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CHAPTER 10

MOTIVATION, PERSONALITY,
AND EMOTION

The Nature of Motivation


Motivation is the reason for behavior.
A motive is a construct representing an
unobservable inner force that stimulates and
compels a behavioral response and provides
specific direction to that response.

The Nature of Motivation


Two useful motivation theories:
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs
McGuires Psychological Motives

Maslows Hierarchy Of Needs


Self-actualization needs (self-development
and realization)
Esteem needs (Self-esteem, recognition,
status)
Social needs (sense of belonging, love)
Safety needs (security, protection)
Physiological needs (hunger, thirst)

McGuires Psychological Motives


1. Cognitive preservation motives
Need for consistency (active, internal)
Need for attribution (active, external)Attribution Theory
Need to categorize (passive, internal)
Need for objectification (passive, external)

McGuires Psychological Motives


2. Cognitive growth motives
Need for autonomy (active, internal)
Need for stimulation (active, external)
Teleological need (passive, internal)
Utilitarian need (passive, external)

McGuires Psychological Motives


3. Affective preservation motives
Need for tension reduction (active, internal)
Need for expression (active, external)
Need for ego defense (passive, internal)
Need for reinforcement (passive, external)

McGuires Psychological Motives


4. Affective growth motives
Need for assertion (active, internal)
Need for affiliation (active, external)
Need for identification (passive, internal)
Need for modeling (passive, external)

Motivation Theory and Marketing


Strategy
Latent and Manifest Motives in a Purchase
Situation

Motivation Theory and Marketing


Strategy
Three types of motivational conflict:
Approach-Approach Motivational Conflict
A choice between two attractive alternatives

Approach-Avoidance Motivational Conflict


A choice with both positive and negative
consequences

Avoidance-Avoidance Motivational Conflict


A choice involving only undesirable outcomes

Personality
Personality is an individuals characteristic
response tendencies across similar
situations
The Five-Factor Model of Personality
Extroversion
Instability
Agreeableness
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness

Personality
Three additional traits:
Consumer Ethnocentrism
Need for Cognition (NFC)
Consumers Need for Uniqueness

The Use of Personality in


Marketing Practice
Brand image
What people think of and feel when they hear or see a
brand name.

Brand personality
A set of human characteristics that become associated
with a brand and are a particular type of image that some
brands acquire.

Communicating Brand Personality


Three important advertising tactics:
Celebrity Endorsers
User Imagery
Executional Factors

Emotion
Nature of Emotions