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Keenan/Riches,BusinessLaw8/e

AnswerstoSelftestQuestions
Chapter2LawMaking
1.

Sourcesoflegalchange.
Theofficiallawreformagencies,e.g.LawCommission,areresponsiblefor
keepingthelawasawholeunderreviewandensuringitssystematic
developmentandreform.
Governmentdepartmentsarechargedwithimplementingthegovernments
policies,whichweresetoutinitsmanifesto.Changesinthelawmayalsobe
requiredbecauseofnewcircumstancesorissues.
Pressuregroups,e.g.theRSPCAcampaignstoimprovethewelfareof
animals,supportingtheintroductionoflegislationwhereappropriate.
TheEuropeanCommunity(EC)isaverypowerfulsourceoflegalchangein
theUK.PrimaryandsecondarysourcesofEClawandthejudgmentsofECJ
arehavinganincreasinglysignificantimpactonEnglishLaw.Theobjectives
oftheEC,whicharesetoutintheTreaties,aretocreateaEuropean
economicunion.

2.

ParliamentsjobistoenactlawbypassingActsofParliament.Theroleofthe
judiciaryistoapplythelegislation toreallifesituations.Insodoingthejudges
willberequiredtointerpretthewordsoftheActusingstatutoryrulesand
commonlawapproachestointerpretation,suchasthemischiefruleandthe
purposiveapproach.

3.
(a) An MPisaMemberoftheUKParliamentwhichsitsatWestminster.An
MEP isaMemberoftheEuropeanParliamentwhichsitsinStrasbourg
andBrussels.
(b) Theratiodecidendiofacaseisthereasongivenbythejudgefordeciding
acase.Theratiodecidendiformsaprecedentforfuturecasesand
dependingonthehierarchyof thecourtsmaybebindingotherjudges,
wheretherelevantfactsarethesameorsimilar. Obiterdictameans
thingssaidinpassingbythejudge.Obiterdictaarenotbindingonfuture
courtsbutmaybehighlypersuasive,forexample,ifmadebyaLawLord.
(c) A Billisthetermusedfordraftlegislationwhileitisbeingconsideredby
theHousesofParliament.Whenithascompleteditpassagethrough
ParliamentandhasreceivedtheRoyalAssentitbecomesanActof
Parliament,whichisreferredtoasstatutelaw.
(d) TheECSCreferstotheEuropeanCoalandSteelCommunitywhichwas
establishedin1951bytheTreatyofParisbythesixfoundingmembersof
theEuropeanCommunity. TheEECstandsfortheEuropeanEconomic
Communitywhichwasestablishedin1957bytheTreatyofRomebythe
samesixEuropeanstates.
(e) OrdersinCouncil areformsofdelegatedlegislationmadebytheQueen
inCouncil(thePrivyCouncil).Byelawsareatypeoflegislationmadeby
localcouncilsandotherpublicbodiesundertheauthorityofanenabling
ActofParliament.

Keenan/Riches,BusinessLaw8/e
(f)

A bindingprecedentisonewhichajudgeinasubsequentcasemust
follow,unlessitispossibletodistinguishthefactsofthetwocases.A
judgeneednotfollowapersuasiveprecedentalthoughitislikelytobe
influentialinhelpinghimreachhisdecision.
(g) Boththegoldenruleandthemischiefruleandapproachestakenbythe
judgestothejobofstatutoryinterpretation.Accordingtothegoldenrule
ifthewordsofthelegislationarecapableofhavingmorethanone
meaningthejudgeshouldadopttheinterpretationwhichproducesthe
leastabsurdresult.Themischiefrule,orasitisalsoknown,therulein
HeydonsCase,requiresjudgestolookattheActtoseewhatmischiefit
wasdesignedtodealwithandthentointerpretthewordsofthelegislation
inlightofthisknowledge.
(h) TheCounciloftheEuropeanUnionconsistsoftherelevantministers
fromeachmemberstate.TheCommissionconsistsofpermanent
Commissionersdrawnfrommemberstates.TheCouncilissimilartothe
UKGovernmentwhiletheCommissionismorelikeourcivilservice.
(i) RegulationsandDirectivesarebothformsofEuropeansecondarylaw.
RegulationsaredesignedtoachieveuniformityacrosstheCommunity
theyareofgeneralapplicationandaredirectlyeffectivewithoutmember
stateshavingtopasstheirownlegislation. Directivesaredesignedto
harmonisethelawofmemberstatesbyaparticulardate memberstates
arefreetodecidethebestmethodofimplementingadirective.
(j) TheEuropeanUnionconsistsoftheEuropeanCommunity(formerly
theEuropeanEconomicCommunity(EEC)),theEuropeanSteelandCoal
Community(ECSC)andEuropeanAtomicEnergyCommunity
(EURATOM),andtheareasofintergovernmentalcooperationon
foreignandsecuritypolicy(CFSP),justiceandhomeaffairs.
(k) TheEuropeanConventiononHumanRightswasdevelopedbythe
CouncilofEurope(unrelatedtotheEU)in1950.Therightsandfreedoms
containedintheconventionareupheldbytheEuropeanCourtofHuman
RightswhichsitsatStrasbourg.TheEuropeanUnionCharterof
FundamentalRightswasdevelopedbytheEUtoestablishguiding
principlesforthedevelopmentoftheUnion.Itsprovisionsdonot
currentlyhavelegalforcealthoughthismightchangeiftheproposed
EuropeanConstitutionwhichincorporatestheConventionisratified.