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Nera Broadband Satellite AS

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Nera SatLink Terminal


User Guide

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Notice

Copyright 2002-2005, Nera Broadband Satellite AS


All rights reserved. Reproduction, adaptation or translation without prior written
permission is prohibited, except as allowed under the copyright laws.

The names of products (hardware and/or software) mentioned herein are regarded to be
the property of their respective companies, regardless of whether or not registration is
indicated.
The information in this publication is subject to change without notice. Nera Broadband
Satellite AS makes no warranty of any kind with regard to this material, including, but
not limited to, the implied warranties or merchantability and fitness for particular
purposes. Moreover, Nera Broadband Satellite AS shall not be held liable for errors that
may occur herein or for incidental or consequential damage in connection with the
furnishing, performance, or use of this material.

Publication no. 101557


Revision P, July 1st, 2005
File: Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Rev P
Nera Broadband Satellite AS
Bergerveien 12
PO Box 91
N-1375 Billingstad, Norway
Tel: +47 67244700, Fax: +47 66859115
E-mail: sales@satcom.nera.no
Website: http://www.nera.no/

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Table of Contents
1.
1.1
1.2

INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................5
This User Guide.............................................................................................................6
Configuration tool overview ...........................................................................................7

2.

UNPACKING .................................................................................................................8

3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

INSTALLATION .............................................................................................................8
Before installation ..........................................................................................................8
SatLink Terminal front and back panels ........................................................................9
IDU Installation ............................................................................................................12
Antenna installation .....................................................................................................13
Interface connections ..................................................................................................13

4.
4.1

PC CONFIGURATION ................................................................................................14
Windows TCP/IP configuration....................................................................................14

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

USING THE COMMAND LINE INTERFACE OF THE SATLINK TERMINAL .............17


Start-up sequence .......................................................................................................17
CLI users access rights ...............................................................................................18
Online help ..................................................................................................................18
Logging of events ........................................................................................................19
CLI command summary ..............................................................................................20

6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

NERA SATLINK TERMINAL CONFIGURATION ........................................................22


Power on and logon.....................................................................................................22
Initial configuration of parameters ...............................................................................23
Forward Link acquisition, Tx power calibration, and fine adjustment of antenna
pointing and polarisation..............................................................................................30
Test of DVB-RCS connection ......................................................................................34
Prepare the Nera SatLink Terminal for normal operation............................................35
Backing up the current configuration ...........................................................................35

7.
7.1
7.2

LAN DHCP SERVER..................................................................................................36


Configuration of the DHCP server ...............................................................................36
Changing the SatLink Terminal LAN Interface IP address ..........................................37

8.
8.1

QUALITY OF SERVICE ..............................................................................................38


Configuring QoS for the return link ..............................................................................39

9.

BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND ........................................................................................41

10.

TRAFFIC INITIATED LOGON .....................................................................................43

11.
11.1

ROUTING OF MULTICAST TRAFFIC ........................................................................43


Setting up routing of multicast traffic from the SatLink Terminal LAN to the gateway .43

12.
12.1
12.2
12.3

UPDATING THE NERA SATLINK TERMINAL SW .....................................................45


Automatic software update ..........................................................................................45
Manual software update ..............................................................................................46
Restoring the backup software ....................................................................................47

13.
13.1
13.2
13.3

SOFTWARE OPTIONS ...............................................................................................48


Network Address Translation ......................................................................................49
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) and IP Tunnelling...........................................53
TCP Performance Enhancing Proxy (PEP) .................................................................54

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14.

DEFINITIONS, ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS.................................................56

15.

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................57

APPENDIX A.

USING THE WEB INTERFACE ......................................................................58

APPENDIX B.

ACCESSING THE COMMAND LINE INTERFACE VIA RS-232 ....................73

APPENDIX C.

TFTP SERVER................................................................................................76

APPENDIX D.

TELNET CLIENT .............................................................................................77

APPENDIX E.

MANAGEMENT VIA SNMP.............................................................................78

APPENDIX F.

CHANGING PRE-CONFIGURED PARAMETERS..........................................79

APPENDIX G.

ODU INSTALLATION ......................................................................................80

APPENDIX H. IDU OUTPUT POWER CALIBRATION WHEN USING OTHER BUCS THAN
SATLINK 3000 AND 403X.........................................................................................100
APPENDIX I.

THE BOOT SW .............................................................................................103

APPENDIX J.

TROUBLESHOOTING ..................................................................................104

APPENDIX K.

TCP ENHANCEMENT AND TUNING ...........................................................110

APPENDIX L.

CABLE SPECIFICATION ..............................................................................113

APPENDIX M.

COMPLIANCE...............................................................................................115

APPENDIX N.

RECEIVER AND TRANSMITTER AUTO START .........................................116

APPENDIX O.

ACCESSING THE FORWARD LINK SIGNALLING ......................................117

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

1. Introduction
The Nera SatLink 1000, 1900, 1901 and 1910 are members of the Nera SatLink Terminal family of DVBRCS Terminals. They act as IP routers to interface one or more PCs for bilateral communication via the
satellite network. This User Guide covers the installation and operation of the Nera SatLink
1000/1900/1901/1901, commonly also referred to as the indoor unit (IDU) of the DVB-RCS terminal,
together with the accompanying outdoor unit (ODU) equipment.
The parameters of equipment transmitting to satellites are regulated by national and international
authorities in several countries in the world and by the satellite operators themselves. The standards now
in force are described in references [7], [8], [9] and [10]. The SatLabs group, of which Nera Broadband
Satellite is a member, now works to establish type approval for DVB-RCS terminals in cooperation with
Cetecom. Nera will certify its DVB-RCS terminals by these type approval guidelines as soon as they have
been finalised.

Figure 1: Nera SatLink 1000 Indoor Unit (IDU)

Figure 2: Nera SatLink 1900/1901/1910 Indoor Unit (IDU)

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Figure 3: Nera SatLink Outdoor Unit (ODU)

1.1

This User Guide

This User Guide is intended for DVB professionals, such as service providers and installers. Therefore, it
does not contain information for non-professional users, such as given in the user manuals of consumer
electronics products.
The information given pertains to the following software (SW) and hardware (HW) versions and releases:
SatLink IDU Software
Nera SatLink Boot loader, P/N 101225, SW build 1.8.0.2 and later
Nera SatLink Boot loader, P/N 106267, version 9.0.0 and later
Nera SatLink DVB-RCS Terminal Software, P/N 101224, version 9.1.3 and later
SatLink IDU HW models
Nera SatLink 1000, P/N 103346
Nera SatLink 1900, P/N 100715
Nera SatLink 1901, P/N 102105
Nera SatLink 1910, P/N 103798
Ku-band Equipment
Transceivers
Nera SatLink 4033, P/N 104804
Nera SatLink 4035, P/N 106546
Nera SatLink 4036, P/N 106547
BUCs
Nera SatLink 3000, P/N 100716
Norsat 1010/1020XRT, P/N 101338
Invacom TUL-204, P/N 104041
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JRC NJT5017F
NGN-9200
LNBs
Invacom LNB/OMT SPV - 1SM, P/N 100816
Zinwell ZK-VJ1, P/N 104730
JRC NJR2535S
JRC NJR2536S
JRC NJR2537S
NGN-9200
Antennas
Channel Master Type 960 - 0.96m Antenna, P/N 100883
Channel Master Type 123 - 1.2m Antenna, P/N 100882
Channel Master Type 184 - 1.80m Antenna, P/N 104216
Channel Master Type 244 2.40m Antenna, P/N 104612
Visiosat Tx/Rx 75cm Offset Antenna, P/N 104213
Visiosat Tx/Rx 90cm Offset Antenna, P/N 105645
C-band Equipment
BUCs
JRC NJT5652, P/N 105268
JRC NJT5656, P/N 105269
Norsat 3050XPTF, P/N 105271
Zinwell ZTX-C3301F, P/N 105276
Zinwell ZTX-C3701F, P/N 105274
LNB
Zinwell ZK-VD1, P/N 105267
Norsat 8000 series
Antennas
Channel Master Type 183 1.8m Rx/Tx Linear Cross Polar Feed, P/N 104905
Channel Master Type 243 2.4m Linear Cross Polar Feed, P/N 104908
Channel Master Type 183 1.8m Left Hand Circular Polarisation, P/N 104960
Channel Master Type 183 1.8m Right Hand Circular Polarisation, P/N 105281
Channel Master Type 243 2.4m Left Hand Circular Polarisation, P/N 104911
Channel Master Type 243 2.4m Right Hand Circular Polarisation, P/N 105282

1.2

Configuration tool overview

The Nera SatLink Terminal must be configured before it can communicate via the satellite to and from
the network operator Gateway. The parameters to be configured are explained in section 6.2.
The configuration of the terminal can be carried out using the configuration tools:
Command Line Interface
Via RS232/Terminal emulator (e.g. HyperTerminal)
Telnet
Web-interface
SNMP
Configuration via CLI and Web-interface is presented in this document. For terminal management via
SNMP, the reader is referred to [6].

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

2. Unpacking
Check that the following items are in the box received, then unpack.
SatLink 1000, 1900, 1901, or 1910
Stand for vertical placement (SatLink 1000 only)
Power supply (SatLink 1000 only)
Mains cord
Brackets for 19 rack mounting (SatLink 1900/1901/1910 only)
CD with documentation

3. Installation
3.1

Before installation

3.1.1 Safety
Follow these guidelines to ensure general safety:

Always comply with national and local electrical codes.


Keep the installation area clear and dust free during and after installation.
Keep tools and all components away from walk areas.
Do not wear loose clothing, jewellery (including rings and chains), or other items that might get
caught on the IDU, the ODU or the interconnecting cables.
Do not work on the system or connect or disconnect cables during lightning storms.

Follow these guidelines when working with electrical equipment:

Disconnect all power and external cables before installing or removing a SatLink Terminal.
Do not work alone when potentially hazardous conditions exist.
Never assume that power has been disconnected from a circuit; always check.
Do not act in any way that creates a potential hazard to people or makes the equipment unsafe.
Never install equipment that appears damaged.
Carefully examine your work area for possible hazards such as moist floors, unearthed mains
extension cables and missing protective earths.

Should an electrical accident occur:

Be cautious do not become a victim yourself.


Turn off electrical power to the system.
If possible, send another person to get medical aid. Otherwise, assess the condition of the victim and
then call for help.
Determine if the victim needs artificial respiration or external cardiac compressions; then take
appropriate action.

3.1.2 Site requirements


The Nera SatLink Terminal shall be connected to the mains 110/230 VAC, 50-60Hz.

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

3.2

SatLink Terminal front and back panels

3.2.1 SatLink 1000 front and back panel

Figure 4: SatLink 1000 Front panel


LED

Blue, lights steadily when power switch is on and unit is powered. Flashes when loading
software.
Red, lights steadily when an error event occurs and during reboot.

Power
Error
Satellite

Receive

Transmit

Ethernet

Colour, indicates

Link/Act

Blue, flashes when the receiver is searching for the carrier.


Lights steadily when receiver is on and functioning properly.
Flashes when IP packets are received from the Satellite Interface (the Gateway).
Blue, flashes rapidly when a continuous wave (CW) is transmitted.
Lights steadily when the terminal is logged on to the DVB-RCS gateway.
Flashes when IP packets are transmitted to the Satellite Interface (the Gateway).
Blue, lights steadily when Ethernet connectivity is OK.
Flashes slowly when Ethernet packets are transferred via the Ethernet interface.

Table 1: SatLink 1000 front-panel LEDs

Figure 5: SatLink 1000 back panel


Item
On/off switch
Mains Connector
Ethernet
Connector
COM1 Connector
Rx coaxial jack
Tx coaxial jack

Description
Mains power on (1) or off (0).
Connector for cable to the 24 V DC power transformer (external power supply provided
with Nera SatLink 1000 Terminal)
RJ45 connector for IP traffic to connect to a PC, Ethernet switch, IP router etc. 10BASE-T
or 100BASE-T modes are detected automatically.
Nine-pin connector for connecting CLI interface to a computer serial RS232 interface.
Coaxial 75 F-type jack for the cable to the LNB.
Coaxial 75 F-type jack for the cable to the BUC.

Table 2: SatLink 1000 back panel description

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3.2.2 SatLink 1910 front and back panel

Figure 6: SatLink 1910 Front panel


LED

Colour, indicates

Power

Blue, lights steadily when power switch is on and unit is powered. Flashes when loading
software.

Error

Red, lights steadily when an error event occurs and during reboot.

Satellite

Ethernet

Receive

Blue, flashes when the receiver is searching for the carrier.


Lights steadily when receiver is on and functioning properly.
Flashes when IP packets are received from the Satellite Interface (the Gateway).

Transmit

Blue, flashes rapidly when a continuous wave (CW) is transmitted.


Lights steadily when the terminal is logged on to the DVB-RCS gateway.
Flashes when IP packets are transmitted to the Satellite Interface (the Gateway).
Blue, lights steadily when Ethernet connectivity is OK.
Flashes slowly when Ethernet packets are transferred via the Ethernet interface.

Link/Act

Table 3: SatLink 1910 front-panel LEDs

Figure 7: SatLink 1910 back panel


Item
On/off switch
Mains Connector
Ethernet
Connector
COM1
Connector
Cover for Accessory
Card
Rx coaxial jack
Tx coaxial jack

Description
Mains power on (1) or off (0).
Standard recessed plug for Mains cord.
RJ45 connector for IP traffic to connect to a PC, Ethernet switch, IP router etc.
10BASE-T or 100BASE-T modes are detected automatically.
Nine-pin connector for connecting CLI interface to a computer serial RS232
interface.
Not used.
Coaxial 75 F-type jack for the cable to the LNB.
Coaxial 75 F-type jack for the cable to the BUC.

Table 4: Description of SatLink 1910 back panel

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3.2.3 SatLink 1900 and 1901 front and back panels

Figure 8: SatLink 1900 and 1901 front panel.


LED

Colour, indicates
Blue, lights steadily when power switch is on and unit is powered. Flashes when the software
is loading.
Red, lights steadily when an error event occurs; lights steadily during reboot.

Power
Error
Satellite

Receive

Blue, flashes when the receiver is searching for the carrier.


Lights steadily when receiver is on and functioning properly.
Flashes when IP packets are received from the Satellite Interface (the Gateway).
Blue, flashes rapidly when a continuous wave (CW) is transmitted
Lights steadily when the terminal is logged on to the DVB-RCS gateway.
Flashes when IP packets are transmitted to the Satellite Interface (the Gateway).
Blue, lit when Ethernet packets from the local network are being received.

Transmit

Blue, lit when Ethernet packets are sent to the local network.

Receive

Transmit

Ethernet

Table 5: SatLink 1900 and 1901 front-panel LEDs

Figure 9: SatLink 1900/1901 Back panel


Item
On/off switch
Mains Connector
COM1
Connector
Ethernet
Connector
Node/Hub
Push-button toggle
External I/O
Rx coaxial jack
Tx coaxial jack

Description
Mains power on (1) or off (0).
Standard recessed plug for Mains cord.
Nine-pin connector for connecting CLI interface to a computer serial RS232 interface.
RJ45 connector for IP traffic to connect to a PC, Ethernet switch, IP router etc.
10BASE-T or 100BASE-T modes are detected automatically.
Selects HUB or NODE configuration of the Ethernet port. NODE normally is used
when connecting to an Ethernet switch or Ethernet hub, while HUB is used when
connecting directly to a single PC.
Not used
Coaxial 75 F-type jack for the cable to the LNB.
Coaxial 75 F-type jack for the cable to the BUC.

Table 6: SatLink 1900 and 1901 back panel connectors and switches

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3.3

IDU Installation

3.3.1 On desktop or shelf


Place the Nera SatLink Terminal on a flat, stable surface, such as a desktop or shelf, close to the PC or
network device to which it will be connected. Keep its top, bottom and all sides unobstructed to ensure
free airflow. Rubber feet on the bottom provide adequate clearance. Ensure that there is at least 10 cm
clearance at the back to allow room for cable connections.

3.3.2 In rack
Warning: The rack or cabinet should be properly secured to prevent tipping. Equipment that is
installed in a rack or cabinet should be mounted as low as possible, with the heaviest units lower
down, and lighter units toward the top.
Precautions:
Ensure that the mains circuits are properly earthed and use the mains cord supplied with the
SatLink Terminal to connect it to the mains outlet.
If your installation requires a different mains cord than the one supplied, ensure that the cord used is
certified as indicated by the stamped or embossed logo of the electrical safety authority in your
country.
If the on/off switch on the back panel is difficult to reach when the unit is fitted in the rack, ensure
that the mains outlet into which it is plugged can be reached so it may be unplugged if need be.
Ensure that the unit does not overload the mains circuit, wiring or over-current protection. To
determine the possibility of overloading the supply circuits, add together the ampere ratings of all
devices installed on the same circuit as the Nera SatLink Terminal and compare the total with the
rating limit for the circuit. The maximum ampere ratings are usually printed on units near their mains
connectors.
Do not install the Nera SatLink Terminal in a location where the operating ambient temperature may
exceed 45C.
Ensure that the airflow around the sides and back of the router is not restricted.
The Nera SatLink 1900/1901/1910 can be mounted in any EIA-standard 19-inch telecommunications rack
or cabinet. The Nera SatLink 1000 needs to be placed on a shelf if it is to be placed in a rack.
Use a Torx screwdriver and attach the mounting brackets to the router with the screws supplied. Hold the
unit securely, brackets attached, and move it vertically until rack holes line up with the bracket notches,
then insert and tighten the four screws holding the brackets to the rack.

Figure 10: Rack Mounting

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3.4

Antenna installation

Install the antenna as described in Appendix G and references [1], [2], [3], [4]and [5].

3.5

Interface connections

3.5.1 Rx/Tx cables between IDU and ODU


The coaxial cables from the ODU are connected to the type F coaxial jacks on the back panel of the Nera
SatLink Terminal. See Appendix L for specification of the cables to be used.
Connect one coaxial cable from the ODU Tx module input to the jack marked Tx.
Connect one coaxial cable from the LNB to the port marked Rx on the back panel.
Note
Do not connect the Tx cable before the initial configuration of the Nera SatLink Terminal is
performed to ensure that incorrect or hazardous signals are not sent to the satellite.
Note
Use only 75 coaxial cables fitted with type F plugs for the Rx and Tx cables.
Note
Do not connect and disconnect the coaxial cables with power connected to the Nera SatLink
Terminal.
Hint
Use different colour marking on the Tx and Rx coaxial cables to reduce the probability for
interchanging the cables.

3.5.2 Ethernet connection to a Local Area Network (LAN)


The Nera SatLink Terminal may be connected to a single PC or to a network via the RJ-45 Ethernet jack
on the back panel.
Plug one end of the Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 jack on the back panel.
Plug the other end of the Ethernet cable into the RJ-45 jack a Local Area Network (LAN) device such
as an Ethernet hub, switch or router, according to its manufacturers instructions.
For the Nera SatLink 1900 and 1901, toggle the back panel push button to set Ethernet HUB or NODE
mode. Toggle to NODE when connecting to an Ethernet switch or an Ethernet hub and toggle to HUB
when connecting to a single PC.
For the Nera SatLink 1000 and 1910 there is no push button on the back panel as Ethernet HUB or NODE
mode will be auto-detected and the correct mode chosen automatically.

3.5.3 Mains connection


The Nera SatLink 1900/1901/1910 models have internal power supply and consequently are connected
directly to a 110/230 VAC 50/60Hz outlet using a standard 230 VAC mains cord.

3.5.4 Power supply


The Nera SatLink 1000 has an external power supply that is connected to a 110/230 VAC 50/60Hz outlet
using a standard mains cord.
Warning: The Nera SatLink 1000 must only be connected to the external power supply that is
approved by Nera, PN 104170 (LEI-S2425D / Model No. STD-2425). Use of another power supply
will void warranty.

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4. PC configuration
After installation as described in Chapter 3 is carried out, the Nera SatLink Terminal is ready to be
powered on.

4.1

Windows TCP/IP configuration

Verify that the TCP/IP configuration for PCs connected to the Terminal LAN is correct. Push the startbutton in Windows, select the Control panel and then open Network Connections. Right-click on the
relevant Local Area Connection and select Properties. A new window showing the Network Connection
Properties will pop up. In the General submenu of this window, scroll down, select Internet Protocol
(TCP/IP) and then push the Properties button shown in Figure 11. Then configure the PC client to obtain
the IP address automatically from the Terminal (section 4.1.1) or configure the PC with a static IP address
(section 4.1.2).

Figure 11: Windows XP menu for configuring the client TCP/IP configuration.

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4.1.1 Dynamic IP configuration of PCs connected to the Nera SatLink Terminal LAN
By default the DHCP server in the Nera SatLink Terminal is enabled. When the Nera SatLink Terminal is
powered on, all PCs connected to the Nera SatLink LAN can automatically retrieve their IP configuration
from the DHCP server. The user should verify that the Window clients are configured to obtain an IP
address and DNS server address automatically. Figure 12 shows the correct Windows XP configuration
when the DHCP server is enabled in the Terminal.

Figure 12: Windows XP TCP/IP setting when DHCP server is enabled in the Terminal
From an MS-DOS window, the user may type ipconfig /all command to verify that the computer has
received correct configuration parameters from the DHCP server such as IP address, subnet mask, default
Gateway, DNS servers and lease time.

Figure 13: ipconfig /all print out from an MS-DOS window

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4.1.2 Static IP configuration of PCs connected to the Nera SatLink Terminal LAN
When the DHCP server in the SatLink Terminal is disabled, all PCs attached to the Nera SatLink
Terminal LAN must be configured with static IP addresses that are within range of the Nera SatLink
Terminal subnet (see section 6.2.1). The IP configuration parameters to use for PCs connected to the Nera
SatLink Terminal LAN are supplied from the system operator or service provider. Please configure the IP
address, Subnet mask, Default gateway, Preferred DNS server, and optionally the Alternate DNS server
as shown in Figure 14.
Note
Ensure that the actual IP addresses supplied by the system operator / service provider are
configured and not the IP addresses in the example figure.

Figure 14: Windows XP TCP/IP setting when DHCP server is disabled in the Terminal
Example:
A host may have the following configuration; IP address 192.168.0.2, Subnet mask 255.255.255.0 and
default gateway 192.168.0.1, where the IP address of the default gateway should be the IP address of the
Nera SatLink Terminal LAN interface.

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5. Using the Command Line Interface of the SatLink Terminal


The command line interface can be accessed via either Telnet or the RS-232 port for management of the
Nera SatLink Terminal as well as for showing status and reports.

5.1

Start-up sequence

When turning on the Nera SatLink Terminal first the Boot SW is loaded. A message such as the one
below is displayed on the CLI/RS-232 when the boot SW starts. Note that Telnet is not available before
the application has been started.
Nera SatLink Boot-loader
- SW ID 106267, Revision 9.0.0.1
File system initialised
Press return to enter boot-loader

Under normal circumstances the user should not need to enter the boot-loader and should ignore the
press return to enter boot-loader message. The DVB RCS application will load automatically once the
boot SW load has completed. See Appendix I for further details concerning the boot SW. If access to the
boot-loader is required, press return within 10 seconds to display the login-prompt for entering the bootload.
After the timer has expired, the DVB-RCS application will be loaded. The message Loading
application will be shown when the application starts to load.

When the DVB-RCS application starts to run a message similar to this will be shown:
Nera SatLink 1000
- Main Board ID 102805, Revision R6.0
- SW ID 101224, Revision 9.1.3 Build 56

The application will then initialise the file system, restore all configuration parameters from flash, do
initial configuration, and start the DVB-RCS receiver and transmitter if these are configured to start
automatically.
The following messages on CLI show when the Nera SatLink Terminal has successfully restored all
configuration parameters from the MIB (from the configuration file on the flash file system), when lock
on the forward link is achieved, and when successful DVB-RCS logon has been achieved:
State
Configuration completed
Lock on forward Link achieved
Successful logon

: CLI message
: Retrieving configuration....done
: Forward link up
: Return link up
Two-way link established

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5.2

CLI users access rights

Four levels of CLI user access rights are available for differentiating user privileges:
Level 2:
installer
Level 3-5: end users
When shipped from the factory, one user is pre-configured in the Nera SatLink Terminal1:
User name
install

Factory default password


dvbrcs

Privilege level
2

When accessing the CLI via RS-232, if the login prompt is not displayed type ENTER. The login prompt
Login: should then be displayed. Then login with the install user:
Login: install
Password: dvbrcs

When the command prompt is displayed you will now have access to the CLI with privilege level 2.
New users may be added with the CLI command user add, existing users deleted with the CLI
command user del, and the password of the current user or users with lower privilege levels can be
changed with the CLI command user passwd. To list all defined users with lower privilege level than
the user currently logged in, use the CLI command user show. Type ? user to get further help on the
user commands.
For security reasons we strongly recommend that you change the factory set password to your own
personal one.

5.3

Online help

In the CLI a list of available commands can be displayed by typing ? <ENTER> (question mark and the
ENTER). The CLI command groups will then be shown:
Example:
# ?
To list the commands in a sub-menu type '? <sub-menu>'
device
dvb
eth
ip
misc
odu
sw
user
log

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Device configuration
Configure DVB interface
Show Ethernet status
IP configuration
Miscellaneous commands
ODU configuration
Software upgrade configuration
User configuration
Event log

Nera SatLink Terminals that have Boot SW release 8.x.x or earlier, will have factory default password
satlink for the install user.

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To display the available commands within one command group type ? <group>.
Example:
# ? ip
For detailed help on a command type '? ip <command>'
addroute
delroute
qos
set
show
dhcp

:
:
:
:
:
:

ip addroute <destaddr> <netmask> <next hop> <ifnum>


ip delroute <destaddr> <netmask> <next hop>
sub menu for configuration of Return Link QoS
ip set <ifnum> <ipaddr> <mask>
ip show [-mcast]
sub menu for dhcp

To get further help on a specific CLI command type ? <group> <cmd>.


Example:
# ? ip set
USAGE:
ip set <ifnum> <ipaddr> <mask>
ifnum
ipaddr
mask

Interface number (1=LAN, 3=Satellite)


IP address for the interface
Netmask for the interface

Set the IP address and subnet mask for the specified interface
Example:
ip set 1 10.10.1.1 255.255.255.248

will set the LAN IP address to


10.10.1.1 and the LAN netmask to
255.255.255.248

See also:
ip show, ip addroute, ip delroute
#

5.4

Logging of events

The Nera SatLink Terminal logs certain events to a log stored in RAM. See Appendix J.4 for a list of the
different events and what action that need to be taken for the different events. Use the CLI command log
show to show the log from memory.
The events are divided in four different severity levels:
0. Minor
1. Normal
2. Major
3. Critical
Events with severity level Major will normally cause disruption in the data transfer, while events with
severity level Critical normally will require user intervention in order to restore the data communication
with the DVB-RCS gateway.
To have access to the log of events also after the terminal software has been rebooted, the event above a
specified severity level can be logged to file. Use the CLI command log file to enable logging of
events to file, set the minimum severity level of events that shall be logged to file and set the maximum
size for the logfile. The factory default settings are that logging of events with severity level Major and
Critical to file is enabled.

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5.5

CLI command summary

The available CLI commands are listed below.


CLI commands

ping <ipaddr>
del <filename>
ren <filename1> <filename2>
dir [ext]
type <filename>
save config
dload <filename> <ipaddr> [<localname>]
upload <filename> <ipaddr> [<remotename>]
Restart
Logout
? [sub-menu] [cmd]
device name <name>
device contact <contact>
device location <location>
device show
dvb tx autostart <on|off|traffic> [<timeout>]
dvb tx calibrate [<freq>]
dvb tx cw <on|off> [<pow> [<freq>]]
dvb tx cwfreq <freq>
dvb tx eirp <eirp>
dvb tx logoff
dvb tx logon
dvb tx outpow <pow>
dvb tx show [-capacity]
dvb rx autostart <on|off>
dvb rx start
dvb rx stop
dvb rx pol <value>
dvb rx freq <freq>
dvb rx symbrate <symbrate>
dvb rx show
dvb pos lat <deg> <min> <mindec> <dir>
dvb pos long <deg> <min> <mindec> <dir>
dvb pos alt <height>
dvb pos show
dvb popid <id>
eth mode <mode>
eth show
ip addroute <destaddr> <netmask> <next hop>
<ifnum>
ip delroute <destaddr> <netmask> <next hop>
ip qos mask <index> <group> {{+|-}<tag>
<tag-parms>}+
ip qos show
ip set <ifnum> <ipaddr> <mask>
ip show [-mcast]
ip nat <enable|disable >2
ip nat <show>2

Available in Available in
Boot
Application
SW
SW
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

x
x

x
x

CLI commands are available only when license for software option is installed.

20

User
Privilege
Level

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

5
2
2
5
5
5
2
2
5
5
5
2
2
2
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
2
5
2
5
5
2

x
x

2
2

x
x
x
x
x

5
2
5
2
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Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

CLI commands

ip dhcp <enable|disable>
ip dhcp show
ip dhcp leasetime <time> [unit]
ip dhcp dns <primary> <secondary>
ip dhcp exclude <no>
ip gre add <destaddr> <netmask>
<tunnelipaddr> 2
ip gre del <ifnum> 2
ip gre show 2
ip pep disable
ip pep enable <mode>
ip pep server <ipaddr>
ip pep show
log file <enable|disable>
[<severity> [<filesize>]]
log show
odu lnb <type>
odu txtype <type>
odu antenna <type>
odu show
sw license <feature> <key>
sw mcast <value> [<pid>] [<addr>] [<port>]
sw upgrade [-default] [<filename>
[<tftp-ip-addr>]]
sw restore
sw show
user add <loginname> <passwd>
[privilege level]
user del <loginname>
user passwd {loginname | oldpasswd}
<newpasswd>
user show

Available in Available in
Boot
Application
SW
SW
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

User
Privilege
Level
3
5
3
3
3
2
2
5
2
2
2
5
5
5
2
2
2
5
2
2
2
2
5
4

x
x

X
X

4
5

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6. Nera SatLink Terminal configuration


Before powering up the Nera SatLink Terminal for the first time, ensure that the Tx coaxial cable from
the Nera SatLink Terminal to the ODU is disconnected to avoid that incorrect or potentially damaging
signals are sent to the satellite. Follow all the procedures below when installing the Nera SatLink
Terminal and lining up the ODU.

6.1

Power on and logon

1) To view the boot processes of the Nera SatLink Terminal, please connect a PC to the serial interface
and launch HyperTerminal as described in Appendix B. Otherwise go to step 2.
2) Turn on the power of the Nera SatLink Terminal.
3) Wait for the application software to be loaded and activated (typically takes 1-1.5 minutes).
The power led on the front of the Nera SatLink Terminal will blink3 when the SW is booting and will
stay on when the SW has successfully started. If watching the boot process on the RS-232 output, a
printout similar to this will be displayed when the SW has booted.
Nera SatLink 1000
Main Board ID 102805, Revision R6.0
- SW ID 101224, Revision 9.1.3 Build 56
File system initialised
Ethernet Interface MAC Address : 00:60:c0:2f:a7:38
DVB Interface MAC Address : 00:60:c0:2f:a7:38
Retrieving configuration....done

4) Start a Telnet session to the Nera SatLink Terminal. Please note that Local Echo must be enabled in
the Telnet Client. Recommended Telnet clients are Tera Term (see Appendix D), PuTTY4, and the
built in Telnet client in Windows (not for Windows XP where Local Echo does not seem to work).
Hyperterminal can also be used (see Appendix B.2).
If the Nera SatLink Terminal does not seem to be reachable from the LAN after power-on, this may
be due to slow update of the ARP cache on the PC. Then verify that the Nera SatLink Terminal is
registered in the PCs ARP cache by using the MS-DOS command arp a.
Use the Nera SatLink Terminals Satellite Interface (DVB) IP address when using Telnet over the
satellite link (from the Gateway), and the Nera SatLink Terminals LAN (Ethernet) IP address when
using Telnet from the local LAN.
When shipped from the factory the SatLink 1000 and 1910 Terminal LAN (Ethernet) IP-addresses are
set to 192.168.0.1 and the subnet mask to 255.255.255.0. The SatLink 1900 and 1901 normally have
the LAN IP address set to 10.10.10.10 and the subnet mask to 255.0.0.0 when shipped from the
factory. If the Nera SatLink Terminal LAN (Ethernet) IP-address is not known, one must use CLI via
RS-232 to do the initial configuration.
The Nera SatLink Terminal can handle at most three simultaneous Telnet connections including
aborted connections. The Telnet session will be automatically terminated after 20 minutes without
activity. If a Telnet session is refused this can be due to all three connections being aborted. Please
wait until the timeout has expired and try again.

In older SatLink 1900 versions (Hardware revision 1.2 and earlier main board revision R4 and R5.1)
and for SW build 1.7.0.6 an earlier of the boot software, the power led will light continuously also when
the SW is booting. On these terminals one short blink in the Satellite receive/transmit diodes shows that
the SW has booted successfully.
4
http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html
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5) Login as the administrator user install with the factory default password dvbrcs :
Login: install
Password: dvbrcs5
Nera SatLink 1000
Main Board ID 102805, Revision R6.0
- SW ID 101224, Revision 9.1.3 Build 56

Note that one must press Enter once to get the login-prompt to display if using the CLI via RS-232.
6) The Nera SatLink Terminal should now be ready to be configured as described in the following sub-

sections.

6.2

Initial configuration of parameters

The terminal must be configured with a number of parameters before the terminal can acquire the forward
link and communicate with the network Gateway. A default configuration specifying most of these
parameters is usually pre-loaded on each Nera SatLink Terminal, either in the factory or by the service
provider before installation. The parameters are:
- Antenna/ODU to be used
- Forward link frequency and symbol rate
- Terminal geographical position
- Terminal population ID
- Target output power for transmission on the return link
- IP routing parameters.
For Nera SatLink Gateways that support terminal autocommissioning, the terminals IP routing
parameters can be updated automatically from the Gateway upon first time log-on. In that case, the IP
address configuration described in section 6.2.1 below can be skipped. Please check with your Gateway
operator if local configuration of the terminals IP addresses is necessary.

6.2.1 IP configuration
The DVB-RCS system operator manages all IP addresses in the DVB-RCS system including the DVB
interface IP address and the LAN IP addresses of all DVB-RCS terminals. Please make sure that the IP
addresses and netmasks are entered exactly as specified by the DVB-RCS system operator, as any
deviation normally will result in that the Nera SatLink Terminal will not be able to communicate
correctly with the IP network of the DVB-RCS system operator.
1) Set the LAN IP address of the unit
Enter the CLI command ip set 1 <aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd> <eee.fff.ggg.hhh>
where <aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd> is the IP address and <eee.fff.ggg.hhh> the netmask.
Example:
# ip set 1 10.10.20.1 255.255.255.248

2) Set the DVB IP address (Satellite interface) of the unit:


Enter the CLI command ip set 3 <aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd> <eee.fff.ggg.hhh>
where <aaa.bbb.ccc.ddd> is the IP address and <eee.fff.ggg.hhh> the netmask.
Example:
# ip set 3 10.10.21.1 255.255.255.0

dvbrcs is the factory default setting for the password. The password might have been changed after
shipment from the factory.

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Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

3) Verify that the IP addresses and netmasks are set correctly:


Enter the CLI command ip show
Example:
If the values above have been configured the ip show command shall give the following result.
(Interface 1 is the LAN interface, interface 2 is not used, and interface 3 is the DVB (satellite)
interface):
# ip show
Interfaces
If
IPAddress
SubnetMask
BroadCastAddr
MTU Alias AdminStatus
1
10.10.20.1 255.255.255.248
10.10.20.7 1500
eth0
1
2
N/A
N/A
N/A 4074
air0
1
3
10.10.21.1
255.255.255.0 192.168.255.255 4074
dvb0
1
Interface Statistics
------------- Input ----------------- ------------- Output ---------------If
UCast
NUCast
Disc
Octets
UCast
NUCast
Disc
Octets
1
0
9
0
1196
0
3
0
120
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Routing Table
DestMask
RouteMask
NextHop If
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
10.10.21.254
3
10.10.20.0 255.255.255.248
0.0.0.0
1
10.10.21.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
3

Ensure that the correct route is defined to the LAN (in this example that the destination mask
10.10.20.0 with route mask 255.255.255.248 is defined for the LAN interface). Verify that the default
route (Destination mask 0.0.0.0 with route mask 0.0.0.0) is defined for the satellite interface and has a
valid Next Hop IP address. Please note that for routes to the DVB interface, routing is not based on the
Next Hop IP address. The Next Hop IP address for the default route can therefore be set to any
valid IP address within the DVB interface subnet, except for the Nera SatLink Terminals own
DVB interface IP address. Please, always make sure that the next hop IP address for the default route
is neither located on the Nera SatLink Terminals own LAN nor is identical to the DVB interface of the
SatLink Terminal. Otherwise it will break the IP connectivity from the Nera SatLink Terminal to the
DVB-RCS gateway.

4) Save the IP configuration to Flash


Enter the CLI command: save config
Example:
# save config
Saving Configuration. This will take ~20 secs
# Configuration Saved
#

If the prompt sign (#) does not show, push enter.

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6.2.2 Antenna and ODU parameter configuration


The Nera SatLink Terminal is normally pre-configured to be used together with the Nera SatLink 403x
Transceiver. The CLI command odu show will show the ODU configuration with the two parameters,
ODU transmitter type and ODU receiver type, both set to Nera SatLink 403x.
It is possible to configure the Nera SatLink Terminal to operate together with other transmitters and
receivers than SatLink 403x. The valid ODU transmitters (BUC) are listed in Table 7 and the valid ODU
receivers (LNB) are listed in Table 9 (the list is also available using the CLI help command ? odu
txtype). Choosing the ODU transmitter to be Nera SatLink 403x will automatically lock the ODU
receiver type to Nera SatLink 403x.
Please make sure that the correct ODU transmitter (BUC) type is selected according to the table below as
the return link communication will otherwise not work.
ODU
Transmitter #
(type)
Ku-band
11

10
9
20
30
45
70
C-band
80
81
85
90
91

ODU Transmitter (BUC)

Nera Product Number


(P/N)

HW Revision

Nera SatLink 403x

106547 (SatLink 4036)


106546 (SatLink 4035)
104804 (SatLink 4033)
100716
100716
101338
104041

All
All
All
5.0 and newer
R3 or older
All
All
All
All

Nera SatLink 3000


Nera SatLink 3000
Norsat 1010XRT / 1020XRT
Invacom TUL-204
JRC NJT5017F
NGN-9200
JRC NJT5652
JRC NJT5656
Norsat 3050XPTF
Zinwell ZTX-C3301F
Zinwell ZTX-C3701F

105268
105269
105271
105276
105274

All
All
All
All
All

Table 7: Overview of supported ODU transmitters (BUC)

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Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

To configure use of an ODU transmitter (BUC) listed in the table above, please enter the CLI command
odu txtype <type> where type is the number from the first column in the table above.
Example:
# odu txtype 10

selects the Nera SatLink 3000 transmitter. Use the command odu show to view the ODU configuration
parameters.
When using the Nera SatLink 3000 ODU transmitter6 or the SatLink 4033/4035/4036 Transceiver, the
Nera SatLink Terminal must be configured with the antenna type in use in order to calculate the
transmitted EIRP correctly. The following antennas are supported:
Antenna #
(type)
2
1
5
7
6
4

Antenna (Ku-band)

Size

Manufacturers part no:

Channel Master Type 960


Channel Master Type 123
Channel Master Type 184
Channel Master Type 244
Visiosat Tx/Rx 75cm Offset Antenna
Visiosat Tx/Rx 90cm Antenna

96 cm
120cm
180cm
240cm
75cm
90cm

62-96055-02
62-12361-02
62-18452-02
62-24356-01
PN 104213
PN 105645

Table 8: Overview of supported Antenna types


The Nera SatLink Terminal is normally pre-configured to use the Channel Master 960 antenna. If another
antenna listed in the table above is to be used, please enter the CLI command odu antenna <type>
where type is the antenna number from the first column in the table above.
Example:
# odu antenna 1

selects the Channel Master 120cm antenna. Use the command odu show to view the ODU configuration
parameters.
Example:
# odu show
Antenna Configuration
--------------------Type
Tx Gain at 14.25 GHz

Channel Master Type 960 - 96cm


41.2 dB

Transmitter (BUC) Configuration


----------------------------------Type
Manufacturer ID
ODU Product ID
ODU Serial No.
ODU HW Version
ODU SW Version
ODU SW back version
ODU Type
Local oscillator
24V DC supply

Nera SatLink 4033 (14.0-14.5 GHz)


00 60 c0
00 00 00 00 01
1060111003050200460000
1.0
1.1
0.0
0
13.050000 GHz
On

Not revision 3.0 or older of the SatLink 3000 transmitter

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Receiver (LNB) Configuration


-------------------------------Type
Local oscillator - High band
Local oscillator - Low band
Oscillator switching frequency
LO Switching mode
13/18V DC supply

Nera SatLink 403x (10.70-12.75 GHz)


10.600000 GHz
9.750000 GHz
11.700000 GHz
22kHz
13V

The SatLink Terminal can be configured with one of the following LNBs:
ODU LNB #
(type)
Ku-band
20
30
C-band
80
85

ODU LNB

Nera P/N

Invacom SPV-1SM
Zinwell ZK-VJ1

100816
104730

Zinwell ZK-VD1
Norsat 8000-series

105267

Table 9: Overview of supported ODU receivers (LNB)


Enter the CLI command # odu lnb <lnbtype> where type is the number from the first column in the
table above to configure the correct LNB.
Note: When ODU BUC is chosen to be the Nera SatLink 403x transceiver, the LNB will automatically be
set to Nera SatLink 403x. The Nera SatLink IDU will detect the Nera SatLink transceiver model being
used (i.e. Nera SatLink 4033, 4035, or 4036) and display the detected model in the ODU Transmitter
(BUC) Type field in the cli odu show output.
Example:
# odu lnb 20

selects the Invacom SPV-1SM LNB. Use the command odu show to view the ODU configuration
parameters:
# odu show
Antenna Configuration
---------------------

Type

Channel Master Type 184 - 1.8m

Tx Gain at 14.25 GHz

47.0 dB

ODU Transmitter (BUC) Configuration


----------------------------------Type
Manufacturer ID
ODU Product ID
ODU Serial No.
ODU HW Version
ODU SW Version
ODU SW back version
ODU Type
Local oscillator

Nera SatLink 3000 (14.0-14.5 GHz)


00 60 c0
00 00 00 00 01
1060111003050200460000
1.0
1.1
0.0
0
13.050000 GHz

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Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

24V DC supply

On

Receiver (LNB) Configuration


-------------------------------Type
Local oscillator - High band
Local oscillator - Low band
Oscillator switching frequency
LO Switching mode
13/18V DC supply

Invacom SPV-1SM (10.70-12.75 GHz)


10.600000 GHz
9.750000 GHz
11.700000 GHz
22kHz
13V

Finally save the configuration to flash using the command save config. Please note that the Nera
SatLink Terminal must be restarted for the new configuration to take effect.

6.2.3 Terminal position


In order to calculate the delay to the satellite correctly for the logon burst the Nera SatLink Terminal must
be configured with its own position.
1) Find the position of the location where installing the Nera SatLink Terminal in WGS84 coordinates
using a standard GPS.
2) Note that the Nera SatLink Terminal position is entered in degrees, minutes and 1/100 minutes.
Many GPSes display the position in degrees, minutes, seconds, and optionally 1/100 seconds.
To convert from seconds to 1/100 minutes please use the following formula:
1/100 minutes = (seconds/60) x 100
3) Configure the latitude:
Enter the CLI command dvb pos lat <deg> <min> <mindec> <dir> where
deg
= degrees
min
= minutes
mindec = 1/100 minutes
dir
= direction. 0 = North. 1= South.
Example:
# dvb pos lat 59 52 15 0

sets the latitude to 5952.15'N.


4) Configure the longitude:
Enter the CLI command dvb pos long <deg> <min> <mindec> <dir> where
deg
= degrees
min
= minutes
mindec
= 1/100 minutes
dir = direction. 0 = East. 1= West.
Example:
# dvb pos long 10 29 05 0

sets the longitude to 1029.05'E.


5) Configure the altitude:
Enter the CLI command dvb pos alt <height> where
height = height in meters

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Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Example:
# dvb pos alt 60

sets the altitude to 60 meters.


6) Verify the Terminal position:
- Enter the CLI command dvb pos show
Example:
# dvb pos show
Latitude
Longitude
Altitude
Delay Correction
#

:
:
:
:

59 52.15'north
10 29.05'east
60m
0ticks

7) Save the Terminal position to Flash


Enter the CLI command: save config

6.2.4 Forward link parameters


The forward link parameters are used to identify the forward link (outbound link) that is transmitted from
the Gateway to the DVB-RCS terminals. To set the symbol rate and receive frequency for the forward
link to receive, use the following CLI commands:
Set symbol rate : dvb rx symbrate <Rx SymbolRate> (symbol rate in symbols per sec.)
Set frequency : dvb rx freq <RxFrequency> (in kHz)
Verify the settings by typing the CLI command dvb rx show and type save config to save the
configuration.
Example:
#
#
#
#

dvb rx symbrate 30000000


dvb rx freq 12591000
save config
dvb rx show

Satellite (DVB) RX Configuration


-------------------------------Auto start
: Disabled
Frequency
: 12.591000 GHz
Symbol rate
: 30.000000 Msps
Satellite (DVB) RX Status
-------------------------------State
: Off
#

The above example shows how to configure the Nera SatLink Terminal to use the following forward link:

Rx symbol rate:
Rx frequency:

30.0 Msps
12.591 GHz

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6.2.5 Population ID
The Nera SatLink Terminal will select which group in the DVB-RCS system it belongs to based on the
configured population ID. The population ID to be used is assigned by the Gateway Operator. Set the
population ID by using the CLI command dvb popid <id>, where id is the wanted population ID.
Example:
# dvb popid 2
# save config
# dvb tx show
Satellite (DVB) TX Configuration
-------------------------------Auto start
: Disabled
Population ID
: 2
IDU output power
: -15 dBm
EIRP
: 42.0 dBW
Default CW Frequency: 14.488000 GHz
AAL5 Encapsulation : VC MUX

DVB Transmitter Status


---------------------State
: Off
#

The above example shows how to configure the Nera SatLink Terminal to use population ID 2.

6.2.6 Tx output power


The last of the initial parameters to be configured is the transmit output power level. This parameter sets
the target EIRP level that the SatLink Terminal shall use when transmitting on the return link.
Configuration of this target level will be described in section 6.3.2 in conjunction with the calibration
procedure of the power level.
Prior to performing the Tx power calibration, the SatLink Terminal must correctly acquire the Forward
Link as described in section 6.3.1 below.

6.3
Forward Link acquisition, Tx power calibration, and fine adjustment of
antenna pointing and polarisation
Please perform antenna and ODU installation and alignment as described in Appendix G and the initial
parameter configuration described in section 6.2 before proceeding with the procedures described here.

6.3.1 Forward link acquisition


Connect the Rx cable between the ODU and IDU (if not already connected). Verify that the Rx power
level is between 0 dBm and 65 dBm at the input of the IDU (between 25 dBm and 65 dBm for the
SatLink 1900/1901).
If the antenna, ODU, and forward link parameters have been set correctly (section 6.2.2 - Antenna and
ODU parameter configuration, and section 6.2.4 Forward link parameters) and the IDU Rx power level is
as specified above, the Nera SatLink Terminal is ready to acquire the forward link:
1. If not already logged on, start the Nera SatLink Terminal and login as installer (user = install, factory
default password = dvbrcs) after having seen the message Starting DVB interface.
2. Enter the CLI command dvb rx start to acquire the forward link.
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3. The CLI message Forward Link up is displayed on the CLI output after successful acquisition of
the forward link
If the Nera SatLink Terminal reports Rx tuning failed please check the following:

ODU parameter setting section 6.2.2


Forward link parameter setting section 6.2.4
That the Rx cable is properly connected to both the Nera SatLink Terminal and the LNB
That the signal level in to the IDU is between 0 dBm and 65 dBm (-25 dBm and 65 dBm for
SatLink 1900/1901)
That the antenna/ODU has been properly aligned using the satellite finder/spectrum analyser.

The factory default setting is that the terminal is configured with Auto start enabled. If not performed
earlier, please disable the autostart functionality by issuing the CLI command dvb rx autostart
off. Verify that the autostart is disabled using the CLI command dvb rx show. Later, when the Nera
SatLink terminal is correctly aligned, the autostart functionality can be enabled in order to automatically
attempt Forward Link acquisition7 in case of Forward Link loss. A new Forward Link acquisition attempt
can be initiated using the CLI command dvb rx start.
The reader is referred to Appendix O for a description of the steps performed by the SatLink terminal
when acquiring the forward link.
Tx power level calibration and return link acquisition shall only be performed if the forward link has been
acquired and is operating properly.

6.3.2 Tx power calibration


This section describes how to calibrate the Tx output power when using the Nera SatLink
4033/4035/4036 transceiver and the Nera SatLink 3000 transmitter, revision 5.0 or newer. See Appendix
H for a description of how to do Tx power calibration for other transmitters.
1. Ensure that the Nera SatLink Terminal configuration procedure in section 6.2 has been performed.
2. Ensure that the Nera SatLink Terminal receiver is started and the Forward Link is acquired
Check that the receiver is running by issuing the CLI command dvb rx show. If the receiver is
not turned on, start the receiver by issuing the CLI command dvb rx start.
Check that the forward link has been acquired by verifying that the CLI message Forward Link
up is displayed on the CLI output.
3. Ensure that the Nera SatLink Terminal transmitter is turned off
Enter the CLI command dvb tx show. Verify that the transmitter is Off. If the transmitter is
On, use the command dvb tx logoff to turn the transmitter off.
4. Ensure that the Tx cable from the Nera SatLink Terminal to the ODU is connected

During normal terminal operation, Autostart is enabled. See section 6.5 Prepare the Nera SatLink
Terminal for normal operation.
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5. Configure the EIRP level that the SatLink terminal shall transmit with using the CLI command
dvb tx eirp <level>.
Example:
dvb tx eirp 42
sets the output to 42 dBW.
Save the configuration by using the CLI command save config.
6. Verify the transmitter configuration using the CLI command dvb tx show.

Example:
# dvb tx show
Satellite (DVB) TX Configuration
-------------------------------Auto start
: Disabled
Population ID
: 2
IDU output power
: -15 dBm
EIRP
: 42.0 dBW
Default CW Frequency: 14.488000 GHz
AAL5 Encapsulation : VC Mux
DVB Transmitter Status
---------------------State
: Off
#

The CW frequency to use for measurements during the calibration procedure is obtained from the
service provider or satellite operator. If the CW frequency needs to be changed, please consult
Appendix F.2
7. Contact the satellite operator / control centre to clarify the line-up procedures for transmission power
calibration and fine adjustment and verification of polarisation of the Nera SatLink terminal.
8. Have contact by phone with the control centre when performing the following measurements.
9. Issue the CLI command dvb tx calibrate to start the automatic transmitter power calibration
routine.
Ask the control centre if they can detect the transmitted CW. If they are not able to see the CW
at the specified frequency and expected output power level, please power off the Nera SatLink
Terminal immediately.
Example:
# dvb tx calibrate
Using preconfigured CW frequency 14.123000 GHz
RF Wanted= 30.7, RF Measured=
0.0, If output= -30.1
RF Wanted= 30.7, RF Measured= 30.6, If output= -26.6
ODU output level stabilised
Saving configuration
Note: CW transmission is still enabled to allow
for crosspolarisation adjustment of the antenna
Configuration Saved

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10. Verify the calibrated power levels using the CLI command dvb tx show.
Example:
# dvb tx show
Satellite (DVB) TX Configuration
-------------------------------Auto start
: Disabled
Population ID
: 2
IDU output power
: -26 dBm
EIRP
: 42.0 dBW
Default CW Frequency: 14.488000 GHz
AAL5 Encapsulation : VC MUX
DVB Transmitter Status
---------------------State
: Off
#

Leave the CW on for fine adjustment of the antenna, or turn it off using the CLI command
dvb tx cw off.

6.3.3 Fine adjustment of antenna pointing


If the CW from the power calibration routine is still on, it can be used for the antenna fine-adjustment as
well. Otherwise start CW transmission on the default CW frequency by issuing the CLI command dvb
tx cw on.

Ask the control centre if they are measuring the expected power level for the CW. If not, it is likely that
the antenna pointing is not optimal. Fine-adjust the antenna pointing until the CW power level detected by
the control centre is within their requirements.

6.3.4 Fine adjustment of antenna polarisation


Ask the control centre if the measured level of the CW on the opposite polarisation is lower than their
requirement. If not, fine adjust the rotation angle of the Rx/Tx/Feed Assembly with respect to the feed
horn until the polarisation discrimination is within specified limits.

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6.4

Test of DVB-RCS connection

After the ODU line-up procedure in section 6.3 (or alternatively, Appendix H.1) has been successfully
completed the Nera SatLink Terminal is ready to logon to the DVB-RCS network.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is only allowed to log on to the DVB-RCS network if its DVB MAC address
is registered at the gateway. Registration of the terminals MAC address at the gateway is a network
operator responsibility. The CLI command device show can be used to display the DVB MAC
address of the Nera SatLink Terminal or it can be found on the label underneath the Nera SatLink
Terminal chassis. The MAC address is also shown on the CLI message display during the boot procedure
of the Nera SatLink Terminal.
Example:
# device show
System Information
-------------------------------Name
: Terminal-1025
Location
: Oslo
Contact
: support@nera.no
System time
: Thu Nov 20 12:03:15 2004

HW
-------------------------------Model
: SatLink 1000
HW ID
: 103346
Main board ID
: 102805
MAC addresses
-------------------------------Ethernet (LAN)
: 00:60:c0:2f:46:64
Satellite (DVB)
: 00:60:c0:2f:46:64
#

Then do the following:


1. If the receiver is not already on, enter the CLI command dvb rx start to acquire the forward
link. The Nera SatLink Terminal has successfully locked to the forward link when the message
Forward link up is displayed.
2. Enter the CLI command dvb tx logon to start the transmitter and logon to the DVB-RCS
network. If successfully logged on, an output similar to the example below is written to the
Telnet/HyperTerminal window. Use the CLI command dvb tx show to show the transmitter status.
3.
Example:
Initial Synchronisation:
Forward link up
All tables acquired
Logging on...successful
Fine Synchronisation...achieved
Return link up
Two-way link established

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4. To test the IP connection to the gateway open an MS-DOS window on the PC connected to the Nera
SatLink Terminal LAN (Ethernet).
Type the MS-DOS command ping 10.10.10.1 to test the connection to the gateway router8.
If the router gives a positive reply to the ping message then the DVB-RCS satellite link is
successfully up and running.
5. To test the connection to the Internet, type the MS-DOS command ping www.nera.no. If a reply is
received the PC connected to the Nera SatLink Terminal has a working connection to the Internet via
the DVB-RCS satellite network.

6.5

Prepare the Nera SatLink Terminal for normal operation

The connection to the Internet over the DVB-RCS satellite network should now have been tested and
found to be working. The only thing left is then the final configuration to prepare the Nera SatLink
Terminal for normal operation.
The Nera SatLink Terminal must be started and you must be logged in as a user with minimum privilege
level 2 (e.g. install user) before completing the following operations.
1. Configure the Nera SatLink Terminal to automatically start the receiver by typing the CLI command
dvb rx autostart on.
Setting the Rx autostart on will ensure that the receiver is started automatically after e.g. power
failure, link failure, gateway restart, or a software failure, etc. without needing user intervention.
Verify that auto start is on for the receiver by typing the CLI command dvb rx show.
2. Configure the Nera SatLink Terminal to automatically start the transmitter by typing the CLI
command dvb tx autostart on.
Setting the Tx autostart on will ensure that the transmitter is started automatically after e.g. power
failure, link failure, gateway restart, or a software failure, etc. without needing user intervention.
Or alternatively follow the procedure in section 10 if the terminal shall use traffic-initiated logon.
Verify that auto start is on for the transmitter by typing the CLI command dvb tx show.
3. Save the configuration by typing the CLI command save config.

6.6

Backing up the current configuration

When the Nera SatLink terminal is correctly configured, you should back up the configuration data. All
configuration data is stored in the file config.txt on the Nera SatLink Terminal file system. The
configuration file can be uploaded to a TFTP server on a PC using the CLI command
upload config.txt <TFTP-Ipaddress> [<remotefilename>],
where TFTP-Ipaddress is the IP address for the TFTP server and remotefilename is an optional

parameter specifying the filename to store the file as on the TFTP server if a different name than
config.txt is wanted.
See Appendix C for an example of how to install and set up a TFTP server.

Replace the IP address 10.10.10.1 with the actual IP address of the DVB-RCS gateway router if the
default IP configuration of the DVB-RCS gateway is not used.
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7. LAN DHCP Server


To handle automated address assignment, the IETF has designed a protocol (RFC 2131) known as
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP). DHCP allows a computer to acquire automatically all IP
configuration information it needs when entering the network.
Whenever a new computer connects to the Nera SatLink Terminals LAN and the DHCP server in the
Terminal is enabled, the computer will be allocated an IP address by the DHCP server from the pool of
addresses defined by the Nera SatLink Terminal LAN subnet (defined by the LAN netmask).
IP addresses that will not be allocated automatically to new computers are the Nera SatLink Terminals
own IP address and eventually IP addresses specifically excluded during configuration.

7.1

Configuration of the DHCP server

The terminal administrator has the possibility to configure the following parameters:
Server Status: Enable or disable the Nera SatLink Terminal LAN DHCP server.
Lease time: Set the lease time for an IP address allocated to a host on the LAN
No. of IP addresses excluded: Specifies the number of IP addresses to be excluded from the
available range of addresses defined by the Nera SatLink Terminal LAN subnet. The excluded
range of IP addresses will be the upper range of the LAN subnet. I.e. if the Nera SatLink
Terminal LAN is allocated the IP addresses 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.254, and 2 IP addresses are
excluded for use by the DHCP server, then the DHCP server will have the IP address range
10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.252 available for DHCP clients.
Primary DNS server: IP address for the primary DNS server to be used by the hosts on the Nera
SatLink Terminal LAN.
Secondary DNS server: IP address for the secondary DNS server to be used by the hosts on the
Nera SatLink Terminal LAN.
To enable the DHCP server, use the CLI command ip dhcp enable.
The lease time of IP addresses can configured using the CLI command ip dhcp leasetime.
Example
# ip dhcp leasetime 1 D

The command in this example will configure the lease time to 24 hours (one day).
To view the DHCP server configuration and, if enabled, the DHCP client table, use the CLI command ip
dhcp show.

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Example:
# ip dhcp show
DHCP Server Status
------------------------------------------Server Status
: Enabled
Server IP address
: 192.168.0.1
Server IP address range
:
Starting IP address : 192.168.0.1
Ending IP address
: 192.168.0.254
No of IP addresses excluded : 1
Excluded IP address range
:
Starting IP address : 192.168.0.254
Ending IP address
: 192.168.0.254
Lease Time
: 1 Day 0 Hours 0 Minutes 0 Seconds
DHCP Client Table
----------------Host Name
IP Address
konsulentdell 192.168.0.2
#

MAC Address
1>00:06:5b:e0:6f:48

Lease expires
In less than 15 minutes

The DHCP client table is only displayed when the DHCP server is enabled. The table will display the
host name, the allocated IP address, the host MAC address and the address lease expiration time for each
computer registered by the DHCP server.
Note that until the terminal has acquired lock on the forward link and received the system time via the
Time and Date Table (TDT) from the Gateway, it will have no information of the current time. The
DHCP server will in this situation only lease IP addresses to the LAN hosts for 15 minutes until the
system time is set. Lease expires In less than 15 minutes message will be displayed in the
DHCP client table.

7.2

Changing the SatLink Terminal LAN Interface IP address

If the IP address of the SatLink Terminal LAN Interface is changed, the IP addresses of all end-user
devices that are connected to the SatLink Terminal LAN must be updated correspondingly.
This also applies to those end-user devices that have obtained their IP addresses automatically from the
DHCP server. As the end-user devices will not normally issue a request to the DHCP server before the
lease-time of their IP addresses has expired, an IP address update of these devices must be manually
triggered by the end-user.
For example, to trigger a PC running MicroSoft Windows OS to request a new IP address from the DHCP
server, the end-user can issue the command ipconfig /renew in the DOS command window.
If the end-user device does not have provisioned means for manually triggering a DHCP request for IP
address update, please power off and on again the end-user device. This will normally result in the enduser device requesting the Terminal DHCP server for an IP address as part of the end-user device
initialisation process.

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8. Quality of Service
QoS is used to provide differentiated handling of different types of IP traffic. The aim is to be able to
satisfy traffic flows for applications with different requirements. For example, to assure a given return
link bandwidth with minimal delay jitter for VoIP or other UDP based continuous rate real time traffic by
avoiding influence from traffic that are not so sensitive to delay jitter, e.g. Web browsing and FTP.
The Nera SatLink Terminal can be configured to support two different QoS groups on the return link.
QoS on the forward link is handled by the DVB-RCS Gateway and not discussed further in this manual.
The QoS implementation in the terminal is based on a multi-field classifier, i.e. the DSCP/TOS field and
other fields in the IP header are used to classify which QoS group each IP packet belongs to. IP packets
belonging to different QoS groups are then treated differently by the terminal. The terminal can be
configured to support traffic differentiation based on DSCP values as used in DiffServ based networks.
The two QoS groups that are supported on the return link are
1) VoIP/other real-time continuous rate traffic
2) Best effort (typically used for Web browsing, FTP, and similar).
Associated with each QoS group is a QoS policy. Parameters that impact the QoS policy are:
Capacity request algorithm and parameters
The capacity request algorithm for real-time traffic is tailored to request a continuous rate
capacity,
the capacity request algorithm for best effort is designed for more bursty and delay insensitive
traffic such as Web browsing and FTP.
Transmission PID
Used to give precedence to real-time traffic when interleaving traffic from different QoS groups
at the MPEG level
Drop policy
Real-time traffic is placed in shorter transmission queues at IP level than best effort traffic
Real-time traffic packets are dropped at the head of the transmission queue if the queue
overflows, while best effort traffic packets are dropped at the tail of the queue.
Precedence
- Real-time traffic is given precedence over best effort traffic.
Typing CLI command # ip qos show will output among other the QoS Policy Table:
QOS Policy Table
Group CRClass Strategy FwdPri QLength DropPolicy Timeout
0
0
0
0 400000
0
120
1
1
1
1
15000
1
120
QoS Classification table
Idx Grp Classification Parms

The parameters in the QoS policy Table are not user configurable.

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8.1

Configuring QoS for the return link

In order to determine the QoS group an IP packet belongs to, the SatLink terminal uses a multi-field
classifier. This multi-field classifier is used to perform a look-up in a QoS classification table. This table
can store up to 15 different masks that the IP packets will be matched against.
The following parameters in the IP header can be used for doing the QoS classification:
IP source address
IP destination address
DSCP / TOS
Protocol type
TCP/UDP source port number
TCP/UDP destination port number
The format of the QoS classification table is:

Index

QoS
Group

1-15

0 or 1

Dest. IP
Address
Mask

Source IP
Address
Mask

DSCP
Range
(Start-Stop
values)
0-63

Protocol
Type
(up to 3
values)
0-255

TCP/UDP
Source Port
Range (StartStop values)
0-65535

TCP/UDP
Dest. Port
Range (StartStop values)
0-65535

The index parameter is used to uniquely identify an entry in the QoS classification table and decides the
order in which the QoS classification table is searched. When an IP packet is to be QoS classified, the
QoS classification table is searched from index 1 to index 15. If a match is found, the search is stopped,
and the IP packet is thereafter handled with the QoS Group for this entry in the QoS classification table. If
a match is not found for an IP packet it will be treated as best effort traffic. QoS Group 0 is defined to be
the Best Effort QoS Group and QoS Group 1 is VoIP/Real-Time QoS group.
Factory default configuration is that the QoS classification table is empty, and all traffic is handled as
Best Effort (QoS Group 0). A user with privilege rights 2 (user install or equivalent) can configure a QoS
Classification table in the terminal as explained below, but the use of QoS group 1 can be inhibited by the
network operator/service provider. Please contact the network operator/service provider for use of QoS
group 1 for VoIP/real-time traffic.

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The CLI command to be used to configure the QoS Classification table is ip qos mask <index>
< group> <list of tags>. This command has a variable length where one ore more tags with
different tag parameters can be set. The tags are the different IP header parameters that can be used for
QoS classification:
tag and tags parameters for CLI command
+src <ipaddr> <mask>
-src
+dst <ipaddr> <mask>
-dst
+dscp <min> <max>
-dscp
+prot <n> <p1> <pn>
-prot
+sport <min> <max>
-sport
+dport <min> <max>
-dport

Function
Define or modify IP source address and netmask
Delete IP source address and netmask
Define or modify IP destination address and
netmask
Delete IP destination address and netmask
Define or modify DSCP range
delete DSCP range
Define protocol value [0,255]. Up to 3 protocol
values can be defined (n can be 1, 2, or 3).
Delete protocol values
Define TCP/UDP source port number range
Delete TCP/UDP source port number range
Define TCP/UDP destination port number range
Delete TCP/UDP destination port number range

To view the current QoS configuration, use the CLI command ip qos show.
Examples:
To add an entry in the QoS classification table matching IP packets with DSCP range 10-15 and assign
these to the VoIP QoS Group:
# ip qos mask 1 1 +dscp 10 15

To add an entry in the QoS classification table matching protocol type 7 and assign this to the VoIP QoS
Group:
# ip qos mask 2 1 +prot 1 7

To add one more classification criteria for the same entry, e.g. destination address:
# ip qos mask 3 1 +dst 10.10.22.0 255.255.255.0

To delete one classification criteria from en entry from the QoS classification table:
# ip qos mask 3 1 prot

To delete the whole entry from the QoS classification table:


# ip qos mask 3 all

To add a new entry for classifying VoIP traffic:


# ip qos mask 1 1 +src 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.255 +dscp 10 15

To view the current QoS configuration:


# ip qos show
QOS Policy Table
Group CRClass Strategy FwdPri QLength DropPolicy Timeout
0
0
0
0 400000
0
120
1
1
1
1
15000
1
120
QoS Classification table
Idx Grp Classification Parms
1
1 DSCP = 10..15
2
1 Protocols = 7
3
1 IPDst= 10.10.22.0/255.255.255.0

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9. Bandwidth on Demand
The Nera SatLink System supports Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) based on the following modes:
Rate-based BoD using low jitter assignments
Volume-based BoD using immediate assignments, aiming at achieving good satellite resource
efficiency
A combination of the above two BoD modes, targetting a balance between good performance and
good efficiency
These BoD modes use the DVB-RCS capacity request categories on the return link:
Rate based (RBDC)
Volume based (VBDC) /Absolute Volume Based (AVBDC)
Please refer to [11] for a detailed description of the return link capacity request categories.
As mentioned in section 8 the current software version supports two QoS classes:
VoIP Real-time (High priority)
Best Effort (Low priority)
Associated with each QoS class is a capacity request strategy. The Best Effort QoS class can be
configured to operate with any of the three BoD modes. However, the VoIP/Real-time traffic QoS class
requires rate-based BoD mode in order to provide satisfactory performance.
Default factory configuration of the Nera SatLink Terminal is to provide Best Effort QoS class using
Rate-based BoD mode. That is, the terminal is pre-configured to request capacity from the NCC/Gateway
using the RBDC request category. Normally, the gateway operator or ISP will issue new Service Level
Agreement parameters (CRA, maxRBDC, and max VBDC per QoS class) during the log-on sequence
and, thus, override the default settings.
The capacity requested by the terminal and the capacity granted by the NCC to the Nera SatLink
Terminal on the return link can be viewed using the CLI command dvb tx show -capacity
Example:
# dvb tx show -capacity
Capacity parameters per channel:
------------------------------Channel CRA[kbps] Allocated[kbps]
0
0
119
Requested capacity per QoS class:
--------------------------------Channel CRClass MaxRBDC[kbps] MaxVBDC[kB] RateReq[kbps] VolReq[octs]
0
0
512
977
118
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
#

In the example above the NCC has not assigned any continuous rate capacity (CRA) to the terminal. The
terminal is authorised to request up to a maximum of 512 kbps Rate Based Dynamic capacity and a
maximum of 977 kBytes of Volume/Absolute Volume Based Dynamic Capacity. In this example the
terminal requested 118 kbps capacity and was granted by the Gateway NCC a total of 119 kbps.

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CRA:

Allocated CRA capacity (DVB-RCS Continuous Rate Assignment capacity). The DVB
RCS Gateway assigns CRA capacity to the terminal at log-on time. Changes in the CRA
level assigned to the terminal during its log-on session are notified to the terminal using
the signalling table unicast-TIM. The amount of CRA to be assigned to the terminal is a
network operator/service provider decision.
MaxRBDC: Maximum RBDC is the upper limit of Rate-Based Dynamic Capacity that a terminal
can request. The assigned RBDC capacity will be assigned on top of the allocated CRA
capacity. The maxRBDC is set from the DVB-RCS Gateway and is a network/service
provider decision. The Nera SatLink Terminal is pre-configured with a default value of
maxRBDC for the Best Effort QoS class. This default value will be overwritten by the
operator-defined value at log-on time.
MaxVBDC: MaximumVBDC is the upper limit of Volume-Based Dynamic Capacity that a terminal
can request. The assigned VBDC capacity will be assigned on top of the allocated CRA
capacity. The maxVBDC is set from the DVB-RCS Gateway and is a network/service
provider decision. The default value of this parameter is 0.
Allocated:
Allocated refers to the total aggregated amount of capacity (CRA+RBDC+VBDC) that
the NCC has granted to the terminal

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10. Traffic Initiated Logon


The SatLink Terminal can be configured to logon automatically to the DVB-RCS gateway when it has
traffic to send and logoff again when it has had no traffic to send for a configurable timeout period.
This mode is useful for terminal installations where low power consumption is important (e.g. when
powered by solar power and batteries). It is also useful in systems where it is desirable to reduce the
signalling bandwidth on the return channel (by avoiding use of dedicated SYNC slots when the terminal
has no traffic to send).
The power saving mode requires the use of the Nera SatLink 403x transceiver or the Nera SatLink 3000
transmitter. The power consumption will then be reduced from typically 27W to approximately 12W
when the terminal is logged off when using the SatLink 403x transceiver with SatLink 10009.
The Nera SatLink Terminal can be configured to use traffic initiated logon by typing the CLI command
dvb tx autostart traffic <timeout> where <timeout> is the timeout in minutes the terminal
will wait before logging off when it has no traffic to send.
Example:
dvb tx autostart traffic 5

configures the SatLink Terminal to use traffic initiated logon and automatically log off the network after
not having any traffic to send for 5 minutes.
Verify the configuration of the transmitter mode and the timeout for traffic initiated logon by typing the
CLI command dvb tx show.

11. Routing of Multicast traffic


11.1 Setting up routing of multicast traffic from the SatLink Terminal LAN to the
gateway
The Nera SatLink Terminal can be configured to route multicast traffic from the LAN to the return
channel (to the gateway). User privilege level 2 is required for configuring the multicast routing.
To set up static routing of a multicast group from the LAN to the satellite interface, use the CLI command
ip addroute <IP group address> <subnet mask> <ifnum>. Where IP group address is
the IP multicast address that shall be routed from the Ethernet LAN to the gateway, subnet mask is the
netmask for this routing entry, and ifnum is the interface number (always set this to 3 = Satellite
Interface).
Example:
# ip addroute 224.0.2.2 255.255.255.255 3

The command in the example will set up a route for the multicast group with the IP address 224.0.2.2 to
the satellite interface (to the gateway). The MAC address used on the return link will be calculated
according to RFC 1112.

When using the Nera SatLink 3000 transmitter with Nera SatLink 1900 the power consumption will be
reduced from typically 45W to approximately 22W when the terminal is logged off.
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To view the defined multicast routes use the CLI command ip show -mcast.
Example:
# ip show -mcast
IP Multicast Routing Table
RouteAddress
AddressMask
224.0.0.2 255.255.255.255
224.0.2.2 255.255.255.255

IfIndex
1
3

Please note that subnetwork internal multicast groups on the LAN will show up in the multicast route
table. LAN internal multicast traffic is e.g. generated by Windows (Network neighbourhood, etc.). Such
traffic will have the IfIndex set to 1.
To delete multicast routes use the CLI command
ip delroute <IP group address> <subnet mask> <ifnum>.

Example:
# ip delroute 224.0.2.2 255.255.255.255 3

will delete the static route of the multicast group with the IP address 224.0.2.2 from the Ethernet LAN to
the satellite interface (gateway).
Enter the CLI command save config to save the return link multicast configuration,

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12. Updating the Nera SatLink Terminal SW


The flash in the Nera SatLink Terminal can store two SW images, both the currently used SW and a
backup version in case download of a new SW version fails.

12.1

Automatic software update

The Nera SatLink Terminal may be configured for receiving software updates from the DVB-RCS
gateway automatically. Whenever the software upgrade application at the DVB-RCS gateway transmits a
new software image, the software upgrade routine in the Nera SatLink Terminal will start receiving the
software image given that the new software image has a newer revision than the current software. When
the software download is completed successfully, the Nera SatLink Terminal will restart automatically in
order to activate the new software version.
To automatically receive software upgrades, the Nera SatLink Terminal must be configured with the PID,
the multicast IP address, and the UDP port allocated by the system operator for multicast software
upgrade, with software upgrade via multicast enabled, and with the terminal receiver locked on the
forward link. Issue the CLI command sw show to examine the automatic software upgrade
configuration:
# sw show
SW versions
-------------------------------Boot
: 9.0.0.1
Current
: 9.1.3.56
Backup
: 9.1.3.55
Manual SW upgrade settings
-------------------------------TFTP server IP addr : 10.10.1.1
File name
: dvb-rcst.tgz
Automatic SW upgrade settings
-------------------------------Activated
: No
PID
: 511
IP address
: 224.0.1.59
Port No.
: 2001
Licenses for SW options
-------------------------------None

Users with privilege level 2 may activate and deactivate the automatic software upgrade routine, and
change the PID, IP address, and UDP port number where the software is received by using the CLI
command sw mcast.
Example:
# sw mcast 1 511 224.0.1.59 2001
#
will enable automatic reception of software upgrades on PID 511, IP address 224.0.1.59 and UDP port
number 2001.
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12.2

Manual software update

Users with minimum privilege level 2 may use the CLI command sw upgrade to download a new
software image from the default TFTP server. After successful download of a new software image, the
previous software version will be stored as a backup version before enabling the new software.
Below is described in detail how to upgrade the Nera SatLink Terminal software:
1. Verify the default settings for the manual software upgrade with the CLI command sw show
2. If necessary, update the default settings for the manual software update by using the CLI command
sw upgrade default <upgraded-SW-filename> <tftp-ip-address>

3. Verify the settings with the CLI command sw show


4. Execute the SW upgrade by typing sw upgrade, then restart the Nera SatLink Terminal
Example:
# sw show
SW versions
-------------------------------Boot
: 9.0.0.1
Current
: 9.1.3.56
Backup
: 9.1.3.55
Manual SW upgrade settings
-------------------------------TFTP server IP addr : 10.10.1.1
File name
: dvb-rcst.tgz
Automatic SW upgrade settings
-------------------------------Activated
: Yes
PID
: 511
IP address
: 224.0.1.59
Port No.
: 2001
Licenses for SW options
-------------------------------None
#
# sw upgrade -default dvb-rcst.tgz 10.10.10.8
# sw upgrade
Software download in progress, please wait...................................
...........................................................................
File Transfer complete
Configuration Saved

The terminal then proceeds to automatically reboot.

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12.3

Restoring the backup software

If one for some reason must restore the old software, then the following steps have to be executed. Please
note that the current SW will be deleted when restoring the backup SW.
1. Restore the previous SW with the command sw restore, then restart the terminal
Example:
# sw restore
Restoring backup SW 9.1.3.55
Current SW 9.1.3.56 will be deleted
Do you want to continue (Y/N)?y
Backup SW restored. Saving configuration and restarting
Saving Configuration. This will take ~20 secs
Configuration Saved
Restarting Terminal. Connection will be closed
Reconnect when the terminal has restarted (1-2 minutes)

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13. Software options


The Nera SatLink terminal supports the following features available as options and require license
authorisation:

Network Address Translation (NAPT, Global NAT, and Static NAT)


GRE Tunnelling
TCP/IP Performance Enhancing Proxy (PEP)

To show the list the SW options that are authorised for use on the Nera SatLink Terminal, use the CLI
command sw show.
Example:
# sw show
SW versions
-------------------------------Boot
: 9.0.0.1
Current
: 9.1.3.56
Backup
: 9.1.3.55
Manual SW upgrade settings
-------------------------------TFTP server IP addr : 10.10.1.1
File name
: dvb-rcst.tgz
Automatic SW upgrade settings
-------------------------------Activated
: No
PID
: 511
IP address
: 224.0.1.59
Port No.
: 2001
Licenses for SW options
-------------------------------NAT
PEP
GRE

The licenses for optional SW functionality are installed using the CLI command sw license. Please
contact the network operator or ISP if access to a new software option is wanted in order to receive a
license key.
Example:
# sw license nat mykeyforenablingnat

Once the right to use a SW option has been authorised by means of license installation, the SW
functionality can be enabled using the appropriate CLI command (as explained in the following
subsections).
Example:
# ip nat enable

Note:
The CLI help function for the different SW options requiring licenses (e.g. ? ip nat) will not be
available unless the SW option is authorised by installing the necessary license key.

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13.1

Network Address Translation

Network Address Translation is a mechanism to provide transparent IP-level access to the Internet from a
local site with a private address range without requiring all the hosts on the site to have globally valid IP
addresses. NAT translates addresses in incoming and outgoing IP packets by replacing the source address
in each outgoing IP packet with the globally valid IP address, and replacing the destination address in
each incoming IP packet with the private address of the destination host on the local site.
Network Address Port Translation (NAPT), sometimes called Port-Mapped NAT, is a popular variant of
NAT providing concurrency by translating TCP or UDP protocol port numbers as well as addresses.
The Nera SatLink Terminal supports:
- Dynamic NAPT
- Static NAPT
- Static NAT.
To enable Network Address Translation (NAPT or static NAT) in the Nera SatLink Terminal, use the CLI
command ip nat enable.
Example:
# ip nat enable

To show the status of the Network Address Port Translation in the Nera SatLink Terminal, use the CLI
command ip nat show:10
Example
# ip nat show
NAT:
---Network Address Port Translation (NAPT): Enabled
NAT Status
-------------------

13.1.1 Configuration of Dynamic NAPT


Dynamic NAPT applies for all LAN initiated connections that are to be routed over the DVB satellite
interface. The source address of the outgoing packets will be replaced by the Global Address that is
defined in the NAPT Global Address Table. Port numbers will be mapped to new port numbers that are
automatically generated by the Nera SatLink Terminal.
If no user-defined Global Address is configured, the default IP address used for address translation when
NAPT is enabled will be set identical to the Nera SatLink Terminals own DVB (satellite) interface IP
address.
The CLI command # ip nat global add <gladdr> can be used to replace the default global
address (i.e. the DVB Satellite interface IP address) with a user-defined global address. Correspondingly,
the user defined global address can be deleted using the CLI command # ip nat global del
<gladdr>.
Note:
Though the CLI command # ip nat global add <gladdr> allows the user to define more than
one global address, in practice, only the first address in the NAT Global Address table will be used.

10

Please note that the CLI command # ip nat enable applies both for static NAT and NAPT even
though the # ip nat show status output only mentions NAPT enabled.
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Please note that translation of outbound TCP/UDP fragmented datagrams will fail with NAT enabled. The
reason is that only the first fragment contains the TCP/UDP header that would be necessary to associate
the packet to a session for translation purposes. Subsequent fragments do not contain TCP/UDP port
information, but simply carry the same fragmentation identifier specified in the first fragment.
Consequently the sessions will be corrupted. Whether NAT drops or forwards also an ICMP fragmented
packets depends on a number of things, such as the order in which the NAT router receives the ICMP
fragments, and the state of the translation table at that time. Under certain conditions, NAT translates the
ICMP fragments differently, making it impossible for the destination device to reassemble the packet.
To view the currently configured dynamic NAPT entries, type the CLI command: # ip nat show.
Example:
# ip nat global add 10.10.1.10
# ip nat show
NAT Configuration
----------------Network Address Port Translation (NAPT): Enabled
Global Address Table
If
IP Address
dvb0
10.10.1.10
NAT Status
---------Total Sessions
Active Sessions
Failed Sessions
Packet Translations

0
0
0
0

13.1.2 Configuration of Static NAPT


Static NAPT is used to map incoming connections to different local hosts dependent on their TCP/UDP
port number.
When using static NAPT, both the IP addresses and port numbers of the incoming packets will be
substituted with the IP addresses and port numbers that defined using the CLI command:
# ip nat napt add <gladdr> <glport> <locaddr> [<locport>].

Multiple global address/port combinations can be mapped to the same local address/port.
Static NAPT entries in the address translation table are removed by issuing the CLI command:
# ip nat napt del <gladdr> <glport>

To view the currently configured static NAPT entries, type the CLI command: # ip nat show

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Example:
# ip nat napt add 10.10.2.2 5000 192.168.0.12 3000
# ip nat show
NAT Configuration
----------------Network Address Port Translation (NAPT): Enabled
Global Address Table
If
IP Address
dvb0
10.10.1.10
Static NAPT Map
If
Global Address/Port
dvb0
10.10.2.2/5000
NAT Status
---------Total Sessions
Active Sessions
Failed Sessions
Packet Translations

Local Address/Port
192.168.0.12/3000

0
0
0
0

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13.1.3 Configuration of Static NAT


Static NAT provides two-way access to servers behind NAT. The destination IP address of the incoming
packet is replaced by the corresponding local address that is configured in the Static NAT Map Table.
Likewise, when the host device sends a packet towards the satellite network, the source IP address of the
outgoing IP packet is replaced by the global address configured in the Static NAT Map Table.
The Static NAT MAP Table is configured using the following CLI command:
ip nat static add <globaddr> <locaddr>

Entries in the Static NAT MAP Table are deleted using:


ip nat static del <globaddr> <locaddr>

To view entries in the NAT tables, use ip nat show.


Example:
# ip nat static add 10.10.2.1 192.168.0.10
# ip nat show
NAT Configuration
----------------Network Address Port Translation (NAPT): Enabled
Global Address Table
If
IP Address
dvb0
10.10.1.10
Static NAT Map
If
Global Address
dvb0
10.10.2.1
Static NAPT Map
If
Global Address/Port
dvb0
10.10.2.2/5000
NAT Status
---------Total Sessions
Active Sessions
Failed Sessions
Packet Translations

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Local Address
192.168.0.10

Local Address/Port
192.168.0.12/3000

0
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0
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13.2

Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) and IP Tunnelling

The Nera SatLink Terminal supports configuration of one IP tunnel from its DVB interface with Generic
Routing Encapsulation (GRE) as specified in RFC 2784. Only the tunnel termination interface IP address,
tunnel logical destination IP address and subnet mask need to be specified since the tunnel will always be
set up from the DVB interface.
Example:
#ip gre add 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.20.1.1

Will set up a tunnel on the DVB interface to the IP address 10.20.1.1 for the subnet
192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
To verify that a GRE tunnel and a GRE interface have been created, use the CLI command ip gre
show.

Example:
# ip gre show
GRE Tunnel Interfaces:
---------------------If
Tunnel Local Address
4
192.168.255.2

Tunnel Remote Address


10.20.1.1

Interface number 4 has been allocated for the GRE interface. Use the CLI command ip show to verify
that a new IP interface has been created and that 2 new entries have been added to the IP routing table.
The first entry in order to route traffic with destination address equal to the tunnel remote address to the
DVB interface. The second entry to route traffic with destination address belonging to the tunnel remote
local subnet to the GRE interface.
# ip show
Interfaces
If
IPAddress
SubnetMask
BroadCastAddr
MTU Alias AdminStatus
1
10.10.20.115 255.255.255.248
10.10.20.119 1500
eth0
1
2
N/A
N/A
N/A 4074
air0
1
3
192.168.255.2
255.255.255.0 192.168.255.255 4074
dvb0
1
4
N/A
N/A 255.255.255.255 4074
gre0
1
Interface Statistics
------------- Input ----------------- ------------- Output ---------------If
UCast
NUCast
Disc
Octets
UCast
NUCast
Disc
Octets
1
14
98
43
13737
18
29
0
4984
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Routing Table
DestMask
RouteMask
NextHop If
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
3
10.10.20.112 255.255.255.248
0.0.0.0
1
10.20.1.1 255.255.255.255
0.0.0.0
3
192.168.1.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
4
192.168.255.0
255.255.255.0
0.0.0.0
3

To route unicast/multicast addresses specifically to the GRE interface, use the CLI command ip
addroute

Example
# ip addroute 225.0.0.2 255.255.255.255 4

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will forward multicast datagrams with IP address 225.0.0.2 from the Nera SatLink Terminal LAN
interface to the GRE interface (note that forwarding of multicast IP traffic from DVB interface to GRE
interface is not supported in the current release). As shown by the CLI command ip show -mcast
# ip show -mcast
IP Multicast Routing Table
RouteAddress
AddressMask
225.0.0.2 255.255.255.255
239.255.255.250 255.255.255.255

13.3

IfIndex
4
1

TCP Performance Enhancing Proxy (PEP)

Conditions particular to satellite communication severely constrict the performance of TCP and reduce
the end users experience of accessing the Internet over satellite. Large latency, elevated bit error rates,
and asymmetric bandwidth are all characteristics of satellite networks that result in degraded TCP
performance. Various TCP Performance Enhancing techniques are used to improve the performance of
the TCP protocol over satellite links. Appendix K.1 gives a brief introduction to the problems associated
with TCP/IP over satellite and countermeasures that can be implemented to enhance performance.
TCP PEP implementation in the SatLink System makes use of a TCP Performance Enhancing Server
installed in the Nera SatLink Gateway and a PEP software client embedded in the Nera SatLink Terminal.
The Nera SatLink Terminal embedded PEP client is an optional feature, which is enabled by entering a
license key. Use of the terminals embedded PEP client is subject to the Network Operator/ISP supporting
the PEP functionality using a PEP server on the gateway side. It is possible for the Network Operator/ISP
to activate the embedded client software remotely from the gateway, thus requiring no end-user
intervention. Alternatively, an end-user can receive a license key from the Network Operator/ISP and
activate the functionality using the CLI command sw license as shown in the example below.
Example:
# sw license pep mykeyforenablingpep

The PEP server in the Gateway may be installed in two different modes.
1. Re-direct mode
2. Transparent mode
Re-direct mode is the default setting. The Network Operator/ISP should inform you if the gateway PEP
server is installed in transparent instead of re-direct mode.
When operating in re-direct mode, the IP address of the TCP PEP Server in the gateway must be
configured in the Nera SatLink Terminal. If the terminal is authorised to use PEP, this is normally
performed remotely by the SatLink Gateway when the terminal logs on to the network. Alternatively, the
terminal user can locally configure the server address by means of the CLI command ip pep server
<ipaddr> using the PEP Server IP address provided by the Network Operator/ISP.
To enable the PEP functionality, use the CLI command ip pep enable [<mode>], where <mode>
can assume the values redirect or trans. To verify that the PEP functionality has been enabled, type
ip pep show.

The CLI command sequence to configure and enable the PEP functionality is recapitulated below:

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Example:
# sw license pep mykeyforenablingpep
# ip pep server 10.0.0.10
# ip pep enable redirect
# ip pep show
PEP Status
: enabled
PEP Mode
: Redirect Mode
PEP Server Address
: 10.0.0.0
Maximum Connections
: 250
Current Connections
: 2
Total Connections
: 1764
Transp Connections
: 0
Failed Connections
: 0
#

(to verify that the functionality is enabled)

The CLI command ip pep show displays current PEP configuration in addition to certain PEP status
information. Table 10 provides a short description of the displayed parameters.
Parameters
PEP status
PEP Mode
PEP ServerAddress
Maximum Connections
Current Connections
Total Connections
Trans Connections

Failed Connections

Description
Indicates whether the PEP functionality in the terminal is enabled or disabled.
Indicates whether the terminal is configured in Redirect or Transparent Mode
Shows that IP address of the Gateway PEP Server that the terminal PEP client
is configured to interact with.
Shows that maximum number of TCP connections that the terminal PEP client
can handle simultaneously. The value is 250 connections.
Indicates the number of TCP connections that is handled by the terminal PEP
client at the moment.
Indicates the total number of TCP connections that has been handled by the
PEP client since the PEP functionality was enabled.
Once the number of connections exceeds the threshold Maximum Connections
(i.e. 250 connections), the additional new connections are established without
performance enhancement techniques being applied to these. The parameter
Trans Connections indicates the number of connections that are passed
transparently through the terminal without PEP due to the Maximum
Connection threshold being exceeded.
Indicates the number of connections that were attempted established, but did
not succeed.

Table 10 Parameters displayed when typing ip pep show

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14. Definitions, Acronyms and Abbreviations


BER
BUC
CLI
CRA
CSC
CW
DiSEqC
DNS
DVB
DHCP
DSCP
EIRP
FCA
GW
GRE
HW
ID
IDU
IETF
IF
IP
ICMP
GPS
LAN
LNB
MAC
MIB
NAT
NAPT
NCC
ODU
OMT
OS
PAT
PEP
PID
QoS
RBDC
RCS
RCST
RF
RFC
RMT
RRM
RX
SNMP
SW
TCP
TDT
TFTP
TOS
TX
56

Bit Error Rate


Block Up-Converter
Command Line Interface
Continuous Rate Assignment
Common Signalling Channel
Continuous Wave
Digital Satellite Equipment Control
Domain Name Service
Digital Video Broadcasting
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DiffServ Code Point
Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power
Free Capacity Assignment
GateWay
Generic Routing Encapsulation
HardWare
IDentifier
InDoor Unit
Internet Engineering Task Force
Intermediate Frequency
Internet Protocol
Internet Control Message Protocol
Global Positioning System
Local Area Network
Low Noise Block
Medium Access Control
Management Information Base
Network Address Translation
Network Address Port Translation
Network Control Centre
OutDoor Unit
Ortho-Mode Transducer
Operating System
Program Association Table
Performance Enhancement Proxy
Packet Identifier
Quality of Service
Rate Based Dynamic Capacity
Return Channel on Satellite
RCS Terminal
Radio Frequency
Request For Comments
RCS Map Table
Radio Resource Management
Receiver
Simple Network Management Protocol
SoftWare
Transport Control Protocol
Time and Date Table
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Type Of Service
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UDP
VBDC
XPD

User Datagram Protocol


Volume-Based Dynamic Capacity
Cross-Polar Discrimination

15. References
[1]

Channel Master Instruction and Assembly manual. Type 960 .96m Rx-Tx Antenna System with
Factory Assembled AZ/EL Cap, Nera document No. 101497.
[2] Channel Master Instruction and Assembly manual. Type 123 1.2m Rx-Tx Antenna System with
Factory Assembled AZ/EL Cap, Nera document No. 101705.
[3] Channel Master Instruction and Assembly manual, Type 184 1.8m Offset Tx/Rx Antenna System,
Nera document No. 104218.
[4] Assembly Users Manual and Operating Instructions for Visiosat Tx/Rx 75cm Offset Antenna,
Nera document No. 104215.
[5] Users Assembly Manual and Operating Instructions for Visiosat 90 Dual Reflector Transmit /
Receive Antenna, Nera document No. 103174.
[6] Nera SatLink Terminal. Management via SNMP, Nera document No. 103951.
[7] Digital Video Broadcasting, The International Standard for Digital Television, by Ulrich Reimers
et.al., Berlin, Springer Verlag, 2001, 295 pages hardcover, ISBN 3-540-60946-6.
[8] Digital Video Broadcasting, by Ulrich Reimers, Berlin, Springer Verlag, 2002, 350 pages
hardcover, ISBN 3-540-3545-X.
[9] Digital Video Broadcasting website at www.dvb.org
[10] European Telecommunications Standards Institute website at www.etsi.org
[11] Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Interaction channel for satellite distribution systems,
ETSI EN 301 790, V1.3.1

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Appendix A. Using the Web Interface


The Web interface supports managing the most common configuration parameters and viewing the status
of the Nera SatLink Terminal. The Web-browsers currently supported are Microsoft Internet Explorer
6.0, Opera 7.2x and Opera 8x, but other browsers and versions may work as well. Advanced functions
such as configuring GRE tunnels, downloading software updates manually, configuring automatic
software updates, configuring system information, adding users and changing password, configuring
SNMP access, and adding manual IP routes, are only available from the CLI via Telnet or the RS-232
port. If experiencing any problems using the Web interface for management of the Nera SatLink
Terminal, please use the CLI via Telnet or RS-232 as a work-around for the problem.
Please note that the Web-server in the Nera SatLink Terminal is given less priority than the processes that
take care of the data transfer to and from the Satellite interface. This may occasionally result is slow
response times for the Web pages.
The NAT status and configuration web pages are only available if this SW option is authorised by
installing the necessary license key for the NAT functionality.

A.1

Status of the Nera SatLink Terminal

A.1.1 Satellite interface status


The status of the satellite interface can be seen by choosing the "Status" page. The page consists of three
parts: The status for the satellite interface as well as more detailed status for both the satellite receiver and
transmitter. The page is automatically updated every minute.
Satellite interface status
Gives an overview of the status on the whole interface:
State: Shows the current state of the satellite (DVB) interface. During normal operation it shows
"Two-way link established"
Transmitter: Shows the transmitter status. During normal operation it shows "On".
Receiver: Shows the receiver status. During normal operation it shows "On".
Receiver status
Gives a detailed view of the receiver status, with the following fields:
State: Receiver state. During normal operation it shows "Locked".
FEC rate: Detected FEC rate on the forward link.
Error rate (Viterbi): Number of errors detected by the Viterbi decoder during a fixed time period. A
lower number indicates better signal quality.
Frequency: Measured receive frequency for the forward link.
SNR: Current signal to noise ratio for the received signal.
Symbol rate: Measured symbol rate for the forward link.
Transmitter status
Gives a detailed view of the transmitter status, with the following fields:
State: Transmitter state. During normal operation it shows "On".
Frequency correction: Frequency correction received from the Gateway.
Timing correction: Timing correction received from the Gateway.
Capacity: Shows the capacity allocated currently to the terminal.
Capacity Request Status: table showing the terminal's return link capacity profile per capacity request
class. There are defined 2 capacity request classes: 0 for best-effort traffic (e.g. FTP and web
browsing) and 1 for VoIP/real-time traffic. The capacity parameters are CRA (Continuous Rate
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Assignment), Max RBDC (Rate Based Dynamic Capacity), and Max VBDC (Volume Based
Dynamic Capacity), all being configured from the Gateway. CRA (Continuous Rate Assignment) is
fixed capacity allocated to the terminal. The parameters Max RBDC (Rate Based Dynamic Capacity)
and Max VBDC (Volume Based Dynamic Capacity) set limitations on the amount of capacity the
terminal is permitted to request.

Figure 16: Status of Satellite Interface

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A.1.2 Traffic statistics


Traffic statistics can be seen by choosing the "Status" page, and then selecting the "Statistics" button. The
page consists of three tables: IP packet statistics, satellite forward link statistics (receive), and satellite
return link statistics (transmit). The page is automatically updated every minute.
IP packet statistics
This table provides an overview of the IP packet statistics on the terminal's interfaces. There are two
interfaces where statistics data are collected: LAN (Ethernet) and DVB (Satellite). For each interface, the
table contains the number of IP packets and the number of bytes that were received, transmitted, and
discarded on the given interface.
Forward link statistics
This table presents statistics data related to the satellite forward link (receiver). Data on the forward link
comes on different PIDs (Packet Identifier), for each PID there is one row in the table. The following
information is displayed per PID:
Type: Data type, it can be signalling (for DVB SI tables) or traffic (for user or management traffic, i.e.
IP packets)
MPEG2-TS: The number of MPEG2-TS packets received on this PID
Cont. errors: The number of MPEG2-TS continuity errors detected on this PID
Sections/tables: The number of DSM-CC sections (traffic) or DVB SI tables (signalling) received on
this PID
Return link statistics
This table contains statistics data related to the satellite return link (transmitter). Data on the return link is
transmitted in bursts on channels. A channel ID (normally set to 0 for transparent DVB-RCS systems)
identifies each channel. The table contains one row for each channel, showing the number of CSC (Logon
burst), SYNC (Regular Sync), CB SYNC (Contention Based Sync), TRF MPEG (MPEG2-TS Traffic
burst), and TRF ATM (ATM traffic burst) bursts.

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Figure 17: Statistics page

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A.1.3 Device information


Device information can be viewed by choosing the "Status" page, and then selecting the "Device" button.
Information displayed is:
Model: Terminal hardware model.
Software version: Version number (build number) of the application software currently running.
LAN MAC address: MAC address of the LAN (Ethernet) interface of the terminal.
DVB MAC address: MAC address of the DVB (satellite) interface of the terminal. These two MAC
addresses are normally equal.
Up time: Time elapsed since last terminal boot.
System time: Shows the system time received from the Gateway in the TDT (Time and Date Table)
table.
System name: Terminal system name. This and the following two parameters are MIB objects in the
MIB-II systems group and can be set via SNMP or from the CLI using the "device" menu.
System contact: Name of the contact person and/or company, who is responsible for this terminal.
System location: Terminal location

Figure 18: Device status


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A.1.4 DHCP information


The status of the DHCP server can be seen by choosing the "Status" page, and then clicking the DHCP
button.
General information about the status of the DHCP server and the DHCP client table is shown:
Server status: DHCP server enabled or disabled
Server IP address: The IP address of the DHCP server. The DHCP server IP address is equal to the
LAN IP address of the RCST.
Server IP address range: The pool of IP addresses that the DHCP server can lease to the DHCP
clients. The DHCP server is automatically allocated all IP addresses in the RCST's LAN subnet
except for the RCST's own LAN IP address and possible IP addresses manually excluded for use by
the DHCP server.
Number of IP addresses excluded: Number of IP addresses that are not allocated from the server's IP
address range. These addresses are typically used for hosts on the RCST's LAN that required static IP
addresses.
Excluded IP address range: It is a subrange of the server IP address range, containing IP addresses
that should not be allocated by the DHCP server. This range is an interval; it is defined with the help
of the starting IP address and the ending IP address for the excluded range. The excluded range of IP
addresses will be the upper range of the LAN subnet. As an example, if the RCST LAN is allocated
the IP addresses 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.254, and 2 IP addresses are excluded for use by the DHCP
server, then the DHCP server will have the IP address range 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.252 available.
Leasetime: Time period for which an IP address is leased to a DHCP client.
The DCHP client table shows information about the IP addresses that are currently leased from the
DHCP server: host name, IP address, MAC address, and lease time expiration. Please note that until
the terminal has acquired lock on the forward link and received the system time from the DVB-RCS
Gateway, it will have no information of the current time. The DHCP server will therefore only lease
IP addresses to the LAN hosts for 15 minutes until the system time is set.

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Figure 19: Information concerning the current DHCP configuration

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A.1.5 NAT information


Please note that the NAT button is only visible on the web page if the NAT SW license is installed.

Figure 20: Status information concerning the current Network Address Translation configuration

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A.2

Configuration of the Nera SatLink Terminal

A.2.1 Configuration of the satellite interface


Configuration of the satellite interface can be done by choosing the Configuration page, and then
selecting the Satellite button.
The most common configuration parameters of the satellite interface can be set from the Web interface:
Autostart on/off for the transmitter
Population ID
EIRP. Only needed when using the Nera SatLink 4033/4035/4036 or 3000 transmitter (BUC).
IDU output power. Only needed when using other transmitters (BUCs) than Nera SatLink
4033/4035/4036 or 3000.
ODU Transmitter type (BUC). Select the BUC that the In-Door Unit is to be connected to.
Antenna Type. When the terminal is configured with the SatLink 4033/4035/4036 or the 3000
transmitter (BUC), the correct antenna must be configured to allow the RCST to compute the correct
EIRP.
Autostart on/off for the receiver
Forward link frequency
Forward link symbol rate
LNB Type. Select the LNB that the In-Door Unit is to be connected to.
Terminal position in WGS84 format: longitude, latitude, and altitude
Please note that these parameters should only be changed to values specified by the system operator,
otherwise the connection to the DVB-RCS Gateway will most likely be lost.

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21: Nera SatLink Terminal configuration (Receiver, Transmitter and geographical position)

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A.2.2 IP address configuration


IP address configuration can be done by choosing the Configuration page, and then selecting the IP
button.
The IP addresses and netmasks of the RCST's LAN and DVB interfaces and the LAN DHCP server can
be configured here. When enabled, the DHCP server will automatically be allocated all IP addresses in
the RCST LAN subnet (defined by the LAN netmask) except the RCST's own IP address and addresses
manually excluded.
DHCP Server: Enable or disable the RCST LAN DHCP server.
Lease time: Set the lease time for an IP address allocated to a host on the LAN
No. of IP addr. excluded: Specifies the number of IP addresses to be excluded from the available
range of addresses defined by the terminal LAN subnet. The excluded range of IP addresses will be
the upper range of the LAN subnet. I.e. if the RCST LAN is allocated the IP addresses 10.10.10.1 to
10.10.10.254, and 2 IP addresses are excluded for use by the DHCP server, then the DHCP server
will have the IP address range 10.10.10.1 to 10.10.10.252 available for DHCP clients.
Primary DNS server: IP address for the primary DNS server to be used by the hosts on the RCST
LAN.
Secondary DNS server: IP address for the secondary DNS server to be used by the hosts on the RCST
LAN.

Figure 22: IP address configuration

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Note: Please note that after saving the new IP address the Nera SatLink Terminal needs to be restarted for
the changes to take place. The browser window may look incomplete during this save and may need to be
closed and opened again, then typing in the new address after restarting the IDU.

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A.2.3 NAT configuration


For terminals with the NAT option enabled, NAT can be disabled/enabled, and global IP addresses and
address mapping can be configured here. If no static address mappings are defined for NAT, then
dynamic port allocation (NAPT) will be used.
Enable or disable NAT
Global IP Address: Enter the IP address here and then press the Add-button to add a new global NAT
IP address.
Address Mappings
To define address mappings for static NAT, add the following parameters and press the Add-button:
Local IP Address
Local Port Number
Global IP Address
Global Port Number

Figure 23: NAT configuration

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A.2.4 Terminal line-up


Return link line-up can be configured by choosing the Configuration page, and then selecting the Line
Up button.
A continuous wave (CW) can during line-up be transmitted for calibrating the IDU output power level,
and for aiding the fine adjustment of the antenna pointing and polarisation. After the correct IDU output
power level has been found, (automatically when using the Nera SatLink 4033/4035/4036 and Nera
SatLink 3000, manually when using other transmitters (BUCs)), the pointing and polarisation of the
antenna should be fine adjusted based on measurements performed by the system operator on the
transmitted CW.
The Nera SatLink 4033/4035/4036 and Nera SatLink 3000 have an integrated power detector, simplifying
the line-up since the IDU output power can be automatically calibrated by the RCST to transmit the
configured EIRP. When using other transmitters, the IDU output power must manually be adjusted during
line-up according to feedback from the control centre. Please then be aware of the risk of setting the IDU
output level too high in order to compensate for inaccurate antenna pointing. Avoid compensating
inaccurate antenna pointing by using unnecessarily high IDU output power as this can have adverse effect
on the overall network performance and cause service degradation to other satellite network users.
Note: After performing a line-up from the web interface the terminal must be restarted in order to
initiate the logon process. This is due to the fact that the web interface does not provide the means to
trigger a terminal log-on directly from the web interface.

A.2.5 Nera SatLink 4033/4035/4036 and Nera SatLink 3000


In order to do a line-up of the terminal, ensure that the correct frequency for transmitting a continuous
wave (CW) and the wanted EIRP is configured, and when permission to start CW transmission is granted
from the control centre, push the button "Start Calibration". The correct output level from the IDU will
then be found based on output power level measurements from the BUC / transceiver. The IDU will use
the power level found during the calibration as the initial power level for the logon burst each time it tries
to logon.
After the automatic power level calibration is completed, the CW is left on for 20 minutes such that fine
adjustments of antenna pointing and polarisation can be completed based on feedback from the control
centre. By pushing the button "CW on", CW transmission can be started without doing the automatic
power calibration.

A.2.6 Other BUCs


In order to do a line-up of the terminal, ensure that the correct frequency for transmitting a continuous
wave (CW) is configured, and that the IDU output power level is set to a low value (-30 dBm is
recommended as the initial value). Then call the control centre and push the button "CW on" to start
transmitting the CW when permission to transmit is granted. Adjust the IDU output power in small steps
(never more than 5 dB) based on feedback from the control centre.
After the initial IDU output power level has been found, the pointing and polarisation of the antenna
should be fine adjusted based on feedback from the control centre. When the antenna has be fine adjusted,
the received signal level at the control centre for the CW should again be verified, and the IDU output
power level adjusted if necessary. Please remember to save the configuration (the Save button on the
Satellite configuration page) after completing the line-up.

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Figure 24: Terminal line-up web page

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Appendix B.

Accessing the Command Line Interface via


RS-232

In some special situations the Command Line Interface via Telnet may not be accessible or will not
output the required amount of debug information. Typical examples of such situations are:

The Nera SatLink Terminal is configured with an Ethernet IP address not known to the user
One needs to enter the boot-loader
Detailed debugging

The Command Line Interface may then be accessed from a local PC connected to the Nera SatLink
Terminals RS-232 interface via a serial cable. HyperTerminal or any compatible terminal emulation
program is used to access the CLI interface via RS-232.

B.1

Cable connection

To get access to the command-line interface (CLI) via the RS-232 connection, a serial cable is connected
from the SatLink Terminal directly to a COM port on a PC:
Plug the 9-pin connector (DB09) (male) into the rear panel of the SatLink Terminal.
Plug the 9-pin connector (DB09) (female) into a COM port on the PC.

B.2

PC configuration of HyperTerminal to access the CLI via RS-232

In Windows, click the Start button and select All Programs > Accessories > Communications >
HyperTerminal. HyperTerminal will then start and the Connection Description dialogue box, shown in
Figure 25, will appear. The screen shots are from Windows XP Professional; other versions of Windows
may display differently.

Figure 25: Hyper Terminal New Connection dialogue box


Enter a name and select an icon for the Connection, and click OK. The Connect To dialogue box, shown
in Figure 26, will appear.
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Figure 26: Hyper Terminal Connect To dialogue box

Select the COM port where the serial cable attached to the Nera SatLink Terminal is connected, and click
OK. The COM port Properties property sheet will appear, as shown in Figure 27.

Figure 27: Hyper Terminal COM1 Properties property sheet

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Use the pull-down lists to enter:


Bits per second: 38400
Data bits:
8
Parity:
None
Stop bits:
1
Flow control: none
Click Apply to accept the properties. The property sheet will close and communication with the
SatLink Terminal may begin.
Note that it may be necessary to press the enter key to display the login prompt.
When closing the session and exiting HyperTerminal, allow the program to save the session, which will
place an icon and session name into the HyperTerminal directory on the Start menu, allowing for future
quick connections.

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Appendix C.

TFTP server

TFTPD32 is a freeware TFTP server for Windows 9x/NT/XP PCs (but seems to work on Windows 2000
as well), which is small, and easy to install and use. Use the copy on the CD included with the
SatLink Terminal, or use the link below and download the software.
http://tftpd32.jounin.net/
Short installation description:
1. Copy the TFTP server files to a PC located at either the gateway or a local LAN
2. Start the program tftpd32.exe
3. Select correct server interface if using a PC with more than one Ethernet card.
4. Select correct base directory (directory where the files to be downloaded are stored, and where
uploaded files will be stored)
5. You are up and running with a TFTP server
6. The TFTP server can now be accessed from the Nera SatLink Terminal by using the CLI
commands upload and dload.
TFTP upload from and download to the Nera SatLink Terminal has been tested with version 2.51 of this
TFTP server, but any TFTP server should work. It is however essential that the TFTP server has support
for negotiation of block lengths up to 8 Kbytes in order to obtain satisfactory performance over the
satellite link, in terms of acceptable download time.
The Nera SatLink Terminal can access a TFTP server on both the satellite and the Ethernet interface.

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Appendix D.

Telnet Client

A good freeware Telnet client is Tera Term Pro Web 3.1.3. The software can be download from Ayera
home page: http://www.ayera.com/teraterm. Especially when running Telnet from Windows XP it is
recommended to use Tera Term instead of the built in Telnet Client in Windows XP, since setting Local
Echo in the Windows XP client does not seem to work.

Figure 28: Tera Term Terminal Setup

When starting Tera Term, please choose the menu Setup and then Terminal. Please enable Local echo as
shown in Figure 28. Then chose the menu Setup and then Save Setup to save this configuration.
Tera Term may as well be used as a replacement for HyperTerminal.

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Appendix E.

Management via SNMP

Management of the Nera SatLink Terminal is supported via SNMP. For further information of SNMP
management and the MIBs available, please refer to [6] and/or contact the system operator.

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Appendix F.
F.1

Changing pre-configured parameters

IP routes

To add an IP route use the CLI command


ip addroute <destaddr> <netmask> <next hop> <ifnum>
destaddr
netmask
next hop
ifnum

IP address of destination network or host


Netmask for destination network
IP address of the next router/host in the path
to the destination network/host
interface number on which route is to be added
(1=LAN, 3=Satellite)

Example:
ip addroute 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 10.10.21.254 3

will set the default route to be to the satellite interface with next hop IP address 10.10.21.254.
Note that the specified next hop IP address cannot be the same as the one attributed to the terminals DVB
interface.
Use the CLI command ip show to verify the setting and the CLI command save config to store
the setting in the flash.
IP routes can be deleted with the ip delroute <destaddr> <netmask> <next hop> command.

F.2

Default CW frequency

The transmission of a pure tone (CW) is supported for aiding the antenna fine adjustment as well as for
use during power calibration. A default frequency for CW transmission is stored in the Nera SatLink
Terminal configuration. This default frequency may be changed with the CLI command
dvb tx cwfreq <freq> where freq is the return link frequency [kHz].
Example:
dvb tx cwfreq 14123000

sets the CW frequency to 14.123 GHz.


Verify the new setting by using the CLI command dvb tx show, save the configuration by using the
CLI command save config.

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Appendix G.

ODU installation

The ODU comprises the antenna with feed-horn and mounting structure, a LNB unit with OMT and Txreject filter and a transmitter (BUC). Two cables with F-connectors, one for Tx and one for Rx are
connecting the ODU to the IDU.

BUC
Block Up Converter

LNB
Low Noise Block
Amplifier

Feed-horn

Antenna

Nera SatLink 3000 configuration

Antenna
Main
Reflector

Antenna
Feed Horn

Transceiver
mounted
directly on
antenna
feed

Antenna
Sub
Reflector

Nera SatLink 4033/4035/4036 Configuration

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If the Nera SatLink 4033/4035/4036 transceiver is used, the OMT, LNB and BUC are integrated in one
mechanical housing. The SatLink 403x is mounted directly on to the antenna feed as shown in the figure
above.

G.1

Assembly of SatLink 403x transceiver to feedhorn

The SatLink 403x is supplied with 6 pcs of UNC 6/32 for connection to the antenna flange. The parts are
shown in the picture below.

When mounting the transceiver to the antenna horn, place the feed horn on a level surface and insert the
O-ring into the groove as shown below:

Place the transceiver on to the feed horn and insert one of the UNC screws for alignment. Tighten the
screw loosely by hand or with an Allen key. Make sure that the rubber gasket is not moved from the
groove when doing this.

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Insert the remaining screws and tighten firmly with an Allen key.

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Rx
connector

Tx
connector

The IF connectors are placed in the chassis of the SatLink 403x. A protrusion on the case indicates Rx
and Tx so that they are easily distinguishable. Cable connectors should be tightened firmly, but use of
excessive force may damage the F-connectors on the transceiver.

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G.2

Assembly of LNB unit, transmitter and feed-horn

This section is not applicable for the Nera SatLink 403x transceiver.
The main components are shown below:

Antenna reflector mounting and feed-horn


with supporting structure and screws.

LNB unit11 with screws.

Nera SatLink 3000 Transmitter with o-ring


and screws.

11

RF signals are received and transmitted at orthogonal polarisations, thus the LNB unit includes an
OMT (Ortho-Mode Transducer). The feed-horn is connected to the circular wave-guide (18.5 mm in
diameter, C120) while the transmitter is connected to the rectangular waveguide (R120, WR75,
UBR120).

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An Allen key is used to fasten the screws.

Allen key

The Norsat 1010/1020XRT transmitters have a female N-connector as input connector, while the Txcable is usually mounted with a male F-connector. Hence, a waterproof adapter from male N-connector to
female F- connector must be used between the Tx-cable and the BUC connector.

Transition connector

The Nera SatLink 3000 transmitter has a female F-connector as input connector, therefore no transition is
needed with the Tx-cable.

No transition required

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An assembly drawing with a Norsat 1020XRT transmitter is shown below:

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An assembly drawing with a Nera SatLink 3000 transmitter is shown below:

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The different assembly steps are shown below:

Connect the feed-horn with the LNB unit using the


correct screws. Remember the o-ring.

Insert an o-ring at the WR-75 wave-guide


interface on the transmitter.

Connect the transmitter to the LNB unit using the


correct screws.

Mount the feed support structure on the feedhorn.

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G.3

Assembly and installation of the antenna

Different mounting structures for antennas are shown below. From the left-hand side, we have an Lshaped wall-mount, a three-leg mount and a standard straight mount. The tube diameter is 76 mm. For a
correct mounting the surface must be vertical or horizontal, respectively.

Non-penetrating roof-mounting structures (requiring no screws or bolts) may also be used if the customer
do not want to penetrate the roof. The foot can be rectangular, H-shaped or have another suitable form.
It must be loaded with at least 75 kg depending on the antenna size and maximum wind force.
The tools include a screwdriver, spanners of correct size (or an adjustable spanner), and a spirit level (if
necessary). Cable straps are used to fasten the cables. A compass, a satellite finder, and a spectrum
analyser (optional) are used to position and adjust the antenna. It is an advantage to be able to measure
BER on the received signal when adjusting the antenna.

Tools and measurement


equipment.

Out-door straps used to fasten


the cables. Do not use in-door
straps (white) to fasten cables
outside the building.

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Bolts and
equipment.

Compass

SW

N
W

90

Check the visibility towards


the satellite.

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Installation of an L-shaped wall-mount on a pipe:

The mount must be fixed to


the wall and levelled so the
upper part of the tube is
vertical.

The antenna az/el mount is fastened to the vertical tube:

Point the az/el mount in


the approximate right
direction and fasten the
4 bolts (as shown).

Unpack the antenna and check the components: Parabolic reflector, feed- mount, 4 rods (2 long and 2
short), a U-shaped profile, bolts, washers and nuts.

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Continue the installation process:

Fasten the feed-horn,


LNB and transmitter to
the feed-mount.

Fasten the parabolic


reflector to the az/el
mount.

Fasten the U-shaped


profile to the reflector and
connect the feed-mount.

Fasten the short support


rods to the az/el mount
and connect them to the
back of the antenna.
Fasten the long rods to the
side of the reflector.

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Connect the long support rods to the


feed-horn mount.
Adjust the position of the
transmitter (coarse adjustment) to
horizontal or vertical polarisation
depending on the satellite
transponder you are going to use.

Tighten the bolts.

If it is possible, connect an earth-grounding cable to the antenna feed-mount.

G.3.1 Elevation and azimuth adjustment of antenna


Continue with the antenna adjustment in elevation and azimuth. Connect the satellite finder (or the
spectrum analyser) to the LNB.

The LNB must be fed with 18VDC.


To select the high band frequency
band, a 22 kHz tone must as well be
applied.

RF- frequency band (input):


Low band: 10.7-11.7 GHz
High band: 11.7-12.75 GHz

IF- frequency band (output):


Low band: 950-1950 MHz
High band: 1100-2150 MHz

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The peaking of the antenna by adjustment of azimuth and elevation:

Coarse adjustment of azimuth.


Loosen the bolts and adjust.
Alternatively, rotate the complete
antenna on the vertical rod.

Fine adjustment of azimuth.


Loosen the second nut and adjust.

Fine adjustment of elevation.

Coarse adjustment of elevation. Loosen the bolts


and adjust.

First, perform a coarse adjustment in azimuth and elevation and monitor the signal level on the satellite
finder or the spectrum analyser. Look at the spectrum analyser and check if you have found the right

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satellite (the carriers are those you expect). If the polarisation is not well aligned, you will also see the
carriers on the orthogonal polarisation.
Then, continue with the fine adjustment in elevation and azimuth. It is recommended that the span on the
spectrum analyser cover a single transponder. The resolution can be increased for the fine adjustment.

Coarse adjustment of the


antenna.
A frequency spectrum as seen
on the spectrum analyser.

Fine adjustment in elevation and azimuth observing one transponder.

If your measurement equipment can measure


BER, you can use this for adjustment. Select the
transponder you want to use. (In the example: IF
centre-frequency 1777 MHz or RF centrefrequency 12.377 GHz).
The minimum BER without coding should be
better than 1E-4 and 1E-7 after Viterbi decoding
for QPSK. If you do not reach these figures, try to
re-adjust.

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G.3.2 Polarisation alignment


Rotate the complete feed-system (horn, LNB and
transmitter) very slowly and carefully in one
direction away from the coarse polarisation
alignment. Monitor the spectrum-analyser and
observe the carriers on the opposite polarisation.
Correctly adjusted, the carriers should disappear
or have a much lower level than the carriers with
the correct polarisation. Rotate in the opposite
direction if you do not observe disappearing
carriers.

The polarisation alignment must be performed with a high degree of accuracy. Note that the crosspolar discrimination (XPD) requirement on transmitted signal may vary depending on the satellite
operator. During line-up, the control centre of the satellite operator will check if the terminals
XPD is sufficient and eventually ask the ODU installer to proceed with fine adjustment until the
XPD requirement is achieved.

Spectrum before polarisation


fine adjustment.

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After polarisation adjustment.


The carriers have disappeared.

Tighten all the bolts and screws properly and have a final check on signal level and polarisation.

G.3.3 Additional work


The Rx- and Tx-cables should be strapped to the feed-mount.

Finally, the F-connectors must be protected against rain and humidity. Use a self-vulcanising tape suitable
for out-door use. The cables must also be properly marked.

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G.3.4 Cables
Nera recommends cables from Times Fiber (see Appendix L). For cable lengths up to 62 m, Times Fiber
series 6 (diameter 6.93 mm) can be used. For lengths up to 82 m, use series 11 (diameter 10.2 mm) and
for longer lengths, use series 500 (diameter 14.2 mm).
Important: Do not use amplifiers or attenuators on the Tx-cable.
Use type F connectors for the cables.
The cable pulling from the ODU to the IDU must be performed according to the customer. Sharp bends
on the cables must be avoided (see figure below).

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Appendix H.

IDU output power calibration when using


other BUCs than SatLink 3000 and 403x

Nera SatLink Terminal can be used together with the Norsat 1010/1020XRT and Invacom TUL-204
BUCs. These BUCs do not support DiSEqC communication and do not have a power detector to measure
the actual output power from the HPA. A more complicated procedure to calibrate the Tx output power
must then be run as described below.

H.1

Calibrating the IDU output power

This section describes how to calibrate the Tx output power when using one of the following ODU
transmitters:
Invacom TUL-204
And all C-band BUCs
Please refer to section 6.3.2 for the description of the calibration procedure for the Nera SatLink 3000
(revision 5.0 and newer) and SatLink 403x.
Ensure that the Nera SatLink Terminal configuration procedure in section 6.2 has been performed.
Ensure that the Nera SatLink Terminal is configured to start the receiver (Rx) automatically, but not the
transmitter (Tx).
Enter the CLI command dvb rx autostart on to enable receiver automatic start.
Enter the CLI command dvb tx autostart off to disable transmitter automatic start.
Enter the CLI command dvb rx show. Verify that the parameter Auto start is set to Enabled.
Enter the CLI command dvb tx show. Verify that the transmitter is Off and the parameter Auto
start is set to Disabled. If the transmitter is On, use the command dvb tx logoff.
Enter the CLI command save config to save this configuration.
Ensure that the Tx and Rx cables from the Nera SatLink Terminal to the ODU are connected.
Restart the SatLink Terminal (issue the CLI command restart), wait till the application has loaded and
the Nera SatLink Terminal has locked to the received carrier. The receiver has successfully acquired the
forward link when the message Forward link up is displayed (see section 6.3.1 for further details).
Logon as the install user (user = install, factory default password = dvbrcs)
Call the control centre and have contact by phone for the following measurements.
Set up a continuous wave (CW) with the following command:
dvb tx cw on <pow> <freq>

where
pow
freq

100

= Transmitted IF power level from IDU in dBm.


This is an integer in the range 30 to +10. (Start with pow= -30)
= transmitted radio frequency in kHz. The frequency is only required the first time
the CW is turned on. Subsequent adjustment of the power level can be done
without entering the frequency.

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Example:
dvb tx cw on -30 14100000

will transmit a CW from the ODU output at 14.1 GHz with an IDU output power of 30 dBm from the
Nera SatLink Terminal.
Please check immediately with the control centre if they can detect the transmitted CW. If they are
not able to see the CW at the specified frequency and expected output power level, please power off
the Nera SatLink Terminal immediately.
The operator control centre will instruct you to adjust your power in positive or negative steps. Never
make power adjustments steps larger than 5 dB. Please update the transmitted power level using the
above dvb tx cw on command until the desired power level is measured at the control centre.
When the operator confirms that the correct power level has been reached, then turn off the CW
transmission with dvb tx cw off before storing this power level as the nominal IDU power level to be
used for transmission. Type the CLI command:
dvb tx outpow <tx output power>

where tx output power is the power level in dBm. Verify the setting by issuing the CLI
command
dvb tx show

and save the setting by issuing the CLI command


save config

In the following example a complete power correction routine is carried out.


Example:
dvb tx cw on -30 14100000

The operator instructs you to increase power by 5 dB (i.e. pow = -30 + 5 = -25). You type:
dvb tx cw on -25

The operator instructs you to decrease power by 3 dB. (i.e. pow = -25 - 3 = -28). You type:
dvb tx cw on -28

The operator instructs you to increase power by 1 dB. (i.e. pow = -28 + 1 = -27). You type:
dvb tx cw on -27

The operator confirms that the correct power setting is obtained. Confirm the nominal power setting by
storing this power level. To configure the nominal power level, turn off the CW transmission with:
dvb tx cw off

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and type the CLI command:


dvb tx outpow 27

Verify the setting by issuing the CLI command


dvb tx show

and save the setting by issuing the CLI command


save config

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Appendix I. The boot SW


The Nera SatLink Terminal has two SW applications installed:
1) Boot
2) DVB-RCS Application
The Boot SW is stored outside the file system and can be compared with the BIOS and MS-DOS on a PC.
It is used to have access to file system and the LAN when there is no application loaded on the Nera
SatLink Terminal.
The Boot SW is always loaded after powering on the Nera SatLink Terminal. But normally the user need
not care about the boot SW since the DVB-RCS application is loaded by default.
The boot-loader can only be accessed via RS-232 as described in Appendix B. After power on, an output
similar to this is displayed on the HyperTerminal:
Nera SatLink Boot-loader
- SW ID 101225, Revision 8.0.0.0
File system initialised
Press return to enter boot-loader

In order to logon and use the boot SW, press return (the software will wait 10 seconds before
automatically loading the DVB-RCS application):
1. When Login is displayed type the user name install
2. When Password is displayed type dvbrcs12
In the boot-loader there is available a minimal CLI supporting the file system commands and access to the
LAN. Type ? (question mark) to display the available CLI commands.

12

dvbrcs is the factory default password and might have been changed by the user
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Appendix J.
J.1

Troubleshooting

Debugging network connections

Ping is a useful tool to debug network connections.


A ping test can be done from a PC connected to the Ethernet port of the Nera SatLink Terminal (e.g. from
Microsoft command prompt).
Use the following commands:
1. Ping the gateway router (e.g. ping 10.10.10.1). If successful, the connection to the gateway is
OK. If the gateway router can not be reached please check that the Nera SatLink Terminal has
lock on the forward link and is logged on to the DVB-RCS network.
2. Ping a web site, e.g ping www.nera.no. If successful the connection to Internet is OK.
If not OK check that the PC DNS IP address is correct (try also to ping a known IP address on the
Internet, e.g. ping 195.204.181.169)
3. If pinging the GW router does not work, try to ping the Ethernet interface IP address of the Nera
SatLink Terminal (e.g. 10.10.20.1). If not OK please check the Ethernet cable and that the Nera
SatLink Terminals Ethernet port is operating in the correct mode (HUB for direct PC to Nera
SatLink Terminal connections using a straight Ethernet cable). If the Ethernet connection is OK
then check the IP configuration and routing table of the PC (e.g. type the MS-DOS commands
ipconfig and route print) and check the IP configuration of the Nera SatLink Terminal (use the
CLI command ip show.)
The following commands may also be useful:

J.2

ping t <ipaddr> start a continuous ping test towards the specified IP address in order to gather
statistics
use ctrl-break to read statistics during test (This option is not supported by all Windows operating
systems)
use ctrl-c to stop the test

Manual software upgrade or dload fails

Manual software upgrade or download of file using CLI command dload can fail is that there is not
sufficient available memory in the Nera SatLink terminal file system. This can happen if several software
images have been downloaded to the terminal without deleted the older backup images.
The Nera SatLink Terminal file directory normally contains two application files, namely:
dvb-rcst.tgz13
The current DVB-RCS application
xxx.bak
The back-up DVB-RCS application
in addition to the smaller configuration and log files.
To view the Nera SatLink Terminal file directory, type the CLI command dir. There should not be more
than the above listed application files.

13

The name may differ, but the extension will be tgz.

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Example:
# dir
Volume Label :NERADVB-RCST10
Directory Name : DVB-RCST
FileName
oldLog.txt
activeLog.txt
xxx.bak
dvb-rcst.tgz
config.txt

Size
9816
3192
1691265
1690755
5188

Date
00/00/0000
00/00/0000
00/00/0000
00/00/0000
00/00/0000

Time
00:34:20
00:00:25
00:04:21
00:24:28
00:00:13

#
If the directory list reveals that there are other large files present, please delete these files using the CLI
command del and retry the manual sw upgrade (or dload) procedure.

J.3

Collecting information if a problem occurs

If a problem occurs with the DVB-RCS terminals for which support might be needed, having the
information listed below available will be helpful.
1. The terminal log from the HyperTerminal Window.
If possible log the output from the terminal to the HyperTerminal Window when the problem occurs.
The output from the HyperTerminal window can either be copied to a text file by setting the capture
text options in HyperTerminal (-> Transfer -> Capture Text) or copied directly from the
HyperTerminal windows using the normal Windows copy function (CTRL+C). The content can then
be pasted in a text editor such as Notepad or Word to generate a file suitable for being included as an
e-mail attachment.
When logging to HyperTerminal please issue the following CLI commands and capture the output.
ip show
ip show -mcast
dvb tx show
dvb tx show -capacity
dvb rx show
dvb rx show -pid
dvb pos show
odu show
sw show
log show
dir

2. The terminal configuration file, config.txt.


If possible please upload the configuration file to a PC with a TFTP server using the CLI command
upload config.txt <TFTP-Ipaddress> [<remotefilename>], where TFTP-Ipaddress is
the IP address for the TFTP server and remotefilename is an optional parameter specifying the
filename to store the file as on the TFTP server if a different name than config.txt is wanted. Please
refer to Appendix C for an example of how to install and set up a TFTP server.
If it is not possible to upload the terminal configuration file to a TFTP server the config.txt file might
be dumped to the RS-232 port / HyperTerminal by using the CLI command type config.txt.
The output from the HyperTerminal Windows can then be copied to a text file or dumped using the
capture text feature of the HyperTerminal.

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J.4

List of events that may be logged

The following are the most common events that may be shown in the log from the Nera SatLink
Terminal. Use the CLI command log show to display the list of events stored in memory and the CLI
command type activeLog.txt to display the list of events stored on the flash file system.
Events of type Major will normally cause disruption in the data transfer, while events of type Critical
normally will require user intervention in order to restore the data communication with the DVB-RCS
gateway.
Event

Severity

Memory Allocation
Failed

Major

Memory Pool
Allocation Failed

Major

Restart the
terminal

CRU Buffer
Allocation Failed

Major

Restart the
terminal

NCR lock lost

Major

None

CMT not received

Major

None

Logon retry timeout

Minor

None

Physical link
Synchronisation alarm

Major

None

Logon failure

Major

None

GW Busy

Major

None

Logon denied

Critical

GW initiated logoff

Major

Call DVB-RCS
gateway operator
None

106

User action
required
Restart terminal

Comment
The Nera SatLink Terminal software
application failed to allocate memory. If the
service is corrupted, reboot the terminal. If
the problem persists, please contact the
DVB-RCS gateway operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal software
application failed to allocate memory. If the
service is corrupted, reboot the terminal. If
the problem persists, please contact the
DVB-RCS gateway operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal software
application failed to allocate memory. If the
service is corrupted, reboot the terminal. If
the problem persists, please contact the
DVB-RCS gateway operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal must log off, but
will automatically try to reacquire the
forward link and log on again
The Nera SatLink Terminal must log off, but
will automatically try to log on again.
The Nera SatLink Terminal was not able to
log on to the DVB-RCS gateway. After a
timer has expired the Nera SatLink Terminal
will retry to log on to the DVB-RCS
gateway.
The link to the DVB-RCS gateway is broken.
The Terminal will automatically try to logon
again to the DVB-RCS Gateway. If the
problem persists, contact the system operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal was not able to
log on to the DVB-RCS gateway. After a
timer has expired the Nera SatLink Terminal
will retry to log on to the DVB-RCS
gateway.
The DVB-RCS gateway does not allow the
Nera SatLink Terminal to log on. After a
timer has expired the Nera SatLink Terminal
will retry to log on to the DVB-RCS
gateway.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not allowed to
log on to the DVB-RCS gateway
The DVB-RCS gateway operator has forced
the Nera SatLink Terminal to logoff.

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Event

Severity

User action
required
None

Fine Sync failure

Major

ODU power on failure

Critical

Logon successful

Normal

Check that cable


to ODU is
connected and
that the Terminal
is configured for
the correct ODU
(type CLI
command odu
show)
None

Terminal Logoff

Normal

None

Entering hold state

Major

None

Leaving hold state

Normal

None

Tuning failure
configured transport
stream

Major

Tuning failure NIT


transport stream

Major

Check RX
configuration
(frequency,
symbol rate).
Check that cable
to LNB is
properly
connected.
None

Tuning failure RMT


transport stream

Major

None

Comment
The Nera SatLink Terminal was not able to
enter the fine synchronisation state when
trying to log on. After a timer has expired the
Nera SatLink Terminal will retry to log on to
the DVB-RCS gateway.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not able to
establish DiSEqC communication with the
ODU. Possible causes may be:
Cable to ODU not connected
IDU not configured for correct ODU
The ODU is defect and must be repaired

The Nera SatLink Terminal succeeded to log


on to the DVB-RCS gateway
This event is logged after a user initiated
logoff.
The DVB-RCS gateway operator has put the
Nera SatLink Terminal in Hold-state. When
the Nera SatLink Terminal is in the Holdstate it is not allowed to try to log on to the
DVB-RCS gateway. To get an explanation of
why the Nera SatLink Terminal has been put
in Hold-state please contact the DVB-RCS
gateway operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is again allowed
to log on to the DVB-RCS gateway.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not able to
acquire lock on the initial forward link
transport stream (the one that is configured at
the Nera SatLink Terminal). If the problem
does not disappear within 10-60 minutes
please contact the DVB-RCS gateway
operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not able to
acquire lock on the forward link transport
stream signalled in the NIT. If the problem
does not disappear within 10-60 minutes
please contact the DVB-RCS gateway
operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not able to
acquire lock on the forward link transport
stream signalled in the RMT. If the problem
does not disappear within 10-60 minutes
please contact the DVB-RCS gateway
operator.

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Event

Severity

Missing Table

Major

User action
required
None

TCT Inconsistency

Critical

Restart Terminal

ODU Communication
Failure

Critical

ODU Temperature
High

Major

Check that cable


to ODU is
connected and
that the Terminal
is configured for
the correct ODU
(type CLI
command odu
show)
None

ODU Temperature
Critical
ODU Short Circuit

Critical

LNB Short Circuit

Critical

ODU turned itself off

Critical

TFTP Server
unreachable

Major

File not found

Major

Verify that the


file is present on
the TFTP server

File transfer error

Major

Check available
space on file
system

108

Critical

Send ODU for


repair
Find and remove
cause of shortcircuit.
Restart terminal.
Find and remove
cause of shortcircuit.
Restart terminal.
Restart terminal.
If the failure
occurs again the
ODU must be
sent for repair.
Check IP
connection with
the TFTP server

Comment
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not receiving a
mandatory DVB-S/DVB-RCS table on the
forward link. If the problem does not
disappear within 10-60 minutes please
contact the DVB-RCS gateway operator.
There is an error in the received TCT table.
If the problem does not disappear within 1060 minutes please contact the DVB-RCS
gateway operator.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not able to
establish DiSEqC communication with the
ODU. Possible causes may be:
Cable to ODU not connected
IDU not configured for correct ODU
The ODU is defect and must be repaired

The temperature in the ODU has become too


high. If this happens several times without
extreme weather conditions the ODU must be
sent for repair.
The temperature in the ODU has become too
high, and the unit should be sent for repair.
The power supply to the BUC has been shortcircuited. After removing the cause of shortcircuit the terminal must be restarted to
recover.
The power supply to the LNB has been shortcircuited. After removing the cause of shortcircuit, the terminal must be restarted to
recover.
The ODU has powered itself down most
likely because it has detected a failure. If this
happens more than once the ODU must be
sent to repair.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not able to
establish connection with the TFTP server.
Likely to be an IP configuration or network
problem. Verify the IP connection with the
TFTP server by pinging.
The Nera SatLink Terminal is not able to
upload the file specified in the command
from the TFTP server. Verify that the file is
available on the TFTP server.
The File transfer has been aborted either due
to an IP connection interruption between the
terminal and the TFTP serve or due to a lack
of available space on the terminal's file
system.

Nera SatLink Terminal User Guide Revision P

Event

Severity

User action
required
Check validity of
*.tgz file.

SW checksum error

Major

Manual SW Upgraded
completed
Automatic SW
download started

Major

None

Normal

None

Automatic SW
download completed

Normal

None

Automatic SW
download failure

Major

None

Comment
A checksum error is reported on the
application *.tgz file downloaded during the
software upgrade. The file will be deleted
and the software upgrade will be aborted.
Please contact the DVB-RCS gateway
operator to verify the integrity of the *.tgz
file.
It reports successful terminal software
upgrade via TFTP.
The Nera SatLink Terminal has started
automatic download via Multicast of a new
software version
The Nera SatLink Terminal has successfully
downloaded a new software version via
Multicast. The Nera SatLink Terminal will
automatically restart and activate the new
software version.
The Nera SatLink Terminal failed to
download a new software version via
Multicast. If the problem persists after 20-60
minutes, please contact the DVB-RCS
gateway operator.

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Appendix K.
K.1

TCP enhancement and tuning

General introduction to Performance Enhancing techniques

The Transmission Control Protocol TCP now is used by most applications on the Internet (e.g. HTTP,
POP3 and FTP). The protocol is designed for controlling the end-to-end flow of data over an IP network,
by imposing error control and congestion control. When using the protocol in satellite networks, the
mechanisms designed for improving the throughput in terrestrial networks, is acting counterproductive
due to the RTT delay. The problem areas of TCP are mainly:
Window size algorithm: the amount of data a sender will transmit is limited by a sliding window
protocol. The window is controlled by the reception of acknowledgement packets. This regulation
loop is very slow in satellite networks, and results in poor performance.
Slow start/ Congestion avoidance algorithm: When the protocol entity detects congestion (or rather
detect a situation perceived as congestion), the sending buffer is reduced in what is called the slow
start/congestion avoidance algorithm. Packet loss is interpreted as congestion by the TCP entity. This
means a high impact on bandwidth of a simple packet error.
Backchannel bandwidth: TCP needs a certain bandwidth for the back-channel in order to transmit
acknowledgements. The back channel will limit the forward channel. This is a limitation for
asymmetric channels like satellite access links.
To counter act some of these shortcomings, several actions can be taken using the standard TCP (and IP)
features and parameters. RFC 2488 recommends the following actions:
Path-MTU Discovery: is a feature of the underlying IP network. The purpose is to determine the
maximum packet size a connection can use on a given network path without being subjected to IP
fragmentation. Fragmentation requires more CPU overhead in the intermediate routers, and will
increase the delay. The mechanism utilises the IP header dont fragment bit, and transmits packets
with decreasing size (from the maximum allowed on the local network) until the packets are received
correctly by the destination. In the satellite network it is important to tune the packet size to the MPEG
frames used on the link.
FEC Forward Error Correction: is utilised.
TCP congestion control: The Slow start and congestion avoidance algorithms described above are
limiting satellite operation. However they are required by the standards, and can not be avoided. The
Fast Retransmit and Recovery mechanisms are somewhat reducing the effect of the slow
start/congestion avoidance, and are both part of all current TCP/IP implementations.
TCP Large windows: a path with a high bandwidth x delay product like the satellite link, needs a long
transmission window in order to utilise the bandwidth. The throughput of TCP is limited by the
formula: throughput = window size / RTT
Standard window size for TCP is 65 535 Bytes which means that the maximum throughput on a
satellite link is: 65535 B /560 ms = 936.2 kbit/s. This is below the forward link capacity. By increasing
the window size higher performance can be achieved. For web browsing this is normally not a
limitation, as more TCP connections are operating at the same time (normally 4 for HTTP 1.0). For
newer HTTP 1.1 browsers, this may become a limitation, as several HTTP request/reply sessions can
be multiplexed onto the same TCP connection (require support from server).
Window scaling: To enable window sizes above 64KB, the window scaling option according to RFC
1323 should be implemented to avoid sequence number overlap (as 16 bits can only represent 65535 at
the maximum). And the accompanying protocols
RTM round trip measurement: more refined round trip measurement by means of timestamps.
PAWS Combination of timestamps and sequence numbers to detect wrapped sequence
numbers.

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Selective Acknowledgement: Basic TCP uses the goback-N acknowledgement scheme. This means
that an acknowledgement applies to all transmissions up to the ack number. This means that when
multiple packets are lost, all packets transmitted after the erroneous transmission must be
retransmitted. By employing a selective acknowledgement scheme, the ACK only applies to a single
segment. The SACK option as described in RFC 2018 points out which segments need to be
retransmitted. This has effect only for large windows (probability for substantial retransmissions).

K.2

Tuning of TCP parameters

TCP is a packet-based protocol where data is transmitted in variable sized blocks. The TCP Receive
Window has a default value of 8 kB in Windows 95/98/NT and about 16 kB in Windows ME/2000/XP,
which is adequate for relatively slow dialup modems and high-speed networks with relatively low latency
(round-trip delay less than about100 ms). Increasing the TCP Receive Window above the default setting
can in certain configurations improve the throughput on satellite connections were the round trip delay
typically is in the order of 600 ms.
Some free tools are available on the Internet to tweak various TCP/IP network settings that affect
downstream performances. They basically provide a short-cut to modify registries of Windows based
PCs.
Tcp Tune at http://moat.nlanr.net/Software/TCPtune/ and
Dr. Tcp at http://www.dslreports.com/front/drtcp.html are widely used freeware.
Microsoft has confirmed a TCP/IP transmission bug in Windows 95, 98, and NT that can adversely affect
upload throughput over high-delay networks. However, the problem is corrected in NT Service Pack 6.
Windows NT and Windows 95 have older TCP/IP stacks that do not support large windows or selective
acknowledgement. Reportedly there are some patches available to fix this for Windows 95. The window
size should be increased to 65kB.
Windows 98/ME/2000/XP support selective acknowledgement, window scaling, and large windows. The
default window size for Windows 98 is 8k. The Dr. TCP tool should be used to set large receive buffers
(65 kB or above), maximum TCP receive windows shall be set to 115000, as well as enabling windows
scaling/time stamps (RFC1323) and SACK (RFC 2018) functionality.

Figure 29: TCPTune utility

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Figure 30: Dr. TCP utility

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Appendix L.

Cable Specification

This appendix provides the cable specification for the cables to be used between the ODU and the Nera
SatLink IDU. Two separate cables are require; one cable for the transmit (Tx) signal and one cable for the
receive (Rx) signal.

L.1

Cable Requirements

Frequency range:

950-1450 MHz, Tx
950-2150 MHz, Rx

Maximum attenuation:

25 dB, Tx
9 dB + 10logR dB, Rx
R: Minimum symbol-rate (Msps)

Maximum DC resistance:

2.5 (Tx)

Screening effectiveness:

>60 dB at 1000 MHz

Impedance:

75 Ohm

Connectors:

F-type

Environmental requirements:
Temperature:
Humidity:
Atmosphere:

L.2

-50C to 80C
0 to 100% (Condensing)
Salt, Pollutants and Contaminants as Encountered in Coastal and
Industrial Areas

Approved cable types

We recommend using cables from Times Fiber.


Type

AFU Number

Outside
diameter (mm)

6-series
11-series
500-series

T3088-101M
T3093
T24502

6.93
10.2
14.2

Attenuation at
1000 MHz
(dB/100m)
21.46
13.88
8.30

Screening at
1000 MHz
(dB)
110
75
100

DC-resistance
(/km)
40
30.4
5.61

Table 11: Cables from Times Fiber


For the Rx-cable, amplifiers (or attenuators) may be used. No amplifiers or attenuators must be used on
the Tx-cables.
Recommended connectors:
Moisture proof crimp connectors suitable for the 6-series (AFU no. 531-WF6R) and the 11-series (AFU
no. 531-WF11RP). Connector for the 500-series: TBD.

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Maximum cable lengths:


The maximum cable lengths for the Times Fiber cables are given in Table 12 and Table 13. The cable
loss at 1450 MHz or the DC- resistance decides the range at Tx. At Rx, the range is decided by the cable
loss at 2150 MHz together with the minimum symbol-rate.
Cable
6-series (6.93mm)
11-series (10.2mm)
500-series (14.2mm)

Range (m) from DC-resistance


62
82
445

Range (m) from attenuation


92
142
238

Table 12: Tx range


Cable
6-series
(6.93mm)
11-series
(10.2mm)
500-series
(14.2mm)

Range (m) with minimum symbol-rates:


20 Msps 8 Msps
4 Msps
2 Msps
64
53
44
35

1 Msps
26

97

80

66

53

40

163

133

111

88

66

Table 13: Rx range

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Appendix M.

Compliance

The Nera SatLink 1000, 1900, 1901 and 1910 comply with the essential requirements of Article 3 of the
R&TTE 1999/5/EC Directive, if used for its intended use.

M.1

Safety (Article 3.1.a of the R&TTE Directive)

This equipment has been designed and tested to meet the requirements of the following standards:

EN 60950:1992 (A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 + A11)


EN 60215:1989

M.2

Electromagnetic compatibility (Article 3.1.b of the R&TTE Directive)

This equipment has been designed and tested to meet the requirements of the following standards:

EN 301 489-1:2001 (V1.3.1)


EN 301 489-12: 2000 (V1.1.1)

M.3 Efficient use of the radio frequency spectrum (Article 3.2 of the R&TTE
Directive)
This equipment has been designed and tested to meet the requirements of the following standard:

EN 301 428:2001 (V1.2.1)

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Appendix N.

Receiver and Transmitter Auto start

The Nera SatLink Terminal can be configured to automatically restart tuning of the forward link after
having lost the forward link signal.
Likewise on the transmitter side, the Nera SatLink Terminal can be configured to automatically try to logon to the Gateway when the return link has been lost. The Terminal will not try to log-on again (despite
autostart enabled) if the Terminal has been explicitly requested to log off and remain logged off by the
Gateway (e.g. receiving Logon denied or Transmit disable in the unicast TIM).
The CLI commands for enabling/disabling auto restart of the Rx and Tx are:
dvb rx autostart <on|off>
dvb tx autostart <on|off|traffic>

The normal factory default setting is that rx autostart is set to enabled and tx autostart is set to disabled.
Once the SatLink terminal has been correctly installed and commissioned by the Network Operator, it is
convenient to enable rx autostart and tx autostart as described in section 6.5.
When rx autostart and tx autostart are set to off (disabled), the Nera SatLink Terminal will make one
attempt to acquire the forward link when issuing the CLI command dvb rx start. If this attempt fails,
a new attempt must be manually triggered by issuing the dvb rx start command once again.
When rx autostart is enabled and tx autostart is disabled, the Nera SatLink Terminals reaction to the CLI
command dvb rx start is to continuously attempt to acquire the forward link until it succeeds or is
manually stopped (using CLI command dvb rx stop). If the forward link acquisition succeeds, the
Terminal will enter a receive-only modus. Issuing the CLI command dvb tx logon will trigger the
Terminal to attempt a single log-on attempt. Upon failure, the dvb tx logon command must be
manually entered again in order to trigger a new log-on attempt. Alternatively, the CLI command dvb tx
autostart on can be used trigger the log-on procedure and at the same time configure the terminal to
automatically retry to log-on if the log-on attempt fails or the terminal has been logged off for some
reason.
Please note that the CLI command dvb rx autostart on will not automatically trigger the forward
link acquisition procedure. The CLI command dvb rx start must be explicitly issued. This is contrary
to the CLI command dvb tx autostart on, where the initiation of the log-on procedure is implicit.
Tx autostart set to enabled will overrule any rx autostart configuration. In other words, if the Tx autostart
is enabled and the forward link or NCR synchronisation is lost, the Nera SatLink terminal will attempt to
retune/re-acquire the forward link regardless of rx autostart being enabled or not.

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Appendix O.

Accessing the Forward Link signalling

When the receiver of the Nera SatLink terminal is switched on (using dvb rx start), the terminal
carries out a Forward Link acquisition procedure to obtain the DVB RCS system information necessary to
perform log-on to the network. The DVB RCS system information is transmitted in specific DVB RCS SI
tables that are standardised in EN 301 790. The identifiers that the terminal uses to find the DVB RCS SI
tables are embedded within standard DVB-S Forward Link signalling table sets that are standardised in
EN 300 468 and ISO/IEC 13818-1. Table 14 lists the DVB-S tables and the DVB RCS SI tables that are
relevant for accessing the DVB RCS network.
DVB-S SI tables
Table name

DVB RCS SI tables


Abbrev

PID

Network Information Table

NIT

0x0010

Program Association Table

PAT

Program Map Table

PMT

Table name

Abbrev

PID

RCS Map Table

RMT

assigned

0x0000

PCR Insertion TS Packet

PCR

assigned

assigned

Satellite Position Table

SPT

assigned

Superframe Composition Table

SCT

assigned

Frame Composition Table

FCT

assigned

Timeslot Composition Table

TCT

assigned

Terminal Information Message

TIM

assigned

Terminal Burst Time Plan

TBTP

assigned

Correction Message Table

CMT

assigned

Table 14 List of DVB-S and DVB RCS specific tables that are used when accessing the network.

A rough outline of the procedure is as follows:


The Nera SatLink Terminal tunes to the transport stream of the forward link that it has pre-configured as
start-up forward link. There it reads the NIT. The NIT PID value is hard-coded in the SatLink terminal.
In the NIT, the terminal finds tuning parameters for accessing the satellite and forward link transport
stream containing the RMT. If the RMT is on a different satellite or transponder than the start-up
forward link, the terminal will re-tune to the forward link carrying the RMT. The RCST then reads the
PAT and PMT on the same forward link as the RMT. In the PAT, the terminal finds the PID that
identifies the PMT, which in turn contains the PID value of the RMT. In the RMT, the terminal uses its
pre-configured population ID to find and thereafter extract tuning parameters for accessing the correct
Forward Link Signalling service (i.e. parameters defining forward and return link satellite(s), NCC, and
Superframe_ID for initial log-on). If the forward link for DVB RCS services defined in the RMT is
different from its current forward link, the terminal must retune to the new forward link. There the
terminal will access the PAT of the new forward link and extract the PID that identifies the PMT that is
relevant for its forward signalling. In the PMT, the terminal will find the PID values of the PCR Insertion
TS Packet, in addition to the other DVB RCS SI tables.

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The Nera SatLink Terminal can report the following Receiver State status:
Off
Tuning transponder one
Tuning transponder two
Tuning transponder three
Waiting for NIT (transponder one)
Waiting for PAT (transponder two)
Waiting for PMT (transponder two)
Waiting for RMT (transponder two)
Waiting for PAT (transponder three)
Waiting for PMT (transponder three)
Waiting for DVB RCS Tables/NCR Lock
Forward link up
Tuner lock lost
If the Forward Link acquisition proceeds normally and is successful, the CLI output message when typing
dvb rx show will not normally display the receiver states Tuning and Waiting for as the
acquisition is performed so quickly that the states have already passed.
If the Forward Link acquisition fails or comes to a stop, however, the Receiver State status (obtained by
issuing the dvb rx show CLI command) will display the current stage in the acquisition process.

118