Experimental stress analysis

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Experimental stress analysis

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Elective Course

Lecture Notes

Prepared by

Dr. S. M. Murigendrappa

Department of Mechanical Engineering

NITK, Surathkal

03-08-2016

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO STRESS ANALSYS

PART A: FRACTURE MECHANICS

1)

Introduction

2)

Failure Criterions

PART B: STRAIN GAUGES

1)

Introduction

2)

Types of Strain Gauge

3)

Electrical Resistance Strain Gauge

PART C: PHOTOELASTICITY

1)

Nature of Light

2)

Crystal Optics

3)

Two Dimensional Photoelasticity

Part II Review of Stress and Strain

materials and structures subjected to static or dynamic forces or loads.

A stress analysis is required for the study and design of structures, under

prescribed or expected loads.

Stress analysis may be applied as a design step to structures that dont yet

exist.

collection of members, usually referred to as a system, behaves as desired

under the prescribed loading.

For example, this might be achieved when the determined stress from the

applied forces(s) is less than the tensile yield strength or below the fatigue of

the material.

analytical mathematical modelling or computational simulation or a

combination of methods.

1) Analytical Methods

i) Strength of Materials

ii) Solid Mechanics:

Theory of Elasticity

Theory of Plasticity

Theory of thermo-elasticity

Fracture Mechanics

2) Numerical Methods

i) Finite Element Methods

ii) Boundary Element Methods

iii) Mesh-free Element Method

iv) Finite Difference Method

3) Experimental methods

To acquire input data for computations (material characteristics, limit

values of the relevant quantities, assessment of the character and

magnitude of loads).

To verify the results of computational models,

modelling is possible(problems of abrasion, corrosion, erosion,

cavitations, pitting, etc.)

only simple experiments can exist without computations.

methods for evaluation of stresses and strains,

methods for monitoring of the fracture process,

methods for evaluation of the body movements, including its distortions

(displacements),

methods for evaluation of external loads acting upon bodies.

The evaluation of stresses is always based on calculations:

Strains can be measured directly or calculated from the measured

displacements. For the calculation of stresses, knowledge of constitutive

relations and their parameters is necessary.

To obtain the constitutive relations (between stresses and strains) and

their parameters, some basic mechanics tests are necessary. In these

tests the stress values are calculated on the basis of the measured force

and

some

assumptions

on

the

stress

distribution(uni-axial

tension, bending, etc.)

a) Point-by-point methods:

The method which give stress or strain or displacement details at selected

points only in the body under loading.

Examples:

Mechanical extensometers

Optical extensometers

Variable capacitance transducers

Electric strain gauges

b) Whole-field methods:

The method which give stress or strain distribution details in the wholefield of body under loading.

Examples:

Tensometry method

Photoelasticimetry or Photoelasticity

Moire method

Holographic method

Radiographic strain measuring method

Stress pattern analysis

Tensometry method

This method is most frequent method adopted in practical applications.

In contrast to other methods it is local, it does not measure a strain

field(strains in the whole body or on its whole surface) but only the change

of a specified length, which is recalculated in to the average strain value

specific for the gauge location.

Therefore, the accuracy depends on the gauge size and on the strain

gradient.

Photoelasticimetry method

Involves complex experiment with a transparent model using a polarized

light.

It is based on the photoelastic effect: some transparent material become

optically anisotropic under load.

Brittle lacquers method

This method based on the low ultimate strain of some resins, which crack

at a certain value of strain.

These strain indicating lacquers(or films) are advantageous for finding

dangerous locations of the body and the direction of the maximum

principal strain (stress) here.

Moire method

is based on the light interference when passing diffraction lattices: the

difference between the deformed and reference lattices creates the moire

strips corresponding to displacements equal to the lattice span.

Holographic method

is based on the laser light interference between the hologram of an

undeformed body and the real deformed body.

The created interference strips are proportional to the displacement

magnitude.

Disadvantage is that an accurate mutual positioning of the hologram and

the body is extremely difficult.

Radiographic strain measuring method

is based on the diffraction of a monochromatic X-ray on the crystallic

lattice(with span on the order 10-10 m) which acts as a diffraction lattice.

Stress pattern analysis

it exploits the transformation of the strain energy in to heat.

It evaluates temperatures in different points of the body under conditions

of repeated deformation caused by a cyclic loading.

Beams subjected to Point Load applied at the Centre

uniform cross-section geometries.

Concentration approach for the

case only when hole geometry is

comparable with depth of beam

Enlarged

view

showing

the

distribution of stress around

circular hole

elasticity approach for the case by

treating the hole geometry is very

small compared with depth of

beam.

Enlarged

view

showing

the

distribution of stress around

circular hole

Solution is based on

mechanics approach.

Enlarged

view

showing

the

distribution of stress around crack

zone.

fracture

Boundary line of

the disc

P

Corner

Corners

Corner

Fringe pattern

P

head portions and remaining places are larger..

(b) Size of contour increases from the loading point

In young age

In old age

P

(a) Load, P Number of contours(Reversible) Wrinkles around eyes and lips are smaller in size and crowdie

whereas on cheeks and chin, larger size and less crowd;.

(b) Age Number of wrinkles(Irreversible)

Moire Patterns

Moire Patterns

Reference

Loaded

Uniform uniaxial

tension

Local maximum of

displacements

Local manimum of

displacements

Loading

by

isolated force, P

Moire pattern

Moire pattern

Moire Patterns

Moire Patterns

PART A

FRACTURE MECHANICS

24

MOTIVATION

a) Excessive Deformation

b) Breakage of Structure

ii) Buckling- Sudden loss of shape

due to excess deformation

(with or without yielding)

damaged/flawed/cracked structure

25

Examples of failure

(http://www.sozogaku.com/fkd/en/cfen/CB1011020.html)

Crankshaft failure

(http://www.disastercity.info/ghost/sequence/)

Crack in wall

26

collided with a massive iceberg and

sank in less than three hours.

At the time, more than 2200 passengers

and crew were aboard the Titanic for

her maiden voyage to the United

States.

Only 705 survived.

According to the builders of the Titanic,

even in the worst possible accident at

sea, the ship should have stayed afloat

for two to three days.

The material failures and design flaws

that contributed to the rapid sinking of

the Titanic.

In addition, the changes that have been

made in both the design of ships and

the safety regulations governing ships

at sea as a result of the Titanic disaster

(Source from following URL).

http://www.charlesapple.com/2012/04/a-terrific-titanic-anniversary-graphic-from-south-africa/

27

http://www.charlesapple.com/2012/04/a-terrific-titanic-anniversary-graphic-from-south-africa/

28

Examples of failure

HCF in turbine

Spring failure

2) http://www.disastercity.info/

29

INTRODUCTION

design failures observed during the tensile testing are:

Yielding (yield) and

Necking (ultimate)

Lo

do

critical value y the yield strength of the materials.

Similarly the necking phenomenon begins when the applied stress

reaches the value u, ultimate strength of the material.

For designing a component against permanent deformation, yield

strength y becomes the basis for selecting the allowable stress.

Similarly, for designing against the aforesaid mechanical instability

ultimate strength, u, is the basis for selecting the allowable stress.

30

d

f = ys

Pure brittle

d

e Tough

Stress,

c

ys

a

ys

Ductile

b

ys

a

E

e

fd f ts

fg

Strain,

based on the prevention of failure initiation at the most critical point.

This is done by using the one of the conventional failure criteria:

Max normal stress theory

Max shear stress theory, etc.

material is homogeneous and defect-free

According to such design requirements, materials with any defect are

useless

These design practices dont provide any basis for the prevention of failure,

initiation of the flaws.

31

failure immediately on loading There may be a stable crack growth before the instability sets in

there is possibility that crack may not grow at all if the load is below a

certain critical value

The classical approaches dont give any basis for the calculation of this

critical load or the stable crack growth rate

Thus, there is a tremendous scope for the material utilization if one can

predict the failure behaviour or provide the basis for calculation of

strength of components containing crack-like defects.

Such a filling-up of the gap will enable one to design reliably even if the

flaws were to come up during manufacturing or fabrication.

32

is the modulus of elasticity).

But, actual fracture strength of material which occurs without any plastic

deformation of the order E/100 to E/1000 and much below yield point of

the material

Such a situation could not be explained using classical failure theories

These are the questions which have given rise to the discipline of

Fracture Mechanics

This subject has given rise to the new material parameters, in terms of

which brittle fracture of bodies containing crack-like defects is defined.

It has widened the scope of design and it has resulted in designing even

with defective materials.

Is this type of failure governed by a certain parameter reaching a critical

value?

33

FRACTURE

parts under the action of load

Process of fracture

Classification

Crack initiation

Crack propagation

Fracture/separation

Ductile fracture:

- It is characterized by appreciable plastic deformation prior to and during the

propagation of the crack

- An appreciable amount of gross deformation is usually present at the fracture

surfaces.

- It is high-energy process in which a large amount of energy dissipation is

associated with a plastic before crack instability occurs

Brittle fracture

- It is characterized by a rapid rate of crack propagation (catastrophic

failure) and with very little micro deformation

- it is similar to cleavage in ionic crystals

- It is low-energy process in which a low energy dissipation occurs

34

(i)

Cast iron

(ii)

Bronze

(iii)

Copper

Aluminium

(iv)

i) Brittle fracture ii) Shearing fracture iii) Completely ductile fracture in polycrystals and iv)

Ductile fracture in polycrystals

35

FRACTURE MECHANICS

serve the purpose of illustrating the close form of analytical procedures in

order to develop constitutive equations for predicting failure of crack-free

solids.

However, when solids contain flaws or cracks, the field equations are not

completely defined by these theories since they do not consider the stress

singularity phenomenon near a crack tip.

They only provides the means to predict general yielding as a failure

criterion.

Despite the usefulness of predicting yielding, it is necessary to use the

principles of fracture mechanics to predict fracture of solid components

containing cracks.

Fracture Mechanics is an interdisciplinary subject which is concerned with

the effect of loading, configuration and size of the fracture of a load-bearing

body containing a flaw or crack

36

Most static failure theories assume that the solid material to be analyzed is

perfectly homogeneous, isotropic and free of stress risers or defects, such

as voids, cracks, inclusions and mechanical discontinuities (indentations,

scratches or gouges).

Actually, fracture mechanics considers structural components having small

flaws or cracks which are introduced during processing of materials and

manufacturing (e.g. solidification, quenching, welding, machining or

handling) . However, cracks that develop in service are difficult to predict and

account for preventing crack growth.

Important aspect of this field is failure analysis where it able to answer the

following questions

What is the residual strength as a function of crack size?

What size of crack can be tolerated at the expected service load?

How long does it take for a crack to grow from a certain initial size to the critical

size?

What size of pre-existing flaw can be permitted at the moment the structure starts

its service life?

How often should the structure be inspected for cracks?

37

Comparison

Applied Stress

Applied Stress

Flaw Size

Fracture Toughness

38

FRACTURE TERMINOLOGIES

a) Fracture Process Zone: It is a small region surrounding the crack

where fracture develops through the successive stages of

inhomogeneous slip, void growth and coalescence, and bond braking

on the atomic scale

b) Crack Front: It is the line connecting all adjacent sites where separation

may occur subsequently

c) Fracture Surface: During continued separation, crack front will move

along a geometric surface termed the fracture surface. Area of this

surface i.e., the developed crack area, will increase as the crack grows.

Crack

Front

Crack

Surface

Stage

I

Crack

Stage II

39

d) Fracture Mode:

- Fracture mode designates the separation of geometrically

- In Irwins notation,

1) Mode I: It denotes a symmetric opening, the relative

displacements between corresponding pairs being normal to the

fracture surface, i.e., when two surfaces of a crack are being

separated by tensile forces which are applied perpendicularly to the

plane of the crack

2) Mode II: Occurs when in-plane shear forces are applied

3) Mode III: Occurs when out-of-plane shear forces are acting

y

FI

z

Fracture

surface

FII

Crack tip

FI

FIII

FIII

FII

Mode I

Mode II

Mode III

(Opening or

Bending mode)

(In-plane shear or

Sliding mode)

(Out-of-plane shear

or Tearing mode)

40

I. Theoretical Cohesive Strength (An Atomic View of Fracture)

Metals are of great technology value, primarily of their high strength

combined with a certain measure of plasticity

In most basic terms, strength is due to cohesive stress between atoms

In general, high cohesive stresses are related to large elastic

constants, high melting points and small coefficients of thermal

expansion

Following Fig.9 shows the variation of the cohesive stress between two

atoms as function of the separation between these atoms

x0

Atoms

Cohesive strength,

max

x0

0

obtained, if it is assumed that the cohesive strength curve can be

represented by a sine curve,

x

= max sin

/2

x

max

/

2

L(1.1)

Cohesive strength,

2max

=

x

max

x0

0

/2

42

42

x

E = Stress = = 0

Strain x / x0

x

Rearranging above equation and differentiating we get

E

=

L(1.2)

x x0

By combining equations (1.1) and (1.2),

E

E

Max =

L(1.3)

2x0

If we make that x0 /2,

Max = E E

3

where x0 - distance between the atoms in the unstrained condition, and E Youngs modulus.

fracture.

43

2x

WS = Max sin

dx

0

Max

=

Cohesive strength,

producing the fracture goes into the creation of two new surfaces.

Each of these surfaces has a surface energy of S

Work done per unit area of surface in creating the fracture is the area

+

under the stress-displacement curve.

max

i.e.,

x0

0

/2

Fig.10

Cohesive strength as a

function of the separation on

between atoms

But this energy is equal to the energy required to create the two new

fracture surfaces, thus

or

Max

= 2 S

2 S

=

L(1.4)

Max

44

cohesive strength in the material as

i.e.,

Max

2 S

E

=

2 x0 Max

Max =

E S

x0

L(1.5)

complicated than the sine-wave approximation results in estimation of

maximum stress from E/4 to E/15.

45

II.

Materials possess low fracture strengths relative to their theoretical

capacity because most materials deform plastically at much lower

stress levels and eventually fail by an accumulation of this irreversible

damage

In addition, components and structures are not perfect

They contain infinite material defects (e.g., pores, slag particles,

inclusions, and brittle particles), manufacturing flaws (e.g., scratches,

gouges, weld torch arc strikes, weld under cutting and machining

marks), and design defects (e.g., excessive stress concentrations

resulting from inadequate fillet radii and discontinuous changes in

section size).

Stress concentration factor describes the effect of crack or flaw

geometry on the local crack tip stress level in a plate containing a hole

which represents a crack or flaw.

46

In an infinite plate containing an elliptical hole with major axis 2a and minor axis

2b, expressions for the stress distribution are given by (Inglis)

1 x( x 2 a2 + b2 )1 2 a2 x( x 2 a2 + b2 )3 2

x = 2 +

A

A

A

a2 x( x 2 a2 + b2 )3 2

2

2

2 1 2

y = 1 B + Bx( x a + b )

1 2b a

A = 1 b , B =

where,

2 and is the minimum radius of curvature

a

(1 b a )

at the end of major axis.

y

2a

x

2b

W

- Radius of curvature,

47

max = 1 + 2a

b

b2

=

a

max = 1 + 2 a /

Max = 2

Kt

L(1.6)

By substituting = x0 into equation (1.6), we obtain an estimate of the local stress

concentration at the tip of an atomically sharp crack

Max = 2

a

x0

L(1.7)

48

If it is assumed that facture occurs when the local stress concentration at the tip of

an atomically sharp crack equal to the theoretical cohesive strength.

Thus equating equations (1.5) and (1.7), resulting in the following expression for the

fracture stress at the failure.

i.e., rough estimate of failure stress, f is obtained by

E S

= 2 f

x0

f =

a

x0

E s

4a

Es

a

Because of the continuum assumptions upon which the Inglis is based is not valid at

the atomic level.

f =

49

Griffith's main achievement in providing a basis for the fracture

strengths of bodies containing cracks.

for fracture by considering the total change in energy of a cracked body

as the crack length increases.

First law of thermodynamics gives: The change in energy is proportional

to the amount of work performed.

Since, only the change of energy is involved, any datum can be used as

a basis for measure of energy. Hence energy is neither created nor

consumed.

Griffith showed that material fail not because of a maximum stress, but

rather because a certain energy criteria was met.

50

a plate of elastic material under arbitrary loading P, then according to the

first law thermodynamics, a balance must be struck between the decrease in

the potential energy (related to the release of stored elastic energy and work

done by movement of the external loads) and the increase in surface energy

resulting from the presence of the crack.

Thus, the Griffith model for elastic solids show that crack propagation is

caused by a transfer of energy from external work and/or strain energy to

surface energy.

An existing crack would grow by some increment if the necessary additional

surface energy is supplied by the system.

Surface energy results from the presence of a crack as shown in figure

below.

- Radius of curvature,

2a

2b

2a

2a+2da

W

Inglis plate with elliptical hole.

Representation of crack by

collapsing minor axis to zero.

51

remote and uniform tensile load in the direction of the y-axis and

perpendicular to the crack line along the x-axis. What is the external

stress that will cause crack instability value?

Solution:

Surface energy is required to create two new surfaces,

ES = 2 [2a B ] S = 4a B S

L(1.8)

Total release of strain energy,

2

1

ER = 2 (2a ) (2a ) B

2

2E

2a

2a

If = /2, then

a 2B 2

ER =

E

Stress free

zone

L(1.9)

subjected to a remote and 52

uniform tensile load.

For an incremental increase in the crack area, dA (=2 da B), under the

equilibrium conditions:

dE = d + dES = 0

dA dA dA

d dES

=

L(1.10)

or

dA

dA

Potential energy of a body with crack,

= 0 ER

a 2 2B

= 0

E

d d 0 d a 2 2B

1 d 0

1 d a 2 2B

dA

dA dA E

2B da 2B da E

d

2a

=

dA

E

L(1.11a)

dES

d

(4a B S ) = 1 d (4a B S ) = 2 S

=

dA dA

2B da

L(1.11b)

53

2a

= 2 S

E

above equation can be written for fracture stress for the plane stress case as

f =

2E S

a

L(1.12a)

f =

2E S

a (1 2 )

L(1.12b)

Griffith equation (1.12) shows a strong dependence of fracture strength on

crack length

Griffith equation satisfactory predicts the fracture strength of a completely

brittle material such as glass.

However, the Griffith equation severely underestimates the fracture strength of

metals.

54

It is well-known that plastic deformation occurs in engineering metal, alloys and

some polymers prior to fracture.

This is substantiated by x-ray diffraction studies of fracture surfaces and metals

graphic studies of fracture.

Therefore Griffith equation for the fracture strength doesnt apply for metals.

Orowan modified the Griffith equation to account for materials that are capable

of plastic flow by the inclusion of a term plastic deformation energy or plastic

strain work denoted by P, expressing the plastic work required to extend per

unit crack area of surface created.

Revised expression for fracture strength for plane stress case, is given by

f =

2 E ( S + P )

a

L(1.12c)

Plastic zone

Thickness, B

55

V.

In 1956, Irwin proposed an energy approach for fracture

He defined an energy release rate: energy released per unit increase

in area during crack growth

Mathematical formulation;

with an advancing crack, the following happen in a general case:

Strain energy in the component decreases or increases

Stiffness of the component decreases

Points of the component at which external loads are applied may or

may not move, work is being done on the component by these

forces if the points move

Energy is being consumed to create new crack surfaces.

56

incremental work is done, Wext and the strain energy within the body

increases by U.

Thus, the available energy provides the energy balance as

G A = (U Wext )

G=

Thickness, B

G=

d

(U Wext )

dA

d

dA

da

L(1.13)

thickness and then crack area A can be expressed as Ba , where B is

the thickness and a is the incremental in crack length, we have

1 d

G=

B da

2a

=

E

L(1.14)

57

f2ac

G GC =

E

L(1.15)

toughness of the material and is constant, aC- critical crack length, and

C- failure stress

i.

ii.

a) Constant load method

b) Constant displacement method

Change in strain energy approach

a) Constant load method

b) Constant displacement method

58

u=

P

=CP

K

L(1.16)

where P is the applied load, K is the stiffness of the body and C is compliance

Change in Compliance Approach

Strain energy,

External Work,

U = 1 Pu

2

u+du

and

a +da

P

Wext = P u

dU =

1

= U - Wext = P u

L(1.17)

2

Substituting eqns. (1.16) and (1.17) into eq. (1.13),

1 d Pu

1 d

d

=

=

G=

B

da

2

B

da

dA

P du

=

2B da

P 2 dC

=

2 B da

1

P du

2

P

dWext= P du

Load

i.

du

u

Displacement

L(1.18)

Strain energy,

U = 1 P u and

2

External Work,

Wext = 0

1

= U - Wext = P u

L(1.19)

2

Substituting eq. (1.19) into eq. (1.13), we have

1 d

d

=

G=

B da

dA

1 d Pu

=

B da 2

=

u dP

2B da

u

a+da

dU =

P

1

u dP

2

dP

Load

b)

u

Displacement

u

d u

u2 d 1

G=

2B da C

2B da C

u 2 dC

G=

L(1.20)

2

2 BC da

60

(1.20) we obtain energy release rate in terms of rate of change of

compliance as ,

(CP )2 dC

G=

2 BC 2 da

ii.

P 2 dC

=

2 B da

a)

Constant load method:

In this case we have

Strain energy, U = 1 P u = 1 Wext

2

Thus the potential energy of the component with crack is given by

= U - Wext

Energy release rate,

d

d

dU

=

(U - Wext ) =

L(1.21)

dA

dA

dA

Thus the strain energy increases with as the crack advances

G=

61

b)

U = 1 Pu

Strain energy,

2

or External Work,

Wext = 0

= U - Wext

G=

d

d

dU

=

(U - Wext ) =

dA

dA

dA

L(1.22)

62

VI.

Certain cracked configurations, expressions for stress components in

the vicinity of crack tip in the body under external load were reported by

Irwin, Sneddon, Williams and Westergaard

Stress components in the vicinity of crack tip is given by

ij = f (, a, r , , geometry )

2a and for field stress, , the stress field at a

general point H near the crack tip for Mode I

case is given by

11 =

and

(a)

f11() ,

2r

12 =

22 =

(a)

f12()

2r

22

H

r

(a)

f22()

2r

12

2a

63

11

Displacement field for plane strain near the crack tip for the Mode I problem

is given by

( )

( )

( a ) r 1 / 2

( a ) r 1 / 2

u11 =

f11() , u 22 =

f22 () and

u12 = 0

Irwin pointed out that the local stresses near a crack in an elastic body

with crack depend on the product of the normal stress () and the

square root of the half-flaw length (a)

He called this relationship as Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) denoted by K

For the crack configuration shown in figure, the SIF is given by

K =

L(1.23)

It characterizes the crack tip conditions in a linear elastic material

If K is known, it is possible to solve for all components of stress, strain

and displacement

If two different flaw configurations have same value of K, then stress

field around each flaw are identical

64

K =

L(1.24)

geometry.

Critical SIF (KC)

If SIF of a crack approaches or exceeds an upper limit of SIF, the crack

may grow. The Upper limit is known as critical SIF or Fracture

toughness

Critical values of SIF can be used to define the condition for failure, i.e

K KC

L (1.25)

inherent resistance of the material to failure in presence of a crack

In comparison with SIF, the energy release rate, G has a more direct

physical significances to the fracture process.

However, SIF is preferred in working with fracture mechanics because

it is more agreeable to analytical determinations.

65

between energy release rate, G and SIF, K.

i.e., we have from equation (1.14) for energy release rate as

2a

G=

E

GE = 2a

or

K2 = 2 a

L(i)

L(ii)

Equating equations (i) and (ii), we obtain relationship between SIF and

energy release rate for mode I loading as

K2

G=

E

L(1.26)

KC2

GC =

E

L(1.27)

66

In general for Mode I, II and III, the stress intensity factor is written as

KI, KII, and KIII, respectively.

Stress fields ahead of a crack tip in linear elastic material can be

written as

K II

KI

K

fij( II )() and (ijIII ) = III fij(III )()

fij( I )() , (ijII ) =

2r

2 r

2r

In a mixed-mode problem (more than one loading mode is present),

then the stress components are additive:

(ijI ) =

()

()

()

For Mode I:

K IC = f aC =

or = f aC f a

h

For Mode II:

or = f aC f a

K IIC = f aC

h

For Mode III:

K IIIC = f aC

or = f aC f a

h

stress, f(a/h) - geometrical parameter and h - depth of component

67

SIGNIFICANCE OF KI

The stress intensity factor defines the amplitude of the crack tip singularity that is,

stresses near the crack tip increase in proportion to KI

Moreover, KI is known, it is possible to solve for all components of stresses, strains

and displacements as a function of r and

Referring to figure is a schematic plot of the stress normal to the crack plane, y

versus distance from the crack tip, r in the plane of crack (i.e., =0), equation

(1.45b) is only valid near the crack tip where the 1/r1/2 singularity dominates the

stress field.

KI

3

y =

cos

1

+

sin

sin

L (1.45b)

1/ 2

( 2 r )

2

2

2

KI

2r

=

2a

x

Singularity dominated zone

68

It is found that the critical SIF or fracture toughness (KC) is strongly dependent on

the material thickness up to a limiting value.

For a thin plate, plane stress condition (z=0) governs the fracture process

because the plate is too thin to sustain through-the-thickness stress thus the

fracture toughness is depends on the thickness up to a limiting value

For a thick plate, plane strain condition ((z0) prevails in which fracture

toughness becomes a materials property, i.e., fracture toughness is independent

of the thickness beyond limiting value

It is this property, KC, that the designer must use to assure structural integrity.

B

x

y

x

z

z=0

x

z

Illustration of the state of stress at the crack tip for plane stress

and strain conditions

69

Figure (i) shows the variation in fracture toughness for three regions called plane strain,

mixed mode and plane stress as a function of the materials thickness with the amount

of the flat and slanted surfaces corresponding to each region

Figure (ii) shows the variation in the amount of flat fracture as a function of thickness.

B1<B2 < B3

Thin

B1

B2 Medium

B3

KIC

Plane stress

(Ductile fracture)

Thick

Plane strain

(Brittle fracture)

B1

B2

B3

Almost

slanted

Mixed

Almost flat

Plane stress

(Ductile fracture)

Thickness, B (mm)

Plane strain

(Brittle fracture)

70

Fig. (ii) Effect of specimen thickness over flat fracture surface

For thin sections where the state of stress at the crack tip is not triaxial, the

constraint to plastic deformation lessens and failure is associated with plane stress

For the plane strain failure, the portion of the flat surfaces is much larger than the

slanted section

For sections with adequate thickness, in which plane strain and plane stress are

combined, the state of stress is termed mixed mode

B1

B2 Medium

B3

KIC

Thick

Plane strain

(Brittle fracture)

B1<B2 < B3

Thin

Plane stress

(Ductile fracture)

B1

B2

B3

Almost

slanted

Mixed

Almost flat

Plane stress

(Ductile fracture)

Thickness, B (mm)

Plane strain

(Brittle fracture)

71

Fig. (ii) Effect of specimen thickness over flat fracture surface

R-Curve

Crack Resistance:

Energy required for a crack to grow per unit area extension is called crack

resistance and is denoted by the symbol, R.

It characterizes the material behaviour.

For most of the engineering materials crack resistance increases with crack

length as shown in Fig (i).

A minimum value, Ri is needed to make the crack to grow.

Crack resistance depends on the plastic zone size: for a large plastic zone

size, high energy is required to grow the crack because more material is

subjected to plastic deformation

As the crack advances, plastic zone size becomes larger which in turn

requires higher energy for growth of the crack.

R-curve

Ri

a0

Crack size, a

72

72

PART B

STRAIN GAUGES

STRAIN GAUGE

A strain gauge is device used to measure the strains on the free surface of a

body under the loading

can be characterized in terms of six Cartesian components as

=

x

u

,

x

u v

=

+

,

y x

xy

=

y

v

,

y

v w

=

+

,

z y

yz

=

z

w

,

z

=

zx

u w

+

z x

L(1)

all points on the surface of a body strains, at any point on the surface can be

determined.

In strains given in equation (1) are the slopes of the displacement surfaces u,

v and w.

For precision in the estimation of the slopes of the displacement surface, the

in-plane displacements u, v and w should be determined quite accurately.

However, for small strains, the in-plane displacements are quite small.

No versatile and easy method is yet available for the direct measure of these

displacements over the entire surface of a body.

This difficulty is overcome partially by using the strain gauges to measure the

changes in the distance between two points on the surface of the body due to

straining.

shown in Fig. 1.

2

1

x

Px

2'

u

Fig. 1

Change in length

u

=

L (2)

Original length

x

where u is the change in length over a original length or the gauge length, x.

=

x

Note that the strain measured in this manner represents only the average

strain over the gauge length x.

Magnitude of error in the strain measured this way depends on the strain

gradient along the gauge length x and the length x.

Strain gauges usually sense the change in length, magnify it and indicate it in

some form.

Depending upon the magnification of change in length, the strain gauges may

be classified as

a) Mechanical based

i) Wedge and screw

ii) Lever-simple and compound

iii) Rack and pinion

iv) Combination of lever and, rack and pinion

v) Dial indicators

b) Optical based

c) Electrical based

i) Inductance

ii) Capacitance

iii) Resistance

iv) Piezoelectric and Piezoresistive

d) Pneumatic based

e) Acoustical based.

A strain gauge has following basic characteristics:

a) Sensitivity:

It is the smallest value of strain which can be read on the scale

associated with the strain gauge.

Sensitivity can defined in two waySmallest reading of scale

i) Deformatio n sensitivit y =

Multiplication factor

ii) Strain sensitivit y =

Deformatio n sensitivit y

Base length

same times, the selection of gauge with very high sensitivity increases

the complexity of the measuring method.

b) Range:

This represents the maximum strain which can be recorded without

resetting or replacing the strain gauge.

c) Accuracy or precision:

Sensitivity does not ensure accuracy usually the very sensitive

instruments are quite lead to errors unless they are employed with the

utmost care.

d) Gauge length:

Strain cannot be measured at a point with any type of gauge and as a

consequence, non-linear strain fields cannot be measured without some

degree-of error being introduced.

In these cases, the error will depend on the gauge length, x.

In selecting a gauge for a given application, gauge length is one of the

most important consideration.

Selection of strain gauges

Some of the optimum characteristics commonly used to select the adequacy

of a strain gauge for a particular application are the following:

Calibration constant for the gauge should be stable; it should not vary

with either time or temperature.

Gauge should be able to measure strains with an a accuracy of 1m/m

over a strain range of 10%.

Gauge size i.e., the gauge length x should be small so that strain at a

point is adequately approximated.

sufficient to permit recording of dynamic strains.

Gauge system should permit on-location or remote readout.

Output from the gauge during the readout period should be independent

of temperature and other environmental parameters such as vibration,

humidity, etc.

Gauge and the associate auxiliary equipment should be economically

feasible.

Gauge system should not involve over complex installation and

operational techniques.

Gauge should exhibit a linear response to strain.

Gauge should suitable for use as the sensing element in other

transducer systems where an unknown quantity such as pressure is

measured in terms of strain.

Electrical strain gauges are most frequently used devices in the stress

analysis work through out the world today, because they exhibits all the

properties required for an optimum system.

These devices produces a change in some electrical characteristics relative

to the change in mechanical properties such as length.

Electrical strain gauges may be classified as follows:

a) Inductance or magnetic strain gauge

b) Capacitance strain gauge

c) Electrical resistance strain gauge

d) Piezoelectric and piezoresistive strain gauge.

Out of these four types, electrical resistance strain gauges have become

more popular and reliable.

In the electrical resistance strain gauges the displacement or strain is

measured as a function of the resistance change produced by the

displacement in the gauge circuit.

are:

a) Their small size enables them to be used in situation where other types

of gauges cannot be used

b) As they have negligible mass, their effect on the quantity being

measured is insignificant. Further, they respond faithfully to rapidly

fluctuating strains.

c) As the output is electrical, remote observation is possible. Further, the

output can be displayed, recorded or processed as required.

Applications:

a) Experimental study of stresses in transport vehicles- Aircrafts, Ships,

Automobiles, etc.

b) Experimental analysis of stresses in structures and machines- Buildings,

Bridges, Pressure vessels, Transmission towers, Machine tools,

Engines, etc.

c) Experimental verification of theoretical or numerical analyses.

d) Aid design and development of machines and structures

e) Assist failure or fracture analyses

f) As a sensing element in transducers for measurement of force, pressure,

displacement, torque, etc.

discovered in 1856 by Lord Kelvin.

and iron wires due to a tensile strain.

different materials have different sensitivity.

glued to the test specimen so that the surface strain in the test specimen is

transferred to the wire through the glue.

At the same time, Ruge developed the concept of mounting the wire on a thin

piece of paper and then bonding the paper to the test specimen.

Modern bonded strain gauge is similar to the type developed by Ruge as

shown in Fig.2.

To Wheatstone bridge

Load

Adhesive

Specimen

Solder tabs

Backing/bonding paper

Load

Filament or wire

To Wheatstone bridge

sensing element of the strain gauge, however, circuit requirements needed to

prevent overloading of the power supply and to minimize heat generated by

the gauge current place, a lower limit of approximately, 100 on the gauge

resistance.

As a result, 100 strain gauge fabricated from wire having a diameter of

0.025mm and a resistance of 1000/m requires a single length of wire

100mm long.

To Wheatstone bridge

Load

Adhesive

Specimen

Solder tabs

Backing/bonding paper

Load

Filament or wire

To Wheatstone bridge

There are basically four types of electrical resistance strain gauges

:

1) Unbonded strain gauges

i) Non-metallic

ii) Metallic

2) Bonded strain gauges

i) Non-metallic

ii) Metallic

a) Wire type

b) Foil type

3) Weldable strain gauges

4) Peizoresistive gauges

Unbonded non-metallic strain gauge is a mechanically actuated gauge that

contains a resistance element so arranged that when one part of the gauge

is displaced with respect to another there is developed a change in pressure

on the measuring element of the gauge.

This change in pressure, changes the resistance of the element which may

be recorded by electrical means.

Fig. 3 depicts the gauge consists of carbon plates, actuated rod and

terminal block.

another changes the pressure on the stack of plates.

Terminal block

Carbon plates

Actuated rod

Terminal block

Load

Specimen

Fig. 3 Unbonded non-metallic strain gauge

When load is applied on the structure to which the gauge is attached, the

change in length is communicated to the carbon plates stack.

thereby resistance of the stack changes.

This type of gauges have been used to determine displacements, loads and

strains in flexible cables, vibrating components, bridges, etc.

Terminal block

Carbon plates

Actuated rod

Terminal block

Load

Specimen

Fig. 3 Unbonded non-metallic strain gauge

Working principle of the gauge is based on the change in electrical

resistance of a metallic wire due to the change in tension of the wire.

Fig. 4 show the gauge constructed by winding wire in three coils, the first

providing a coil unaffected by the gauge motion and other two having tension

attached by the gauge motion, each in an opposite manner.

Whole gauge is mounted in a sleeve that allows only longitudinal movement.

Coils are placed under initial tension in to a four arm Wheatstone bridge .

As the compressive strain is applied the pre-strain will be relieved and the

unbonded element will be remain taut.

This type of gauges are usually used for experimental stress analysis.

Movable frame

Fixed frame

Load wire

In this gauge a non-metallic resister element is directly bonded to the surface

of the specimen in which strain is to be measured.

Carbon is usually used as non-metallic resister element.

Carbon coating is applied directly to the surface of the specimen.

If the underlying surface such as coating is stretched, the carbon particles,

will move apart, the coating is under compression the particles move closer,

thereby, the resistance will change.

This resistance change can be interpreted in terms of strain.

Fig. 5 shows the gauge.

Carbon particles

Load

Plastic sheet

Specimen

Lead wire

in plastic sheets.

These sheets are then cut into strips about 6mm wide and 25mm long.

On each end of the strip a silver band is plated so that loaded wires may be

attached.

Carbon particles

Load

Plastic sheet

Specimen

Lead wire

small piece of paper or plastic sheet.

a) bonded-wire strain gauge

b) bonded-foil strain gauge

length of wire in the form of a gird fixed in place with a suitable cement.

After attaching the lead wires to the two ends of the wire flat grid as shown in

Fig. 6.

To Wheatstone bridge

Load

Adhesive

Backing/bonding paper

Specimen

Solder tabs

Load

Filament or wire

Fig. 6 Bonded -wire flat gird strain gauge

core in the form of a close-wound helix as shown in Fig. 7.

This core is then flattened and cemented between layers of paper for

purpose of protection and insulation.

Wrap-gauge are not suitable for use on thin sections subjected to bending as

the strain indicated by it is inaccurate due to thickness effect.

Generally, flat-grid gauges are preferred as they are superior to wraparound gauges, in terms of hysteresis creep, elevated temperature

performance, stability under hydrostatic pressure fluctuation and current

carrying capacity.

Backing/bonding paper

Specimen

Solder tabs

Load

Filament or wire

Plated cylinder

(insulated material)

To Wheatstone bridge

Fig. 7 Bonded wrap around flat grid Strain gauge

Fig. 8 depicts the gauge has a grid made from a very thin strain-sensitive foil

only a few microns in thickness.

Width of foil only very large as compared to the thickness so that the gauge

provides a much larger area for cementing the gauge

Since the are of bonding is greater, thereby they have enhanced heat

dissipation properties.

As this permits use of higher voltage levels for gauges excitation, higher

sensitivity can be achieved.

To Wheatstone bridge

Load

Adhesive

Backing/bonding paper

Specimen

Solder tabs

Load

Filament

(Foil grid)

Fig. 8 Bonded foil gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

As the foil gauge has a larger contact area for bonding on to the specimen,

the stress in the adhesive is lower, consequently, the stress relaxation and

hysteresis are significantly less in foil gauges.

For these reason, the performance of the foil gauge is superior to that of the

wire-gauge.

Advantages of foil type gauge over the wire type gauge:

Width of the foil at the end of each loop can be greatly increased to

reduce the sensitivity of the gauge to transverse strains.

Gauge factor is higher by 4 to 10% than the other.

To Wheatstone bridge

Load

Adhesive

Backing/bonding paper

Specimen

Solder tabs

Load

Filament

(Foil grid)

Fig. 8 Bonded foil gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

ratio of surface area to cross0section area. This increases heat

dissipation and avoids adhesion between the grid and the backing

material.

These gauges are easier to manufacture.

These gauges can be used to measure strain in curved surfaces.

These gauges are suitable for static and dynamic strain measurements.

They have very good fatigue properties.

To Wheatstone bridge

Load

Adhesive

Backing/bonding paper

Specimen

Solder tabs

Load

Filament

(Foil grid)

Fig. 8 Bonded foil gauge

To Wheatstone bridge

Some of limitations of the bonded type of metallic gauges are their

comparatively, costly and time consuming due to complicated method of

bonding.

This realization lead to the development of the weldable wire resistance

strain gauges.

A strain gauge is capable of being installed in minute and in any

environment.

Weldable strain gauge consists of a strain sensitive element, nickel chrome

or platinum tungsten, housed within a small diameter stainless steel tube.

Strain is insulated from tube with highly compacted ceramic insulation or

metallic oxide powder normally high purity magnesium oxide.

Powder

Filament

Strain tube

Mounting flange

Specimen

A

Fig. 9 Weldable strain gauge

Load

Section A-A

Gauges are equipped with a thin flange spot welded to the strain tube.

This flange is subsequently spot welded to the structure under test and

provides the bond required to transfer strain when the gauge is welded to the

specimen and the specimen put in to tension or compression, the stress is

transmitted through the weld to the mounting flange, into the strain tube and

through the magnesium oxide powder.

Weldable strain gauges can be used for a wide range of static and dynamic

measurement applications.

Their construction and positive attachment make it possible to measure

strain at high or low temperatures and in sever environment including shock

and vibration, steam, salt water, etc.

Powder

Filament

Strain tube

Mounting flange

Specimen

A

Fig. 9 Weldable strain gauge

Load

Section A-A

Piezoresistive strain gauge consists of crystals of silicon germanium, quartz

or Rochelle salt which show a change in resistance when deformed by

applying the pressure.

This effect can be utilized to measure the strain.

Gauge Factor

in a conductor per unit of its initial resistance to the applied axial strain. It is

also known as gauge factor.

dR R

FA =

L(3)

a

where R is the resistance of a wire and a is axial strain.

Resistance of a wire is given by

L

L

=

L(4)

R=

A

cD 2

where L is the length of wire, is specific resistance of wire and cD2 = A, area

of cross-section of the wire.

Here, D is a sectional dimension and c is a proportionality constant.

For example, c =1 and /4 for square and circular cross-sections, respectively.

Taking logarithms to equation (4), we get,

log R = log + log L log c 2 log D

L(5)

where the wire is strained axially each of the variables in equation (4) may

change.

Therefore, differentiation of equation (5) yields,

dR d dL

dD

=

+

02

R

L

D

Or

dR d dL

dD

=

+

2

R

L

D

L(6)

dR R

dD D d

= 1 2

+

dL L

dL L dL L

dL

=

L

L(7)

FA =

dD D

dL L

dR R

d

= (1 + 2 ) +

a

a

dD

= t

D

L(8)

L(9)

In this equation, the first term (1+2 ) represents the change in resistance

due to geometrical changes in wire due to strain.

FA =

dR R

d

= (1 + 2 ) +

a

a

L(9)

The second term of the right-hand side of equation (9) is positive for most

of the materials and nearly zero for some; in a few cases it is negative.

The value of Poissons ratio is nearly 0.3 for most of the materials.

Therefore, if we take the value of second term as zero , the value of gauge

factor should be equal to 1.6 for most of the materials.

However, due to effect of second terms, the value of gauge factor ranges

from -12 to +4 for most of the materials, with a most common value of

approximately 2.0 for the materials generally used for strain gauge

construction.

a high quality precision resistor which must be attached to the specimen

with a suitable adhesive.

For precise strain measurements both the correct adhesive and proper

manufacturing procedure must be employed .

Adhesive serve a vital function in the strain measuring system, it must

transmit the strain from the specimen to the gauge sensing element without

distortion.

Following are the desirable characteristics of the adhesives:

a) High mechanical, creep resistance and electric strength

b) Minimum temperature restrictions

c) Good adherence giving shear strength of 10 to 14 MPa

d) Minimum moisture absorption

e) Ease of application

f) Low settling time.

A wide variety of adhesives are available for bonding strain gauges

Cellulose nitrate, Epoxy, Cyanacrylate and ceramic cements serve fairly

well bonding materials.

surface of the specimen where the gauge to be located.

Preparation consists of sanding way any paint or rust to obtain a smooth

but not highly polished surface.

Next, solvents are employed to remove all traces of oil or grease.

Finally, the clean, sanded and degreased surface is treated with a basic

solution to give the surface the proper chemical affinity for the adhesive.

Gauge location is then marked on the specimen and the gauge is

positioned by using a rigid transparent tape.

Position and orientation of the gauge are maintained by the tape as the

adhesive is applied and as the gauge is pressed into place by

squeezing out the excess adhesive.

After the gauge is installed, the adhesive must be exposed to a proper

combination of pressure and temperature for a suitable length of time to

ensure a complete cure.

electrical signal, this quantity is to be processed further to convert electrical

signal to reliable data.

This requires a strain gauge circuit.

Simplest measuring system consists of three functional units as shown in Fig.

10

First stage or primary detector system serves the desired input signal with the

exclusion of all others and provides an analogous output signal.

It receives the input quantity by self generation or voltage or current

conversion and produces a second physical quantity capable of amplification.

For strain measurements, these include resistance, capacitance, etc.

First Stage

Primary sensor

or

Transducer

Intermediate Stage

Signal Conditioner

Fig. 10 Basic measuring circuit

Terminating Stage

Recorder

or

Indicator

usable by final stage and may perform one or more basic operation, such

as selective filtering, interpretation, differentiation, amplifying and matching.

evaluated by an unaided human sense or by a controller.

Analogue indicators are of the moving pointer and scale, moving scale and

index, and light beam and scale types.

readouts of the null balance type.

1) Static strain

2) Dynamic Strain

a) Transient strain

b) Periodic strain

c) Random strain

Static strain:

Static strains are primarily those which dont change rapidly, are not

subjected to discontinuities and are related to continuous process or steady

state system conditions.

These are time independent and there is no necessity to record each point

at all times.

Dynamic Strain

Dynamic strain contains rapid fluctuations of both periodic and random

nature.

Amplitudes of these rapid fluctuations may be systematic and ordered and

unstable in nature.

Types of Circuits:

There are two types of circuits used for strain measurements. They are

a) Wheatstone bridge

b) Potentiometer

Wheatstone bridge circuit is preferred for the static strain measurements

and the potentiometer for dynamic strain only.

Both these circuits operated either on DC or AC supply.

A complete strain gauge instrumentation diagram is shown in Fig.11.

DC Battery

Static strain

Wheatstone bridge

DC Amplifier

DC Battery

Dynamic strain

Potentiometer

DC Amplifier

Fig. 11 Strain gauge instrumentation diagram.

C.R. Oscillograph

C.R. Oscilloscope

C.R. Oscillograph

C.R. Oscilloscope

Wheatstone Bridge

meter is as shown in Fig. 12.

In this bridge, each of the resistance arms can represent a strain gauge.

A voltage V is applied to the bridge.

Some measuring instrument or meter such as a Galvanometer is used to

measure the output of the bridge.

B

R1

R2

i2

i1

A

C

i4

i3

R4

i

Galvanometer

R3

D

V

(i) Balanced Bridge:

Requirement for balance, i.e., zero potential difference E between points B

and D can be determined as follows:

V

Voltage drop VAB across R1 is VAB = i1R1 =

R1

L(10)

R1 + R2

V

Similarly, the voltage drop VAD across R4 is VAD = i 4R4 =

R4

L(11)

R3 + R4

Potential difference between B and D, VBD is given by

VBD = VAB VAD = E

L(12)

R1

R2

i2

i1

A

C

i4

i3

R4

i

Galvanometer

R3

D

V

R1

R4

E =V

R

+

R

R

+

R

1

2

3

4

R1R3 R2R4

=V

(

)(

)

R

+

R

R

+

R

1

2

3

4

L(13)

The condition for balance is that the voltage E should be zero, i.e., the

numerator in equation (13) should be zero, thus

0 = R1R3 R2R4

or

R1 R4

=

R2 R3

L(14a)

R1 R2

=

R4 R3

or

or

L(14b)

R4

R2

L(15)

R3

Equation (14) gives the condition for the Wheatstone bridge to balance.

i.e., the ratio of resistances of any two adjacent arms of the bridge must

be equal to the ratio of the resistances of the remaining two arms taken in

the same order.

If the resistance, R1 is strain gauge mounted on a specimen, the bridge

can be balanced first under no load by altering the ratio of resistances,

R4/R3 suitably.

After, the specimen is loaded, the bridge can be balanced again by

adjusting the ratio of resistances, R4/R3.

If the change in this ratio is known, then the change in the strain gauge

resistance, dR1 due to the load can be determined.

The corresponding strain can be calculated using equation (3). i.e.,

R1 =

FA =

dR1 R1

a

or

a =

dR1 1

R1 FA

L(16)

where the gauge axis coincides with the axis of the specimen.

Consider again an initially balanced bridge and then change, for example,

the resistance R1 by an incremental amount dR1.

As the bridge will then be unbalanced a voltage dE will be produced

between the B and D which can be measured with a suitable meter.

As the bridge is initially balanced, from equation (14b)

R1 R2

=

R4 R3

L(17)

R1

R2

i2

i1

A

i2

i3

R4

i

R2

i1

Galvanometer

C

i4

R1+dR1

i4

R3

i3

R4

i

R3

D

dE

the voltage dE across B and D is from equation (13)

dE = V

(

)(

)

R

+

dR

+

R

R

+

R

1

1

2

3

4

L(18)

(18) by R1R3 and noting that R1R3 = R2R4, we get,

dR1 R2R4

1 +

R1 R1R3

dE = V

dR

R

R

1 + 1 + 2 1 + 4

R1 R1 R3

dR1

R1

=V

1 + dR1 + R2 1 + R4

R1 R1 R3

B

R1+dR1

R2

i2

i1

A

C

i4

i3

R4

i

R3

D

V

dE

Put

R2 R3

=

= m into above equation and simplifying the denominator,

R1 R4

we get,

Or

dR1

m

R1

dE =

V

(1 + m )2 1 + dR1 R1

(1 + m )

dE =

where (1 ) =

m

dR1

(1 )

V

2

(1 + m ) R1

1

1 dR1

1+

(1 + m ) R1

L(19)

case where all the four resistances R1, R2, R3 and R4 change by

incremental amounts dR1, dR2, dR3 and dR4, respectively.

m

V

dE =

(1 )

2

R

R

R

R

(1 + m ) 1

2

3

4

where (1 ) =

L(20)

1

.

dR dR3

1 dR1 dR4

1+

+

+ m 2 +

(1 + m ) R1 R4

R3

R2

negligibly small when the strain measured by normal metallic strain

gauges.

If the nonlinear term is ignored, when strains are less than about 5% then,

dE =

m

2

(1 + m ) R1 R2 R3 R4

L(21)

Equation (21) shows that the unbalance of the bridge is proportional to the

sum of strains in opposite arms and to the difference of strains in adjacent

arms.

unbalance voltage dE produced by unit strain.

From equation (21), the bridge sensitivity SV is

dE V

=

SV =

2

a (1 + m ) R1

R2

R3

R4

a

In a multiple gauge circuit with n strain gauges, the strain gauges are usually

so connected that their outputs add up.

Hence, one can write

dR1

=

R1

R2

R3

R4

R1

L(23)

L(22)

dR1

= Fa a into above equation, we get

Substituting the value for

R1

dR1 dR2 dR3 dR4

= Fa a

R1

R2

R3

R4

L(24)

SV = V

m

Fa

2

(1 + m )

L(25)

It may be noted that equation (25) is applicable in cases where the bridge

voltage V is fixed or constant and is independent of the gauge current.

It is also seen that the bridge sensitivity is dependent on

a) Magnitude of the bridge voltage, V

b) Gauge factor, Fa

c) Bridge factor, and

d) Ratio of resistances, m.

Potentiometer Circuit

Potentiometer circuit is as shown in Fig. 13, the increment in the open circuit

voltage dE of the potentiometer circuit can be derived as follows:

When the resistances in the circuit are R1 and R2, the open circuit voltage E

across AB is

E =V

R1

1

=V

R1 + R2

1+ m

C

R2

Capacitor

B

V

R1

A

Fig. 13 Potentiometer Circuit

L(26)

respectively,

E + dE = V

L(27)

R1 + dR1

R1 + dR1 + R2 + dR2

Thus,

R1

R1 + dR1

+ dE = V

R1 + R2

R1 + dR1 + R2 + dR2

R1 + dR1

R1

dE = V

R1 + dR1 + R2 + dR2 R1 + R2

1 dR1 dR2

2

R

R2

(

1+ m) 1

dE = V

1 dR1

dR2

+

1+

m

(1 + m ) R1

R2

On simplification,

R2+dR2

Capacitor

B

V

R1+dR1

dE

A

Fig. 14 Potentiometer Circuit

Or

dE = V

m dR1 dR2

(1 )

2

R

R

(1 + m ) 1

2

L(28)

dE = V

m dR1 dR2

2

(1 + m ) R1 R2

L(29)

C

R2+dR2

Capacitor

B

V

R1+dR1

dE

A

Fig. 14 Potentiometer Circuit

Potentiometer circuit sensitivity is defined as the output signal per unit strain.

It is given by

SV =

V

m dR1 dR2

2

a (1 + m ) R1

R2

L(30)

SV =

dE

a

V

m dR1

m

=

VF

a

a (1 + m )2 R1

(1 + m )2

L(31)

voltage V and ratio m = R2/R1 .

Sensitivity, SV is limited by the maximum power P that can be dissipated by

the gauge without unfavourable effects on its performance.

Strain gauges are used to measure quantities like axial load, bending

moment, torque, etc.

Special circuit required for measurement of some of these quantities

considered here are:

a) Measurement of axial force

b) Measurement of torque

Fig. 14.

Strain gauges

R1

R2

1

2

dE

R3

R4

3

(a)

3

(b)

Fig. 14

V

(c)

Location of these gauges in the Wheatstone bridge such that the output is

proportional only to the strain due to axial load is shown in Fig.(a).

The output dE from a Wheatstone bridge is

dE =

As =

m

2

R

R

R

R

(1 + m ) 1

2

3

4

dR R

, the output dE in terms of strain is given by

FA

dE =

m

VFA { 1 2 + 3 4 }

2

(1 + m )

Strain gauges

L(32)

R1

R2

1

2

dE

R3

R4

3

(a)

3

(b)

Fig. 14

V

(c)

(i)

P

The axial strain a in the bar due to load P is a = a =

E AE

As gauges 1 and 3 senses axial strain, thus a = 1 = 3

Gauges 2 and 4 sense the transverse strain t which is equal to -a.

Hence,

t = a = 2 = 4

Noting that all gauges have the same resistance, m =1, thus,

1

1

1

{

}

VF

{

}

=

VF

2

1

+

=

VFA a (1 + )

A

a

a

a

a

2

A a

4

2

(1 + 1)

V FA P

(1 + ) L(33)

dE =

2EA

dE =

Strain gauges

R1

R2

1

2

dE

R3

R4

3

(a)

3

(b)

Fig. 14

V

(c)

If a bending moment is acting on the beam as shown Fig (b),the bridge

output due to this can be determine as follows:

Resolving this moment M into components M1 and M2, it is seen that gauges

1 and 3 are subjected to equal to and opposite bending strain proportional to

moment M2.

Also, gauges 2 and 4 are subjected to bending strain proportional to moment

M1 .

( ) = ( + )

and ( ) = ( ) = 0

1 M2

3 M2

( 2 )M = ( + 4 )M

1

2 M2

and

4 M2

( 1 )M = ( 3 )M = 0

1

Hence,

( 1 )M = ( 3 )M

and ( 2 )M = ( 4 )M

Therefore, the output due to bending moment M is

dE M =

m

VFA {( 1 )M ( 2 )M + ( 1 )M ( 2 )M } = 0

2

(1 + m )

M1

1

Strain gauges

L(34)

R1

1

R2

2

dE

M2

2

4

3

(a)

3

R3

R4

3

(b)

V

(c)

Stresses in the square beam due to a torque T Fig (e), are

max =

Hence,

4.81T

b3

and x = y = z = 0

L(35)

1 = 2 = 3 = 4 = 0

Thus, the output of the bridge is directly proportional to the axial load and is

independent of the torque and bending moment.

x

x

1

Strain gauges

1

T

4

4

3

(d)

3

(e)

Measurement of torque

surface act along directions inclined at 45 to the axis of the shaft.

in sign.

Four gauges are mounted so that a pair of them (gauges 1 and 2) are along

the principal directions at selected point on the surface of the shaft, the other

pair of gauges (gauges 3 and 4) are mounted diametrically opposite to the

former pair of gauges as shown in Fig. 15.

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

Independent of the axial load and bending moment,

Independent of temperature variations and

Four times the output from a circuit with a single gauge mounted

along the direction of one of the principal axes.

R1

R2

1

1

4

dE

45

3

45

1

3

R3

R4

2

T

Right-hand

Side View

Front View

Fig. 15

Left-hand

Side View

V

Fig. 16

D3

D 3

T =

= G( 1 2 )

16

16

D 3

= G ( 1 + 1 )

16

3

G D

= 1

8

E 1D 3

=

2(1 + ) 8

since 1 = 2

shaft, 1 and 2 are the principal strains on the surface (1 =- 2) and

also 3 = -4 = 1.

R1

R2

1

1

4

dE

45

3

45

1

3

R3

R4

2

T

Side View

Front View

Fig. 15

Side View

V

Fig. 16

Therefore,

dE =

m

VFA { 1 ( 1 ) + 1 ( 1 )}

2

(1 + m )

since m = 1.

= VFA 1

T 16(1 + )

since

= VFA

3

E D

16(1 + )

dE =

VFAT

L(36)

3

E D

1 =

T 16(1 + )

E D 3

Thus, the output of the bridge is directly proportional to the torque applied to

the shaft.

R1

R2

1

1

4

dE

45

3

45

1

3

R3

R4

2

T

Side View

Front View

Fig. 15

Side View

V

Fig. 16

Assume that the shaft besides being subjected to torque, T, is also subjected

to a bending moment M and axial load P as shown in Fig. 17.

Cross-section of the shaft with the diameter AB along which all the gauges

are located, making an angle with the axis.

Bending strains 1b and 2b in gauges 1 and 2, respectively are equal (tensile)

and proportional to the distance y from the neutral axis.

Bending strain 3b and 4b in gauges 3 and 4, respectively also equal in

magnitude to strains 1b and 2b but are compressive.

Therefore, 1b = 2b = - 3b = - 4b.

Hence, the output (dE) due to being moment M is given by

dE =

m

VFA { 1b 1b + ( 1b ) ( 1b )} = 0

2

(1 + m )

L(37)

Thus, the output indicated from the strain gauges is independent of any

bending moment acting on the shaft.

1

B

3

A

2

T

M

3

Front View

Side View

Fig. 17

The strain in the gauges 1 and 4 due to axial load P on the shaft are equal in

the magnitude and same sign.

Therefore, 1a = 2a = 3a = 4a.

Hence, the output (dE) due to axial load P is given by

dE =

m

VFA { 1a 1b + 1a 1a } = 0

2

(1 + m )

L(38)

Thus, the output from the bridge is independent of any axial load acting on

the shaft.

1

B

3

A

T

P

P

T

3

Front View

Side View

Fig. 17

known, then the strain gauges can be oriented along these directions, and

strain measurements may be made.

However, when the state-of-strain is not known, then three or more gauges

may be used at the point to measure the state-of-strain at a point.

homogeneous and linear material, and of strain gradients so small that the

strain can be considered as substantially uniform over the area covered by the

rosette gauges.

Stress-Strain Relationship:

Consider the case where the three gauges in the rosette are placed at

arbitrary angles relative to the x- and y-axes as shown in Fig. 18.

The strains along these directions A, B and C are related to strains x, y and

xy. That is,

+ y x y

A = x

+

cos 2 A + xy sin 2 A

2

2 2

xy

x + y x y

B =

sin 2 B

+

cos 2 B +

2

2

2

+ y x y

C = x

+

cos 2C + xy sin 2C

2

2 2

L(39)

where A, B and C are the angles between the x-axis and the directions A, B

and C, respectively.

y

Strain gauges

A

C

B

C

gauges oriented along these directions.

Hence, x, y and xy can be found out by solving the simultaneous equations

(39).

Principal strains and principal directions are then determined through

1

( x + y ) + 1

2

2

1

1

2 = ( x + y )

2

2

xy

tan 2 =

x y

1 =

and

2

y ) + xy

L(40)

2

y ) + xy

2

y

Strain gauges

A

C

B

C

Here is the angle between the x-axis and the principal axis corresponding

to strain 1.

From the principal strains 1 and 2, the principal stress 1 and 2 can be

determined from

1 = E

(1 + 2 )

L(41)

1 2

( + )

2 = E 2 2 1

1

y

Strain gauges

A

C

B

C

Strain gauges may be arranged in the following ways to obtain the strain

rosettes:

a) Two gauge rosette

b) Rectangular rosette

C

C=90

i) Three-element

B

B

ii) Four-element

B=45

B=90

c) Delta or Equiangular rosette

A

d) T-delta rosette

A=0

(i) Two-gauges rosette

D

D=120

C C=90

B

B=60

A

A=0

B=120

B=120

C=60

C=60

C

(iii) Four-gauges

rectangular rosette

A

A=0

(ii) Three-gauges

rectangular rosette

A=0

A

A=0

D D=90

Fig. 19 Strain gauge rosettes

In this rosette, the three gauges are laid out so that the axes of gauges at B

and C are 45 and 90, respectively to the axis of gauge A.

Thus,

A = 0, B = 45 and C = 90

A = x

B = x

x

C =

+ y x

+

2

+ y x

+

2

+ y x

+

2

2

2

y

1

cos 2( 45) + xy sin 2( 45) = ( x + y + xy )

2

2

2

y

xy

sin 2(90) = y

cos 2(90) +

2

2

y = C

L(42)

xy = 2 B ( A + C )

x = A

C=90

B

B=45

A

A=0

Fig. 19(ii) Three-gauges rectangular rosette

principal strains, principal stresses and their direction as

1

( A + C ) + 1

2

2

1

1

2 = ( A + C )

2

2

1 =

( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2

( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2

1

( + )

1 = E A C +

2(1 ) 2(1 + )

1

( + )

2 = E A C

2(1 ) 2(1 + )

tan 2 =

2 B ( A + C )

A C

( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2

( A C )2 + {2 B ( A + C )}2

L(43)

In this rosette, the two gauges are placed at an angle of 90, as shown in Fig (i)

Thus,

= 0 and = 90

+ y x y

A = x

+

cos 2(0) + xy sin 2(0)

2

2 2

= x

xy

x + y x y

B =

sin 2(90) = y

+

cos 2(90) +

2

2 2

1 = x = A

2 = y = B

( + )

1 = E A 2 B

1

( + A )

2 = E B

1 2

0

tan 2 =

A B

L(44)

= 90

B

B=90

A

A=0

Fig. 19 (i) Two-gauges rosette

120 and 240, respectively to the axis of gauge A.

Thus,

+ y x y

= x

A = x

+

cos 2(0) + xy sin 2(0)

2

2 2

1

+ y x y

B = x

+

cos 2(120) + xy sin 2(120) = ( x + 3 y 3 xy )

4

2

2 2

xy

1

x + y x y

(

=

x + 3 y + 3 xy )

C =

sin 2( 240)

+

cos 2(240) +

4

2

2 2

B

y = {2( B + C ) A }

L(45)

4

xy =

( C B )

x = A

B=120

C=240

C

A=0

principal strains, principal stresses and their direction as

1

( A + B + C ) +

3

1

2 = ( A + B + C )

3

1 =

2

3

2

3

( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2

( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2

( + B + C )

2

1 = E A

+

3(1 + )

3(1 )

( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2

( + B + C )

2

2 = E A

3(1 + )

3(1 )

( A B )2 + ( B C )2 + ( C A )2

tan 2 =

3( C B )

2 A ( B + C )

L(46)

Transverse Sensitivity

perpendicular to the primary sensing axis, a-a of the gauge as shown in Fig.

20.

Practically, all gauges possess some degree of transverse sensitivity.

However, their transverse sensitivity is a small fraction of their axial sensitivity.

In wire strain gauges the response of the wire to the strain perpendicular to

the wire axis is negligibly small.

Hence, transverse sensitivity of wire strain gauges is due to almost entirely to

the portion of the wire in the end loops lying in the transverse direction.

While flat gird wire gauges exhibit only positive transverse sensitivity.

In foil gauges, the end loops in a foil gauge have a relatively large crosssection, hence their contribution to transverse sensitivity is quite small.

t

a a

Fig. 20 Strain gauges

However, the axial segments of the grid have a large width-to-thickness ratio.

Hence, in these gauges the response of axial segments to the transverse

strain transmitted to the axial segments is largely a function of the relative

thickness and elastic modulii of the backing and the foil.

It is common practice to calibrate a strain gauge in a uniaxial stress field, i.e.,

in a biaxial strain field with the ratio of the transverse-to-axial strain equal to

the Poissons ratio of the specimen material.

Thus, the manufacturers gauge factor Fa is strictly valid only for this strain

field.

Output of the strain gauge in any biaxial strain field can be expressed as

dR

L(47)

= Fa a + Ft t

R

where a and t respectively, are strain parallel and perpendicular to the gauge

t

axis.

a

t

Bonded -wire flat gird strain gauge

Fig. 20 Strain gauges

a =0

t

dR R

t

dR

F

L(48)

= Fa a + t t = Fa { a + K t t }

R

F

a

where Kt is the transverse sensitivity factor for the gauge.

The manufacturers gauge factor F is determined in a uniaxial stress field on a

material with Poissons ratio, o.

t = o a

L(49)

a

=0

Therefore,

and

F=

dR R

a

L(50)

Fa ( a K t o a )

= Fa (1 K t o )

L(51)

a

It is noted that equation (50) is strictly valid for the uniaxial stress field used by

manufacturer to calibrate the strain gauge.

In all other strain fields, the strain determined through equation (50) with the

manufacturers gauge factor, F will be in error.

F=

The magnitude of this error for a strain gauge in a biaxial strain field with

strains a and t can be determined as follows:

dR

F a

t

=

1

+

K

t

R (1 K t o )

a

L(52)

dR R (1 K t o )

a =

L(53)

t

F

1

+

K

t

a

dR R

a =

L(54)

F

Substituting equation (54) into equation (53), we get

a = a

(1 K t o )

t

1

+

K

L(55)

The error a percentage of the actual strain along the gauge axis, t is given

by

a

t = a

100

L(56)

a

t =

K t ( o + t a )

100

(1 K t o )

L(57)

Equation (57) shows that the error t is a function of Kt and the strain biaxiality, t /a.

In the analysis, the strain gauge readings were assumed to be free from errors

due to transverse sensitivity effects.

In actual practice, the effects of transverse sensitivity should always be

studied while measuring the stresses in a biaxial stress field with strain

gauges.

If it is found that the error due to transverse sensitivity effects is significant, the

strain gauge readings should be corrected for it.

(a) Two-element Rectangular Rosette:

Consider two-element rectangular rosette with gauge axes aligned with

two perpendicular axes x and y on the test surface.

It is assumed that the individual gauge elements in the rosette have the

same transverse sensitivity.

From equation (52), noting that the axes are x and y and, not a and t, we

get,

y

B=90

(dR R )x = = x + K t y

L

(58a)

x

F

1 K t o

x

(dR R )y

F

y + Kt x

= y =

1 K t o

A=0

L(58b)

where strains with bar are indicated by gauges along x and y directions

respectively. Strains without bar are the corresponding corrected strains.

1 K t o

{ x K t y } L(59a)

x =

1 K t2

1 K t o

{ y K t x } L(59b)

2

1 Kt

As the (1-K2t ) generally in excess of 0.995, it can be taken as unity. Then

y =

x = (1 K t o ){ x K t y }

y = (1 K t o ){ y K t x }

L(60a)

L(60b)

The analysis of data can be further simplified by setting the gauge factor

control on the strain measuring instrument at Fa instead of F, the

manufacturers gauge factor.

Equation (58) can then be rewritten as

(dR R )x = (dR R )x = = + K

x

x

t y

F (1 K t o )

Fa

(dR R )y (dR R )y

=

= y = y + K t x

F (1 K t o )

Fa

L(61a)

L(61b)

where strains with cap are strains indicated with gauge factor setting at

F/(1-o Kt).

Solving equation (61) for x and y and noting that 1- Kt=1, we get,

x = x K t y

L(62a)

y = y K t x

L(62b)

Equations (62a) and (62b) are for the gauge elements oriented along any

two orthogonal axes x and y.

In actual practice, the two-element rectangular rosette is generally used

with the axes of the gauge elements oriented along the principal axes.

In such a case, x- and y-axes would denote the principal axes, 1 and 2,

respectively.

The corrected principal strains are from equation (59) given by

1 =

1 K t o

{ 1 K t 2 }

1 K t2

L(63a)

1 K t o

{ 2 K t 1}

1 K t2

L(63b)

2 =

Individual strain readings A , B and C

of a three-element rectangular

rosette can be corrected for transverse sensitivity effects as follows:

From equation (59), the corrected strains A and C along the orthogonal

axes A and C respectively, are

1 K t o

{ A K t C } L(64a)

1 K t2

1 K t o

{ C K t A } L(64b)

C =

2

1 Kt

From the condition (A +C ) is an invariant, the strain along axis D

orthogonal to axis B can be estimated as

~D = A + C - B

Substituting the orthogonal strains B and ~D in to equation (59a), the

corrected strain B is obtained as

1 K t o

C

{ B K t ( A + C B )} L(64c)

B =

2

C=90

1 Kt

A =

determine

the

principal

strains,

stresses and directions.

Note that all the three gauges in the

rosette have the same transverse

sensitivity.

B=45

A

A=0

Fig. 19(ii) Three-gauges rectangular rosette

Expression for correcting Individual strain readings from a delta rosette for

transverse sensitivity effects can be derived for the case where all the

three gauge elements have the same transverse sensitivity, Kt.

Thus,

=

x

y =

1

[2( B + C ) A ]

3

Substituting these orthogonal strains into equation (59a) and noting that

A = x , we get,

1 K t o K t

2

(

)

A =

1

+

L(65a)

A

t

B

C

2

1 K t

3

3

Therefore,

1 K t o

1 K t2

2

K t

1 + B K t ( C + A )

3

3

1 K t o

C =

1 K t2

2

K t

1 + C K t ( A + B )

3

3

B =

L(65b)

B=120

C=240

L(65c)

principal strains, stresses and directions.

A=0

conductivity intermediate between that of an insulator and a conductor.

Following are strain gauges made from the semiconductor:

a) Piezoresistive gauges

b) Piezoelectric gauges

Piezoresistive gauges

The piezoresistive effect, which refers to the phenomenon in which the

change in resistance of a semiconducting material accompanies

deformation.

The use of semiconductor for strain gauges based upon the

piezoresistance effect was determined by Mason and Thurston in 1957.

Basically, the semiconductor strain gauge consists of a small ultra-thin

rectangular filament of a single crystal of silicon which is usually mounted

on a carrier to simplify handling.

Semiconducting material exhibit a very high strain sensitivity, with values of

FA ranging from 50 to 175 depending upon the type and amount of impurity

diffused into the pure silicon crystal.

Materials

Following materials are used in producing semiconductor strain gauges.

1) Mono-atomic elements: These are single crystals like Boron, Arsenic,

Germanium, Silicon.

2) Ionic crystals: These are the compounds in which atoms are held mainly

by electrostatic or coulomb binding.

3) Valence crystals: These are the compounds like, silicon-carbide, indiumantimonide, etc.

Thus, all semiconducting materials are crystalline in nature, in producing

semiconductor strain gauges, ultrapure single-crystal silicon is usually

employed.

Construction

(i) Gauge materials and Manufacturing:

Semiconductor gauges are produced from single-crystal silicon.

Majority of gauges are cut from ingots of roughly cylindrical shapes,

which have been grown by a special doping process.

Prior to cutting, the pure material is doped with the exact amount of

foreign impurity atoms required for the particular purpose.

The cutting is generally accomplished with a special diamond saw.

Final size of the filament usually is 0.05mm thickness (cross-sectional

area 2.510-9 m2).

Semiconductor filaments of even smaller cross-section have been

produced by condensation of silicon vapour on the cool walls of quartz

tube.

These needle shaped whiskers grow to a single length of 5 to 15mm with

cross-sectional area of only 2 to 510-10 m2.

The lead material for the semiconductor filament is generally used as

gold, doped with a small amount of antimony, in order to avoid

rectification effects at the junction.

(ii) Types of Semiconductor Gauges:

Semiconductor strain gauges are basically single filament gauges and

their geometries dont much except for gauge length and lead

arrangement .

Gold wire

Filament

Backing

Lead ribbon

(i) Encapsulated gauge

(ii)

Fig. 21 Semiconductor gauges

(iii)

bare gauge

Piezoelectric gauges

Certain crystals and ceramics when mechanically strained in particular

directions become electrically polarized.

The change can be measured by applying electrodes to the surfaces and

measuring the potential difference between them, the phenomenon is called

piezoelectric effect.

It is found that the effect is reversible that is the application of an emf between

the plates results in a strain.

Substances, that possess this property are called piezoelectric.

Basically, the piezoelectric effect arises from an asymmetrical charge

distribution in the material structure.

A deformation of lattice results in a relative displacement of these internal

charges, causing the substance to exhibit a change in the surface charge.

Materials

Piezoelectric materials are of two kinds naturally occurring materials such as

quartz and rochelle salt, and synthetic materials such as barium titanate,

ceramic and lead zirconate titanate ceramic.

The lead zirconate titanate ceramic must be artificially polarized during

fabrication in order to exhibit piezoelectric properties.

Ceramic are fabricated to any desired shape, mechanically very stable and

have large piezoelectric coefficients.

In strain gauge applications the signal generated by the strain gauges through

use of Wheatstone bridge or potentiometer must be measured accurately to

determine the strain.

The output from a circuit is quite small and varies from several microvolts to

few millivolts.

with conventional measuring instruments.

This equipment may be broadly classified on the basis of the type of strains

(static or dynamic) to be measured:

i) static-strain measuring instruments and

ii) Dynamic-strain measuring instruments

The static strain may be measured by a Wheatstone bridge.

The bridge may be either operated on DC or AC,

When AC is employed, then a carrier system has to be used.

Generally, null balance system (the output signal read by a meter is nulled out

by adjustment of variable resistors) is preferred over the out-of-balance

method because the null balance system is more accurate than the direct

readout and is less expensive.

The null balance system is as shown in Fig. 22.

In this system there are two Wheatstone bridges: transducer and reference

bridges.

S

VT

Transducer

bridge

Reference

bridge

Indicator

Vg

As strain gauges are arranged in the transducer bridge, the output of this

bridge is a measure of the strain to be measured.

The reference bridge is constructed using unknown fixed resistors.

Both the bridges are balanced initially using the respective parallel-balancing

networks.

The transducer bridge is then made to sense the quantity, say strain, to be

measured.

When the switch S is closed, the indicator pointer deflects indicating that the

combined output of the two bridges is some quantity other than zero.

The reference bridge is unbalanced through the series-balancing system until

the indicator pointer shows zero or null reading.

S

VT

Transducer

bridge

Reference

bridge

Indicator

Vg

directly the quantity to be measured.

In the manual null balance strain indicators the output from each gauge is

recorded manually on data sheet.

Audio frequency

oscillator

Bridge

AF Amplifier

Detector

Meter

Oscilloscope

Fig. 24 shows the DC generation of the Wheatstone bridge and Fig. 25 shows

AC operation.

Initial balancing

resistance

Rg+dRg

RG

To current or voltage

indicator or recorder with

or without amplification.

VT

Rg

Load resistor

Rch

Fig. 24 DC operation of Wheatstone bridge

Gauge factor

adjustment

R2

R1

AF

oscillator

Bridge balance

slide wire

RF

R4

Amplifier

Rectifier

Filter

CRO

R3

Meter

With this instrument, the Wheatstone bridge is initially balanced and then the

voltage output due to strain is amplified and read out on a digital voltmeter.

When relatively large strain gauge installations are used to analyze a problem

then automatic data acquisition systems should be employed.

Shunt calibration

Active

Dummy

Zero balance

Digital

voltmeter

important consideration in selecting the recording system.

The following table considered in selecting the instrument depending upon the

strain frequency.

Sl. No.

Frequency range

Instrument

potentiometer recorder and

xy-recorder.

Intermediate (0-10kHz)

High (0-20kHz)

Frequency modulation

instrument, tape recording.

xy-recorders, which employ servometer together with feed back control and

null-balance positioning can be used to measure the output voltage from the

strain gauge bridge.

Fig. 27 depicts the operating principle of such an instrument.

Potentiometer recorder can be used to measure voltage from 1V to 100V.

Chart speed can be varied over a wide range of 25mm/s to 50mm/s.

Because of their low frequency response, the potentiometer cant be used in

strain gauge applications where the strain signal has frequency components

greater than 1Hz.

Differential

amplifier

Servo

amplifier

Reference

Servo

voltage

balancing

meter

Input signal

Feed back

Fig. 27

Recording

mechanism

galvonometers as the recording device are the wildly use method.

There are two different types of oscillographs: Pen-writing type and lightwriting type.

In the case of pen-writing type, the galvonometer drives a pen or hot stylus,

wherein, the light-writing type, the galvonometer drives a mirror and a beam of

light is used to write on a photosensitive paper.

For measuring strain at high-frequencies, magnetic tape analog data

recording systems are used.

Data recorded and stored on magnetic tape are usually played back and

displayed on an oscillograph.

By varying the tape speed during playback, the time base can be extended or

compressed.

Information stored on magnetic tape can be reliably re-trived any number of

times and different analysis made.

PART C

PHOTOELASTICITY

Introduction

technique based on an opto-mechanical property called birefringence,

possessed by many transparent polymers.

Combined with other optical elements and illuminated with an ordinary light

source, a loaded photoelastic specimen (or photoelastic coating applied to an

ordinary specimen) exhibits fringe patterns that are related to the difference

between the principal stresses in a plane normal to the light propagation

direction.

A method called stress freezing allows the method to be extended to threedimensional problems.

complex geometry.

Advantages.

Photoelasticity, as used for two-dimensional plane problems,

provides reliable full-field values of the difference between the principal

normal stresses in the plane of the model,

provides uniquely the value of the non-vanishing principal normal stress

along the perimeter(s) of the model, where stresses are generally the

largest,

furnishes full-field values of the principal stress directions (sometimes

called Stress Trajectories),

is adaptable to both static and dynamic investigations.

Disadvantages

photoelasticity requires that a model of the actual part be made (unless

photoelastic coatings are used),

requires rather tedious calculations in order to separate the values of

principal stresses at a general interior point,

can require expensive equipment for precise analysis of large

components,

is very tedious and time-consuming for three-dimensional work.

NATURE OF LIGHT

Periodic Disturbances:

Consider a disturbance is propagated through a space in a periodic as shown

in Fig. 1.

Let y be the magnitude of disturbance and is periodic in x, then,

y = f (x)

Time taken for one wavelength to pass through a point in space is called

period and is denoted by .

If c is the velocity of propagation of the disturbance, then,

=c

L(1)

L(2)

y

f(x)

y

Periodic wave

x

A

c

Fig. 1 Periodic motion

Let the disturbance is originated from a point source.

Disturbances travel outward in all directions and if the medium is isotropic, the

speed of propagation of these disturbances will be the same in all directions,

Consequently, the disturbances traverse in the form of diverging spherical

waves.

Locus of points having the same magnitude of disturbance is called wavefront.

Wave-fronts are surfaces of concentric spheres with the same as centre is as

shown in Figs. 2 and 3.

As these spherical waves expand outwards the radius becomes larger and

any finite portion of the wave-front tends become a plane (Fig. 3).

Directions of propagation of the disturbance would be perpendicular to the

plane and is called the wave-normal.

Spherical wave-front

Plane wave- front

Surface wave

Source

Wave direction

r

Spherical

wave-front

Fig. 2

Wave direction

Fig. 3

Consider a plane wave propagation in the x-direction as shown in Fig. 4(i),

with velocity c, the wave-front is parallel to the yz-plane.

At time t=0, the disturbance be

y = f (x)

L(3)

After a time t, the disturbance will have travelled a distance ct and the graph

shown in Fig. 4(ii), will have shifted parallel to itself by a distance of ct.

Hence, the disturbance at a point

x (t ) = x (0) + ct

L(4)

At time t is the same as the disturbance at x(t) = x(0)

y

Plane wave-front

Light vector

A

c

c

Wave direction

Plane

Fig.4 (i) Light wave

Wave direction

Plane

Fig. 4(ii) Periodic motion

In other words, from equation (3), the disturbance at point x at time t is same

as the disturbance that excited at (x-ct) at time t=0, i.e., f(x-ct).

Therefore, the disturbance at x at time t is

y = f ( x ct )

L(5)

For a plane-wave travelling backward, then,

y = f ( x + ct )

Plane wave-front

L(6)

Light vector

A

c

c

Wave direction

Plane

Fig.4 (i) Light wave

Wave direction

Plane

Fig. 4(ii) Periodic motion

A function f(x) is periodic in x, can be expanded in a Fourier series as

2m

(x + m )

f ( x ) = A0 + Amcos

L(7)

m =1

where A0, Am and m are constants.

For a periodic wave travelling forward with a velocity c, the Fourier expansion

is

2m

(x ct + m )

f ( x ct ) = A0 + Amcos

L(8)

m =1

2

(x ct + 1 ) is the

The first vibrating component of series, i.e., A1cos

2

(x ct + )

y = Acos

L(9)

The constant A called the amplitude, the quantity (x-ct+) is called the phase

angle associated with wave y at position x and is initial phase of wave y.

Nature of Light

Disturbance that is being propagated can be either perpendicular to the

direction of propagation or in the direction of propagation.

If the disturbance is normal to the propagation direction, it is called a

transverse wave and when it is in the direction of propagation it is called

longitudinal wave

Light waves belong to the class of transverse waves and the disturbance can

be represented by means of a vector called the light-vector.

Light-vector is perpendicular to the direction of propagation.

Light is known to be an electromagnetic disturbance propagated through

space and two vectors namely, the electric force vector, E and magnetic force

vector, H.

These vectors are mutually perpendicular and either of these can be taken as

fundamental light-vector.

E

Starting point of

single light wave

H

Magnetic light wave

Direction of

propagation

(Fig. 6)

2

(x ct + )

y = Acos

L(9)

y = Acos

ct + 1

where 1 is constant .

From equation (1)

c 1

= = f

L(11)

Thus, the circular frequency denoted by is

= 2 f

L(10)

Plane wave-front

Light vector

L(12)

y = Acos( t + 1 )

Light wave, y

A

c

Wave direction

L(13)

Planee

colour.

The lowest frequency which the human eye can recognize as light is about

3901012 Hz and this corresponds to deep red colour and the light frequency

is about 7701012 Hz corresponding to deep violet.

Between these two frequencies, one finds the colours arranged as

VIBGYOR

Light corresponding to one particular frequency and one colour is said to be

homogeneous or monochromatic.

All electromagnetic disturbances travel in vacuum with the same velocity

300106 m/s.

Hence, the various colours can be distinguished by their wavelengths in

vacuum.

For visible light, the wavelength of extreme red and extreme violet are

respectively, 77010-9m and 39010-9m.

Generally, the wavelengths are expressed in Angstrom units, i.e., 1=10-10m

or 0.1nm.

Polarization

The electric vector used to describe the light wave is restricted to a single

plane.

Light exhibiting this preference for a plane of vibration is known as plane or

linearly polarized light.

That is, if the tip of the light vector is forced to follow a definite law, the light

is said to be polarized.

Example: If the light vectors of all light rays emanating from a source are

restricted to a single plane or the light vector is parallel to a given direction

in the wave-front then the light is said to be linearly or plane polarized

(Fig.7)

y

Light vector

Light vector

Polarizer-1

(Vertical)

representation

Polarizer-2

(Horizontal)

Incident light

(Unpolarized)

Polarizer

axes

x

Vertically polarized light

y

z

Light Source

Vertically

polarized light

Fig. 7 Linearly polarized light

x

Horizontally polarized light

be circularly polarized.

If the tip of the light vector in Fig.8(i) describes the circle in a clockwise

direction, then it is said to be left-handedly circularly polarized.

If the path is in counter-clockwise direction, then it is right-handedly

circularly polarized, as shown in Fig.8(ii).

This notation is adopted so as to be consistent with the right-handed

coordinate system.

Positive x-axis is away from the source and the vibrations are in planes

parallel to the yz-plane.

y

-z

-z

x

(i) Left-handedly

(ii) Right-handedly

In photoelasticity, many calculations have to be made on the resultant

produced by the superposition of two or more simple harmonic motions of

the same frequencies.

There are several methods to carry out these calculations.

Let us consider two methods, which are most conveniently used

a) Algebraic method

b) Using complex quantities.

a) Algebraic method

Consider two simple harmonic motions, represented by

y1 = A1 cos( t + 1 )

y 2 = A2 cos( t + 2 )

where 1 and 2 are initial phase of waves y1 and y2, respectively.

Then,

y = y1 + y 2 = A1 cos( t + 1 ) + A2 cos( t + 2 )

y = A sin( t + )

L(14)

provided

and

2

tan =

A1 sin 1 + A2 sin 2

A1 cos 1 + A2 cos 2

Equation (14) implies that the resultant of two simple harmonic motions of

the same frequency is itself a simple harmonic motion having the same

frequency as its components.

By repeated applications of this process it becomes evident that the

resultant of any number of simple harmonic motions of the same frequency

is itself a simple harmonic motion of this frequency.

b) Calculation using complex quantities.

A simple harmonic motion of the form (10) can be represented by the real

part of a complex quantity of the form

y1 = k {A1e i ( t + ) }

1

= kA1{cos( t + 1 ) + i sin( t + 1 )}

y1 = A1 cos( t + 1 )

y = y1 + y 2 = R{A1e i ( t + ) }+ R{A2e i ( t + ) }

1

= R{A1e i t e i }+ R{A2e i t e i

1

= R{A1e i + A2e i }e i t

1

y = R A e i t

where

A = A1e i + A2e i

1

L(15)

An elliptically polarized light is the most general form of polarized light since

a circle can be considered as an ellipse with major and minor axes being

equal.

Similarly, a straight line is a degenerated form of an ellipse with the minor or

major axis being equal to zero.

Consider two general simple harmonic motions of the same frequency in

two orthogonal directions give rise to an elliptical motion as (Fig. 9)

u = A1 cos( t + 1 )

v = A2 cos( t + 2 )

= 2 1

Plane of

Polarization

v

x

Fig. 9 Two orthogonal SHMs

Thus,

v = A2 cos( t + 1 + )

u2

= A2 cos 1 2 sin

A1

A1

Since,

u

cos( t + 1 ) =

A1

u2

and sin( t + 1 ) = 1 2

A1

Plane of

Polarization

v

x

Fig. 9 Two orthogonal SHMs

Therefore,

v

u

u2

= cos 1 2 sin

A2 A1

A1

v

u

u2

cos = 1 2 sin

A2 A1

A1

or

u

cos

A2 A1

= 1 2 sin

A1

v u

u2 2

2uv

+ cos

cos = 1 2 sin

A2 A1

A1

A1A2

2

v u

2uv

+ (cos 2 + sin2 )

cos = sin2

A1A2

A2 A1

2

u v

2uv

+

cos = sin2

A1 A2 A1A2

2

or

or

u v

2uv

+ = sin2 +

cos

A

A

A

A

1 2

1 2

2

L(16)

Axes u and v of the ellipse are oriented at an angles and (+/2), such

that

2A A

tan 2 = 2 1 2 2 cos

A1 A2

If a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse, their values are given by

b = A12 sin2 + A22 cos2 2 A1A2 cos sin cos

ellipse (16) becomes

2

2

u v

+ = 1

L(17)

A

A

1 2

and a =A1 and b =A2.

i.e., result of adding two plane-polarized waves that are neither in phase nor

in the same plane is a special kind of rotating wave, called an elliptically

polarized wave, having the same frequency as the component waves, but

which is not restricted to a single plane.

if we regard the positive senses for the horizontally and vertically polarized

waves as being to the right and upward, respectively. With increasing time,

an elliptical path is traced by the amplitude vector of the resultant wave.

u

Plane of

Polarization

u

v

v

x

Elliptically

polarized

Fig. 10 Elliptically polarized wave

Case 2:

A very important special case of elliptically polarized light is circularly

polarized light, which can be (and usually is) created by combining

orthogonal plane-polarized waves of equal amplitude (i.e., A1 =A2) that are

out of phase by exactly one-quarter of a wavelength, i.e. = /2.

For this special combination of plane waves, the resultant wave is a rotating

wave having constant amplitude and constant angular frequency .

=

2

Plane of

Polarization

Right-handedly

Left-handedly

y

z

v

Circularly

polarized

Fig. 11 Circularly polarized wave

Case 3:

If two waves are propagating in the same direction, vector algebra may be

applied to the wave amplitudes to determine the resultant wave amplitude.

Consider first the addition of two plane polarized waves that are in phase

(i.e., = 0) but that have different planes of polarization

The vector addition of these two waves produces a new or resultant planepolarized wave having the same frequency, wavelength, and phase as the

component waves.

Note that the two planes of polarization need not be orthogonal in order for

this result to hold.

Plane of

Polarization

v

x

x

Resultant plane

of polarization

Crystal Optics

Passage of Light through Isotropic Media:

Consider a plane harmonic wave that is incident upon a plane of separation of

two media.

Two media are isotropic, i.e., their optical properties are independent of

orientation of reference axes.

The trace of the wave-front in the plane of the paper is shown (Fig.13).

Let i be an angle of incidence of the wave-front with plane of separation AB

and v1 be the velocity of wave-front in medium-1.

The wave-fronts can be replaced by their respective wave normals or rays as

shown in Fig.13.

Incident

raypath,v1

Interface

Normal Incident

= angle of zero

Reflected

wave

i

i

90

Medium-1

Medium-2

r

Refracted

wave,v2

observed as

a) The normal to the incident wave, normal to the interface and normals to

the reflected and refracted rays, all lie in one plane.

b) Angle of incidence i is equal to the angle of reflection.

c) Ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of

refraction is a constant for two given isotropic media. the constant is

termed the relative refractive index of medium-2 to medium-1. This is

represented by n12. If the incident wave is in vacuum, then the refractive

index of medium-2 relative to vacuum is termed the absolute index of

refraction of medium-2 and is represented by n2.

If c is the velocity of light in vacuum, then

c

sin i v1

=

= n12 , n2 =

v2

sin r v 2

and

n1 =

c

v1

Incident

raypath,v1

L(18)

Interface

Normal Incident

= angle of zero

Reflected

wave

i

i

90

Medium-1

Medium-2

r

Refracted

wave,v2

Consider a crystalline plate of thickness d.

Let a plane polarized light be incident normally as shown in Fig 14.

Two refracted waves travel through the medium with velocity v1 and v2, and

both are plane polarized.

These directions of polarization are called the polarizing axes.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v1, Acos

oi

v2, Asin

x0

oe

2

(x ct + )

Acos

where A is the amplitude, c is the velocity, is the wave length and all in air.

At the interface, the amplitude gets resolved in to Acos and Asin.

Two vibrating components travel with different velocities inside the crystal and

when they emerge, there is a certain amount of phase difference between

them.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v2, Asin

x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

crystal, the frequency of the light wave remains unchanged, then

2

(x ct + ) = A cos 2 c x t + = A cos 2

Acos

c

c

x

f t +

c

c

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

L(19)

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v2, Asin

x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

Just inside the front face, each vibrating component will have a phase .

Thickness of the crystal is traversed by the two components with different

velocities v1 and v2.

Hence, at the exit, the phases of the two components are given by

d

d

+ 2 f and + 2 f

L(20)

v1

v2

Where d/v1 and d/v2 are the times taken by the two waves to travel a distance, d.

The times fd/v1 and fd/v2 give the number of cycles of oscillation during these

intervals. and 2fd/v1 and 2fd/v2 express them in radian.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v2, Asin

x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

A light ray not passing through the crystal, will have a phase equal to

d

+ 2 f

c

at the same point as above, i.e., x0+d, where x is the distance to the front face

of the crystal.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v2, Asin

x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

therefore given by

1 1

d

d

c 1 1 2d

+ 2f + 2f

= 2df = 2d =

(n1 n2 ) L(21)

v

v

v1

v2

v1 v 2

1

2

where n1 and n2 are the absolute refractive indices of the medium for the two

rays.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v2, Asin

x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

Absolute phase differences for the two vibrating components are given by

and

d

(n1 1) and d (n2 1)

2d

d

d

+ 2f + 2f =

(n1 1)

c

v

d

d 2d

+ 2f

+ 2f =

(n2 1)

v

c

d

(n1 n2 )

L(22)

L(23)

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v2, Asin

x0

v1, Acos

oi

oe

2

(x ct + d (n1 1) + ) and Acos 2 (x ct + d (n2 1) + )

Acos

L(24)

u = {Acos }cos( t + 1 ) and v = {Asin }cos( t + 2 )

where

1 2 =

2 d

(n1 n2 )

L(25)

L(26)

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v, Asin

x0

u, Acos

oi

oe

Comparing equation of ellipse (16) and equation (25), it is observed that the

light coming out of a crystalline medium is in general elliptically polarized.

This is shown in the Fig 14.

This is known as the ellipse of light or light ellipse.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Source

Stressed

crystalline

plate

Polarizer

Polarizing axes

v, Asin

x0

u, Acos

oi

Elliptically

polarized Light

oe

free of stress become optically anisotropic and display characteristics similar

to crystals when they are stressed.

These characteristics persist while loads on the material are maintained but

disappear when the loads are removed.

transparent non-crystalline materials.

Consider a model of uniform thickness made of glass, epoxy or some

transparent high polymer material.

Let the model be loaded such that it is in a plane state-of-stress.

Then the state-of-stress at any point can be characterized by the three

rectangular stress components. x, y, and xy or by the principal stresses 1

and 2 and their orientations with reference to a set of axes as shown in

Fig.15.

Let n0 be the refractive index of the material when it is in a free-stress state.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Stressed

crystalline

plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer

Polarizing

axes

1

u

x

x

oi

Elliptically

polarized Light

oe

a) Model becomes doubly refractive (optically anisotropic)

b) Directions of the polarizing axes in the plane of the model at any point Oi

coincides with the directions of the principal stress axes of that point.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Stressed

crystalline

plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer

Polarizing

axes

1

u

x

x

oi

Elliptically

polarized Light

oe

two directions, then

n1 n0 = c1 1 c2 2

n2 n0 = c1 2 c2 1

L(27)

coefficients, respectively. Since the stresses vary uniformly i.e., 1 and 2

and are continuously distributed functions over the model in the xyplane, the directions of the polarizing axes as well as the values of n1

and n2 vary uniformly over the xy-face of the model.

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Stressed

crystalline

plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer

Polarizing

axes

1

u

x

x

oi

Elliptically

polarized Light

oe

the incident light vector gets resolved along the directions of 1 and 2 and

these two vibrating components travel through the thickness of the model with

different velocities (fast and slow).

Velocities of propagation of these two components are governed by equation

(27).

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Stressed

crystalline

plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer

Polarizing

axes

1

u

x

x

oi

Elliptically

polarized Light

oe

When they emerge, there will be a certain amount of relative phase difference

between fast and slow velocities known as retardation, and it is given by

equation (26). i.e.,

2d

=

(n1 n2 )

Substituting this into above equation, we get

=

2d

(c1 + c2 )( 1 2 )

Linearly polarized

Light vector, A

Stressed

crystalline

plate

y y

Source

2 2

Polarizer

Polarizing

axes

1

u

x

x

oi

Elliptically

polarized Light

oe

If (c1 + c2) is set equal to c, the stress-optic coefficient, the relative retardation

is then given by

=

2d

c ( 1 2 )

L(28)

N=

2 d c ( 1 2 )

d c ( 1 2 )

=

2

L(29)

Equations (28) and (29) are known as stress-optic law or stress-optic

relations.

proportional to (1 - 2 ) and model thickness d, and inversely proportional to

the wavelength of light used.

measured value of and N.

polariscopes,

When the Fast and slow light waves that do pass through at any given angle

of rotating polarizer, interfere with each other resulting in a characteristic

colour spectrum.

polarized light modulated by the retardation.

difference of 2 radians or each integer multiple of the standard wavelength of

light (=56510-9m for glass and 57010-9m for plastics) is known as fringe

order (N).

increases.

P1

P2

P3

P4

P1

P2

P3

P4

Fig. 16 Fringe patterns of incrementally loaded specimen

Fig. 17 Identification of fringe order for Isochromatic fringe patterns of loaded specimen

N

L(30)

c d

Defining /(cd) by f the principal stress difference then above equation is

1 2 =

1 2 = f N

Putting N =1, we can see that f expresses the value of (1 - 2 ) necessary to

cause a relative difference of one in a model of given thickness d..

This is also equal to the value of (1 - 2 ) necessary to cause a relative phase

difference of 2 radians in a given model.

Equation (30) can be re-written as

1 2 =

L(31)

F

N

L(32)

d

where F represents the material fringe constant.

If d=1, F becomes equal to f and hence, F represents the model fringe

constant per unit thickness.

F

f =

d

Or

F = f d =

L(33)

The maximum shear stress, max can be obtained from equation (32) by writing

as

N F

N

2

=

= F

L(34)

max = 1

d

2

d

2

where F is the material fringe value in terms of shear and is equal to one-half

of F .

For a perfectly linear photoelastic material, principal strains are defined by

1 =

Thus,

1 2

E

2 =

2 1

E

(1 2 ) = 1 + ( 1 2 )

E

(1 2 )

Or

E

NF

= ( 1 2 ) =

1+

d

(1 2 ) = N 1 + F

d E

N

F

d

L(35)

( 1 2 ) = (1 2 )

Or

(1 2 ) = N E

E

= N f

1+

1+

= Nf

L(36)

permanent black dots appear at these points. Such points are called isotropic

points.

P

Isotropic

points

If 1 = 2 = 0, then also the fringe order is zero at these points and permanent

black dots appear. Such points are called singular points.

Boundary line of

the disc

P

Corner

Corners

Corner

properties of polarized light in its operation.

For photoelastic investigations two types of polariscopes are used:

a) Plane polariscope

b) Circular polariscope

polariscope, circularly polarized light is used.

When the light is transmitted through the model, then the polariscope is called

the transmission type.

a) Plane Polariscope:

Basic arrangement of a lens type plane polariscope is shown in Fig. 20.

Light source may be mercury or a sodium vapour lamp, and incandescent

filament lamp or a bank of bulbs.

Mercury or sodium vapour lamps are used as monochromatic light sources

and incandescent filament lamp is used as a white light source for the lens

type polariscope.

Filter F is generally a Wratten filter No. 77 to give a particular wavelength of

green or yellow light.

First lens (FL1) gives a parallel beam of light in the field of view

First or fixed, polarizing filter is known as the polarizer (P) and its function is to

produce plane-polarized light.

Polarizers are made from thin sheets of polaroid.

FL1

FL2

PL

C

View

which various types of loads can be applied.

Second or rotating polarizing filter is known as the analyzer (A) and is used to

combine the two light waves coming from the model.

By rotating the analyzer, the user can control the amount (intensity) of light

allowed to pass through and components of two light waves that do pass

through at any given angle of analyzer rotation interfere with each other,

resulting in a characteristic colour spectrum.

Polarizer and analyzer are generally coupled together by a flexible coupling to

achieve their simultaneous rotation.

Second lens (FL2) is used to make the parallel beam of light converge on the

projection lens(PL), which finally projects the interference fringes on to the

screen or camera (C).

Two types of set up are possible with the plane polariscope, i.e., bright, when

polarizer and analyzer are parallel and dark when they are crossed.

F

FL1

FL2

PL

C

View

b) Circular Polariscope:

In addition to all the elements of a plane polariscope, the circular polariscope

has two more quarter wave plates (QWP), the first between the polarizer and

model and the second between the model and the analyzer as shown in

Fig.21.

The fast and slow axes of the QWPs are inclined at 45 with the polarizer or

the analyzer axis.

QWPs are made of polaroid film and produces a path difference of /4 or a

phase difference of 90 ( or /2) in the two light vectors passing through them.

FL1

QWP1

QWP2

FL2

PL

C

View

Set Up

Polarizer-Analyzer

QWP

Field

1

Crossed

Parallel

Bright

Crossed

Crossed

Dark

Parallel

Crossed

Bright

Parallel

Parallel

Dark

polariscope.

First QWP converts plane polarized light into circularly polarized light and the

second QWP converts circularly polarized light into plane polarized light.

F

FL1

QWP1

QWP2

FL2

PL

C

View

Input to QWP as plane polarized light and transmits circularly polarized light.

Input to QWP as circularly polarized light and transmits plane polarized light.

a) Dark-Field Setup:

Consider the dark-field setup of the plane polariscope as shown in Fig.22,

when the polarizer and analyzer are crossed.

The plane polarized light beam emerging from the polarizer can be

represented by

E = a cos t

L(37)

Light vector on entering the two dimensional stress model will be decomposed

into two vectors along the two principal directions, one along the fast (or 1)

axis and the other along the slow ( or 2) axis.

P

Polarizer axis

2

E1e

E1e

E2e

x

oi

oe

E2e

Analyzer

axis

d

Polarizer

Model

Analyzer

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

Light vector (electric) along the fast axis on entering the model is given by

L(38a)

E2e = a cos t sin

L(38b)

where is the angle between the axis of polarizer and maximum principal

stress and subscript e refers for entering.

Since the light vector E1e travels faster than E2e, therefore, on emerging out

from the model they develop a phase difference.

Hence, the light vector leaving along the first axis of the model E1l and falling

on the analyzer becomes

A

1e

E2e

E2Ae

E1Ae

E2e

x

oi

oe

Analyzer

axis

d

Polarizer

Model

E1e

2

E1e

y

2

Polarizer axis

E2l

E1l

Analyzer

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

A

E2Ae

E1Ae

Whereas the light vector leaving along the slow axis of the model and falling

on the analyzer will be given by

E2 l = E2Ae = a cos t sin

Since the axis of the analyzer is oriented at right angles to that of the polarizer,

the light vector transmitted through the analyzer is

Et = E1Ae sin E2Ae cos

= a cos( t + ) cos sin a cos t sin cos

2

2

P

E

Polarizer axis

2

E2e

E1Ae

E2Ae

E2e

x

oi

oe

Analyzer

axis

Et

d

Polarizer

Model

E1e

2

E1e

E2l

E1l

Analyzer

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

A

E2Ae

E1Ae

Et

z

I Et2

2

2

Thus,

L(39)

2

2

Light intensity I will be zero or extinction can be obtained in the following three

ways:

Effect of (i) Frequency, (ii) principal stress direction and (iii) principal stress

P

difference.

Polarizer axis

2

E2e

E1Ae

E2Ae

E2e

x

oi

oe

Analyzer

axis

Et

d

Polarizer

Model

E1e

2

E1e

E2l

E1l

Analyzer

Fig. 22 Plane polariscope with dark-field setup

A

E2Ae

E1Ae

Et

z

When

t + = n ,

2

n = 0,1,2,L

Thus,

sin2 t + = 0

2

I =0

L(40)

approximately 1015 rad/s and neither the eye nor any type of existing high

speed photographic film can detect the periodic extinction associated with the

t term and thus, this factor can be ignored.

Hence, we are left with

I = I0 sin2 2 sin2

L(41)

When

2 = n , n = 0,1,2,L

0 1 2 3

3

, ,

, ,L = 0, , ,

,L

2 2 2 2

2

2

Therefore,

Thus,

sin2 2 = 0

I =0

L(42)

Therefore, for such values of , any one of the principal stress directions

coincides with the axis of the polarizer, extinction occurs.

When the entire model is viewed in the polariscope, a fringe pattern is

observed, the fringes are loci of points where the principal stress directions

coincide with the axis of the polarizer.

Fringe pattern formed by the sin22 term is known as the isoclinic fringe

pattern.

These are the loci of points having constant stress directions.

Isoclinic fringe patterns are employed to determine the principal stress

directions in a photoelastic model.

When

= n , n = 0,1,2,L

2

Therefore,

=n =N

2

Then the value of term in equation (39) is

sin = 0

2

Thus an extension occurs with

I =0

3

0

P

(i) Dark-field setup

Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with

monochromatic light source.

L(43)

Therefore, when the principal stress difference is either zero (n=0) or sufficient

to produce an integral number of wavelengths of retardation (n=1,2, ),

extinction occurs.

When a complete model is viewed in the polariscope a fringe pattern is

observed which are the loci of points having constant stress difference and

exhibiting the same order of extinction (n=0,1,2, ).

The fringe pattern produced by the sin2(/2) term is known as the isochromatic

(same colour) fringe pattern.

2dc

=

( 1 2 )

Rearranging,

dc

=

( 1 2 )

2

3

0

P

(i) Dark-field setup

Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with

monochromatic light source.

(Ref. equations 29 and 33)

n=N =

d

( 1 2 ),

F

n = 0,1,2,L

L(44)

When a model is viewed with white light the isochromatic fringe pattern

appears as a series of coloured bands.

Thus we find that in a plane polariscope, the isoclinic and isochromatic fringe

patterns are obtained, superimposed on each other.

the same direction by the same amount then isoclinics of various parameters

may be obtained, whereas the isochromatics remain stationary.

load is increased then the isochromatics change in the field of view whereas

the isoclinics remain stationary.

It is always advisable to use white light source while working with plane

polariscope, which is generally used to obtain the isoclinics, so that the

isoclinics which are black bands crossing the multi-coloured isochromatics are

clearly visible.

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Isoclinics

(i) Monochromatic light source

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Isoclinics

Compressive loading

with vertical direction

Rotation by 32

Fringe pattern 0

Rotation by 39

Disc is rotated by 3

in clock-wise direction

Rotation by 47

Isoclinics

Rotation by 8

Rotation by 55

Rotation by 19

Rotation by 59

Fig. 24b Isoclinics: Black bands (revolving) and Isochromatics: Colour fringes (Stationary)

P1

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

P1

P2

P3

Isochromatics

P4

P5

Loading: P1 < P2 < P3< P4 < P5< P6

(Isoclinics: Black bands and Isochromatics: Colour fringes)

P6

b) Bright-Field Setup:

In the bright-field setup the axis of the analyzer is parallel to that of the

polariscope (Fig. 25), hence

Et = E1Ae cos + E2Ae sin

= a cos( t + ) cos2 a cos t sin2

1

1

= a cos( t + ) [1 + cos 2 ] + (a cos t ) [1 cos 2 ]

2

2

a

a

= [cos( t + ) + cos t ] + cos 2 [cos( t + ) cos t ]

2

2

2

2

2

2

E

1

Polarizer axis

E

2

E1e

E2e

Analyzer axis

Et

E2Ae

A

1e

y

E1e

E2e

x

oi

oe

d

Polarizer

Model

E2l

Analyzer

Fig. 25 Plane polariscope with Bright-field setup

E1l A

E2Ae

E1Ae

Et

Et = a cos2

+ sin2 cos2 2

2

2

= a 1 sin2 sin2 2

2

I Et2

I a 2 1 sin2 sin2 2

2

I = I0 1 sin2 sin2 2

2

2

2

L(45a)

If

Light intensity I will be zero or extinction can be obtained in the following two

ways:

Effect of (i) principal stress direction and (ii) principal stress difference.

2 = + n , n = 0,1,2,L

2

Therefore, = , 3 , 5 , 7 ,L

4 4 4 4

When

Thus,

sin2 2 = 1

I =0

L(45b)

Fringe pattern formed by the sin22 term is known as the isoclinic fringe

pattern.

directions in a photoelastic model.

For extinction to occur

1

= n + ,

2

2

3

2

3

0

N=

for n = 0,1,2,L

1

=n+

2

2

P

(i) Dark-field setup

P

(ii) Bright-field setup

monochromatic light source.

Hence the order of the first fringe observed in a light field polariscope is

which corresponds to n = 0.

The higher order fringes will be 3/2, 5/2, etc.

Therefore, by using bright field setup of the plane polariscope, it is possible to

obtain the fringe order of the nearest , order.

a) Dark-Field Setup:

Consider the standard setup (crossedcrossed) of the circular polariscope as

shown in Fig.26.

The light vector leaving the polarizer can

be written as

Polarizer axis

E

Polarizer

E = a cos t

L(46)

First QWP

Model

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

Fast

axis

first QWP become

a

=

cos t

L(47a)

E1e = a cos t cos

4

2

and

a

=

cos t

L(47b)

E2e = a cos t sin

4

2

45

E2e

E1e

Polarizer

First QWP

Model

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

45

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

45

sin t L(48a)

cos t + =

2

2

2

L(48b)

2

E1l =

Fast

axis

E2e

and converts plane polarized light in to circularly

polarized light.

Components of light vector on leaving the QWP

become

E1l

2

First QWP

Model

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

at an angle with the axis of the first QWP,

then components of light vector along the

principal axis of the model on entering are

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

a

a

=

sin t cos

cos t sin

2

2

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

L(49a)

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae

E4e

Model

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

and

Ebe = E1l sin + E2 l cos

Polarizer axis

a

a

sin t sin +

cos t cos

2

2

E

Slow

axis

L(49b)

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae

E4e

Model

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Therefore, the components of light vector on

leaving the model and entering the second

QWP become

a

[sin( t + )cos + cos( t + ) sin ]

Eal =

2

a

=

sin( t + + ) L(50a)

2

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Eal

E4e

Model

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

and

Ebl = Ebe =

Polarizer axis

E

=

Slow

axis

a

[ sin t sin + cos t cos ]

2

a

cos( t + )

2

L(50b)

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Eal

E4e

Model

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

therefore, the components of the light vector along

the axes of the second QWP become,

E3e = Eal cos + Ebl sin

E

Slow

axis

a

[sin(t + + )cos cos( t + ) sin ] L(51a)

2

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1

2

Eal

Fast

axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

and

E 4 e = Ebl cos Eal sin

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

a

[cos( t + )cos + sin( t + + ) sin ] L(51b)

2

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1

2

Eal

Fast

axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

E

of /2, therefore, the components of light vector on

leaving the second QWP and entering the analyzer

become

E3 l = E3 e

Slow

axis

Fast

axis

a

[sin(t + + )cos cos(t + ) sin ] L(52a)

2

E1l

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1

2

Eal

Fast

axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

45

E3l

E4l

2

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

Polarizer axis

and

cos

t

+

+

cos

+

sin

t

+

+

sin

2

2

2

E4l =

a

[ sin( t + )cos + cos( t + + ) sin ] L(52b)

2

Slow

axis

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1

2

Eal

Fast

axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

45

E3l

E4l

2

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Analyzer

analyzer become

1

=

(E3l E4l )

Et = E3 l cos E 4 l cos

4

4

2

a

= [cos( t + ) sin sin( t + + )cos + sin( t + ) cos

2

cos( t + + ) sin ]

Fast

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1

2

Eal

Fast

axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

45

E3l

E4l

E

E4l 45 3l

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Et

Analyzer

a

[sin(t + 2 ) sin(t + + 2 )]

2

Et = a cos t + 2 + sin

L(53)

2

2

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

Fast

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1

2

Eal

Fast

axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

45

E3l

E4l

E

E4l 45 3l

Analyzer

axis

Second QWP

Et

Analyzer

I Et2

I a 2 cos2 t + 2 + sin2

2

2

I = I0 cos2 t + 2 + sin2

2

2

L(54)

Effect of (i) frequency and (ii) stress difference.

Polarizer axis

E

Fast

axis

Slow

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

First QWP

Model

Ebl

E4e

45

Eae

Polarizer

Fast

axis

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

Second QWP

E

E4l 45 3l

Et

Analyzer

Analyzer

axis

When

t + 2 + = (2n + 1) ,

2

2

for n = 0,1,2,L

Thus,

But the frequency is very high and any extinction produced by it cannt be

detected by eye or any photographic equipment hence, the isoclinics are

automatically eliminated,

Thus,

I = I0 sin2

L(56)

2

cos2 t + 2 + = 0

2

I =0

L(55)

When

= n , n = 0,1,2,L

2

Therefore,

=n =N

2

Then the value of term in equation (39) is

sin2 = 0

2

Thus an extension occurs with

I =0

3

0

P

(i) Dark-field setup

Fig. 23 Isochromatic fringe pattern with

monochromatic light source.

L(57)

Hence, in a standard circular polariscope, only isochromatics are obtained and

the isoclinics are automatically eliminated.

This type of extinction is identical with that for the plane polariscope.

The number of wave lengths of relative path difference is then obtained as

(Ref. equations 29 and 33)

n=

= N = ( 1 2 )

F

2

n = 0,1,2,L

L(58)

b) Bright-Field Setup:

Consider the parallel-crossed setup as

shown in Fig. 27, in which the axes of

polarizer and analyzer are parallel, hence

Polarizer axis

E

Slow

axis

Et = E3 l cos

Fast

axis

+ E 4 l cos

4

4

1

(E3l + E4l )

2

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Polarizer

2

First QWP

45

E1l

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Eae Ebl

Model

1

2

Eal

Fast

axis

Ebl

E4e

45

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

45

E3l

E4l

2

Second QWP

Analyzer

axis

E

E4l 45 3l

Et

Analyzer

a

Et = [cos( t + ) sin sin( t + + ) - sin( t + )cos

2

+ cos( t + + ) sin ]

=

a

[ sin t sin( t + )] = a 2 sin t + cos = a sin t + cos

2

2

2

2

2

2

I Et2

I = I0 sin2 t + cos2

2

2

Polarizer axis

E

Fast

axis

Slow

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

First QWP

Fast

axis

Model

Ebl

E4e

45

Eae

Polarizer

L(59)

E4e

Analyzer

axis

Slow

axis

E3e

Et

E

E4l 45 3l

Eal

Second QWP

Analyzer

P

I = I0 cos 2

2

0

= (2n + 1) ,

2

2

Therefore, fringe order,

N=

1

=n+

2

2

3

2

3

1

for n = 0,1,2,L

P

(i) Dark-field setup

P

(ii) Bright-field setup

monochromatic light source.

Hence the order of the first fringe observed in a light field polariscope is

which corresponds to n = 0.

The higher order fringes will be 3/2, 5/2, etc.

Therefore, by using dark and bright field setup of the circular polariscope, it is

possible to obtain the fringe order of the nearest , order.

Isoclinics are the loci of points along which the principal stresses have parallel

directions.

Isoclines are obtained in a plane polariscope with dark setup by using white

light.

of stressed model, the following steps are followed:

1) The model is kept between the crossed polarizer and analyzer of a plane

polariscope.

2) The polarizer and analyzer are rotated simultaneously until the dark band

representing the isoclinic passes through the point of interest.

3) The orientations of the polarizer and analyzer coincide with the principal

stress directions at the point.

Isoclinics are very useful in analyzing a two-dimensional stress problem.

If is the angle between the x-axis and the direction of 1 at a point as given

by the isoclinic parameter, then

2

Nf

xy = 1

sin 2 = sin 2

L(60)

2

d

Knowing N from the isochromatic fringe pattern, we can determine xy.

in a plane polariscope using white light as a light source, as the isoclinics are

the black bands crossing the multicoloured isochromatic fringes.

analyzer are rotated simultaneously through the same angle in the same

direction the isochromatics will remain stationary while the isoclinics will

rotate.

.

P1

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

P1

P2

P3

Isochromatics

P4

P5

Loading: P1 < P2 < P3< P4 < P5< P6

(Isoclinics: Black bands and Isochromatics: Colour fringes)

P6

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Isoclinics

Compressive loading

with vertical direction

Rotation by 32

Fringe pattern 0

Rotation by 39

Disc is rotated by 3

in clock-wise direction

Rotation by 47

Isoclinics

Rotation by 8

Rotation by 55

Rotation by 19

Rotation by 59

Fig. 29 Isoclinics: Black bands (revolving) and Isochromatics: Colour fringes (Stationary)

Isoclinics of all parameters must pass through isotropic or singular points.

i.e., every direction is a principal stress direction.

For a body containing an axis of symmetry and for symmetric loading, the

axis of symmetry is an isoclinic of one parameter.

At free boundaries only one principal stress exists whose direction is along

the tangent to the boundary and thus the isoclinic parameter intersecting a

free boundary is determined by the slope of the boundary at the point of

intersection.

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Fringe pattern 0

Isoclinics

Rotation by 19

Rotation by 47

For isotropic points in the interior of the boundary, at least two isoclinics of

different parameters should intersect.

Where an isoclinic cuts the stress trajectory at right angles, the principal

stresses at that points are a maximum or minimum.

The isoclinic parameter is independent of the magnitude of load applied

and the fringe value of the material.

Isoclinics with parameter differing by 90, 180, etc, are identical.

At a point on a shear free boundary where the stress parallel to the

boundary has a maximum or minimum value, the isoclinic intersects

boundary at right angles.

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

Fringe pattern 0

Isoclinics

Rotation by 19

Rotation by 47

Isoclinic angle ()

The method of finding the fringe order N and isoclinic angle at an arbitrary

point directly for given loading is as follows:

Determination of :

a) Keep the disc under loading in dark-field plane polariscope with white light

source.

b) Fringe pattern containing the isoclinics and isochromatics of the model is as

shown in Fig.30(ii)

Isochromatics

Isoclinics

with vertical direction

c) Number the fringe orders, 0, 1, 2, etc., starting from boundary line, in the

direction of load point.

d) Let m be the arbitrary point selected within the domain.

e) Rotate the polarizer and analyzer simultaneously until mean band of

isoclinic passes through the point m.

f) Orientation of the analyzer gives the isoclinic angle .

i.e., = 10

1 2 34

4 3 2

1 2 34

4 3 2

(ii) Rotation by 10

3.55

3

m3

m3

m2

m2

m1

m1

m0

Rotation by 10

1.0

0 m

0

0.9

m0

0.8

m3 m2 m1

0.7

0.6

m1 m2 m3

0.0

m0

0.58

0.5

0.4

4 3 2

0.3

0.2

1 2 34

0.1

Determination of N:

a) Record the fringe pattern either in hardcopy or digital image using digital

camera.

b) Draw a horizontal line passing through point m.

c) Identify the intersection points (e.g. m0, m1, m2, etc.) where the line cuts

corresponding to isochromatic fringe orders.

d) With suitable scale, draw a graph between position of intersection points

and fringe order.

e) From the graph we find the value of fringe order at point m as 3.55.

For fast and accurate results one can use compensation methods.

Fringe order,

using both the dark and bright-field setup of a polariscope.

be achieved either by using the mixed-field patterns or by using Pasts fringe

multiplication method.

a) Compensation technique

b) Colour matching technique

c) Equidensometry method

a) Compensation technique

Compensation is technique in which partial modification of relative retardation

either by addition or subtraction is brought about so that the fractional fringe

order at a points becomes integral.

actual fringe order at the point can be ascertained.

1) Babinet compensation method

2) Babinet-Soleil compensation method

3) Tardys method

4) Tension or Compression strip method

5) Senarmont method

6) Photometric method

This compensator uses wedges of quartz, which is a naturally double

refracting material as shown in Fig. 31.

One of the wedges is fixed in the instrument, while the other can be displaced

relative to the first so as to alter combined thickness by means of a fine

micrometer screw with graduated drum head.

With micrometer screw at zero, the compensator is said to be in the neutral

position.

The polarized light is accelerated in one and retarded in the other wedge.

Slow axis

Slow axis

Fixed wedge

d0

d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Light wave

propagation

direction

Moving wedge

adjustment direction

Moving wedge

45

Light wave

propagation

direction

(d d ) = t

Therefore, when the two wedges have been displaced from their neutral

position, then

R = (d d ) = (t + d d ) = t = x tan

L(61)

which is equal to the micrometer reading.

R=

Slow axis

Slow axis

Fixed wedge

d0

d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Light wave

propagation

direction

Moving wedge

adjustment direction

Moving wedge

45

Light wave

propagation

direction

tan = Cx

R=

x

Or

where C is constant.

m

Micrometer reading

Therefore,

R=

=

m

Number of turns necessary to produce

a retardation of one wavelengt h

L(62)

fringe.

Slow axis

Slow axis

Fixed wedge

d0

d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Light wave

propagation

direction

Moving wedge

adjustment direction

Moving wedge

45

Light wave

propagation

direction

This compensator is an improvement upon Babinet model.

In this case wedges are of the same type giving a place of uniform

thickness, controlled by a micrometer screw.

Another quartz plate of same nominal thickness but with axis of double

refraction crossed, is placed on the right-hand side of the variable thickness

plate as shown in Fig. 32.

When the left-hand and right-hand plates are of same thickness, no relative

refraction take place.

Slow axis

Slow axis

Fixed wedge

d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Fixed quartz

plate

Light wave

propagation

direction

d0

45

Moving wedge

adjustment direction

Moving wedge

Light wave

propagation

direction

When the movable wedge is moved the thickness of the upper plate

changes, producing a partial fringe order of uniform magnitude over the whole

area of the compensator plates like that in pure tension or compression.

This compensator is very useful for measuring boundary stresses.

In order to use this compensator, firstly isoclinic parameters are established

for the point in question to give the direction of 1 and 2 .

The compensator is then aligned with the principal stress directions and

adjusted to cancel out the model retardation.

The reading of the screw micrometer is proportional to the fringe order at that

point.

Slow axis

Slow axis

Fixed wedge

d0

d0

d0

d1

45

Fixed quartz

plate

Light wave

propagation

direction

d0

45

Moving wedge

adjustment direction

Moving wedge

Light wave

propagation

direction

(ii)

(i) Picture

(iii)

Fig.33 Images of Babinet-Soleil compensator

compression disc using Babinet-Soleil compensation method:

a) Fig.34(i) shows the isochromatic fringe pattern in a diametral compression

disc obtained by using dark-field setup with monochromatic light source.

b) Let m be the arbitrary point for which total fringe order is to be determined.

c) To determine the isoclinic angle using plane polariscope setup, rotate the

polarizer and analyzer simultaneously until mean band of isoclinic passes

through the point m as shown in Fig. 34(iii).

d) Orientation of the analyzer gives the isoclinic angle = 30.

e) The point m does not lies on any of the fringe order thus need to

determine the fringe order accurately at the point m,

f) Looking at the location of the point m which lies in between the fringe

orders 2 and 3.

Polarizer axis

2

0

4

3

m

Analyzer

axis

3

4

(i)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

4

3

4

3

Analyzer

axis

3

4

(ii)

3

4

(iii)

30 Analyzer

axis

h) Introduce compensation by rotating the knob until a higher fringe order

passes through the point of interest m.

i) Let us rotate slowly the compensation knob only in the clock-wise direction

we find that the fringe order 3 moves towards point of interest m as shown

in Figs.35 (ii)-(vi).

j) Fig. 35(vi) depicts the fringe order 3 moved to the point of interest m and

thus note down the counter reading from the compensator as 122.

4

Polarizer axis

2

0

4

3

1

30

Analyzer

axis

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(i)

m

3

4

(v)

(vi)

corresponding to the counter reading 122, we determine the fringe order

at the interest point m as 2.7.

5.0

Polarizer axis

1

30

m

Analyzer

axis

Fringe order, N

4

3

4.0

3.0

2.7

2.0

1.0

3

4

10 20 30 40

50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220

Counter reading

In this method, the polarizer of the polariscope is aligned with the principal

stress direction of 1 at the point of interest and all other elements of the

polariscope are rotated relative to the polarizer so that standard dark field

polariiscope exist.

Then the analyzer alone is rotated to obtain extinctions.

The rotation of the analyzer gives the fractional fringe order.

Derivation of Fractional Fringe Order:

Consider the dark-field (crossed-crossed) circular polariscope as shown in

Fig.37.

Polarizer axis

E

Fast

axis

Slow

axis

45

E2e

E1e

E2l

Ebe

E1l

45

Fast

axis

E4e

45

Eae

Polarizer

First QWP

Model

Ebl

E4e

Slow

axis

E3e

Eal

Second QWP

E

E4l 45 3l

Et

Analyzer

Analyzer

axis

Here, = -() and the light vector emerging out from the second QWP

becomes (Ref. equation 52),

a

2

4

4 4

4

a

= sin t + + cos t

2

4

4

E4l =

t

+

t

+

sin

cos

cos

sin

2

4

4

4

4

E3 l =

sin

cos

t

+

2

4

4

Polarizer

axis

1

Fast

axis

= -45

E4l

2

45

Slow

axis

E3l

Analyzer axis (A)

extinction, i.e., Et= 0.

Et = E 4 l cos E3 l cos + = 0

4

2

4

4

2

4

4

Simplifying we get,

L(63)

2

2

2

Polarizer

axis

Fast

axis

45-

= -45

Slow

axis

E4l 45 E3l

Analyzer axis (A)

Therefore,

= n ,

2

= n +

2

n = 0,1,2,3,L

N=

=n+

L(64a )

2

N = (n + 1)

L(64b )

Polarizer

axis

Fast

axis

45-

= -45

Slow

axis

E4l 45 E3l

Analyzer axis (A)

To account for the finite fringe width using the Tardys compensation

method, the following steps may be accomplished:

a) Using a plane polariscope setup, determine the principal stress directions

(i.e., )at the point of interest by rotating the crossed polarizer and

analyzer simultaneously until an isoclinic passes through that point.

b) From a circular polariscope, the polarizer is kept at the isoclinic angle

(i.e., one of the principal axes should be kept with polarizer axis) and all

the other optical elements are appropriately arranged. Note that at this

stage, there should not be any difference in the isochromatic field

compared to the conventional arrangement. If it is then align the optical

elements correctly.

c) Second step gives the selection of reference axis for the measurement of

angle of rotation of the analyzer. Since, the value of isoclinic angle (i.e., )

defines the angle between the polarizer axis and principal stress direction

or fast axis, when these two are aligned parallel then angle between them

yields = 0.

d) Rotate only the analyzer either in clock-wise or anti clock-wise direction

such that an isochromatic fringe coincides with the point of interest and

determine the angle that the analyzer has rotated.

e) If the N(-1) (lower) order fringe moves to the point of interest as the

analyzer rotates through the angle , the fringe order N at the point is

N = N ( 1) +

if is in radians

L(65a )

N = N ( 1) +

if is in degrees L(65b )

or

180

f) If the N(+1) (higher) order fringe moves to the point of interest as the

analyzer rotates through the angle , the fringe order N at the point is

N = N ( +1)

if is in radians

L(66a )

N = N ( +1)

180

if is in degrees

L(66b )

compression disc :

a) Fig.40 shows the isochromatic fringe pattern in a diametral compression

disc obtained by using dark-field setup with monochromatic light source.

b) Let centre of the disc denoted by m be the arbitrary point for which total

fringe order is to be determined.

c) At the point of interest m, the principal stress axes and isoclinics coincides

and thus we have = 0.

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

Fast axis

2

0

Analyzer axis

Analyzer axis

(i)

Slow axis

3

(ii)

d) The point m does not lies on any of the fringe order thus need to

determine the fringe order accurately at the point m,

e) Looking at the location of the point m which lies in between the fringe

orders 1 and 2.

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

Fast axis

2

0

Analyzer axis

Analyzer axis

(i)

Slow axis

3

(ii)

f) Let us rotate slowly the analyzer only in the clock-wise direction we find

that the fringe order 2 moves towards point of interest m as shown in

Figs.41 (ii)-(v).

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

3

3

2

2

0

Polarizer axis

Analyzer axis

2

0

A

A

m

2

(ii)

(i)

(iii)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

2

0

16

m

36

m

41

2

3

A

(iv)

A

(vi)

g) Fig.41(v) depicts the fringe order 2 moved to the point of interest m and

thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 41.

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

3

3

2

2

0

Polarizer axis

Analyzer axis

2

0

A

A

m

2

(ii)

(i)

(iii)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

2

0

16

m

36

m

41

2

3

A

(iv)

A

(v)

g) Fig.41(v) depicts the fringe order 2 moved to the point of interest m and

thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 41.

h) Using equation (65b), substituting the values N(+1) = 2 and = 41, we get

the total fringe order, N at the point m as

Polarizer axis

3

N = N ( +1)

2

0

41

= 2

= 2 0.228

180

180

= 1.772

Analyzer axis

m

2

3

(i)

Polarizer axis

3

2

0

m

41

2

3

(v)

rotating the analyzer in counter clock-wise direction from the reference line.

j) Let us rotate slowly the analyzer only in the counter clock-wise direction we

find that the fringe order 1 moves towards point of interest m as shown in

Figs. 42(ii)-(x)

Polarizer axis

2

0

Polarizer axis

A

Polarizer axis

Analyzer axis

25

50

m

3

(iii)

(ii)

Polarizer axis

A

0

70

(v)

3

100

90

(iv)

Polarizer axis

2

3

2

0

A Polarizer axis

3

2

2

3

(i)

2

1

m

2

3

(vi)

k) Fig.42(x) depicts the fringe order 1 moved to the point of interest m and

thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 139.

A

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

3

2

3

2

1

0

110

2

0

Polarizer axis

125

Analyzer axis

m

2

2

3

2

3

(vii)

(viii)

Polarizer axis

Polarizer axis

(i)

3

2

3

2

1

1

0

0

136

(ix)

2

3

139

(x)

2

3

k) Fig.42(x) depicts the fringe order 1 moved to the point of interest m and

thus an angular position of the analyzer is = 139.

l) Using equation (66b), substituting the values N(-1) = 1 and = 139, we get

the total fringe order, N at the point m as

Polarizer axis

N = N ( 1) +

139

= 1+

= 1 + 0.772

180

180

= 1.772

2

0

Analyzer axis

m

2

3

Polarizer axis

(i)

3

2

1

0

139

(x)

2

3

CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES

value f so as to convert the fringe orders into stresses.

Following methods used to calibrate a photoelastic material.

a) Simple tensile specimen

b) Beam under pure bending

c) Circular disc under diametral compression

Consider a tensile specimen under uniform axial stress as shown in Fig. 43.

Thus,

P

h

P

P

1 2 =

Q 2 = 0

d

L

hd

Using stress-optic law, we have

Nf

1 2 =

d

P Nf

=

Or

hd

d

P 1

f

L(67)

=

Hence,

N h

In the tensile specimen, we observe escaping type of fringe pattern i.e., as the

load is increased from zero, successive fringe appear in the field of view and

disappear as the load is increased.

A graph is plotted between the applied load P and fringe order N as shown in

Fig. 44.

The slope determined from the plot is substituted in to equation (67).

In this method the load P has to be adjusted to have a full fringe order in the

field of view.

In Tardy method of compensation, for a particular load P the extinction angles

are plotted against the applied stress .

Then by knowing the slope of the curve, we obtain

f = 1 d 180 o

L(68)

L

Fig.43Tensile specimen

P

P

N

N

Fig.44 P-N curve

A rectangular beam as shown in Fig.45 subjected to pure bending.

Pure bending in the beam is produced by applying equal loads P at a

distance a from the ends of a beam.

Uniform bending moment, M in the middle portion of the beam is given by

P

P

M = P a L(69)

y

a

a

The stresses in the beam are

x

d

Pa h

Pa

M

=

1 = y =

(dh3 12) 2 (dh 2 6)

I

L

and 2 = 0

Thus, 6Pa Nf

=

2

dh

d

P

P

N

Therefore,

N

Isochromatic fringe pattern

P 6a

Fig.46 P-N curve

f = 2

L(70)

N h

A graph (Fig. 46) is plotted between P and N and the slope of the curve is

substituted in equation () to determine the f

Here we observe non-escaping type of fringes.

For a circular disc as shown in Fig.47 when it is subjected to a diametral

compression load P, the stresses at interested point (x,y) are given by

2P (R y )x 2 (R + y )x 2 1

x =

+

,

D

d 14

24

2P (R y )3 (R + y )3 1

y =

+

,

d 14

24

D

xy =

P

y

y

2P (R + y ) x (R y ) x

.

d 24

14

xy

x

x

12 = x 2 + (R y )2

22 = x 2 + (R + y )2

R- radius of disc and d is thickness.

P

Fig.47 Disc specimen

The stresses along horizontal diametral ( i.e., -R < x < R , y = 0) are given

by

2P D 4 x

2P

4D 4

x = 1 =

1 , xy = 0

, y = 2 =

dD D 2 + 4 x 2

dD (D 2 + 4 x 2 )2

2

8P 1 4(x D )

1 2 =

dD 1 + 4(x D )2

6P

2P

1 =

, 2 =

dD

dD

y

2

1

Thus

1 2 =

8P

Nf

=

dD

d

P

Therefore,

P 8

f =

N D

L(71)

N

Fig.49 P-N curve

Isochromatic fringe pattern

a) Transparent to light used in the polariscope.

b) Easily machinable by conventional means.

c) It should have high optical sensitivity as indicated by low fringe values (f

or f)

d) It should have linear characteristics with respect to stress-strain, stressfringe order and stress-fringe order properties for model to prototype

scaling.

e) It should be free from residual stresses.

f) It should have both mechanical and optical isotropy and homogeneity.

g) There should be absence of undue optical and mechanical creep.

h) It should have high modulus of elasticity, ultimate strength and hardness

to avoid distortion and contact problems.

i) It should be free from time-edge effects.

j) Material fringe values f or f should remain constant during moderate

temperature changes.

k) It should have moderate cost.

l) It should have high rigidity

a) Epoxy Resins

b) Columbia Resin CR-39

c) Castolite or Homolite 100

d) Polymethacrylate

e) Bakelite (Catalin 61-893)

f) Polycarbonate

g) Polyurethane Rubber

h) Glass

i) Gelatine

j) Celluloid

a) Epoxy Resins

b) Columbia Resin CR-39

c) Castolite or Homolite 100

d) Polymethacrylate

e) Bakelite (Catalin 61-893)

f) Polycarbonate

g) Polyurethane Rubber

h) Glass

i) Gelatine

j) Celluloid

Mesnagers Theorem

stress trajectory are a maximum or minimum when an isoclinic cuts the stress

trajectory at right angles.

A stress trajectory line of principal stress or isostatic is a line the tangents to

which at every point coincides with the direction of one of the principal

stresses.

Let S1, S2, S1 and S2 be the orthogonal stress trajectories as shown in Fig.

Let 1 and 2 be the radii of S1 and S2,respectively.Then,

S S

= 1 + 2 = 1 + 2

1

2

Since, points A and C lie on the isoclinic hence, =0.

S1

S

= 2

1

2

or

Also,

tan =

S2

= 2

S1

1

AD S2

=

= 2

AB S1

1

1 1 2

+

=0

S1

2

2 1 2

+

=0

S2

1

1

= 0 which is Lame-Maxwell

For1 is maximum or minimum possible, if

S1

equation when 2= .

Hence,

tan =

and

or = 90

Hence proved.

The point at which the isoclinic cuts the stress trajectory at right angles is

called the Cupic point.

Stress trajectories of one family never intersect each other or mere with

those of the other family.

At points on a load free boundary or one subjected to normal force

only, the direction of the principal stresses are normal and tangential to the

boundary. A stress trajectory of one family will therefore, coincide with

such a boundary while those of other family will intersect it orthogonally.

Distance between a load-free boundary and a neighboring stress

trajectory of the same family varies inversely to the tangential stress at the

boundary.

Since the section of symmetry is stress free, it coincides with a stress

trajectory.

At isotropic points there always exist stress trajectories which coincide

with the direction of some isoclinics.

Stress along a stress trajectory reaches a maximum or a minimum value

when the curvature of the intersecting stress trajectory is zero, i.e., the

stress trajectory is straight or has a point of inflexion.

In doubly or multiply connected bodies the stress trajectories may form

closed loops but not spirals.

Sign of (1 - 2) is constant along each stress trajectory.

A stress trajectory, line of principles stress, or isostatic is a line such that its

direction at any point coincides with that of one of the principal stresses at the

point.

system are mutually perpendicular, it follows that a system of stress

trajectories will consist of two orthogonal families of curves.

principal and other those of the smaller principal stress.

The following methods may be used for the construction of stress trajectories:

1) Let I1, I2, I3 and I4 be the given isoclinics of various parameters 1, 2, 3

and 4 , respectively as shown in Fig.

At points on the isoclinics I1, I2, etc., small lines are drawn in a direction

inclined to the reference direction at an angle equal to the parameters

1, 2, etc., of the respective isoclinics.

Stress trajectories of one family are obtained by drawing smooth curves

tangential to these lines.

By drawing small lines in the perpendicular direction, the orthogonal family

of stress trajectories can be obtained.

2) When the isoclinics are more widely spaced then the method shown in

Fig. will produce more accurate results.

From any point O1 on the isoclinic I1 of parameter 1, a straight line is

drawn inclined at an angle (1+2) to the reference direction to cut the

isoclinic I2 of parameter 2 at the point O2. From O2 a line is drawn at an

inclination of (2+3) to cut I3 of parameter 3 at the point O3 and so on.

Lines are then drawn through the points O1, O2, O3, etc at inclinations

1, 2 , 3,etc respectively.

The curve passing through the points tangential to the polygon formed by

the second set of lines gives the stress trajectory of one family.

Curved segments O1O2, and O2O3 of the stress trajectory S are assumed

to be approximately circular in shape so that

O1C1 = O2C1

and locate point O2 on I2 as shown in Fig.

Then draw the line from O2 at the angle (2+3) to locate O3 on I3 and so

on.

Join the points O1, O2, O3, etc by a free hand curve to obtain a stress

trajectory of one family.

reference line and produce to intersect I2 at O2.

Through C1 draw a line at 2) to intersect I2 and at point O2 such that

O1C1= O2C2 and produce it to intersect I3 at O3.

Through C2 which bisects on O2O3 draw a line at 3 .

Join the points O1, O2, O3, etc by a free hand curve to obtain a stress

trajectory as shown in Fig. .

STRESS

Consider a body shown in Fig. (2.1), is in equilibrium.

Under the action of external forces, P1, P2, Pn, as surface forces and/or body

forces, internal forces will be produced between the parts of the body.

Knowledge of the internal forces at all points in the body is essential because

these forces need to be less than the strength of the material used in the

structure.

To study the magnitude of these forces at any point, o , let us imagine the body

is divided into two parts 1 and 2, by a cross-section through this point.

It will be assumed that the internal forces are continuously distributed over this

cross-section.

Magnitude of such forces is usually defined by their intensity, i.e., by the amount

of force per unit area of the surface on which they act. This intensity is

called stress.

y

z

P4

y

P3

Py P

1

Pz

Px

2

P2

Pn

P1

z

small area on the section and is A (=yz), the resultant force acting on it is

P.

Limiting value of the ratio P/A. gives the stress acting on the cross-section at

the point o.

Limiting direction of the resultant P is the direction of the stress.

In general case, the direction of stress is inclined to the area A. on which it

acts.

Resolving it into a normal or direct stress perpendicular to the area and other

two, shear stresses acting in the plane of the area A..

P4

z

y

P3

Py P

1

Pz

Px

2

P2

Pn

P1

z

Notation of Stresses

Letter used for normal stress and the letter for shearing stress.

To indicate the direction of the plane on which the stress is acting, subscripts to

these letters are used.

First subscript denotes the direction of the normal to the face and second

denotes the direction in which the stress component acts.

Px

xx = x = lt

L(2.1)

A0 A

Normal stress component xx acting on the x-face will act in the x-direction .

Similarly,

Py

Pz

xy = lt

and xz = lt

L(2.2)

A0 A

A0 A

where xy and xz shear stresses acting on the faces in y- and zdirection, respectively.

y

P4

P3

Py P

1

Pz

Px

2

P2

Pn

P1

z

planes.

For defining all these stresses, the stress at a point is defined generally by

y

taking an infinitesimal cuboid as shown in Fig.2.2.

dz

yx

Nine different stresses act at a point in the element.

yz

xy

The six shear stresses are related as

zy

xy = xy , yz = zy and xz = zx

dy

zx

xz

dx

infinitesimal cube.

There are thus six independent stresses.

Stresses x, y, and z are normal to the surfaces of the cuboid and the stresses

yz, zx, and xy are along the surfaces of the cuboid.

A tensile normal stress is +ve, and a compressive normal stress is -ve. A shear

stress is positive, if its direction and the direction of the normal to the face on

which it is acting are both in positive or negative direction; otherwise, the shear

stress is negative.

A two-dimensional stated-stress exists when the stresses and body forces are

independent of one of the coordinates. Such a state is described by stresses

x, y and xy, and the body forces Fx and Fy ( z is taken as the independent

coordinate axis). This combination of stress components which are functions of

only x- and y- coordinates called plane stress in the xy-plane(Fig.2.3).

Example In a thin plate located in the plane of the plate there will be no stress

acting perpendicular to the surface of the plate.

y

dz

yz=0

Almirah body

yx

zy=0

Fy

Slim body

Plates

dx and dy >> dz

dy

Fz=0

xy

Fx

zx=0

xz=0

z=0

Paper sheets

Boiler shell

dx

STRAIN

Similar to the need for knowledge of forces inside a body, knowing the

deformations because of the external forces is also important.

Knowledge of deformations is specified in terms of strains, that is, strain is

measure of relative change in the size and shape of the body.

Strain at a point is also defined generally on an infinitesimal cuboid in a righthand coordinate system.

Under loads, the lengths of the sides of the infinitesimal cuboid change and

faces of the cube also get distorted.

Change in length corresponds to a normal strain and the distortion corresponds

to the shearing strain.

Figure 2.4 shows the two-dimensional state-of-strains on one of the

faces, ABCD, of the cuboid. dy

C

u

y

v

dy

y

y

u

y

Undeformed

dy

B

u

A

A(x,y)

Deformed

v

dx

x

v

x

u

dx

x

dx

Take the two perpendicular lines AB and AD.

When the body is loaded, the two lines become AB and AD.

Normal strain in the x direction, x, is defined as the change of length of line AB

per unit length of AB as

AB AB

x = lt

L(2.3a)

dx 0

AB

ADB AD

y = lt

dy 0

AD

u

dy

y

v

dy

y

C

Deformed

D

u

y

Undeformed

dy

B

u

A

A(x,y)

L(2.3b)

v

dx

x

v

x

u

dx

x

dx

Shear strain is defined as the tangent of the change in angle between the two

originally perpendicular axes.

This component is specified with respect to two axes which are perpendicular on

the undeformed body and is designated by the symbol , with two subscripts to

indicate these two axes.

L(2.3c)

dx 0

dx 0 2

dy 0

dy 0

In the cuboid ABCD, before strain, the length of AB is dx, after strain, A is

displaced to A.

Let us denote the xy components of the displacement of the particle at A by u

and v.

As u and v vary from point to point in the body.

u

dy

y

v

dy

y

Deformed

u

y

Undeformed

C

B

u

A

A(x,y)

o

C

D

dy

v

dx

x

v

x

u

dx

x

dx

u

v

u=

dx and v =

dy

x

y

u

dx

x-projection of A B is therefore, dx +

x

x

2

L(2.4a)

C

Deformed

D

u

y

Undeformed

C

B

u

A

A(x,y)

o

u

dy

y

v

dy

y

dy

(AB)2

u v

= dx +

dx + dx

x x

v

dx

x

v

x

u

dx

x

dx

Rearranging

(AB)2 = ( x + 1)2 dx 2

L(2.4b)

u v

( x + 1)2 dx 2 = dx +

dx + dx

x x

u

dy

y

v

dy

y

Undeformed

C

B

u

A

A(x,y)

o

Deformed

u

y

v

dx

x

v

x

C

D

dy

AB AB

x =

AB

AB = AB( x + 1) = dx ( x + 1)

u

dx

x

dx

u u v

( x2 + 2 x + 1) = 1 + 2

+ +

x x x

Ignoring higher order terms due to small quantities, we get

2

x =

u

x

L(2.5a)

y =

v

y

L(2.5b)

u

dy

y

v

dy

y

Deformed

u

y

Undeformed

C

B

u

A

A(x,y)

o

C

D

dy

v

dx

x

v

x

u

dx

x

dx

Shearing strain in the xy-plane, is as defined earlier the change in the angle

between sides AB and AD from 90.

xy =

xy =

u v

BAD =

2

2 2 y x

u v

+

y x

L(2.5c)

Shearing strain is positive when the angle between the sides AD and AB

decreases; otherwise, the shearing strain is negative.

u

dy

y

v

dy

y

Deformed

u

y

Undeformed

C

B

u

A

A(x,y)

o

C

D

dy

v

dx

x

v

x

u

dx

x

dx

state-of-strains can be found by noting the change in size and shape of the other

sides of the infinitesimal cuboid in Fig. 2.5 as

w

z

v w

=

+

z y

z =

L(2.5d)

yz

L(2.5e)

zx =

u w

+

z x

L(2.5f)

y

dz

yx

yz

zy

dy

xy

zx

xz

dx

A two-dimensional stated-strain exists when the strains are independent of one

of the coordinates. Such a state is described by strains x, y and xy, which are

assumed to be functions of only the x- and y- coordinates, and remaining strains

described by independent coordinate, z are zero(Fig.2.6).

Example: Assumptions of plane strain is applicable for bodies that are long and

whose geometry and loading do not vary significantly in the longitudinal

direction.

dz >> dx and dy

Beam

y

Shaft

yx

dz

Fat body

yz=0

Pipe

xy

xz=0

zy=0

zx=0

dy

z=0

dx

Bridge

Dam

Design Preference:

Good design engineer prefers plane stress case of members used in machine,

such members always fail in ductile fracture type thereby ensures integrity in the

machine before becoming pieces.

Analogy: Doctors recommends to keep good health and to look young by

maintaining slim body and such people may not suffer from serious health issues.

Whereas, design engineer wont prefer plane strain case of members used in

machine, such members always fail in brittle fracture type and thus, fails the

integrity in the machine with catastrophic manner.

Analogy: If the person become fat by ignoring health consciousness then such

person may suffer from serious health issues like heart malfunctioning, BP, etc.

and may die in catastrophic manner.

Plane stress -Slim

Plane strain-Fat

REFERENCES

1. Anderson TL, Fracture Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, CRC Press,1995.

2. Broek D, Elementary Fracture Mechanics, Nijhof/Kluwers, 1986.

3. Crandal SH, Dahl NC, and Lardner TV, Introduction to the Mechanics of

Solids, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New Delhi, 1985.

4. Dally JW and Riley WF, Experimental Stress Analysis, McGraw-Hill International

Editions, New York, 1991.

5. Gdoutos EE, Fracture Mechanics : An introduction, Kluwers, 1993.

6. Durelli AJ, Applied Stress Analysis, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 1967

7. Hendry AW, Elements of Experimental Stress Analysis, Pergamon Press, New

York, 1977.

8. Ramesh K, Experimental Stress Analysis, NPTEL Videos: Module-01 and Module02, Department of Applied Mechanics, IIT Madras, India.

9. Singh S, Applied Stress Analysis, Khanna Publishers, New Delhi, 1996.

10. Srinath LS, Raghavan MR, Lingaiah K, Gargesa G, Pant B and Ramachandra

K, Experimental Stress Analysis, Tata McGraw-Hill, NewDelhi,1984.

11. Timoshenko S and Goodier JN, Theory of Elasticity, McGraw Hill Book Company, New

York 1951.

12. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snell%27s_law

13. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plane_wave

14. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wgi2cSiHZJ8

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