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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY
(CHE485)
NAME
STUDENT NUMBER
GROUP
EXPERIMENT
DATE PERFORMED
SEMESTER
PROGRAMME / CODE
SUBMIT TO
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Title
Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference / Appendix
TOTAL MARKS

Remarks:
Checked by:
--------------------------Date:

: MOHAMAD MUHAIMIN BIN MAZLAN


: 2014415472
: EH2423B
: FLOWMETER MEASUREMENT
APPARATUS
:
:3
:CHEMICAL AND BIOPROCESS
:
Allocated Marks (%)
5
10
5
10
5
10
10
10
20
5
5
5
100

Marks

TABLES OF CONTENTS

NUMB.

TOPIC

Abstract

Introduction

Aims

Theory

Apparatus

Methodology/Procedure

Results

Calculations

Discussion

10

Conclusion

11

Recommendations

12

Reference / Appendix

PAGES

ABSTARCT
This experiment has been done to measure the flow rate and associated pressure
losses with three devices which is venturi meter, orifice meter and variable area meter. First
of all, we must close the ball valve and measure the time taken to accumulate a known
volume of fluid in the tank, as measure from the sight-glass. Then, we record all the
manometer height and the variable area meter reading and carry out a timed volume
collection using the volumetric tank. To get the accurate reading, repeat thrice the experiment
and obtain the overall reading.
INTRODUCTION
Fluid mechanics has developed an analytical discipline from the application of the
classical laws of static, dynamics and thermodynamics, to situation in which fluids can be
treated as continuous media. The particular laws involved are those of conservation of mass;
these laws may be simplified in an attempt to describe quantitatively the behavior of the
fluids.

Venturi

Orifice

Rota meter
The hydraulic bench service module, F1-10, provides the necessary facilities to
support a comprehensive range of hydraulic models each of which is designed to demonstrate
a particular aspect of hydraulic theory.
The specific hydraulic model that is concerned for this experiment is the flow meter
test rig. This consists of venture meter, variable area meter, and orifice plate installed in a
series of configurations to allow for direct comparisons.
Venturi meter
Venturi meter is a tube with constricted throat that increase velocity and decrease
pressure. Venturi meter is used to measure the flowrate of compressible and incompressible
fluid in a pipeline. When a fluid flows through a throat section, which has a smaller cross
sectional area than in a pipe, the velocity of the fluid through a throat is higher than in the

pipe. If velocity higher, pressure will drop. By measuring pressure drop, discharge may be
calculated. Beyond the throat the fluid is decelerated in a pipe of slowly diverging section
(sometimes referred to as a diffuser) in order to recover as much of the kinetic energy as
possible. We must know the principle of Bernoullies equation to understand the principles of
venturi meter.
Orifice plate
The orifice meter is also used in measuring the flow rate of a reservoir or through a
pipe. The orifice meter consists of a flat plate with a circular hole drilled in it. There is
pressure tap upstream from the orifice plate and another just downstream.
Variable area meter or rotameter
The variable area flowmeter is a simple, reliable, inexpensive, and easy-to-install
flowmeter with low pressure drop and no electrical connection that gives a direct reading of
flow rate for a wide range of liquids and gases.
OBJECTIVES

To investigate and contrast the operation and characteristics of three different basics
types of flow meter which venturi, Rota meter, and orifice including accuracy and

energy losses.
To measure a pressure drop at different segment of device.
To determine a flow rate through a pipe.
To identify the total head loss and loss coefficient of a fluid through a 90 degree
elbow.

THEORY
Applications of the Bernoulli equation yield the following result, which applies for both the
Venturi meter and the Orifice plate.
Bernoulli equation:
P1 + V12 + Z1 = P2 + V22 + Z2
g 2g
g 2g
Z1=Z2
P1 + V12 = P2 + V22
g 2g g 2g
P1-P2 = V22-V12 ------------ (1)

2g

From: Q1= Q2
A1V1= A2V2
V1= A2V2 ------------ (2)
A1

(2) In (1):
PI-P2 = V22-(A2V2/A1)2
g
2g
So;
V22 [1-(A2/A1)2] = P
2g
g
V2 =

1
. (2P) --------------- (3)
[1-(A2/A1)]

Q = CdA2V2 --------------------- (4)


(3) In (4);
Flow rate, Qv =

CdA2

. (2P)

[1-(A2/A1)]

Where (2p) = (2gh)


p
Where;
h: head difference in meter (m) from the manometer readings for the appropriate meter
g: acceleration due to gravity (m/s2)
Cd: discharge coefficient for meter
A1: area of the test pipe upstream of the meter (m2)
A2: throat area of the meter (m2)
Use of discharge coefficient, Cd is necessary because of the simplifying assumptions
made when applying the Bernoulli equations. Values of this coefficient are determined by
experiment; the assumed values used in the software are:
Venturi meter Cd = 0.98
Orifice plate Cd =0.63

The energy loss that occurs in a pipe fitting (so-called secondary loss) is commonly
expressed in term of e head loss (h, meters), and can be determined from the manometer
readings. For this experiment, head losses will be compared against the square of the flow
rate used. In addition, pressure loss for venturi and variable area flowmeter are low and for
orifice meter is medium.
PROCEDURES
General Start-up Procedures
The Flow meter Measurement Apparatus (Model: FM 101) is supplied
ready for use and only requires connection to the Hydraulic Bench (Model:
FM 110) as follows:
a) Place the apparatus on top of a suitable hydraulic bench.
b) Level the apparatus on the bench top.
c) Connect the hydraulic coupling to the outlet supply of the hydraulic
bench.
d) Connect the discharge connect of the flow apparatus hose to the
collection tank of the hydraulic bench.
e) You are now ready to start the apparatus.
Starting up the Apparatus:
1. Fully close the flow control valve of hydraulic bench and fully open
this discharge valve.
2. Ensure that discharge hose is properly directed to volumetric tank of
fibreglass before starting up system. Also ensure that volumetric
tank drain valve is left OPEN to allow flow discharge back into sump
tank.
3. Once step (b) is confirmed start up the pump supply from hydraulic
bench.
4. Open the bench valve slowly. At this point, you will see water flowing
from hydraulic bench through to the flow apparatus and discharge
through into the volumetric tank of hydraulic bench and then
drained back into sump tank of hydraulic bench.
5. Proceed to fully open the flow control valve. When the flow in the
pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble, start to close the

bench valve to reduce the flow to the maximum measurable flow


rate.
6. You will see that water level in the manometer board will begin to
display different level of water heights. (If the water level in the
manometer board is too high where it is out of visible point, adjust
the water level by using the saddle valve. With the maximum
measurable flow rate, retain maximum readings on manometer).
7. At this point, slowly reduce the flow by controlling the flow discharge
valve of apparatus; you may close this discharge valve totally.
8. You will begin to see that the water level in the manometer board
will begin to level into a straight level. This level maybe at the lower
or maybe at the higher end of the manometer board range. (Take
note that the pump from the hydraulic bench is at this time, still
supplying water at a certain pressure in the system).
9. Also be on the lookout for Trapped Bubbles in the glass tube or
plastic transfer tube. You would want to remove them from the
system for better accuracy. To do this, you can either slowly press
the plastic tube to push the bubbles up or lightly tab the glass
tube to release the bubbles upwards.
Equipment set up
1. The flow meter test rig is placed on the bench and ensures that it is level (necessary
for accurate readings from the manometer).
2. The inlet pipe is connected to the bench supply and the outlet pipe into the volumetric
tank, and then secures the end of the pipe to prevent it moving around.
3. The pump is started and opens the bench valve and test rig flow control valve, to flush
the system.
4. The bench and test rig valves are closed to bleed air from the pressure tapping points
and manometers and open the air bleed screw and remove the cap from the adjacent
air valve.
5. A length of small tubing is connected from the air valve to the volumetric tank.
6. The bench valve is opened and allows flow through the manometer tubes to purge
them of air.
7. Tighten air bleed screw and partly open the test rig flow control valve and pathly
close the bench valve.
8. The air bleed screw is opened slightly to allow air to be drawn into the top of the
manometer tubes.
9. Re-tighten the screw when the manometer levels reach a convenient height.

10. All the manometers are checked on the scale at the maximum flow rate (full- scale
reading on the variable area meter). These levels can be adjusted further by using the
air bleed screw or the hand pump supplied.
Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic
types of flow meter
To obtain the flow rate measurement by utilizing three basic types of flow
measuring techniques; rota meter, venturi meter and orifice meter.
1. Place apparatus on bench, connect inlet pipe to bench supply and
outlet pipe into volumetric tank.
2. With the bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully
opened, start up the pump supply from hydraulic bench.
3. Slowly open the bench valve until it is fully opened.
4. When the flow in the pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble,
start to close the bench valve to reduce the flow to the maximum
measurable flow rate.
5. By using the air bleed screw, adjust water level in the manometer
board.
6. Retain maximum readings on manometers with the maximum
measurable flow rate.
7. Note readings on manometers (A - J), rotameter and measured flow
rate.
8. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be
adjusted by utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.
9. To demonstrate similar flow rates at different system static
pressures, adjust bench and flow control valve together. Adjusting
manometer levels as required.

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree


Elbow
To investigate the loss coefficient of fluid through 90 degree elbow.
1. Place apparatus on bench, connect inlet pipe to bench supply and
outlet pipe into volumetric tank.
2. With the bench valve fully closed and the discharge valve fully
opened, start up the pump supply from hydraulic bench.
3. Slowly open the bench valve until it is fully opened.

4. When the flow in the pipe is steady and there is no trapped bubble,
start to close the bench valve to reduce the flow to the maximum
measurable flow rate.
5. By using the air bleed screw, adjust the water level in the
manometer board.
6. Retain maximum readings on manometers with the maximum
measurable flow rate.
7. Note readings on manometers (I and J) and measured flow rate.
8. Step 6 is repeated for different flow rates. The flow rates can be
adjusted by utilizing both bench valve and discharge valve.
9. Complete the tables below.
10.
Plot graph DH againstgVs22 for 90 degree elbow to determine
the coefficient of losses.
General Shut-down Procedures
1. Close water supply valve and venturi discharge valve.
2. Turn off the water supply pump.
3. Drain off water from the unit when not in use.
Taking a set of results
1. At fixed flow rate, all manometer and the variable area meter readings are recorded
and carry out a timed volume collection using the volumetric tank. This is achieved by
closing the ball valve and measuring (with a stopwatch) the time taken to accumulate
a known volume of fluid in the tank, as measured from the sight-glass.
2. At least one minute, fluid is collected to minimize timing errors.
3. This measurement is repeated twice to check for consistency and average the
readings.
4. Ensure that the operating principle of each of these flow meters is understood.

APPARATUS

Manometer Tubes
Rotameter
Discharge Valve
90 Elbow
6

Orifice Meter
Air Bleed
Valve
5

System Pressure
Control Valve

Variable
Area
Meter

8 Bank Manometer
1
Bench
Supply
Valve

Inlet Pipe

Venturi Meter
Outlet Pipe

Water Outlet
Orifice
Water Supply
Venturi

Staddle Valve

In order to complete the demonstration a number of pieces of equipment is needed:

a) The Hydraulics Bench which allows the measurement of flow by timed volume
collection.
b) The F1-21 Flow Meter Apparatus.
c) A stopwatch to allow the determination of the flow rate of water.

The accessory is designed to be positioned on the side channels of

the hydraulics bench channel.


The Venturi meter, variable area meter and the orifice plate are

installed in a series configuration to permit direct comparison.


Flow through the test section is regulated using a flow control valve.
This together with the bench control valve permits variation of the
system static pressure.
Pressure tapings in the circuit are connected to an eight bank

manometer which incorporates an inlet/outlet valve in the top


manifold with facilities to connect a hand pump.
RESULTS
Demonstration of the operation and characteristic of three different basic
types of flowmeter
Rotame Vol Time
ter
(L) (min)
(V/Min)

Manometer reading (mm)

Q,
(V/Min
)

Q calculated
using
Bernoullis
equation
(V/Min)
Ventur
e

orifice

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree


elbow
Q (L/min)
Volume (L)

h (mm)
Elbow

Time (min)

V2/2g

V (m/s)

(mm)

(h2-h1)

SAMPLE OF CALCULATIONS
Determination of the operation and characteristic of three different basic types of flowmeter
i)

For rotameter flow rate = 5L/min

Venturi flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A1

[ 2 g ( h AhC ) ]

1
2

2.011 104
q=( 0.98)(2.011 10 ) 1
5.309 104
4

)]

1
2

1
2

1000 l
[2(9.81)(0.2230.221)]

1
min
60

q= 2.97 l/min

Orifice flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A7

[ 2 g ( hGhH ) ]

1
2

2.011 104
q=( 0.63 ) ( 2.01110 ) 1
5.309 104
4

)]

1
2

q= 6.18 l/min

ii)

For rotameter flow rate = 10L/min

[ 2 ( 9.81 ) ( 0.2270.206 ) ]

1
2

1000l
1
min
60

Venturi flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A1

[ 2 g ( h AhC ) ] 2

[ (

2.011 104
q=( 0.98)(2.011 10 ) 1
5.309 104
4

)]

1
2

[2(9.81)(0.2370.196)] 2

1000l
1
min
60

q= 13.45 l/min

Orifice flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A7

[ 2 g ( hGhH ) ]

1
2

2.011 104
(
)
q=( 0.63 ) 2.01110 1
5.309 104
4

)]

1
2

[ 2 ( 9.81 ) ( 0.2250.140 ) ]

1
2

1000 l
1
min
60

q= 12.45 l/min

iii)

For rotameter flow rate = 15L/min

Venturi flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

q=Cd At 1

At
A1

[ 2 g ( h AhC ) ] 2

[ (

2.011 104
q=( 0.98)(2.011 10 ) 1
5.309 104
4

q= 19.62 l/min

Orifice flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A7

[ 2 g ( hGhH ) ]

1
2

)]

1
2

1
2

1000l
[2(9.81)(0.2670.183)]

1
min
60

[ (

2.011 104
(
)
q=( 0.63 ) 2.01110 1
5.309 104
4

)]

1
2

[ 2 ( 9.81 ) ( 0.2250.140 ) ]

1
2

1000 l
1
min
60

q= 12.45 l/min

iv)

For rotameter flow rate = 20L/min

Venturi flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A1

[ 2 g ( h AhC ) ]

1
2

2.011 104
q=( 0.98)(2.011 10 ) 1
5.309 104
4

)]

1
2

1
2

1000l
[2(9.81)(0.3170.178)]

1
min
60

q= 24.77 l/min

Orifice flow rate,


2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A7

[ 2 g ( hGhH ) ]

[ (

1
2

2.011 104
q=( 0.63 ) ( 2.011 10 ) 1
5.309 104
4

)]

1
2

[ 2 ( 9.81 ) ( 0.2900 ) ]

1
2

1000 l
1
min
60

q= 23.00 l/min

Determination of the loss coefficient when fluid flows through a 90 degree elbow
Diameter of pipe = 26mm
i)

6.25 l 1 min 1 m3

=1.04 104 m3 / s
When Q = 6.25/min
min
60 s 1000 l

Velocity of flow in the pipe

V=

1.04 104
=0.19 m/s

2
( 0.026 )
4

Velocity head
V2
0.19 2
=
=1.83 mm
2 g 2 9.81

12.00 l 1 min 1 m3

=2.00 104 m 3 /s
When Q = 12.00 l/min
min
60 s 1000 l

ii)

Velocity of flow in the pipe


V=

2.00 104
=0.38 m/s

2
( 0.026 )
4

Velocity head
V2
0.38 2
=
=7.36 mm
2 g 2 9.81

iii)

15.79 l 1 min 1 m3

=2.63 104 m 3 /s
When Q = 15.79 l/min
min
60 s 1000 l

Velocity of flow in the pipe


V=

2.63 104
=0.49 m/ s

2
( 0.026 )
4

Velocity head
V2
0.49 2
=
=12.23 mm
2 g 2 9.81

iv)

25.00 l 1 min 1 m3

=4.17 104 m3 /s
When Q = 25.00 l/min
min
60 s 1000 l

Velocity of flow in the pipe

V=

4.17 104
=0.79 m/s

2
( 0.026 )
4

Velocity head
V2
0.79 2
=
=31.8 mm
2 g 2 9.81

DISCUSSIONS
From these experiments, we can see the three operations and characteristic of three
different types of flow meter which is venturi meter, orifice meter and Rota meter. We also
record all the readings during these experiments and we can see which one of the flow meter
give the accurate value. Besides that, we also determine the losses coefficient when fluid flow
through 90 degree elbow.
In order to perform this experiment, we used SOLTEQ Flowmeter measurement
apparatus (Model: FM 101). This apparatus is connected to the Hydraulic Bench (Model: FM
110) and the level of the apparatus is to make sure stable before starting the experiment in
order to prevent any error in obtains the results.
After conduct these experiments, we are able to determine the value of flow rate of three
flowmeter, the value of flow rate error and the value of head loss. As the results from this
experiment, the average flow rate for rotameter at 5L/min is 6.25L/min, at 10L/min is
12.00L/min, at 15L/min is 15.79L/Min and at 20L/min is 25.00L/min. Then the flow rate is
determined by using Bernoullis equation for both venturi and orifice. The equation for
venturi is:
2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A1

[ 2 g ( h AhC ) ] 2

where Cd is 0.98. Thus the flow rates of venturi are 2.97L/min, 13.45L/min, 19.62L/min and
24.77 L/min. This shows that there is a increase in flow rate of venturi as the manometer
readings difference is higher which is at A and C. meanwhile the equation of orifice is:
2 1
2

[ ( )]

At
q=Cd At 1
A7

[ 2 g ( hGhH ) ]

1
2

Where the Cd is 0.63. Thus the flow rates of orifice are 66.18L/min, 12.45 L/min, 12.45
L/min, and 23.00 L/min. this shows that increase in flow rate is proportional to the increase
of manometer readings difference. Therefore we know that venturi meter giges higher flow
rate than orifice because it consists of venturi tube that has a converging portion, a throat and
a diverging portion which functions as a converging portion is to increase the velocity of the
fluid and lower its static pressure. The diverging cone serves to change the area of the stream
back to the entrance area and convert velocity head into pressure head. Whereas, an orifice
meter act as a device that used for measuring flow rate for reducing pressure or for restricting
flow.
From the experiment, we also obtain the value of head loss for the flow meters. From
the theory, the venturi meter has a low head loss, continued by orifice meter. So, from the
results, the value of head loss. We can say that this result is agreed with the theory.
Thus we know that venturi meter is the most accuarate compared to rota meter and
orifice which satisfy the theory.
CONCLUSION
From the experiment, the flow rate measurement able to obtain by utilizing three basic
types of flow measuring technique; rotameter, venture and orifice meter.
As a conclusion, we can say that the most accurate flow meter is a venturi meter.
From this experiment, we determine that the flow rate % error for venturi meter is lower than
the orifice meter. From the theory, the more efficiency of flow meter has a less flow rate %
error and the theory is exact to the results.
RECOMMENDATION
After conduct this experiment, we can say that value of flow rate and the flow rate %
error are follow the theoretical results. From the theory, the most accurate flow meter is a
venturi meter. So, it means that the most efficiency flow meter has a less value of flow rate %
error. In this experiment, the value of flow rate % error for venturi meter is lower than the
orifice meter which makes it the most accurate.
For the first recommendation for this experiment is make sure that there is no bubble
in the pipeline. The existence of bubble may cause the less accuracy of flow meter. The
second to make sure there is no small particle in the fluid because some of the devices are
very sensitive to these particles. Besides that, during record the manometer reading, make
sure the position of eyes is parallel to the level of reading. Lastly, after conducting the

experiment makes sure that all the water had been drained from the apparatus to prevent any
damaged.

REFERENCES

Laboratory manual 1, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, UiTM Malaysia


Fluid mechanics, Fundamental and Applications, Yunus A. Cengel and John

M.Cimbala, Mc Graw Hill.


Lecturers note from Pn Atikah bt Kadri
Yahoo and Google search engines (keyword: flowmeter, venturi meter, orifice meter)

APPENDICES

Orifice plate

Venturi meter

Variable area

The eight bank manometer

meter