by setting the gauge factor
control on the strain measuring instrument at Fa instead of F, the
manufacturers gauge factor.
 Equation (58) can then be rewritten as

(dR R )x = (dR R )x = = + K
x
x
t y
F (1 K t o )
Fa
(dR R )y (dR R )y
=
= y = y + K t x
F (1 K t o )
Fa

L(61a)

L(61b)

where strains with cap are strains indicated with gauge factor setting at
F/(1-o Kt).

 Solving equation (61) for x and y and noting that 1- Kt=1, we get,
x = x K t y

L(62a)

y = y K t x

L(62b)

 Equations (62a) and (62b) are for the gauge elements oriented along any
two orthogonal axes x and y.
 In actual practice, the two-element rectangular rosette is generally used
with the axes of the gauge elements oriented along the principal axes.
 In such a case, x- and y-axes would denote the principal axes, 1 and 2,
respectively.
 The corrected principal strains are from equation (59) given by

1 =

1 K t o
{ 1 K t 2 }
1 K t2

L(63a)

1 K t o
{ 2 K t 1}
1 K t2

L(63b)

2 =

## (b) Three-element Rectangular Rosette:

 Individual strain readings A , B and C
of a three-element rectangular
rosette can be corrected for transverse sensitivity effects as follows:
 From equation (59), the corrected strains A and C along the orthogonal
axes A and C respectively, are
1 K t o
{ A K t C } L(64a)
1 K t2
1 K t o
{ C K t A } L(64b)
C =
2
1 Kt
 From the condition (A +C ) is an invariant, the strain along axis D
orthogonal to axis B can be estimated as
~D = A + C - B
 Substituting the orthogonal strains B and ~D in to equation (59a), the
corrected strain B is obtained as
1 K t o
C
{ B K t ( A + C B )} L(64c)
B =
2
C=90
1 Kt
A =

##  Corrected strains are used to

determine
the
principal
strains,
stresses and directions.
 Note that all the three gauges in the
rosette have the same transverse
sensitivity.

B=45

A
A=0
Fig. 19(ii) Three-gauges rectangular rosette

## (c) Delta Rosette:

 Expression for correcting Individual strain readings from a delta rosette for
transverse sensitivity effects can be derived for the case where all the
three gauge elements have the same transverse sensitivity, Kt.
 Thus,
=
x

y =

1
[2( B + C ) A ]
3
 Substituting these orthogonal strains into equation (59a) and noting that
A = x , we get,
1 K t o K t
2

(
)
A =
1
+

L(65a)
A
t
B
C
2
1 K t
3
3

##  Similarly, expressions for corrected strains B and C can be derived.

Therefore,
1 K t o
1 K t2

2
K t

1 + B K t ( C + A )
3
3

1 K t o
C =
1 K t2

2
K t

1 + C K t ( A + B )
3
3

B =

L(65b)

B=120
C=240

L(65c)

##  Corrected strains are used to determine the

principal strains, stresses and directions.

A=0

## A semiconductor may be defined as an electrical conductor that has a

conductivity intermediate between that of an insulator and a conductor.
Following are strain gauges made from the semiconductor:
a) Piezoresistive gauges
b) Piezoelectric gauges

Piezoresistive gauges
 The piezoresistive effect, which refers to the phenomenon in which the
change in resistance of a semiconducting material accompanies
deformation.
 The use of semiconductor for strain gauges based upon the
piezoresistance effect was determined by Mason and Thurston in 1957.
 Basically, the semiconductor strain gauge consists of a small ultra-thin
rectangular filament of a single crystal of silicon which is usually mounted
on a carrier to simplify handling.
 Semiconducting material exhibit a very high strain sensitivity, with values of
FA ranging from 50 to 175 depending upon the type and amount of impurity
diffused into the pure silicon crystal.

Materials
 Following materials are used in producing semiconductor strain gauges.
1) Mono-atomic elements: These are single crystals like Boron, Arsenic,
Germanium, Silicon.
2) Ionic crystals: These are the compounds in which atoms are held mainly
by electrostatic or coulomb binding.
3) Valence crystals: These are the compounds like, silicon-carbide, indiumantimonide, etc.
 Thus, all semiconducting materials are crystalline in nature, in producing
semiconductor strain gauges, ultrapure single-crystal silicon is usually
employed.

Construction
(i) Gauge materials and Manufacturing:
Semiconductor gauges are produced from single-crystal silicon.
Majority of gauges are cut from ingots of roughly cylindrical shapes,
which have been grown by a special doping process.
Prior to cutting, the pure material is doped with the exact amount of
foreign impurity atoms required for the particular purpose.
The cutting is generally accomplished with a special diamond saw.

## Required thickness or sizing is carried out by a etching process.

Final size of the filament usually is 0.05mm thickness (cross-sectional
area 2.510-9 m2).
Semiconductor filaments of even smaller cross-section have been
produced by condensation of silicon vapour on the cool walls of quartz
tube.
These needle shaped whiskers grow to a single length of 5 to 15mm with
cross-sectional area of only 2 to 510-10 m2.
The lead material for the semiconductor filament is generally used as
gold, doped with a small amount of antimony, in order to avoid
rectification effects at the junction.
(ii) Types of Semiconductor Gauges:
Semiconductor strain gauges are basically single filament gauges and
their geometries dont much except for gauge length and lead
arrangement .
Gold wire

Filament
Backing

(i) Encapsulated gauge

(ii)
Fig. 21 Semiconductor gauges

(iii)

## (iv) Uniformly doped

bare gauge

Piezoelectric gauges
Certain crystals and ceramics when mechanically strained in particular
directions become electrically polarized.
The change can be measured by applying electrodes to the surfaces and
measuring the potential difference between them, the phenomenon is called
piezoelectric effect.
It is found that the effect is reversible that is the application of an emf between
the plates results in a strain.
Substances, that possess this property are called piezoelectric.
Basically, the piezoelectric effect arises from an asymmetrical charge
distribution in the material structure.
A deformation of lattice results in a relative displacement of these internal
charges, causing the substance to exhibit a change in the surface charge.
Materials
Piezoelectric materials are of two kinds naturally occurring materials such as
quartz and rochelle salt, and synthetic materials such as barium titanate,
ceramic and lead zirconate titanate ceramic.
The lead zirconate titanate ceramic must be artificially polarized during
fabrication in order to exhibit piezoelectric properties.
Ceramic are fabricated to any desired shape, mechanically very stable and
have large piezoelectric coefficients.

## INDICATING AND RECORDING INSTRUMENTS

In strain gauge applications the signal generated by the strain gauges through
use of Wheatstone bridge or potentiometer must be measured accurately to
determine the strain.

The output from a circuit is quite small and varies from several microvolts to
few millivolts.

## This small output has to be amplified before it can be indicated or recorded

with conventional measuring instruments.

This equipment may be broadly classified on the basis of the type of strains
(static or dynamic) to be measured:
i) static-strain measuring instruments and
ii) Dynamic-strain measuring instruments

## (i) Static-strain measuring instruments

The static strain may be measured by a Wheatstone bridge.
The bridge may be either operated on DC or AC,
When AC is employed, then a carrier system has to be used.
Generally, null balance system (the output signal read by a meter is nulled out
by adjustment of variable resistors) is preferred over the out-of-balance
method because the null balance system is more accurate than the direct
readout and is less expensive.
The null balance system is as shown in Fig. 22.
In this system there are two Wheatstone bridges: transducer and reference
bridges.

S
VT

Transducer
bridge

Reference
bridge

Indicator

## Fig. 22 Null balance system

Vg

As strain gauges are arranged in the transducer bridge, the output of this
bridge is a measure of the strain to be measured.
The reference bridge is constructed using unknown fixed resistors.
Both the bridges are balanced initially using the respective parallel-balancing
networks.
The transducer bridge is then made to sense the quantity, say strain, to be
measured.
When the switch S is closed, the indicator pointer deflects indicating that the
combined output of the two bridges is some quantity other than zero.
The reference bridge is unbalanced through the series-balancing system until
the indicator pointer shows zero or null reading.

S
VT

Transducer
bridge

Reference
bridge

Indicator

Vg

## The magnitude of unbalance of the reference bridge when calibrated gives

directly the quantity to be measured.

In the manual null balance strain indicators the output from each gauge is
recorded manually on data sheet.

Audio frequency
oscillator

Bridge

AF Amplifier

Detector

## Fig. 23 Strain indicator system

Meter
Oscilloscope

Fig. 24 shows the DC generation of the Wheatstone bridge and Fig. 25 shows
AC operation.
Initial balancing
resistance
Rg+dRg

RG

To current or voltage
indicator or recorder with
or without amplification.

VT
Rg

Rch

## Gain checking resistor

Fig. 24 DC operation of Wheatstone bridge
Gauge factor
R2

R1
AF
oscillator

Bridge balance
slide wire

RF
R4
Amplifier

Rectifier

Filter

CRO

R3

Meter

## Manual direct reading strain indicator is shown in Fig. 26.

With this instrument, the Wheatstone bridge is initially balanced and then the
voltage output due to strain is amplified and read out on a digital voltmeter.

When relatively large strain gauge installations are used to analyze a problem
then automatic data acquisition systems should be employed.

Shunt calibration

Active

Dummy
Zero balance

Digital
voltmeter

## While recording dynamic strains, the frequency of the strain signal is an

important consideration in selecting the recording system.
The following table considered in selecting the instrument depending upon the
strain frequency.

Sl. No.

Frequency range

Instrument

## Integrating digital voltmeter,

potentiometer recorder and
xy-recorder.

Intermediate (0-10kHz)

## Oscillograph with open (0100Hz) and a light writing (010kHz) Galvonometer

High (0-20kHz)

Frequency modulation
instrument, tape recording.

## For very low frequencies, instruments such as potentiometer recorders and

xy-recorders, which employ servometer together with feed back control and
null-balance positioning can be used to measure the output voltage from the
strain gauge bridge.
Fig. 27 depicts the operating principle of such an instrument.
Potentiometer recorder can be used to measure voltage from 1V to 100V.
Chart speed can be varied over a wide range of 25mm/s to 50mm/s.
Because of their low frequency response, the potentiometer cant be used in
strain gauge applications where the strain signal has frequency components
greater than 1Hz.
Differential
amplifier

Servo
amplifier

Reference
Servo
voltage
balancing
meter

Input signal

Feed back

Fig. 27

Recording
mechanism

## For measuring strains at intermediate frequencies oscillographs employing

galvonometers as the recording device are the wildly use method.
There are two different types of oscillographs: Pen-writing type and lightwriting type.
In the case of pen-writing type, the galvonometer drives a pen or hot stylus,
wherein, the light-writing type, the galvonometer drives a mirror and a beam of
light is used to write on a photosensitive paper.
For measuring strain at high-frequencies, magnetic tape analog data
recording systems are used.
Data recorded and stored on magnetic tape are usually played back and
displayed on an oscillograph.
By varying the tape speed during playback, the time base can be extended or
compressed.
Information stored on magnetic tape can be reliably re-trived any number of
times and different analysis made.

PART C
PHOTOELASTICITY

Introduction

## Photoelasticity is a nondestructive, whole-field, graphic stress-analysis

technique based on an opto-mechanical property called birefringence,
possessed by many transparent polymers.

Combined with other optical elements and illuminated with an ordinary light
source, a loaded photoelastic specimen (or photoelastic coating applied to an
ordinary specimen) exhibits fringe patterns that are related to the difference
between the principal stresses in a plane normal to the light propagation
direction.

## The method is used primarily for analyzing two-dimensional plane problems,

A method called stress freezing allows the method to be extended to threedimensional problems.

## Photoelastic coatings are used to analyze surface stresses in bodies of

complex geometry.

Photoelasticity, as used for two-dimensional plane problems,
 provides reliable full-field values of the difference between the principal
normal stresses in the plane of the model,
 provides uniquely the value of the non-vanishing principal normal stress
along the perimeter(s) of the model, where stresses are generally the
largest,
 furnishes full-field values of the principal stress directions (sometimes
called Stress Trajectories),
 is adaptable to both static and dynamic investigations.
 photoelasticity requires that a model of the actual part be made (unless
photoelastic coatings are used),
 requires rather tedious calculations in order to separate the values of
principal stresses at a general interior point,
 can require expensive equipment for precise analysis of large
components,
 is very tedious and time-consuming for three-dimensional work.

NATURE OF LIGHT
Periodic Disturbances:
Consider a disturbance is propagated through a space in a periodic as shown
in Fig. 1.
Let y be the magnitude of disturbance and is periodic in x, then,
y = f (x)

## Lowest value of interval is called the wave length and is denoted by

Time taken for one wavelength to pass through a point in space is called
period and is denoted by .
If c is the velocity of propagation of the disturbance, then,
=c

L(1)

L(2)

## Reciprocal of the period is called the frequency denoted by f .

y

f(x)
y

Periodic wave
x
A
c
Fig. 1 Periodic motion

## Source, Wave-front and Plane wave:

Let the disturbance is originated from a point source.
Disturbances travel outward in all directions and if the medium is isotropic, the
speed of propagation of these disturbances will be the same in all directions,
Consequently, the disturbances traverse in the form of diverging spherical
waves.
Locus of points having the same magnitude of disturbance is called wavefront.
Wave-fronts are surfaces of concentric spheres with the same as centre is as
shown in Figs. 2 and 3.
As these spherical waves expand outwards the radius becomes larger and
any finite portion of the wave-front tends become a plane (Fig. 3).
Directions of propagation of the disturbance would be perpendicular to the
plane and is called the wave-normal.
Spherical wave-front
Plane wave- front

Surface wave
Source
Wave direction
r
Spherical
wave-front
Fig. 2

Wave direction

Fig. 3

## Fundamental Equation of a Plane Wave

Consider a plane wave propagation in the x-direction as shown in Fig. 4(i),
with velocity c, the wave-front is parallel to the yz-plane.
At time t=0, the disturbance be
y = f (x)

L(3)

After a time t, the disturbance will have travelled a distance ct and the graph
shown in Fig. 4(ii), will have shifted parallel to itself by a distance of ct.
Hence, the disturbance at a point

x (t ) = x (0) + ct
L(4)
At time t is the same as the disturbance at x(t) = x(0)
y

Plane wave-front

Light vector

## Light wave, x(t)

A
c

c
Wave direction

Plane
Fig.4 (i) Light wave

Wave direction
Plane
Fig. 4(ii) Periodic motion

In other words, from equation (3), the disturbance at point x at time t is same
as the disturbance that excited at (x-ct) at time t=0, i.e., f(x-ct).
Therefore, the disturbance at x at time t is
y = f ( x ct )

L(5)

## Equation (5) is of plane-wave travelling forward in the x-direction.

For a plane-wave travelling backward, then,
y = f ( x + ct )

Plane wave-front

L(6)

Light vector

## Light wave, x(t)

A
c

c
Wave direction

Plane
Fig.4 (i) Light wave

Wave direction
Plane
Fig. 4(ii) Periodic motion

## Harmonic Wave, Phase and Amplitude

A function f(x) is periodic in x, can be expanded in a Fourier series as

2m
(x + m )
f ( x ) = A0 + Amcos
L(7)
m =1

where A0, Am and m are constants.
For a periodic wave travelling forward with a velocity c, the Fourier expansion
is

2m
(x ct + m )
f ( x ct ) = A0 + Amcos
L(8)
m =1

2
(x ct + 1 ) is the
The first vibrating component of series, i.e., A1cos

## Thus, the fundamental light-wave propagating in the x-direction is of the form

2
(x ct + )
y = Acos
L(9)

The constant A called the amplitude, the quantity (x-ct+) is called the phase
angle associated with wave y at position x and is initial phase of wave y.

Nature of Light
Disturbance that is being propagated can be either perpendicular to the
direction of propagation or in the direction of propagation.
If the disturbance is normal to the propagation direction, it is called a
transverse wave and when it is in the direction of propagation it is called
longitudinal wave
Light waves belong to the class of transverse waves and the disturbance can
be represented by means of a vector called the light-vector.
Light-vector is perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
Light is known to be an electromagnetic disturbance propagated through
space and two vectors namely, the electric force vector, E and magnetic force
vector, H.
These vectors are mutually perpendicular and either of these can be taken as
fundamental light-vector.
E

Starting point of
single light wave

## Electric light wave

H
Magnetic light wave

Direction of
propagation

(Fig. 6)
2
(x ct + )
y = Acos
L(9)

## For a given value of x,

y = Acos
ct + 1

where 1 is constant .
From equation (1)
c 1
= = f
L(11)

## where f is the frequency

Thus, the circular frequency denoted by is
= 2 f

L(10)

Plane wave-front
Light vector

L(12)

## Equation (10) is therefore,

y = Acos( t + 1 )

Light wave, y

A
c
Wave direction

L(13)

Planee

## Frequency of a light-wave determines that quality which the eye recognizes as

colour.
The lowest frequency which the human eye can recognize as light is about
3901012 Hz and this corresponds to deep red colour and the light frequency
is about 7701012 Hz corresponding to deep violet.
Between these two frequencies, one finds the colours arranged as
VIBGYOR
Light corresponding to one particular frequency and one colour is said to be
homogeneous or monochromatic.
All electromagnetic disturbances travel in vacuum with the same velocity
300106 m/s.
Hence, the various colours can be distinguished by their wavelengths in
vacuum.
For visible light, the wavelength of extreme red and extreme violet are
respectively, 77010-9m and 39010-9m.
Generally, the wavelengths are expressed in Angstrom units, i.e., 1=10-10m
or 0.1nm.

Polarization
The electric vector used to describe the light wave is restricted to a single
plane.
Light exhibiting this preference for a plane of vibration is known as plane or
linearly polarized light.
That is, if the tip of the light vector is forced to follow a definite law, the light
is said to be polarized.
Example: If the light vectors of all light rays emanating from a source are
restricted to a single plane or the light vector is parallel to a given direction
in the wave-front then the light is said to be linearly or plane polarized
(Fig.7)
y
Light vector
Light vector
Polarizer-1
(Vertical)

representation

Polarizer-2
(Horizontal)

Incident light
(Unpolarized)

Polarizer
axes

x
Vertically polarized light
y
z

Light Source

Vertically
polarized light
Fig. 7 Linearly polarized light

x
Horizontally polarized light

## If the tip is constrained to lie on the circumference of the circle, it is said to

be circularly polarized.
If the tip of the light vector in Fig.8(i) describes the circle in a clockwise
direction, then it is said to be left-handedly circularly polarized.
If the path is in counter-clockwise direction, then it is right-handedly
circularly polarized, as shown in Fig.8(ii).
This notation is adopted so as to be consistent with the right-handed
coordinate system.
Positive x-axis is away from the source and the vibrations are in planes
parallel to the yz-plane.
y

-z

-z

x
(i) Left-handedly

(ii) Right-handedly

## Simple Harmonic Motion

In photoelasticity, many calculations have to be made on the resultant
produced by the superposition of two or more simple harmonic motions of
the same frequencies.
There are several methods to carry out these calculations.
Let us consider two methods, which are most conveniently used
a) Algebraic method
b) Using complex quantities.
a) Algebraic method
Consider two simple harmonic motions, represented by
y1 = A1 cos( t + 1 )

y 2 = A2 cos( t + 2 )
where 1 and 2 are initial phase of waves y1 and y2, respectively.
Then,
y = y1 + y 2 = A1 cos( t + 1 ) + A2 cos( t + 2 )

y = A sin( t + )
L(14)

provided
and

## A2 = (A1 cos 1 + A2 cos 2 ) + (A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2 )

2

tan =

A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2
A1 cos 1 + A2 cos 2

Equation (14) implies that the resultant of two simple harmonic motions of
the same frequency is itself a simple harmonic motion having the same
frequency as its components.
By repeated applications of this process it becomes evident that the
resultant of any number of simple harmonic motions of the same frequency
is itself a simple harmonic motion of this frequency.
b) Calculation using complex quantities.
A simple harmonic motion of the form (10) can be represented by the real
part of a complex quantity of the form

y1 = k {A1e i ( t + ) }
1

= kA1{cos( t + 1 ) + i sin( t + 1 )}

y1 = A1 cos( t + 1 )

## The sum of two simple harmonic motions y1 and y2 is given by

y = y1 + y 2 = R{A1e i ( t + ) }+ R{A2e i ( t + ) }
1

= R{A1e i t e i }+ R{A2e i t e i
1

= R{A1e i + A2e i }e i t
1

y = R A e i t
where

A = A1e i + A2e i
1

L(15)

## Decomposition of Elliptically Polarized Light

An elliptically polarized light is the most general form of polarized light since
a circle can be considered as an ellipse with major and minor axes being
equal.
Similarly, a straight line is a degenerated form of an ellipse with the minor or
major axis being equal to zero.
Consider two general simple harmonic motions of the same frequency in
two orthogonal directions give rise to an elliptical motion as (Fig. 9)
u = A1 cos( t + 1 )

v = A2 cos( t + 2 )

## The relative phase difference between these two is

= 2 1

Plane of
Polarization

v
x
Fig. 9 Two orthogonal SHMs

Thus,
v = A2 cos( t + 1 + )

## = A2 {cos( t + 1 ) cos sin( t + 1 ) sin }

u2
= A2 cos 1 2 sin
A1
A1

Since,
u
cos( t + 1 ) =
A1

u2
and sin( t + 1 ) = 1 2
A1

Plane of
Polarization

v
x
Fig. 9 Two orthogonal SHMs

Therefore,

v
u
u2
= cos 1 2 sin
A2 A1
A1
v
u
u2
cos = 1 2 sin
A2 A1
A1

or

## Squaring on both sides, we get

u
cos
A2 A1

= 1 2 sin
A1

v u

u2 2
2uv
+ cos
cos = 1 2 sin
A2 A1
A1
A1A2
2

v u
2uv
+ (cos 2 + sin2 )
cos = sin2
A1A2
A2 A1
2

u v
2uv
+
cos = sin2
A1 A2 A1A2
2

or

or

u v
2uv
+ = sin2 +
cos
A
A
A
A
1 2
1 2
2

L(16)

## Equation (16) is known as general equation of an ellipse.

Axes u and v of the ellipse are oriented at an angles and (+/2), such
that
2A A
tan 2 = 2 1 2 2 cos
A1 A2

If a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse, their values are given by

## a = A12 cos 2 + A22 sin2 + 2 A1A2 cos sin cos

b = A12 sin2 + A22 cos2 2 A1A2 cos sin cos

## Case 1: If the relative phase difference = 2 -1 = /2, then the equation of

ellipse (16) becomes
2
2
u v
+ = 1
L(17)
A
A
1 2
and a =A1 and b =A2.
i.e., result of adding two plane-polarized waves that are neither in phase nor
in the same plane is a special kind of rotating wave, called an elliptically
polarized wave, having the same frequency as the component waves, but
which is not restricted to a single plane.
if we regard the positive senses for the horizontally and vertically polarized
waves as being to the right and upward, respectively. With increasing time,
an elliptical path is traced by the amplitude vector of the resultant wave.
u

Plane of
Polarization

u
v

v
x
Elliptically
polarized
Fig. 10 Elliptically polarized wave

Case 2:
A very important special case of elliptically polarized light is circularly
polarized light, which can be (and usually is) created by combining
orthogonal plane-polarized waves of equal amplitude (i.e., A1 =A2) that are
out of phase by exactly one-quarter of a wavelength, i.e. = /2.
For this special combination of plane waves, the resultant wave is a rotating
wave having constant amplitude and constant angular frequency .

=
2

Plane of
Polarization

Right-handedly

Left-handedly

y
z

v
Circularly
polarized
Fig. 11 Circularly polarized wave

Case 3:
If two waves are propagating in the same direction, vector algebra may be
applied to the wave amplitudes to determine the resultant wave amplitude.
Consider first the addition of two plane polarized waves that are in phase
(i.e., = 0) but that have different planes of polarization
The vector addition of these two waves produces a new or resultant planepolarized wave having the same frequency, wavelength, and phase as the
component waves.
Note that the two planes of polarization need not be orthogonal in order for
this result to hold.

Plane of
Polarization

v
x
x

## Fig. 12 Linearly polarized wave

Resultant plane
of polarization

Crystal Optics
Passage of Light through Isotropic Media:
Consider a plane harmonic wave that is incident upon a plane of separation of
two media.
Two media are isotropic, i.e., their optical properties are independent of
orientation of reference axes.
The trace of the wave-front in the plane of the paper is shown (Fig.13).
Let i be an angle of incidence of the wave-front with plane of separation AB
and v1 be the velocity of wave-front in medium-1.
The wave-fronts can be replaced by their respective wave normals or rays as
shown in Fig.13.
Incident
raypath,v1
Interface

Normal Incident
= angle of zero
Reflected
wave
i

i
90

Medium-1
Medium-2

r
Refracted
wave,v2

## From elementary physics, Snells laws of reflection and refraction are

observed as
a) The normal to the incident wave, normal to the interface and normals to
the reflected and refracted rays, all lie in one plane.
b) Angle of incidence i is equal to the angle of reflection.
c) Ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of
refraction is a constant for two given isotropic media. the constant is
termed the relative refractive index of medium-2 to medium-1. This is
represented by n12. If the incident wave is in vacuum, then the refractive
index of medium-2 relative to vacuum is termed the absolute index of
refraction of medium-2 and is represented by n2.
If c is the velocity of light in vacuum, then

c
sin i v1
=
= n12 , n2 =
v2
sin r v 2

and

n1 =

c
v1

Incident
raypath,v1

L(18)

Interface

Normal Incident
= angle of zero
Reflected
wave
i

i
90

Medium-1
Medium-2

r
Refracted
wave,v2

## Absolute and Relative Phase Difference

Consider a crystalline plate of thickness d.
Let a plane polarized light be incident normally as shown in Fig 14.
Two refracted waves travel through the medium with velocity v1 and v2, and
both are plane polarized.
These directions of polarization are called the polarizing axes.

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v1, Acos

oi

v2, Asin
x0

oe

## Let the incident ray be expressed as

2
(x ct + )
Acos

where A is the amplitude, c is the velocity, is the wave length and all in air.
At the interface, the amplitude gets resolved in to Acos and Asin.
Two vibrating components travel with different velocities inside the crystal and
when they emerge, there is a certain amount of phase difference between
them.

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v2, Asin
x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

## To find the phase difference, it is assumed that during propagation in the

crystal, the frequency of the light wave remains unchanged, then
2
(x ct + ) = A cos 2 c x t + = A cos 2
Acos
c
c

x
f t +
c
c

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

L(19)

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v2, Asin
x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

## Fig. 14 Polarized wave through stressed model

Just inside the front face, each vibrating component will have a phase .
Thickness of the crystal is traversed by the two components with different
velocities v1 and v2.
Hence, at the exit, the phases of the two components are given by
d
d
+ 2 f and + 2 f
L(20)
v1
v2
Where d/v1 and d/v2 are the times taken by the two waves to travel a distance, d.
The times fd/v1 and fd/v2 give the number of cycles of oscillation during these
intervals. and 2fd/v1 and 2fd/v2 express them in radian.
Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v2, Asin
x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

## Hence, equation (20) gives the phases just at the exit.

A light ray not passing through the crystal, will have a phase equal to
d
+ 2 f
c
at the same point as above, i.e., x0+d, where x is the distance to the front face
of the crystal.

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v2, Asin
x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

## The relative phase difference between the two vibrating components is

therefore given by

1 1
d
d
c 1 1 2d
+ 2f + 2f
= 2df = 2d =
(n1 n2 ) L(21)
v
v
v1
v2
v1 v 2

1
2

where n1 and n2 are the absolute refractive indices of the medium for the two
rays.

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v2, Asin
x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

## Fig. 14 Polarized wave through stressed model

Absolute phase differences for the two vibrating components are given by

and

## In terms of the number of wavelengths, the absolute path differences are

d
(n1 1) and d (n2 1)

## And relative path difference is

2d
d
d
+ 2f + 2f =
(n1 1)

c
v

d
d 2d
+ 2f
+ 2f =
(n2 1)
v
c

d
(n1 n2 )

L(22)

L(23)
Linearly polarized
Light vector, A

Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v2, Asin
x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

## Vibrating components coming out of the crystal plate can be represented as

2
(x ct + d (n1 1) + ) and Acos 2 (x ct + d (n2 1) + )
Acos
L(24)

## For a given value of x, the above equations can be written as

u = {Acos }cos( t + 1 ) and v = {Asin }cos( t + 2 )

where

1 2 =

2 d
(n1 n2 )

L(25)

L(26)

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v, Asin
x0

u, Acos

oi

oe

## Fig. 14 Polarized wave through stressed model

Comparing equation of ellipse (16) and equation (25), it is observed that the
light coming out of a crystalline medium is in general elliptically polarized.
This is shown in the Fig 14.
This is known as the ellipse of light or light ellipse.

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A
Source

Stressed
crystalline
plate

Polarizer
Polarizing axes

v, Asin
x0

u, Acos

oi

Elliptically
polarized Light

oe

## Many transparent non-crystalline materials that are optically isotropic when

free of stress become optically anisotropic and display characteristics similar
to crystals when they are stressed.

These characteristics persist while loads on the material are maintained but
disappear when the loads are removed.

## The method of photoelasticity is based on this physical behaviour of

transparent non-crystalline materials.

## Stress-Optic Law Two dimensional case:

Consider a model of uniform thickness made of glass, epoxy or some
transparent high polymer material.
Let the model be loaded such that it is in a plane state-of-stress.
Then the state-of-stress at any point can be characterized by the three
rectangular stress components. x, y, and xy or by the principal stresses 1
and 2 and their orientations with reference to a set of axes as shown in
Fig.15.
Let n0 be the refractive index of the material when it is in a free-stress state.
Linearly polarized
Light vector, A

Stressed
crystalline
plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer
Polarizing
axes

1
u

x
x

oi
Elliptically
polarized Light

oe

## When the model is put in a state-of-stress, experiments show that

a) Model becomes doubly refractive (optically anisotropic)
b) Directions of the polarizing axes in the plane of the model at any point Oi
coincides with the directions of the principal stress axes of that point.

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A

Stressed
crystalline
plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer
Polarizing
axes

1
u

x
x

oi
Elliptically
polarized Light

oe

## c) If n1 and n2 are the refractive indices for vibrations corresponding to these

two directions, then
n1 n0 = c1 1 c2 2
n2 n0 = c1 2 c2 1

L(27)

## where c1 and c2 are called direct or normal and transverse stress

coefficients, respectively. Since the stresses vary uniformly i.e., 1 and 2
and are continuously distributed functions over the model in the xyplane, the directions of the polarizing axes as well as the values of n1
and n2 vary uniformly over the xy-face of the model.
Linearly polarized
Light vector, A

Stressed
crystalline
plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer
Polarizing
axes

1
u

x
x

oi
Elliptically
polarized Light

oe

## If a plane-polarized light is incident normally at any point Oi of the model, then

the incident light vector gets resolved along the directions of 1 and 2 and
these two vibrating components travel through the thickness of the model with
different velocities (fast and slow).
Velocities of propagation of these two components are governed by equation
(27).

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A

Stressed
crystalline
plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer
Polarizing
axes

1
u

x
x

oi
Elliptically
polarized Light

oe

## Fig. 15 Plane stress state and principal stresses

When they emerge, there will be a certain amount of relative phase difference
between fast and slow velocities known as retardation, and it is given by
equation (26). i.e.,
2d
=
(n1 n2 )

## Using equation (27), we find (n1 - n2 ) as (c1 + c2) (1 - 2 )

Substituting this into above equation, we get
=

2d
(c1 + c2 )( 1 2 )

Linearly polarized
Light vector, A

Stressed
crystalline
plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer
Polarizing
axes

1
u

x
x

oi
Elliptically
polarized Light

oe

## Fig. 15 Plane stress state and principal stresses

If (c1 + c2) is set equal to c, the stress-optic coefficient, the relative retardation
is then given by
=

2d
c ( 1 2 )

L(28)

N=

2 d c ( 1 2 )
d c ( 1 2 )
=
2

L(29)

## Dimension of c in cgs units is cm2/dyne and SI units m2/N or 1/Pa.

Equations (28) and (29) are known as stress-optic law or stress-optic
relations.

## According to these equations, the relative phase difference is directly

proportional to (1 - 2 ) and model thickness d, and inversely proportional to
the wavelength of light used.

## In photoelastic analysis, we evaluate the value of (1 - 2 ) at a point from the

measured value of and N.

## Instruments designed to observe stressed models under polarized light called

polariscopes,

When the Fast and slow light waves that do pass through at any given angle
of rotating polarizer, interfere with each other resulting in a characteristic
colour spectrum.

## Intensity of colours displayed when a stressed model is viewed under

polarized light modulated by the retardation.

## One wavelength of relative path difference or equivalently a relative phase

difference of 2 radians or each integer multiple of the standard wavelength of
light (=56510-9m for glass and 57010-9m for plastics) is known as fringe
order (N).

increases.

P1

P2

P3

P4

P1

P2

P3

P4

## Loading: P1 < P2 < P3< P4 < P

Fig. 16 Fringe patterns of incrementally loaded specimen

## Table 1. Isochromatic fringe characteristics.

Fig. 17 Identification of fringe order for Isochromatic fringe patterns of loaded specimen

## From equation (29), we have

N
L(30)
c d
Defining /(cd) by f the principal stress difference then above equation is
1 2 =

1 2 = f N

## where f is called the model fringe constant in terms of stress.

Putting N =1, we can see that f expresses the value of (1 - 2 ) necessary to
cause a relative difference of one in a model of given thickness d..
This is also equal to the value of (1 - 2 ) necessary to cause a relative phase
difference of 2 radians in a given model.
Equation (30) can be re-written as
1 2 =

L(31)

F
N
L(32)
d
where F represents the material fringe constant.
If d=1, F becomes equal to f and hence, F represents the model fringe
constant per unit thickness.

F
f =
d

Or

F = f d =

L(33)

## If (1 - 2 ) is expressed in N/m2, then f is also expressed in N/m2.

The maximum shear stress, max can be obtained from equation (32) by writing
as
N F
N
2
=
= F
L(34)
max = 1
d
2
d
2
where F is the material fringe value in terms of shear and is equal to one-half
of F .
For a perfectly linear photoelastic material, principal strains are defined by

1 =

Thus,

1 2
E

2 =

2 1
E

(1 2 ) = 1 + ( 1 2 )
E

(1 2 )

Or

E
NF
= ( 1 2 ) =
1+
d

(1 2 ) = N 1 + F
d E

N
F
d

L(35)

( 1 2 ) = (1 2 )

Or

(1 2 ) = N E

E
= N f
1+

1+

= Nf

L(36)

##  In a stressed model at points where 1 = 2, the fringe order is zero and

permanent black dots appear at these points. Such points are called isotropic
points.
P
Isotropic
points

## Fig. 19 Isochromatic fringe patterns in various models

 If 1 = 2 = 0, then also the fringe order is zero at these points and permanent
black dots appear. Such points are called singular points.
Boundary line of
the disc

P
Corner

Corners

Corner

## Polariscope is an optical instrument containing polaroids that utilizes the

properties of polarized light in its operation.
For photoelastic investigations two types of polariscopes are used:
a) Plane polariscope
b) Circular polariscope

## In the plane polariscope, plane-polarized light is used and in the circular

polariscope, circularly polarized light is used.

When the light is transmitted through the model, then the polariscope is called
the transmission type.

a) Plane Polariscope:
Basic arrangement of a lens type plane polariscope is shown in Fig. 20.
Light source may be mercury or a sodium vapour lamp, and incandescent
filament lamp or a bank of bulbs.
Mercury or sodium vapour lamps are used as monochromatic light sources
and incandescent filament lamp is used as a white light source for the lens
type polariscope.
Filter F is generally a Wratten filter No. 77 to give a particular wavelength of
green or yellow light.
First lens (FL1) gives a parallel beam of light in the field of view
First or fixed, polarizing filter is known as the polarizer (P) and its function is to
produce plane-polarized light.
Polarizers are made from thin sheets of polaroid.

FL1

FL2

PL

C
View

## Model M made out of a photoelastic material is loaded in a loading frame by

which various types of loads can be applied.
Second or rotating polarizing filter is known as the analyzer (A) and is used to
combine the two light waves coming from the model.
By rotating the analyzer, the user can control the amount (intensity) of light
allowed to pass through and components of two light waves that do pass
through at any given angle of analyzer rotation interfere with each other,
resulting in a characteristic colour spectrum.
Polarizer and analyzer are generally coupled together by a flexible coupling to
achieve their simultaneous rotation.
Second lens (FL2) is used to make the parallel beam of light converge on the
projection lens(PL), which finally projects the interference fringes on to the
screen or camera (C).
Two types of set up are possible with the plane polariscope, i.e., bright, when
polarizer and analyzer are parallel and dark when they are crossed.
F

FL1

FL2

PL

C
View

## Fig. 20 Plane polariscope

b) Circular Polariscope:
In addition to all the elements of a plane polariscope, the circular polariscope
has two more quarter wave plates (QWP), the first between the polarizer and
model and the second between the model and the analyzer as shown in
Fig.21.
The fast and slow axes of the QWPs are inclined at 45 with the polarizer or
the analyzer axis.
QWPs are made of polaroid film and produces a path difference of /4 or a
phase difference of 90 ( or /2) in the two light vectors passing through them.

FL1

QWP1

QWP2

FL2

PL

C
View

## Four different set-ups are possible with the circular polariscope:

Set Up
Polarizer-Analyzer
QWP
Field
1

Crossed

Parallel

Bright

Crossed

Crossed

Dark

Parallel

Crossed

Bright

Parallel

Parallel

Dark

## Crossed-crossed set-up is called the standard set-up of the circular

polariscope.
First QWP converts plane polarized light into circularly polarized light and the
second QWP converts circularly polarized light into plane polarized light.
F

FL1

QWP1

QWP2

FL2

PL

C
View

## Fig. 21 Circular polariscope

Input to QWP as plane polarized light and transmits circularly polarized light.

Input to QWP as circularly polarized light and transmits plane polarized light.

## Effect of a Stressed Model in a Plane Polariscope

a) Dark-Field Setup:
Consider the dark-field setup of the plane polariscope as shown in Fig.22,
when the polarizer and analyzer are crossed.
The plane polarized light beam emerging from the polarizer can be
represented by
E = a cos t
L(37)
Light vector on entering the two dimensional stress model will be decomposed
into two vectors along the two principal directions, one along the fast (or 1)
axis and the other along the slow ( or 2) axis.
P

Polarizer axis
2

E1e

E1e

E2e

x
oi
oe

E2e

Analyzer
axis
d

Polarizer

Model

Analyzer

## Light vector diagrams

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

Light vector (electric) along the fast axis on entering the model is given by

L(38a)

## And along the slow axis

E2e = a cos t sin

L(38b)

where is the angle between the axis of polarizer and maximum principal
stress and subscript e refers for entering.
Since the light vector E1e travels faster than E2e, therefore, on emerging out
from the model they develop a phase difference.
Hence, the light vector leaving along the first axis of the model E1l and falling
on the analyzer becomes

A
1e

E2e

E2Ae

E1Ae

E2e

x
oi
oe

Analyzer
axis
d

Polarizer

Model

E1e

2
E1e

y
2

Polarizer axis

E2l

E1l

Analyzer

## Light vector diagrams

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

A
E2Ae

E1Ae

Whereas the light vector leaving along the slow axis of the model and falling
on the analyzer will be given by
E2 l = E2Ae = a cos t sin

Since the axis of the analyzer is oriented at right angles to that of the polarizer,
the light vector transmitted through the analyzer is
Et = E1Ae sin E2Ae cos
= a cos( t + ) cos sin a cos t sin cos

2
2

P
E

Polarizer axis
2

E2e

E1Ae

E2Ae

E2e

x
oi
oe

Analyzer
axis

Et

d
Polarizer

Model

E1e

2
E1e

E2l

E1l

Analyzer

## Light vector diagrams

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

A
E2Ae

E1Ae

Et
z

I Et2

2
2

Thus,

L(39)
2
2

## where I0 is the maximum transmitted light intensity.

Light intensity I will be zero or extinction can be obtained in the following three
ways:
Effect of (i) Frequency, (ii) principal stress direction and (iii) principal stress
P
difference.

Polarizer axis
2

E2e

E1Ae

E2Ae

E2e

x
oi
oe

Analyzer
axis

Et

d
Polarizer

Model

E1e

2
E1e

E2l

E1l

Analyzer

## Light vector diagrams

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

A
E2Ae

E1Ae

Et
z

When

t + = n ,
2

n = 0,1,2,L

Thus,

sin2 t + = 0
2

I =0

L(40)

## However, the circular frequency for light in the visible spectrum is

approximately 1015 rad/s and neither the eye nor any type of existing high
speed photographic film can detect the periodic extinction associated with the
t term and thus, this factor can be ignored.
Hence, we are left with

I = I0 sin2 2 sin2

L(41)

## (ii) Effect of Principal Stress Directions:

When
2 = n , n = 0,1,2,L

0 1 2 3

3
, ,
, ,L = 0, , ,
,L
2 2 2 2
2
2

Therefore,

## Then the value of term in equation (39) is

Thus,

sin2 2 = 0
I =0

L(42)

Therefore, for such values of , any one of the principal stress directions
coincides with the axis of the polarizer, extinction occurs.
When the entire model is viewed in the polariscope, a fringe pattern is
observed, the fringes are loci of points where the principal stress directions
coincide with the axis of the polarizer.
Fringe pattern formed by the sin22 term is known as the isoclinic fringe
pattern.
These are the loci of points having constant stress directions.
Isoclinic fringe patterns are employed to determine the principal stress
directions in a photoelastic model.

## (iii) Effect of Principal Stress Differences:

When

= n , n = 0,1,2,L
2
Therefore,

=n =N
2
Then the value of term in equation (39) is

sin = 0
2
Thus an extension occurs with
I =0

3
0

P
(i) Dark-field setup
Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with
monochromatic light source.

L(43)

Therefore, when the principal stress difference is either zero (n=0) or sufficient
to produce an integral number of wavelengths of retardation (n=1,2, ),
extinction occurs.
When a complete model is viewed in the polariscope a fringe pattern is
observed which are the loci of points having constant stress difference and
exhibiting the same order of extinction (n=0,1,2, ).
The fringe pattern produced by the sin2(/2) term is known as the isochromatic
(same colour) fringe pattern.

## Now we have from equation (28)

2dc
=
( 1 2 )

Rearranging,

dc
=
( 1 2 )
2

3
0

P
(i) Dark-field setup
Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with
monochromatic light source.

## The number of wave lengths of relative path difference is then obtained as

(Ref. equations 29 and 33)
n=N =

d
( 1 2 ),
F

n = 0,1,2,L

L(44)

When a model is viewed with white light the isochromatic fringe pattern
appears as a series of coloured bands.

Thus we find that in a plane polariscope, the isoclinic and isochromatic fringe
patterns are obtained, superimposed on each other.

## At a particular load if the polarizer and analyzer are rotated simultaneously, in

the same direction by the same amount then isoclinics of various parameters
may be obtained, whereas the isochromatics remain stationary.

## On the other-hand, at a particular location of the polarizer and analyzer, if the

load is increased then the isochromatics change in the field of view whereas
the isoclinics remain stationary.

It is always advisable to use white light source while working with plane
polariscope, which is generally used to obtain the isoclinics, so that the
isoclinics which are black bands crossing the multi-coloured isochromatics are
clearly visible.
Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Isoclinics
(i) Monochromatic light source

## Fig. 24a Fringe pattern

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Isoclinics
with vertical direction

Rotation by 32

Fringe pattern 0

Rotation by 39

Disc is rotated by 3
in clock-wise direction

Rotation by 47

Isoclinics

Rotation by 8

Rotation by 55

Rotation by 19

Rotation by 59

Fig. 24b Isoclinics: Black bands (revolving) and Isochromatics: Colour fringes (Stationary)

P1

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

P1

P2

P3

Isochromatics

P4

P5
Loading: P1 < P2 < P3< P4 < P5< P6

## Fig. 24c Fringe patterns of incrementally loaded specimen

(Isoclinics: Black bands and Isochromatics: Colour fringes)

P6

b) Bright-Field Setup:
In the bright-field setup the axis of the analyzer is parallel to that of the
polariscope (Fig. 25), hence
Et = E1Ae cos + E2Ae sin
= a cos( t + ) cos2 a cos t sin2
1
1
= a cos( t + ) [1 + cos 2 ] + (a cos t ) [1 cos 2 ]
2
2
a
a
= [cos( t + ) + cos t ] + cos 2 [cos( t + ) cos t ]
2
2

2
2
2
2

E
1

Polarizer axis
E

2
E1e

E2e

Analyzer axis
Et

E2Ae

A
1e

y
E1e

E2e

x
oi
oe

d
Polarizer

Model

E2l

Analyzer

## Light vector diagrams

Fig. 25 Plane polariscope with Bright-field setup

E1l A
E2Ae

E1Ae

Et

Et = a cos2

+ sin2 cos2 2
2
2

= a 1 sin2 sin2 2
2

## Intensity of light I is proportional to the square of the amplitude Et, hence,

I Et2

I a 2 1 sin2 sin2 2
2

I = I0 1 sin2 sin2 2
2

2

2

L(45a)

If

## I = I0 indicates the maximum intensity I.

Light intensity I will be zero or extinction can be obtained in the following two
ways:
Effect of (i) principal stress direction and (ii) principal stress difference.

## (i) Effect of Principal Stress Directions:

2 = + n , n = 0,1,2,L
2

Therefore, = , 3 , 5 , 7 ,L
4 4 4 4
When

## Then the value of term in equation (45) is

Thus,

sin2 2 = 1
I =0

L(45b)

Fringe pattern formed by the sin22 term is known as the isoclinic fringe
pattern.

## Isoclinic fringe patterns are employed to determine the principal stress

directions in a photoelastic model.

## (ii) Effect of Principal Stress Differences:

For extinction to occur

1
= n + ,
2
2

3
2

3
0

## Therefore, fringe order,

N=

for n = 0,1,2,L

1
=n+
2
2

P
(i) Dark-field setup

P
(ii) Bright-field setup

## Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with

monochromatic light source.

Hence the order of the first fringe observed in a light field polariscope is
which corresponds to n = 0.
The higher order fringes will be 3/2, 5/2, etc.
Therefore, by using bright field setup of the plane polariscope, it is possible to
obtain the fringe order of the nearest , order.

## Effect of a Stressed Model in a Circular Polariscope

a) Dark-Field Setup:
Consider the standard setup (crossedcrossed) of the circular polariscope as
shown in Fig.26.
The light vector leaving the polarizer can
be written as

Polarizer axis
E

Polarizer

E = a cos t

L(46)

First QWP

Model

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis
E

Slow
axis

Fast
axis

## Components of light vector on entering the

first QWP become
a

=
cos t
L(47a)
E1e = a cos t cos
4
2
and
a

=
cos t
L(47b)
E2e = a cos t sin
4
2

45

E2e

E1e

Polarizer

First QWP

Model

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

E
Slow
axis
45

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

45

sin t L(48a)
cos t + =
2
2
2

L(48b)
2
E1l =

Fast
axis

E2e

## First QWP produces a phase difference of /2

and converts plane polarized light in to circularly
polarized light.
Components of light vector on leaving the QWP
become

E1l

2
First QWP

Model

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

## If the principal axes of the model are inclined

at an angle with the axis of the first QWP,
then components of light vector along the
principal axis of the model on entering are

Polarizer axis
E
Slow
axis

a
a
=
sin t cos
cos t sin
2
2

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

L(49a)

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae

E4e
Model

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

## Fig. 26 Circular polariscope with dark-field setup

Analyzer

and
Ebe = E1l sin + E2 l cos

Polarizer axis

a
a
sin t sin +
cos t cos
2
2

E
Slow
axis

L(49b)

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae

E4e
Model

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

## Model introduces a phase difference of .

Therefore, the components of light vector on
leaving the model and entering the second
QWP become
a
[sin( t + )cos + cos( t + ) sin ]
Eal =
2
a
=
sin( t + + ) L(50a)
2

Polarizer axis
E
Slow
axis

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Eal
E4e

Model

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

## Fig. 26 Circular polariscope with dark-field setup

Analyzer

and
Ebl = Ebe =

Polarizer axis
E

=
Slow
axis

a
[ sin t sin + cos t cos ]
2

a
cos( t + )
2

L(50b)

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Eal
E4e

Model

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

## Now the second QWP is crossed to the first QWP,

therefore, the components of the light vector along
the axes of the second QWP become,
E3e = Eal cos + Ebl sin

E
Slow
axis

a
[sin(t + + )cos cos( t + ) sin ] L(51a)
2

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1
2
Eal

Fast
axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e

Eal

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

## Fig. 26 Circular polariscope with dark-field setup

Analyzer

and
E 4 e = Ebl cos Eal sin

Polarizer axis

E
Slow
axis

a
[cos( t + )cos + sin( t + + ) sin ] L(51b)
2

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1
2
Eal

Fast
axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e

Eal

Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis
E

## The second QWP also produces a phase difference

of /2, therefore, the components of light vector on
leaving the second QWP and entering the analyzer
become
E3 l = E3 e

Slow
axis

Fast
axis

a
[sin(t + + )cos cos(t + ) sin ] L(52a)
2

E1l

45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1
2
Eal

Fast
axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e

Eal
45

E3l
E4l

2
Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

## Fig. 26 Circular polariscope with dark-field setup

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

and

cos

t
+

+
cos

+
sin

t
+

+
sin

2
2
2

E4l =

a
[ sin( t + )cos + cos( t + + ) sin ] L(52b)
2

Slow
axis

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1
2
Eal

Fast
axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e

Eal
45

E3l
E4l

2
Analyzer
axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

## The resultant light vector transmitted through the crossed

analyzer become
1

=
(E3l E4l )
Et = E3 l cos E 4 l cos
4
4
2
a
= [cos( t + ) sin sin( t + + )cos + sin( t + ) cos
2
cos( t + + ) sin ]
Fast

Polarizer axis
E
Slow
axis

axis

45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1
2
Eal

Fast
axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e

Eal
45

E3l
E4l

E
E4l 45 3l
Analyzer
axis

Second QWP
Et

## Fig. 26 Circular polariscope with dark-field setup

Analyzer

a
[sin(t + 2 ) sin(t + + 2 )]
2

Et = a cos t + 2 + sin
L(53)
2
2

Polarizer axis
E
Slow
axis

Fast
axis
45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1
2
Eal

Fast
axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e

Eal
45

E3l
E4l

E
E4l 45 3l
Analyzer
axis

Second QWP
Et

Analyzer

## Intensity of light is therefore,

I Et2

I a 2 cos2 t + 2 + sin2
2
2

I = I0 cos2 t + 2 + sin2
2
2

L(54)

## If I = 0, the extinction can be obtained in the two ways:

Effect of (i) frequency and (ii) stress difference.

Polarizer axis
E

Fast
axis

Slow
axis
45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

First QWP

Model

Ebl

E4e

45

Eae

Polarizer

Fast
axis

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e
Eal

Second QWP

E
E4l 45 3l
Et

Analyzer

Analyzer
axis

## (i) Effect of Frequency,

When

t + 2 + = (2n + 1) ,
2
2

for n = 0,1,2,L

## Then the value of term in equation (39) is

Thus,

But the frequency is very high and any extinction produced by it cannt be
detected by eye or any photographic equipment hence, the isoclinics are
automatically eliminated,
Thus,

I = I0 sin2
L(56)
2

cos2 t + 2 + = 0
2

I =0

L(55)

## (ii) Effect of Principal Stress Differences:

When

= n , n = 0,1,2,L
2

Therefore,
=n =N
2
Then the value of term in equation (39) is

sin2 = 0
2
Thus an extension occurs with
I =0

3
0

P
(i) Dark-field setup
Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with
monochromatic light source.

L(57)

## The loci of these points produce isochromatic fringe pattern.

Hence, in a standard circular polariscope, only isochromatics are obtained and
the isoclinics are automatically eliminated.
This type of extinction is identical with that for the plane polariscope.
The number of wave lengths of relative path difference is then obtained as
(Ref. equations 29 and 33)
n=

= N = ( 1 2 )
F
2

n = 0,1,2,L

L(58)

b) Bright-Field Setup:
Consider the parallel-crossed setup as
shown in Fig. 27, in which the axes of
polarizer and analyzer are parallel, hence

Polarizer axis
E
Slow
axis

Et = E3 l cos

Fast
axis

+ E 4 l cos
4
4

1
(E3l + E4l )
2

45

E2e

E1e
E2l

Polarizer

2
First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1
2
Eal

Fast
axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow
axis

E3e

Eal
45

E3l
E4l

2
Second QWP

Analyzer
axis
E
E4l 45 3l
Et

Analyzer

## Substituting equation (52) into above equation, we get

a
Et = [cos( t + ) sin sin( t + + ) - sin( t + )cos
2
+ cos( t + + ) sin ]
=

a
[ sin t sin( t + )] = a 2 sin t + cos = a sin t + cos
2
2
2
2
2
2

## The intensity of light is therefore

I Et2

I = I0 sin2 t + cos2
2
2

Polarizer axis
E

Fast
axis

Slow
axis
45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

First QWP

Fast
axis

Model

Ebl

E4e

45

Eae

Polarizer

L(59)

E4e

Analyzer
axis
Slow
axis

E3e

Et

E
E4l 45 3l

Eal

Second QWP

Analyzer

P

I = I0 cos 2

2
0

## For extinction to occur

= (2n + 1) ,
2
2
Therefore, fringe order,
N=

1
=n+
2
2

3
2

3
1

for n = 0,1,2,L
P
(i) Dark-field setup

P
(ii) Bright-field setup

## Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with

monochromatic light source.

Hence the order of the first fringe observed in a light field polariscope is
which corresponds to n = 0.
The higher order fringes will be 3/2, 5/2, etc.
Therefore, by using dark and bright field setup of the circular polariscope, it is
possible to obtain the fringe order of the nearest , order.

## Isoclinics and Their Properties

Isoclinics are the loci of points along which the principal stresses have parallel
directions.

Isoclines are obtained in a plane polariscope with dark setup by using white
light.

## In order to determine the direction of the principal stresses at a desired point

of stressed model, the following steps are followed:
1) The model is kept between the crossed polarizer and analyzer of a plane
polariscope.
2) The polarizer and analyzer are rotated simultaneously until the dark band
representing the isoclinic passes through the point of interest.
3) The orientations of the polarizer and analyzer coincide with the principal
stress directions at the point.

## Generally, isoclinics of parameters of 5 or 10 interval are plated.

Isoclinics are very useful in analyzing a two-dimensional stress problem.
If is the angle between the x-axis and the direction of 1 at a point as given
by the isoclinic parameter, then
2
Nf
xy = 1
sin 2 = sin 2
L(60)
2
d
Knowing N from the isochromatic fringe pattern, we can determine xy.

## Generally, it is easier to differentiate between the isoclinics and isochromatics

in a plane polariscope using white light as a light source, as the isoclinics are
the black bands crossing the multicoloured isochromatic fringes.

## Otherwise, to ascertain the isoclinics, at a given load if the polarizer and

analyzer are rotated simultaneously through the same angle in the same
direction the isochromatics will remain stationary while the isoclinics will
rotate.
.

P1

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

P1

P2

P3

Isochromatics

P4

P5
Loading: P1 < P2 < P3< P4 < P5< P6

## Fig. 28 Fringe patterns of incrementally loaded specimen

(Isoclinics: Black bands and Isochromatics: Colour fringes)

P6

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Isoclinics
with vertical direction

Rotation by 32

Fringe pattern 0

Rotation by 39

Disc is rotated by 3
in clock-wise direction

Rotation by 47

Isoclinics

Rotation by 8

Rotation by 55

Rotation by 19

Rotation by 59

Fig. 29 Isoclinics: Black bands (revolving) and Isochromatics: Colour fringes (Stationary)

## Important properties of isoclinics are

 Isoclinics of all parameters must pass through isotropic or singular points.
i.e., every direction is a principal stress direction.
 For a body containing an axis of symmetry and for symmetric loading, the
axis of symmetry is an isoclinic of one parameter.
 At free boundaries only one principal stress exists whose direction is along
the tangent to the boundary and thus the isoclinic parameter intersecting a
free boundary is determined by the slope of the boundary at the point of
intersection.
Isochromatics

Isoclinics
Fringe pattern 0

Isoclinics
Rotation by 19

Rotation by 47

 For isotropic points in the interior of the boundary, at least two isoclinics of
different parameters should intersect.
 Where an isoclinic cuts the stress trajectory at right angles, the principal
stresses at that points are a maximum or minimum.
 The isoclinic parameter is independent of the magnitude of load applied
and the fringe value of the material.
 Isoclinics with parameter differing by 90, 180, etc, are identical.
 At a point on a shear free boundary where the stress parallel to the
boundary has a maximum or minimum value, the isoclinic intersects
boundary at right angles.
Isochromatics

Isoclinics
Fringe pattern 0

Isoclinics
Rotation by 19

Rotation by 47

## Determination of isoclinic parameters at arbitrary point: Fringe order (N) and

Isoclinic angle ()

## Consider a disc subjected to diametral compression load as shown in Fig. 30(i).

The method of finding the fringe order N and isoclinic angle at an arbitrary
point directly for given loading is as follows:
Determination of :
a) Keep the disc under loading in dark-field plane polariscope with white light
source.
b) Fringe pattern containing the isoclinics and isochromatics of the model is as
shown in Fig.30(ii)
Isochromatics
Isoclinics

with vertical direction

## Fig. 30 Disc under compression loading.

c) Number the fringe orders, 0, 1, 2, etc., starting from boundary line, in the
direction of load point.
d) Let m be the arbitrary point selected within the domain.
e) Rotate the polarizer and analyzer simultaneously until mean band of
isoclinic passes through the point m.
f) Orientation of the analyzer gives the isoclinic angle .

i.e., = 10

1 2 34

4 3 2

## (i) Fringe pattern at 0

1 2 34

4 3 2

(ii) Rotation by 10

3.55
3

m3

m3
m2

m2

m1

m1

m0

## Position from left-end

Rotation by 10

1.0

0 m
0

0.9

m0

0.8

m3 m2 m1

0.7

0.6

m1 m2 m3

0.0

m0

0.58

0.5

0.4

4 3 2

0.3

0.2

1 2 34

0.1

Determination of N:
a) Record the fringe pattern either in hardcopy or digital image using digital
camera.
b) Draw a horizontal line passing through point m.
c) Identify the intersection points (e.g. m0, m1, m2, etc.) where the line cuts
corresponding to isochromatic fringe orders.
d) With suitable scale, draw a graph between position of intersection points
and fringe order.
e) From the graph we find the value of fringe order at point m as 3.55.
For fast and accurate results one can use compensation methods.

Fringe order,

## We can determine the isochromatic fringe order to the nearest order by

using both the dark and bright-field setup of a polariscope.

## Further, improvements on the accuracy of the fringe order determination can

be achieved either by using the mixed-field patterns or by using Pasts fringe
multiplication method.

## In order to achieve higher accuracy, following methods may be used:

a) Compensation technique
b) Colour matching technique
c) Equidensometry method

a) Compensation technique
Compensation is technique in which partial modification of relative retardation
either by addition or subtraction is brought about so that the fractional fringe
order at a points becomes integral.

## Then by knowing the amount of relative retardation added or subtracted the

actual fringe order at the point can be ascertained.

## Following methods for compensation techniques are commonly used.

1) Babinet compensation method
2) Babinet-Soleil compensation method
3) Tardys method
4) Tension or Compression strip method
5) Senarmont method
6) Photometric method

## 1) Babinet compensation method

This compensator uses wedges of quartz, which is a naturally double
refracting material as shown in Fig. 31.
One of the wedges is fixed in the instrument, while the other can be displaced
relative to the first so as to alter combined thickness by means of a fine
With micrometer screw at zero, the compensator is said to be in the neutral
position.
The polarized light is accelerated in one and retarded in the other wedge.
Slow axis

Slow axis
Fixed wedge

d0
d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Light wave
propagation
direction

Moving wedge
Moving wedge

45

Light wave
propagation
direction

(d d ) = t

## where t = d - d1 and = n1 n2.

Therefore, when the two wedges have been displaced from their neutral
position, then

R = (d d ) = (t + d d ) = t = x tan
L(61)

## where is angle of the wedge 2.5 and x is the horizontal displacement

which is equal to the micrometer reading.
R=

Slow axis

Slow axis
Fixed wedge

d0
d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Light wave
propagation
direction

Moving wedge
Moving wedge

## Fig. 31 Babinet compensator

45

Light wave
propagation
direction

tan = Cx
R=
x

Or

where C is constant.
m
Therefore,
R=
=
m
Number of turns necessary to produce
a retardation of one wavelengt h

L(62)

fringe.
Slow axis

Slow axis
Fixed wedge

d0
d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Light wave
propagation
direction

Moving wedge
Moving wedge

45

Light wave
propagation
direction

## 2) Babinet-Soleil compensation method

This compensator is an improvement upon Babinet model.
In this case wedges are of the same type giving a place of uniform
thickness, controlled by a micrometer screw.
Another quartz plate of same nominal thickness but with axis of double
refraction crossed, is placed on the right-hand side of the variable thickness
plate as shown in Fig. 32.
When the left-hand and right-hand plates are of same thickness, no relative
refraction take place.
Slow axis

Slow axis
Fixed wedge

d0
d0

d0

d1

45

Fixed quartz
plate

Light wave
propagation
direction

d0

45

Moving wedge
Moving wedge

## Fig. 32 Babinet-Soleil compensator

Light wave
propagation
direction

When the movable wedge is moved the thickness of the upper plate
changes, producing a partial fringe order of uniform magnitude over the whole
area of the compensator plates like that in pure tension or compression.
This compensator is very useful for measuring boundary stresses.
In order to use this compensator, firstly isoclinic parameters are established
for the point in question to give the direction of 1 and 2 .
The compensator is then aligned with the principal stress directions and
adjusted to cancel out the model retardation.
The reading of the screw micrometer is proportional to the fringe order at that
point.
Slow axis

Slow axis
Fixed wedge

d0
d0

d0

d1

45

Fixed quartz
plate

Light wave
propagation
direction

d0

45

Moving wedge
Moving wedge

## Fig. 32 Babinet-Soleil compensator

Light wave
propagation
direction

(ii)

(i) Picture

(iii)
Fig.33 Images of Babinet-Soleil compensator

## Determination of total fringe order at arbitrary point m in diametral

compression disc using Babinet-Soleil compensation method:
a) Fig.34(i) shows the isochromatic fringe pattern in a diametral compression
disc obtained by using dark-field setup with monochromatic light source.
b) Let m be the arbitrary point for which total fringe order is to be determined.
c) To determine the isoclinic angle using plane polariscope setup, rotate the
polarizer and analyzer simultaneously until mean band of isoclinic passes
through the point m as shown in Fig. 34(iii).
d) Orientation of the analyzer gives the isoclinic angle = 30.
e) The point m does not lies on any of the fringe order thus need to
determine the fringe order accurately at the point m,
f) Looking at the location of the point m which lies in between the fringe
orders 2 and 3.
Polarizer axis

2
0

4
3

m
Analyzer
axis

3
4

(i)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

4
3

4
3

Analyzer
axis
3
4

(ii)

3
4

(iii)

30 Analyzer
axis

## g) Orient the axis of the compensator to the isoclinic angle = 30.

h) Introduce compensation by rotating the knob until a higher fringe order
passes through the point of interest m.
i) Let us rotate slowly the compensation knob only in the clock-wise direction
we find that the fringe order 3 moves towards point of interest m as shown
in Figs.35 (ii)-(vi).
j) Fig. 35(vi) depicts the fringe order 3 moved to the point of interest m and
thus note down the counter reading from the compensator as 122.
4

Polarizer axis

2
0

4
3

1
30

Analyzer
axis

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)
(i)

m
3
4

(v)

(vi)

## k) Using the calibration chart provided by the compensator maker

corresponding to the counter reading 122, we determine the fringe order
at the interest point m as 2.7.

## Null balance compensator calibration chart

5.0

Polarizer axis

1
30

m
Analyzer
axis

Fringe order, N

4
3

4.0

3.0
2.7

2.0

1.0

3
4

10 20 30 40

50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220

## 3) Tardys compensation method:

In this method, the polarizer of the polariscope is aligned with the principal
stress direction of 1 at the point of interest and all other elements of the
polariscope are rotated relative to the polarizer so that standard dark field
polariiscope exist.
Then the analyzer alone is rotated to obtain extinctions.
The rotation of the analyzer gives the fractional fringe order.
Derivation of Fractional Fringe Order:
Consider the dark-field (crossed-crossed) circular polariscope as shown in
Fig.37.
Polarizer axis
E

Fast
axis

Slow
axis
45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Fast
axis

E4e

45

Eae

Polarizer

First QWP

Model

Ebl
E4e

Slow
axis

E3e
Eal

Second QWP

## Fig. 37 Light vector diagrams

E
E4l 45 3l
Et

Analyzer

Analyzer
axis

Here, = -() and the light vector emerging out from the second QWP
becomes (Ref. equation 52),
a

## sin t + cos cos t sin

2
4
4 4

4
a

= sin t + + cos t
2
4
4

E4l =
t

+
t
+

sin

cos
cos

sin

2
4
4
4

4
E3 l =

sin

cos

t
+

2
4
4

Polarizer
axis
1

Fast
axis

= -45

E4l
2

45

Slow
axis

E3l
Analyzer axis (A)

## Let be the angle through which analyzer should be rotated to obtain

extinction, i.e., Et= 0.

Et = E 4 l cos E3 l cos + = 0
4

2
4
4

## sin t + + cos t cos + = 0

2
4
4

Simplifying we get,

L(63)
2
2
2

Polarizer
axis
Fast
axis
45-

= -45

Slow
axis

E4l 45 E3l

## Analyzer axis (A)

Analyzer axis (A)

Therefore,

= n ,
2

= n +
2

n = 0,1,2,3,L

N=
=n+
L(64a )
2

N = (n + 1)
L(64b )

Polarizer
axis
Fast
axis
45-

= -45

Slow
axis

E4l 45 E3l

## Analyzer axis (A)

Analyzer axis (A)

## Fig. 39 Light vector diagram of Tardys compensation method

To account for the finite fringe width using the Tardys compensation
method, the following steps may be accomplished:
a) Using a plane polariscope setup, determine the principal stress directions
(i.e., )at the point of interest by rotating the crossed polarizer and
analyzer simultaneously until an isoclinic passes through that point.
b) From a circular polariscope, the polarizer is kept at the isoclinic angle
(i.e., one of the principal axes should be kept with polarizer axis) and all
the other optical elements are appropriately arranged. Note that at this
stage, there should not be any difference in the isochromatic field
compared to the conventional arrangement. If it is then align the optical
elements correctly.
c) Second step gives the selection of reference axis for the measurement of
angle of rotation of the analyzer. Since, the value of isoclinic angle (i.e., )
defines the angle between the polarizer axis and principal stress direction
or fast axis, when these two are aligned parallel then angle between them
yields = 0.
d) Rotate only the analyzer either in clock-wise or anti clock-wise direction
such that an isochromatic fringe coincides with the point of interest and
determine the angle that the analyzer has rotated.

e) If the N(-1) (lower) order fringe moves to the point of interest as the
analyzer rotates through the angle , the fringe order N at the point is

N = N ( 1) +
if is in radians
L(65a )

N = N ( 1) +
if is in degrees L(65b )
or
180
f) If the N(+1) (higher) order fringe moves to the point of interest as the
analyzer rotates through the angle , the fringe order N at the point is

N = N ( +1)
if is in radians
L(66a )

N = N ( +1)

180

if is in degrees

L(66b )

## Determination of total fringe order at arbitrary point m in diametral

compression disc :
a) Fig.40 shows the isochromatic fringe pattern in a diametral compression
disc obtained by using dark-field setup with monochromatic light source.
b) Let centre of the disc denoted by m be the arbitrary point for which total
fringe order is to be determined.
c) At the point of interest m, the principal stress axes and isoclinics coincides
and thus we have = 0.

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis
Fast axis

2
0

Analyzer axis

Analyzer axis

(i)

Slow axis
3

(ii)

## Fig.40 Fringe patterns of the diametral compression disc

d) The point m does not lies on any of the fringe order thus need to
determine the fringe order accurately at the point m,
e) Looking at the location of the point m which lies in between the fringe
orders 1 and 2.

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis
Fast axis

2
0

Analyzer axis

Analyzer axis

(i)

Slow axis
3

(ii)

## Fig.40 Fringe patterns of the diametral compression disc

f) Let us rotate slowly the analyzer only in the clock-wise direction we find
that the fringe order 2 moves towards point of interest m as shown in
Figs.41 (ii)-(v).
Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis
3

3
2

2
0

Polarizer axis

Analyzer axis

2
0

A
A

m
2

(ii)

(i)

(iii)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

2
0

16

m
36

m
41

2
3

A
(iv)

## Fig.41 Fringe patterns of the diametral compression disc

A
(vi)

g) Fig.41(v) depicts the fringe order 2 moved to the point of interest m and
thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 41.

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis
3

3
2

2
0

Polarizer axis

Analyzer axis

2
0

A
A

m
2

(ii)

(i)

(iii)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

2
0

16

m
36

m
41

2
3

A
(iv)

## Fig.41 Fringe patterns of the diametral compression disc

A
(v)

g) Fig.41(v) depicts the fringe order 2 moved to the point of interest m and
thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 41.
h) Using equation (65b), substituting the values N(+1) = 2 and = 41, we get
the total fringe order, N at the point m as
Polarizer axis
3

N = N ( +1)

2
0

41

= 2
= 2 0.228
180
180

= 1.772

Analyzer axis
m
2
3

(i)

Polarizer axis
3
2
0

m
41

2
3

(v)

## i) Alternatively, fringe order at the point of interest m may be determined by

rotating the analyzer in counter clock-wise direction from the reference line.
j) Let us rotate slowly the analyzer only in the counter clock-wise direction we
find that the fringe order 1 moves towards point of interest m as shown in
Figs. 42(ii)-(x)
Polarizer axis

2
0

Polarizer axis
A

Polarizer axis

Analyzer axis

25

50

m
3

(iii)

(ii)

Polarizer axis
A

0
70

(v)

3
100

90

(iv)

Polarizer axis
2

3
2
0

A Polarizer axis

3
2

2
3

(i)

2
1

m
2
3

(vi)

## Fig.42 Fringe patterns of the diametral compression disc

k) Fig.42(x) depicts the fringe order 1 moved to the point of interest m and
thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 139.
A

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

3
2

3
2
1

0
110

2
0

Polarizer axis

125

Analyzer axis
m
2

2
3

2
3

(vii)

(viii)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

(i)

3
2

3
2
1

1
0

0
136

(ix)

2
3

139

(x)

## Fig.42 Fringe patterns of the diametral compression disc

2
3

k) Fig.42(x) depicts the fringe order 1 moved to the point of interest m and
thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 139.
l) Using equation (66b), substituting the values N(-1) = 1 and = 139, we get
the total fringe order, N at the point m as
Polarizer axis

N = N ( 1) +

139

= 1+
= 1 + 0.772
180
180

= 1.772

2
0

Analyzer axis
m
2
3

Polarizer axis

(i)

3
2
1
0

139

(x)

## Fig.42 Fringe patterns of the diametral compression disc

2
3

CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES

## Photoelastic materials are need to be calibrate to determine the material fringe

value f so as to convert the fringe orders into stresses.
Following methods used to calibrate a photoelastic material.
a) Simple tensile specimen
b) Beam under pure bending
c) Circular disc under diametral compression

## a) Simple tensile specimen

Consider a tensile specimen under uniform axial stress as shown in Fig. 43.
Thus,
P
h
P
P
1 2 =
Q 2 = 0
d
L
hd
Using stress-optic law, we have
Nf
1 2 =
d
P Nf
=
Or
hd
d
P 1
f
L(67)
=
Hence,
N h

## Fig.43 Tensile specimen

In the tensile specimen, we observe escaping type of fringe pattern i.e., as the
load is increased from zero, successive fringe appear in the field of view and
disappear as the load is increased.
A graph is plotted between the applied load P and fringe order N as shown in
Fig. 44.
The slope determined from the plot is substituted in to equation (67).
In this method the load P has to be adjusted to have a full fringe order in the
field of view.
In Tardy method of compensation, for a particular load P the extinction angles
are plotted against the applied stress .
Then by knowing the slope of the curve, we obtain

f = 1 d 180 o

L(68)

L
Fig.43Tensile specimen
P
P
N

N
Fig.44 P-N curve

## b) Beam under pure bending

A rectangular beam as shown in Fig.45 subjected to pure bending.
Pure bending in the beam is produced by applying equal loads P at a
distance a from the ends of a beam.
Uniform bending moment, M in the middle portion of the beam is given by
P
P
M = P a L(69)
y
a
a
The stresses in the beam are
x
d
Pa h
Pa
M
=
1 = y =
(dh3 12) 2 (dh 2 6)
I
L
and 2 = 0

Thus, 6Pa Nf
=
2
dh
d

## Fig.45 Pure bending specimen.

P
P
N

Therefore,
N
Isochromatic fringe pattern
P 6a
Fig.46 P-N curve
f = 2
L(70)
N h
A graph (Fig. 46) is plotted between P and N and the slope of the curve is
substituted in equation () to determine the f
Here we observe non-escaping type of fringes.

## c) Circular disc under diametral compression

For a circular disc as shown in Fig.47 when it is subjected to a diametral
compression load P, the stresses at interested point (x,y) are given by

2P (R y )x 2 (R + y )x 2 1
x =
+
,

D
d 14
24
2P (R y )3 (R + y )3 1
y =
+
,

d 14
24
D
xy =

P
y
y

2P (R + y ) x (R y ) x

.
d 24
14

xy

x
x

## where the terms are

12 = x 2 + (R y )2

22 = x 2 + (R + y )2
R- radius of disc and d is thickness.

P
Fig.47 Disc specimen

The stresses along horizontal diametral ( i.e., -R < x < R , y = 0) are given
by

2P D 4 x
2P
4D 4
x = 1 =
1 , xy = 0

, y = 2 =

dD D 2 + 4 x 2
dD (D 2 + 4 x 2 )2
2

8P 1 4(x D )
1 2 =

dD 1 + 4(x D )2

6P
2P
1 =
, 2 =
dD
dD

y
2
1

Thus
1 2 =

8P
Nf
=
dD
d

## Fig.48 Disc specimen

P

Therefore,

P 8
f =
N D

L(71)

N
Fig.49 P-N curve
Isochromatic fringe pattern

## An ideal photoelastic material need to have following properties:

a) Transparent to light used in the polariscope.
b) Easily machinable by conventional means.
c) It should have high optical sensitivity as indicated by low fringe values (f
or f)
d) It should have linear characteristics with respect to stress-strain, stressfringe order and stress-fringe order properties for model to prototype
scaling.
e) It should be free from residual stresses.
f) It should have both mechanical and optical isotropy and homogeneity.
g) There should be absence of undue optical and mechanical creep.
h) It should have high modulus of elasticity, ultimate strength and hardness
to avoid distortion and contact problems.
i) It should be free from time-edge effects.
j) Material fringe values f or f should remain constant during moderate
temperature changes.
k) It should have moderate cost.
l) It should have high rigidity

## Following are the types of photoelastic materials used in photoelastic test:

a) Epoxy Resins
b) Columbia Resin CR-39
c) Castolite or Homolite 100
d) Polymethacrylate
e) Bakelite (Catalin 61-893)
f) Polycarbonate
g) Polyurethane Rubber
h) Glass
i) Gelatine
j) Celluloid

## Following are the types of photoelastic materials used in photoelastic test:

a) Epoxy Resins
b) Columbia Resin CR-39
c) Castolite or Homolite 100
d) Polymethacrylate
e) Bakelite (Catalin 61-893)
f) Polycarbonate
g) Polyurethane Rubber
h) Glass
i) Gelatine
j) Celluloid

Mesnagers Theorem

## Mesnagers theorem states that the principal stresses tangent to a given

stress trajectory are a maximum or minimum when an isoclinic cuts the stress
trajectory at right angles.
A stress trajectory line of principal stress or isostatic is a line the tangents to
which at every point coincides with the direction of one of the principal
stresses.
Let S1, S2, S1 and S2 be the orthogonal stress trajectories as shown in Fig.
Let 1 and 2 be the radii of S1 and S2,respectively.Then,
S S
= 1 + 2 = 1 + 2
1
2
Since, points A and C lie on the isoclinic hence, =0.

S1
S
= 2
1
2

or

Also,
tan =

S2

= 2
S1
1

=
= 2
AB S1
1

## Now Lame-Maxwell equation are

1 1 2
+
=0
S1
2

2 1 2
+
=0
S2
1

1
= 0 which is Lame-Maxwell
For1 is maximum or minimum possible, if
S1
equation when 2= .
Hence,

tan =

and

or = 90

Hence proved.
The point at which the isoclinic cuts the stress trajectory at right angles is
called the Cupic point.

## Properties of Stress Trajectories:

 Stress trajectories of one family never intersect each other or mere with
those of the other family.
 At points on a load free boundary or one subjected to normal force
only, the direction of the principal stresses are normal and tangential to the
boundary. A stress trajectory of one family will therefore, coincide with
such a boundary while those of other family will intersect it orthogonally.
 Distance between a load-free boundary and a neighboring stress
trajectory of the same family varies inversely to the tangential stress at the
boundary.
 Since the section of symmetry is stress free, it coincides with a stress
trajectory.
 At isotropic points there always exist stress trajectories which coincide
with the direction of some isoclinics.
 Stress along a stress trajectory reaches a maximum or a minimum value
when the curvature of the intersecting stress trajectory is zero, i.e., the
stress trajectory is straight or has a point of inflexion.
 In doubly or multiply connected bodies the stress trajectories may form
closed loops but not spirals.
 Sign of (1 - 2) is constant along each stress trajectory.

## Construction of Stress Trajectories:

A stress trajectory, line of principles stress, or isostatic is a line such that its
direction at any point coincides with that of one of the principal stresses at the
point.

## Since the two principal stresses at any point of a two-dimensional stress

system are mutually perpendicular, it follows that a system of stress
trajectories will consist of two orthogonal families of curves.

## One of these families indicates the direction of the algebraically greater

principal and other those of the smaller principal stress.

The following methods may be used for the construction of stress trajectories:
1) Let I1, I2, I3 and I4 be the given isoclinics of various parameters 1, 2, 3
and 4 , respectively as shown in Fig.
At points on the isoclinics I1, I2, etc., small lines are drawn in a direction
inclined to the reference direction at an angle equal to the parameters
1, 2, etc., of the respective isoclinics.
Stress trajectories of one family are obtained by drawing smooth curves
tangential to these lines.
By drawing small lines in the perpendicular direction, the orthogonal family
of stress trajectories can be obtained.

2) When the isoclinics are more widely spaced then the method shown in
Fig. will produce more accurate results.
From any point O1 on the isoclinic I1 of parameter 1, a straight line is
drawn inclined at an angle (1+2) to the reference direction to cut the
isoclinic I2 of parameter 2 at the point O2. From O2 a line is drawn at an
inclination of (2+3) to cut I3 of parameter 3 at the point O3 and so on.
Lines are then drawn through the points O1, O2, O3, etc at inclinations
1, 2 , 3,etc respectively.
The curve passing through the points tangential to the polygon formed by
the second set of lines gives the stress trajectory of one family.
Curved segments O1O2, and O2O3 of the stress trajectory S are assumed
to be approximately circular in shape so that
O1C1 = O2C1

## 3) Through any point O1 on isoclinics I1 draw a line at an angle of (1+2)

and locate point O2 on I2 as shown in Fig.
Then draw the line from O2 at the angle (2+3) to locate O3 on I3 and so
on.
Join the points O1, O2, O3, etc by a free hand curve to obtain a stress
trajectory of one family.

## 4) At any point O1 on isoclinic I1 draw a line at any angle of 1 with the

reference line and produce to intersect I2 at O2.
Through C1 draw a line at 2) to intersect I2 and at point O2 such that
O1C1= O2C2 and produce it to intersect I3 at O3.
Through C2 which bisects on O2O3 draw a line at 3 .
Join the points O1, O2, O3, etc by a free hand curve to obtain a stress
trajectory as shown in Fig. .

## Part II- Review of Stress and Strain

STRESS
Consider a body shown in Fig. (2.1), is in equilibrium.
Under the action of external forces, P1, P2, Pn, as surface forces and/or body
forces, internal forces will be produced between the parts of the body.
Knowledge of the internal forces at all points in the body is essential because
these forces need to be less than the strength of the material used in the
structure.
To study the magnitude of these forces at any point, o , let us imagine the body
is divided into two parts 1 and 2, by a cross-section through this point.
It will be assumed that the internal forces are continuously distributed over this
cross-section.
Magnitude of such forces is usually defined by their intensity, i.e., by the amount
of force per unit area of the surface on which they act. This intensity is
called stress.
y
z
P4
y

P3

Py P
1
Pz

Px

2
P2

Pn
P1
z

## In general, if the stress is not uniformly distributed over cross-section, taking

small area on the section and is A (=yz), the resultant force acting on it is
P.
Limiting value of the ratio P/A. gives the stress acting on the cross-section at
the point o.
Limiting direction of the resultant P is the direction of the stress.
In general case, the direction of stress is inclined to the area A. on which it
acts.
Resolving it into a normal or direct stress perpendicular to the area and other
two, shear stresses acting in the plane of the area A..

P4

z
y

P3

Py P
1
Pz

Px

2
P2

Pn
P1
z

## Fig. 2.1 Body with external forces

Notation of Stresses
Letter used for normal stress and the letter for shearing stress.
To indicate the direction of the plane on which the stress is acting, subscripts to
these letters are used.
First subscript denotes the direction of the normal to the face and second
denotes the direction in which the stress component acts.
Px
xx = x = lt
L(2.1)
A0 A
Normal stress component xx acting on the x-face will act in the x-direction .
Similarly,
Py
Pz
xy = lt
and xz = lt
L(2.2)
A0 A
A0 A
where xy and xz shear stresses acting on the faces in y- and zdirection, respectively.
y

P4

P3

Py P
1
Pz

Px

2
P2

Pn
P1
z

## Similarly, stresses can be defined for cross-sections parallel to the xy and xz

planes.
For defining all these stresses, the stress at a point is defined generally by
y
taking an infinitesimal cuboid as shown in Fig.2.2.
dz
yx
Nine different stresses act at a point in the element.
yz
xy
The six shear stresses are related as
zy

xy = xy , yz = zy and xz = zx

dy

zx

xz

dx

## Preceding three relations are found by equilibrium of moments of the

infinitesimal cube.
There are thus six independent stresses.
Stresses x, y, and z are normal to the surfaces of the cuboid and the stresses
yz, zx, and xy are along the surfaces of the cuboid.
A tensile normal stress is +ve, and a compressive normal stress is -ve. A shear
stress is positive, if its direction and the direction of the normal to the face on
which it is acting are both in positive or negative direction; otherwise, the shear
stress is negative.

## State of Stress in Two-dimensions or Plane Stress:

A two-dimensional stated-stress exists when the stresses and body forces are
independent of one of the coordinates. Such a state is described by stresses
x, y and xy, and the body forces Fx and Fy ( z is taken as the independent
coordinate axis). This combination of stress components which are functions of
only x- and y- coordinates called plane stress in the xy-plane(Fig.2.3).
Example In a thin plate located in the plane of the plate there will be no stress
acting perpendicular to the surface of the plate.
y

dz

yz=0

Almirah body

yx

zy=0
Fy

Slim body

Plates

dx and dy >> dz

dy

Fz=0

xy
Fx
zx=0

xz=0

z=0

Paper sheets
Boiler shell

dx

## Fig. 2.3 Two-dimensional plane stress model..

STRAIN
Similar to the need for knowledge of forces inside a body, knowing the
deformations because of the external forces is also important.
Knowledge of deformations is specified in terms of strains, that is, strain is
measure of relative change in the size and shape of the body.
Strain at a point is also defined generally on an infinitesimal cuboid in a righthand coordinate system.
Under loads, the lengths of the sides of the infinitesimal cuboid change and
faces of the cube also get distorted.
Change in length corresponds to a normal strain and the distortion corresponds
to the shearing strain.
Figure 2.4 shows the two-dimensional state-of-strains on one of the
faces, ABCD, of the cuboid. dy
C
u
y

v
dy
y

y
u
y

Undeformed

dy

B
u
A
A(x,y)

Deformed

v
dx
x

v
x

u
dx
x

dx

## Strains and displacements are related to each other.

Take the two perpendicular lines AB and AD.
When the body is loaded, the two lines become AB and AD.
Normal strain in the x direction, x, is defined as the change of length of line AB
per unit length of AB as
AB AB
x = lt
L(2.3a)
dx 0
AB

y = lt
dy 0
u
dy
y

v
dy
y

C
Deformed

D
u
y

Undeformed

dy

B
u
A
A(x,y)

L(2.3b)

v
dx
x

v
x

u
dx
x

dx

## Fig. 2.4 Cuboid with strains

Shear strain is defined as the tangent of the change in angle between the two
originally perpendicular axes.
This component is specified with respect to two axes which are perpendicular on
the undeformed body and is designated by the symbol , with two subscripts to
indicate these two axes.

L(2.3c)
dx 0
dx 0 2

dy 0
dy 0
In the cuboid ABCD, before strain, the length of AB is dx, after strain, A is
displaced to A.
Let us denote the xy components of the displacement of the particle at A by u
and v.
As u and v vary from point to point in the body.
u
dy
y

v
dy
y

Deformed

u
y

Undeformed

C
B

u
A
A(x,y)
o

C
D

dy

v
dx
x

v
x

u
dx
x

dx

## Similarly, the displacements from B to B can be written as

u
v
u=
dx and v =
dy
x
y
u
dx
x-projection of A B is therefore, dx +
x

x

2

L(2.4a)

C
Deformed

D
u
y

Undeformed

C
B

u
A
A(x,y)
o

u
dy
y

v
dy
y

dy

(AB)2

u v

= dx +
dx + dx
x x

v
dx
x

v
x

u
dx
x

dx

Rearranging

## Squaring on both sides,

(AB)2 = ( x + 1)2 dx 2

L(2.4b)

## Equating (2.4a) and (2.4b) we have

u v

( x + 1)2 dx 2 = dx +
dx + dx
x x

u
dy
y

v
dy
y

Undeformed

C
B

u
A
A(x,y)
o

Deformed

u
y

v
dx
x

v
x

C
D

dy

AB AB
x =
AB
AB = AB( x + 1) = dx ( x + 1)

u
dx
x

dx

## Simplification of above equation, we get

u u v
( x2 + 2 x + 1) = 1 + 2
+ +
x x x
Ignoring higher order terms due to small quantities, we get
2

x =

u
x

L(2.5a)

y =

v
y

L(2.5b)

u
dy
y

v
dy
y

Deformed

u
y

Undeformed

C
B

u
A
A(x,y)
o

C
D

dy

v
dx
x

v
x

u
dx
x

dx

## Fig. 2.4 Cuboid with strains

Shearing strain in the xy-plane, is as defined earlier the change in the angle
between sides AB and AD from 90.

xy =
xy =

u v

2
2 2 y x
u v
+
y x

L(2.5c)

Shearing strain is positive when the angle between the sides AD and AB
decreases; otherwise, the shearing strain is negative.

u
dy
y

v
dy
y

Deformed

u
y

Undeformed

C
B

u
A
A(x,y)
o

C
D

dy

v
dx
x

v
x

u
dx
x

dx

## Definitions of the remaining normal and shearing strains for three-dimensional

state-of-strains can be found by noting the change in size and shape of the other
sides of the infinitesimal cuboid in Fig. 2.5 as

w
z
v w
=
+
z y

z =

L(2.5d)

yz

L(2.5e)

zx =

u w
+
z x

L(2.5f)
y

dz

yx

yz
zy

dy

xy
zx

xz

dx

## State of Strain in Two-dimensions or Plane Strain:

A two-dimensional stated-strain exists when the strains are independent of one
of the coordinates. Such a state is described by strains x, y and xy, which are
assumed to be functions of only the x- and y- coordinates, and remaining strains
described by independent coordinate, z are zero(Fig.2.6).
Example: Assumptions of plane strain is applicable for bodies that are long and
whose geometry and loading do not vary significantly in the longitudinal
direction.
dz >> dx and dy
Beam
y

Shaft

yx

dz

Fat body

yz=0

Pipe

xy

xz=0

zy=0
zx=0
dy

z=0
dx

Bridge

Dam

## Fig. 2.6Two-dimensional plane strain model.

Design Preference:
Good design engineer prefers plane stress case of members used in machine,
such members always fail in ductile fracture type thereby ensures integrity in the
machine before becoming pieces.
Analogy: Doctors recommends to keep good health and to look young by
maintaining slim body and such people may not suffer from serious health issues.
Whereas, design engineer wont prefer plane strain case of members used in
machine, such members always fail in brittle fracture type and thus, fails the
integrity in the machine with catastrophic manner.
Analogy: If the person become fat by ignoring health consciousness then such
person may suffer from serious health issues like heart malfunctioning, BP, etc.
and may die in catastrophic manner.
Plane stress -Slim

Plane strain-Fat

## Mirror is keeping happy for plane-strain through images to look as plane-stress.

REFERENCES
1. Anderson TL, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, CRC Press,1995.
2. Broek D, Elementary Fracture Mechanics, Nijhof/Kluwers, 1986.
3. Crandal SH, Dahl NC, and Lardner TV, Introduction to the Mechanics of
Solids, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New Delhi, 1985.
4. Dally JW and Riley WF, Experimental Stress Analysis, McGraw-Hill International
Editions, New York, 1991.
5. Gdoutos EE, Fracture Mechanics : An introduction, Kluwers, 1993.
6. Durelli AJ, Applied Stress Analysis, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1967
7. Hendry AW, Elements of Experimental Stress Analysis, Pergamon Press, New
York, 1977.
8. Ramesh K, Experimental Stress Analysis, NPTEL Videos: Module-01 and Module02, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras, India.
9. Singh S, Applied Stress Analysis, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 1996.
10. Srinath LS, Raghavan MR, Lingaiah K, Gargesa G, Pant B and Ramachandra
K, Experimental Stress Analysis, Tata McGraw-Hill, NewDelhi,1984.
11. Timoshenko S and Goodier JN, Theory of Elasticity, McGraw Hill Book Company, New
York 1951.
12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snell%27s_law
13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plane_wave