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# CPE 622

## PROCESS CONTROL PRACTICES

PROJECT
TO DETERMINE THE EFFECT OF PROPORTIONAL BAND TO THE
CONTROLLABILITY OF FLOW CONTROL(EMERSON) USING GRAPHICAL
METHOD AND Z-N TUNING RULES

PREPARED FOR:
MR. MOHD AIZAD AHMAD

PREPARED BY:
MOHD ADAFI BIN OMAR

(2013632232)

## MOHAMMAD HAZIQ BIN BADARUDDIN

(2013213284)
ARIF ISKANDAR BIN ISMAIL
(2013293746)

GROUP:
EH221/6A

## DATE SUBMITTED : 13th JUNE 2016

1.0 ABSTRACT
Automatic control is performed by a set of mathematical equations or known as controller
algorithm which consists of proportional (P),Integral(I), derivative (D),set point (SP) and process
measurement (PV) that are required for the computation of controller action (MV). For FIC 31,
the process is an open loop system. It is a self-regulating process where process will reach to the
set point. FIC 31 is using graphical analysis from open loop test. The calculation is using tangent
method. The values of a and b also obtained from graph. The tuning rules used is based on table
1-Tuning Rules by Ziegler-Nichlos.

TABLE OF CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

OBJECTIVE

THEORY

PROCEDURE
RESULT

9
10

DISCUSSION

12

CONCLUSION

13

RECOMMENDATION

13

REFERENCES

14

2.0 INTRODUCTION
The process stability of a PID control loop depends on the proportional (P), integral (I), and
derivative (D) constants that need to be used. By using the tangent method and the proper tuning
rule, the optimum P, I and D can be estimated. This value of optimum P,I and D will set into the
controller, an optimum response is normally achieved. The PID algorithm consist of three basic
modes, the proportional mode, the integral mode and derivative mode. When utilizing this
algorithm, it is necessary to decide which modes are to be used and then specify the parameters
and settings for each mode used.

The PID controller functions is to correct the error between a measured process variable (PV)
and desired set point (SP) by calculating and then the output will give value for a corrective
action that can adjust the process accordingly. PID controller algorithm which consist of P, I and
D , have its own function which are, the proportional value determines the reaction to the
current error, the integral term determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors and
derivatives value determines the reaction to the rate at which the error has been changing. The
weighted sum of these three constants is used to adjust the process via a control element such as
the position of a control valve.
When tuning these three type of constants in the PID controller algorithm, the controller can
provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The response of the controller
can be described in terms of the response of the controller to an error, the degree to which the
controller overshoots to the set point and the degree of system oscillation in the graf. PID
algorithm for control does not guarantee optimal control of the system or system stability.
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OBJECTIVES
1. To determine the effect of proportional band to the controllability of flow
control(Emerson) using graphical method.
2. To determine the process response time toward proportional band.

3.0 THEORY
There are three controller parameters in process control, which are Proportional (P), Integral (I),
and Derivative (D) and for the modes of control are P modes, PI modes and PID modes. Some
application may require using only one or two parameters to provide the appropriate system
control. It can be achieved by setting of any undesired parameter control to zero. A PI control
modes is very general thing, since its derivative action is very sensitive to measurement noise,
and the absence of an integral value may prevent the system from reaching its target value.
The proportional component depends only on the difference between the set point and the
process variable. This difference is referred to as the Error term. The proportional gain (Kc)
determines the ratio of output response to the error signal. For instance, if the error term has a
magnitude of 10, a proportional gain of 5 would produce a proportional response of 50. In
general, increasing the proportional gain will increase the speed of the control system response.
However, if the proportional gain is too large, the process variable will begin to oscillate. If Kc is

increased further, the oscillations will become larger and the system will become unstable and
may even oscillate out of control.

## Effects of Controller Gain, Kc

The proportional term or gain makes a change to the output that is proportional to the current
error value. The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp,
the proportional response. The proportional term is given by:

Where,

p ( t )= ~
p+ K p e ( t )

p(t)

= Controller output

Kp

~
p

5

## = Time or Instantaneous time

~
P is controller output when the error is zero. The proportional is given by the controller gain,
Kc. The controller gain which is Kc determines how much the amount of output from the
controller changes for a given change in error. When large change in the output for a given
change in the error is result from the high proportional gain. If the proportional gain is too high,
the system can become unstable. When a small gain results, it will give small output of
response , and the less responsive will give less sensitive controller. If the proportional gain is
too low, the control action will be too small when responding to system disturbances. Even with
the absence of disturbances, the process control will not get the target value, but will retain a
steady state error by using the P-only mode. Despite of the steady state offset, further tuning is
required by includes Integral term. PI modes will give better results on process control

Tuning of P, I and D
Automatic control is performed by a set controller algorithm which consist of proportional (P),
integral (I), derivative (D), set point (SP), and process variable (PV) that are required for the
computation of controller action (MV). A controller action with 100% may represent a full
opening of control valve which indicates to reach maximum. There are thousands of
combinations of P, I and D values, but there is only one combination that will drive the process
toward to the set point. Poor combination of P, I and D values D give the process towards

undesirable results, which are deviation and oscillation. For the optimum P, I and D values,
several techniques have been introduced. One of them is open loop method that offers short test
time.

This method been applied for controlling flow process. Once open loop has been performed for
flow control loop, the initial MV and final MV is obtained from the graph. The result from the
open loop test is analyzed for its response rate (RR), dead time (Td) and time constant (Tc) by
using either Tangent method, or reformulated tangent method. . For this flow process control,
Tangent Method is hired. The following formula is used in determining the required process
characteristic, RR, Td and Tc

RR=

PV / t
MV

T d=T d ( length ) b

T c =(length) b

Response rate (RR), dead time (Td) and time constant (Tc) which then used in tuning rules to
obtain the P, I and D values combination that will be inserted to the process control to directs the
process towards set point. After that fine tuning is required to ensure both MV and PV does not
oscillate and maintained.
Tuning Rules by Ziegler-Niclos
Mode
P

P
100(RR)(Td)

PI

111.1(RR)(Td)

3.33Td

PID

83.3(RR)(Td)

2(Td)

0.5(Td)

4.0 PROCEDURE
Open loop.
1.
2.
3.
4.

## FIC 31 control loops was activated

The process was first stabilized in automatic mode until get constant straight line.
Initial value of manipulated variable, MV(%) was recorded.
Once the process stabilized, the process was switched from automatic mode to manual

5.
6.
7.
8.

mode
Step change is made to the MV for 10% .
The process was left to stabilized back in manual mode until new steady state is reached.
Print the entire graph.
Calculate the response rate(RR), time delay(Td), and time constant(Tc) using the tangent

method.
9. Then determine the PI controller using Ziegler-Niclos.

Closed loop.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

## Set controller in auto mood.

Insert the PI controller setting(Kc and I) value at gain and reset.
If the response oscillates, do fine tuning to archieve stable condition.
Perform set point test.
Repeat step 2 to 4 using different value of P which are P/4 , P/2 , P2 and P4
Print the graph.

Settling criteria.
1. From the graph, the Tr , Ts , Overshoot, Undershoot and integral absolute error is
calculated
2. Tabulate the result for each different proportional value.

5.0 RESULT.

a=

10
17 mm

b=

time
length( mm)

15 s
12 mm

=1.25s/mm
MV = MV1 MV2
= 63.3%-53.3%
= 10%
PV = PVf - PVi
= 67%-42%
= 25%
RR =

PV / t
MV

25 /1.25
10

= 0.048 / s

Td = Td (length) x b
= 2.5 mm x (15/12)
= 3.125 seconds

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As for selection for mode of control of PID controller, it is based on the process involve.
Since the process involves flow level, P+I mode is used for mode of control because it is a
fast process response and noisy process. Optimum controller setting based on Ziegler-Niclos
tuning rule.

P = 111.1x RR x Td
= 111.1 x 0.048 x 3.125
= 16.665%

I = 3.33Td
= 3.33(3.125)
= 10.41 seconds

Kc =

100
16.66

=6

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6.0 DISCUSSION.

Ts(s)

Tr(s)

IAE

OV1

OV2

US1

US2

Stable
/Oscillator
y

P/4

37.5

18.1
3

0.71
88

0.46
87

0.12
5

0.093
75

0.03
12

P/2

40.0

20.1

0.85

0.27
5

0.12
5

0.281

0.17

46.2
5

21.2
5

1.05
6

0.25

0.18
75

0.306
25

0.31
25

P
2

66.2
5

24.3
8

0.93
75

0.46
87

0.25

0.125

0.09
37

P
4

112.
5

38.7
5

2.54
25

0.68
75

0.56
25

0.712
5

0.58

In FIC 21, the software in the computer requires K c and I as input value for the set point test. In
set point test, the controller is set in automatic mode and made a changed in set point of 10% of
the process span. The value of Kc and I is initially 6 and 10.41s respectively. The process respond
was observed until it stable at set point.

Set point test has been conducted which is run in closed loop of flow control (FIC 31) to
observe the effect of proportional band (p/4, p/2, p, px2 and px4) to the controllability of
flow control (Emerson) using graphical method. From the test, the Rise time (T r), Settling
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time (Ts), Overshoot (OV) and Undershoot (US) is calculated from the graph. Theoretically,
the response will become slower as we increase the P value. To prove this theory, from the
experiment the settling time become longer from 37.5 s, 40.0 s, 46.25 s, 66.25 s and 112.5 s
as the P value is increasing from P/4, P/2, P, Px2, Px4 respectively. However, there is slight
error for P in IAE data which is 1.056 as it should be lower than Px2 data which is 0.9375.
Comparing the OV1 and OV2 data, all of Overshoot 1(OV1) value is higher than Overshoot
2(OV2) value which obey the theory concept. Same goes to the undershoot value where US1
is higher than US2.

7.0 CONCLUSION
As conclusion, based from the theory, by increasing the value of P, it will cause the
response to become slower. It can be shown from the tabulated data. A different value of Ts
indicate the response time toward the set point.

8.0 RECOMMENDATION
1. Do fine tuning first if the graph oscillates to high.
2. Make a smaller set point test.
3. Increase the division of area in numerical approximation.

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9.0 REFFERENCES
Ishak A.A & Abdullah Z. (2014) PID Tuning Fundamental Concepts and
Applications, UiTM Press,
Universiti Teknologi Mara, Shah Alam,
Selangor, Malaysia, page: 1 to 64.
Abdul Aziz Ishak & Muhammed Azlan Hussain, (2000). Reformulation of the tangent
method for PID controller tuning. Process Control Engineering Online,
http://aabi.tripod.com

http://www.modelingandcontrol.com/2010/12/exceptional_opportunities_in_p
_18.html
http://www.expertune.com/tutor.aspx

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