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# Define the term 'electrical conductivity' of a metallic wire. Write its S.L unit.

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C(t):

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Important Questions on Communication System
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Type A One marks Questions
Q1. Define: Information, signal,
analog signal, digital signal, attenuation, noise,
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transmitter, receiver and Bandwidth.
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Q2. Name the type of communication corresponding tt-+-sif
to the case where signal is
essentially continuous? Signal is a discrete and binary coded version of the massage or
information?
The carrier wave is represented by
Q3. What is the minimum number of satellites that enables a Global Positioning
C(t): 5 sin(l0nt)
volt ones longitude/latitude position, i.e., to make a 2D
System (GPS) receiver
to determine
position fix.
A modulating
is a square wave as shown. Determine modulation index.
Q4. The carrier
wave issignal
represented
by c(t): 5 sin(l0t) volt

m(t) in volt
t in second

## A modulating signal is a square wave as shown. Determine modulation index. Q14.

What type of modulation is used for commercial broadcast of voice signal? [AM]
a
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Q5. Why
does
reception?
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Q6. Why do AM receivers lack audio quality?
Show variation
resistivity ofuse
in a graph.
Si with
temperature
Q7. Long-distance
radioofbroadcast
short
wave bands.
Why?
Q8. Sky wave propagation is not suitable for very high frequency radio waves. Why?
Q9. Ground wave propagation is not suitable for the propagation of very high frequency
electromagnetic
waves
to longwrae
distance.
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Q10. Write short note on
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(a) Ground wave propagation
(b) Sky tz
wave propagation
(c) Space wave propagation
lens is placed in contact with a plane mirror. A point object at a distance of
(d) LineAofconvex
sight communication
20 cm onlink
the axis of this combination has its image coinciding with itself. What is the
(e) Microwave
focal communication
length of the lens ?
(f) Satellite
(g) TV communication
(h) Remote sensing satellite communication
Q11. Explain
the
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regard to wave
communication
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(a) Repeater
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(b) Critical
(c) Skip distance
"For any charge configuration, equipotential surface through a point is normal to the
(d) Maximum usable frequency
electric field." Justifu.
(e) Transponder
Q12. 55ll12
Why is the transmission of signal using ground waves restricted to frequency
lP.T.O.
about 1500kHz?
Q13. Sky waves propagation is not possible for wave shaving frequency greater than
30MHz. Explain.
Q14. How many geo-synchronous satellites are required to provide communication link
over the whole part of earth?
[Minimum three]
Q15. What is remote sensing? How is it carried out? Mention its any three
applications.
Q16. What is the length of a dipole antenna to transmit signals of frequency 200 MHz?
Q17. What would be the modulation index for an AM wave for which the maximum
amplitude is a while the minimum amplitude is b?
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(b) Space wave propagation.
Write
expression,
in a for
vector
magnetic force F due to a
form, for the Lorentz
Q19. Define
thethe
term
transducer
a communication
system.
charge moving with velocity ? in a magnetic field B. Wfrut is the direction of the
Type B Two marks Questions
magnetic force ?

Q1. Explain why sky wave transmission of electromagnetic waves cannot be used for
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Q2. Explain detection of amplitude modulates
wave using a block diagram.
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Q3. Write the functions
of the following in communication systems :
- - - - - -l
t- - - (i) Receiver
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(ii) Demodulator
Q4. Draw a schematic sketchI showing how amplitude modulated signal is obtained by
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superposing a modulating
r1fir qln signal over a sinusoidal carrier wave.
Q5. Arrange the following networks in increasing order of the number of computers
that may be present in the network: Internet ; LAN ; WAN
Q6. The figure
givengiven
below
shows
the
ofaageneralized
generalized
communication
The figure
communication
below
shows
theblock
block diagram
diagram of
system. Identify
element
labeled
'X' and write
its its
function.
system.the
Identi\$
the element
labelled'X'
and write
function.
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t- - - 1l

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Message

Message

Signal

Signal

Q7. Define the term modulation. Draw a block diagram of a simple modulator for
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obtaining AM
Q8. deriveq{the
expression
range
of transmission
andekheight
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fl,rnq
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Bit r of antenna.
Q9. Block diagram of receiver is given. (a) Identify X and Y
Two spherical bobs, one metallic and the other of glass, of the same size are allowed
to fall freely from the same height above thr ground. Which of the two would reach
earlier and why ?

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## Type C Three marks Questions

Q1. What is a communication system? Describe briefly the major constituents of a
communication system.
Q2. Give the set up of a basic communication system.
Q3. Explain the term modulation and hence explain what the need for modulation is?
Q4. What is a carrier wave? Why high frequency carrier waves are employed for
transmission?
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Q5. What is AM? Discuss its advantages and disadvantages.
Q6. Define modulation index. What is its significance? Why it cannot exceed unity?
Q7. What is meant by modulation? Explain with the help of a block diagram, how the
process of modulation is carried out in radio broadcast?

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Q8. What does the term LOS communication mean? Name the types of waves that are
used for this communication. Which of the two-height of transmitting antenna and
height of receiving antenna can affect the range over which this mode of
communication remains effective?
Q9. (a) Draw the block of a communication system.
(b) What is meant by detection of a modulated carrier wave? Describe briefly the
essential steps for detection.
Q10. Write the functions of the following in communication systems :
(i) Receiver
(ii) Demodulator
Q11. Draw a schematic sketch showing how amplitude modulated signal is obtained
by superposing a modulating signal over a sinusoidal carrier wave.
Q12. Show mathematically that when a carrier signal is amplitude modulated using a
modulating signal, then the resultant wave will have signals of three frequencies.
Q13. State with the help of diagram, how we can find location of a person using GPS
technology? What is minimum number of satellites required to do so?
Q15. Write two basic modes of communication. Explain the process of amplitude
modulation. Draw a schematic sketch showing how amplitude modulated signal is
obtained by superposing a modulating signal over a sinusoidal carrier wave.
Q16. Distinguish with the help of suitable diagrams between ground wave and sky
wave modes of propagation. Mention the frequency range of the waves in these modes
of propagation.
Q17. A (sinusoidal) carrier wave c(t) = Ac sin ct is amplitude modulated by a
(sinusoidal) message signal m(t) = Am sin mt .Write the equation of the (amplitude)
modulated signal. Use this equation to obtain the values of the frequencies of all the
sinusoidal waves present in the modulated signal.
Q18. A (sinusoidal) carrier wave c(t) = Ac cos ct is amplitude modulated by a
(sinusoidal) message signal m(t) = Am cos mt .Write the equation of the (amplitude)
modulated signal. Use this equation to obtain the values of the frequencies of all the
sinusoidal waves present in the modulated signal.
Q19. Justify, giving reasons, why modulation of a message signal is essential in a
communication system.
Q20. Which mode of propagation is used by short wave broadcast services
having frequency range from a few MHz upto 30 MHz? Explain diagrammatically
how long distance communication can be achieved by this mode. Why is there an
upper limit to frequency of waves used in this mode?
Q21. Draw the waveforms for the
(a) Input AM wave at A,
(b) Output, B, of the rectifier and
(c) Output signal, C, of the envelope detector.

## Type D Numerical Problems

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Q1. An audio signal of 1 kHz is used to modulate a carrier of 500 kHz. Determine the
(a) sideband frequencies and (b) bandwidth required.
Q2. A message signal of 12kHz and peak voltage 20V is used to modulate a carrier
wave of frequency 12MHz and peak voltage 30V. Calculate the modulation index and
sideband frequencies.
Q3. A sinusoidal carrier wave of voltage 100V is amplitude modulated by a sinusoidal
voltage of frequency 10kHz resulting in maximum modulated carrier amplitude of
120V. Calculate modulation index.
Q4. The maximum peak-to-peak voltage of an AM wave is 16mV and the minimum
peak-to-peak voltage is 8mV. What is the modulation factor?
Q5. The tuned circuit of an oscillator in a simple AM transmitter uses a coil of 40 H
and a shunt capacitor of 1nF. If the oscillator output is modulated by audio
frequencies up to 5kHz, what is the frequency range occupied by sidebands?
Q6. A sinusoidal carrier voltage is amplitude modulated by a sinusoidal voltage of
10kHz to a depth of 30%. Calculate the frequency
and amplitude
of two sidebands formed if the carrier frequency is 10MHz and its amplitude is 40V.
Q7. An audio signal given by em = 30 sin (2 x 2500t) volts is used to amplitude
modulate a carrier wave given by ec = 60 sin (2 x 200000 t) volt. Find
(a) Percent modulation
(b) Component of modulated wave
(c) The amplitude of sidebands?
Q8. A modulated carrier wave has maximum and minimum amplitude of 800mV and
200mV respectively. Find the modulation index.
Q9. An audio signal given by 15sin 2 (2000t) volt amplitude modulates a carrier wave
given by 60sin 2 (100, 000t) volt. Determine
(a) Percent modulation
(b) Frequency of modulating and carrier signal
(c) Frequency spectrum of AM signal.
Q10. Calculate the length of half wave dipole antenna at
(a) 1 MHz
(b) 100 MHz and
(c) 1000 MHz
(d) What inference do you draw from the results?
Q11. Find the frequency of sky waves if electron density of ionosphere is 36x1010m-3.
Q12. If the ionosphere does not reflect frequencies more than 10MHz, calculate its
electron density.
Q13. On a particular day, the maximum frequency reflected from the ionosphere is
10MHz. On another day, it was found to increase to 11MHz. Calculate the ratio of
maximum electron densities of the ionosphere on the two days. Point out a plausible
explanation for this.
Q14. What should be the height of transmitting antenna if the TV telecast is to cover a
radius of 128km? If average population around the tower is 1000/km2, how much
population is covered?
Q15. The transmitting antenna at the top of a tower has height 32m and that of
receiving antenna is 50m. What is the maximum distance between them for
satisfactory communication in line of sight mode?
Q16. A TV tower at a particular TV station has a height of 160m.
(a) What is the coverage range?

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(b) How much is the population covered by it if the average population density
around tower is 1200km 2?
(c) By how mush is the height of tower to be increased, so as to double its coverage
range?
Q17. By what percentage, should the height of tower be increased, so as to increase its
range by 10%?
Q18. A ground receiver station is receiving signal at (a) 5MHz (b) 100Mhz transmitted
from a ground transmitter at a height of 300m located at the distance of 100km from
receiving station. Identify whether the signal is coming via space wave or sky wave or
satellite transponder. Take radius of earth as 6400km and Nmax = 1012m3.
Type E Value Based Questions
Q1. When Sunita, a class XII student, came to know that her parents are planning to
rent out the top floor of their house to a mobile company she protested. She tried hard
to convince her parents that this move would be a health hazard. Ultimately her
parents agreed:
(a) In what way can the setting up of transmission tower by a mobile company in a
residential colony prove to be injurious to health?
(b) By objecting to this move of her parents, what value did Sunita display?
(c) A TV tower is 80 m tall. Calculate the maximum distance upto, which the signal
transmitted from the tower, can be received.

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