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SABANNUS (CABANNOY) [BA]), I Esd. 863 RV traditional saying of Jesus which may express his Janus-
=Ezra833 BINNUI,2 . like habit of mind as regards the Sabbath. It ceased,
SABAOTH, LORD OF (nk?y nln'). See NAMES, indeed, to be understood when the Christian Sunday
had become an institution, and so was thrust out of
$123. the canonical Church tradition ; but it certainly gives
SABAT. I. RV SAPHAT, a group of children of us the impression of being an ancient and a genuine
Solomon's servants (see N ETHINIM ) in the great post- tradition.' It is the well-known addition of D (Codex
exilic list (see E ZRA ii., § g , § Sc), one of eight inserted Bern, ed. Scrivener, 173) after L k . 6 4 : ' O n the
in I Esd. 534 (ca@ar[B], CA@AT [A], om. L ) after same day when he saw one working on the Sabbath he
Pochereth-hazzebaim of 11 Ezra 2 57= Neh. 759. said to him : Man, if thou knowest what thou art doing
It apparently represents the form SHAPHAT= Shephatiah thou art blessed ; but if thou knowest not, thou art
(in Erra257=Neh.75g=xEsd.533 @L, AV SAPHETH,RV
S APHUTHI ). cursed and a transgressor of the law ' ( TC a b r i +&pq
2. RV SEBAT (oapa7 [AV] cr(LBpa~[N]), the month of that Oeaodpvbs TLVU +ya&~evvov TQ ua&?dry E ~ E Va h & -
name, I Macs. l e 14. See MONTH, 0 5. BvOpwm, el p?v &as 71 TOLE^, paKdpLos e i . e i 66 p+
SABATEAS (CABBATAIAC [A]) I Esd. 948 AV, oi6as, &arKardparosKai aapafkiwp el TOO vbpou). T h e
RV S a b a t e u s = Neh. 87, S HABBETHAI , I. sense is clear-it is what we find in Rom. 1 4 4 14 23.*
' I f thou knowest what thou art doing,'-in other
SABATHUS (CaBaBoc [BA]) I Esd. 928 RV, AV words, if thou art doing this work on the Sabbath
S a b a t u s = E z r a 1027, ZABAD,4. day with the consciousness that it is a work of necessity
SABBAN (CABANNOY [BA]) I Esd. 862=Ezra833. -if thy conscience justifies thee in it-'then blessed
BINNUI,2. art thou.' ' But if thou knowest not '-in other words,
if thou art acting against thy conscience, with a lurking
SABBATEUS ( C ~ B B ~ T ~ I [BA])
OC I Esd. 9 14 RV fear that thou art doing aught amiss-' then art thou
=Ezra 1015, SHABBETHAI,
accursed, and a transgressor of the law.' T h e saying
SABBATH (n@, C ~ B B ~ T O N )the
, day of sacred in the Oxyrhynchus papyrus-fragment discovered in
rest which among the Hebrews followed six days of 1897,~ 'if you do not keep the Sabbath you will not
labour and closed the week ; see W EEK . see the Father (ddv oa@arisvre rb od&3arov O ~ K
T h e grammatical inflexions of the word 'Sabbath' &+JOE rbv r a r h p a ) , may also very well have been
show that it is a feminine form.. IDrooerlv. , &~b6at-tfor
fadbQt-t, from naei (Pi'el conjug.).
actually spoken by Jesus in its literal sense, as the ex-
pression of the same conservative temper as we find in
1. T h e root has nothing Mt. 5 17-19, and against noisy fanatics who thought to do
" to do with rest-
ing in the sense of enjoying repose ; in transitive forms honour to their master by showing contempt for the
and applications it means ' to sever,' to ' put an end to,' day. It is more probable, however, in view of the
and intransitively it means to desist,' to 'come to an parallel clause, If you do not fast [to] the world you
end.' The grammatical form of fab6Qth suggests have not found the kingdom of God ' (Abpj v v u r e h q r e
a transitive sense, ' the divider,' and apparently indicates rbv K ~ U ~ O06 V C ~ P ~ TT E ~ /3aoiheiav
V 700 OcoD), that
the Sabbath as dividing the month. It may mean the the saying is not intended to be understood literally.
day which puts a stop to the week's work ; but that is [This is not the place to discuss the relation of the
less likely. It certainly cannot be translated ' the day Pauline teaching to that of Jesus. Without entering
of rest.' (Cp Lag. Uebers. 113 ; KO. fihrg. ii. l z b f . ; 3. Earls into the question as to the historical origin
Hoffni. 2 , 4 T W 3 1 2 1 ;Wellh. ProL [1883] 117. n. I ; christh of each of the Pauline epistles referred to,
Jastrow's article cited in 5 8.) attitudes. we may recall that, according to the Pauline
[.kccording to Jensen, ZKF, 1887, p. 278, the As- teaching, Jesus was sent in human flesh to
syrian Sa(p)bat(td)-tum= ' penitential prayer,' and hence liberate men from servitude to the law as a whole and
'day of penitence and prayer.' Hirschfeld (see 5 8), in every particular. T h e conservative side of the teach-
however, derives nze from nyad. Cp Benz. H A 202, ing of Jesus regarding the Sabbath could not, there-
'perhaps in its oldest form it was connected with fore, be reproduced in the corresponding teaching of
pix$ (week).' For Jastrow's view, see 8.1 Paul.] It is clear from Rom. 1 4 5 # that Paul regarded
By way of preface to the present historical inquiry, the observance of the Sabbath as essentially an ri&d+opov
and to clear away, if possible, any remnants of theo- for Christians ; it is possible to serve the Lord by
and logical prejudice against criticism, let observance of a fixed day, and equally possible to
a. Sabbath.
the us consider the attitude of Jesus towards serve him without such observance; the important
Sabbath observance. It is not too thing is to have a clean conscience (cp also VY. 14
bold to say that in his opposition to the current Rab- and 23). T h e Pauline attitude towards the Christians
binical views he is in harmony with the main result of of Co1oss;e is not inconsistent with the magnanimous
modern historical criticism. This thesis will be justified tolerance here expressed. The sharpness of Col. 216J
at a subsequent point. The well-known and probably (cp Gal. 4 9 5 ) is due to the situation : Paul perceived
(see col. 1888, near foot) authentic saying, 'Think not that the Judaising false teachers had raised the d&d-
that I am come to destroy the law' (Mt. 517). expresses r$opov into an dvayrtaiov, and that an energetic protest
one side of that teaching. Jesus revered the Sabbath against the imposition of any such yoke was urgently
as he revered the other religious traditions of his required. [There is no definite conjict between the
people ; but he had also a freedom of inspiration which attitude of Paul and that of Jesus. The position taken
put a new life into his interpretation of the Sabbath up by Jesus was perfectly natural to him, as a son
law. That he was in the habit of attending the syna- of a pious Jewish family, and a preacher to the chosen
gogue on the Sabbath, we know from Lk. 416 (cp n. 31).
1 Ropes, 'Die Spriiche Jesu.' in Texfe 1. Untersuclrungm,
But he would not adhere to the letter of the law xiv. 2 126 (1896) also re ards this as possible.
where works of necessity or of mercy claimed to be a It is more probahfe that the ideas in these passages rest
performed : ' t h e Sabbath is made for man, and not upon an utterance of Jesus known to the apostle than that the
man for the Sabbath: wherefore the Son of Man is saying attributed to Jesus in D should be an invention resting
on the utterance of Paul.
Lord also of the Sabbath' (Mk. 227f:). There is a 3 A i y m 'IquoO (ed. Grenfell and Hunt, 1897), 103
4173 4x74
people of God. It would not have been natural to of Sabbath observance. The ideal of the Sabbath which
Paul, a preacher to the Gentiles and not of purely all these rules aimed at realising was absolute rest from
Jewish culture, who seems to have felt as free towards everything that could be called work ; and even the
the earthly life of Jesus as Jesus himself did towards exercise of those ofices of humanity which the strictest
the letter of the Mosaic Law. There were other Sabbatarians regard as a service to God, and therefore
Christians, however, who felt and acted differently from as specially appropriate to his day, looked on as
Paul.] work. T o save life was allowed, but only because
That the earliest Christians in Palestine observed the danger to life ‘superseded the Sabbath.’ In like
Sabbath is nowhere indeed expressly said.‘ but is manner the special ritual at the temple prescribed for
certainly to be assumed. T h e silence of Acts is not the Sabbath by the Pentateuchal law was not regarded
to be taken as a proof of the non-observance, but con- as any part of the hallowing of the sacred day ; on the
trariwise as a proof that it was observed as matter of contrary, the rule was that, in this regard, ‘Sabbath
course. was not kept in the sanctuary.’ Strictly speaking,
[Eusebius (HE327) remarks that the Ebionites therefore, the Sabbath was neither a day of relief t o
observed both the Sabbath and the Lord’s D a y ; and toiling humanity nor a day appointed for public wor-
this practice obtained to some extent in much wider ship ; the positive duties of its observance were to wear
circles, for the ApostoZicicnZ Constitutions recommend that one’s best clothes, eat, drink, and be glad (justified from
the Sabbath shall be kept as a memorial feast of the Is. 5813).
creation, and the Lords Day as a memorial of the A more directly religious element, it is true, was introduced
resurrection. -w. R. s. ] by the practice of attending the synagogue service; but it is to
be remembered that this service was primarily regarded not as
Was the Sabbath observed in the Christian mission-churches an act of worship, but as a meeting for instruction in the law.
of the Dispersion? This is not an inquiry that affects our So far, therefore as the Sabbath existed for any end outside
main subject, and only a glance at it can be given. We may be itself, it was an ’institution to help every Jew to learn the law,
certain indeed that where a mission-church consisted essentially and from this point of view it is regarded by Philo and Josephns,
of those who had formerly been Jews or @36p<vo~ (see PROSE- who are accustomed to seek a philosophical justification for the
LYTE) the observance of the day did not forthwith cease. It is peculiar institutions of their religion. But this certainly was
instructive however, to note that in thedecree of Jerusalem (Acts not the leading point of view with the mass of the Rabbins.1
1623fi) Skbbath observance is as little imposed a5 binding on Such was the position of the scribes ; the Sabbath w-as
Gentile Christians as is that of any other holy day.2 In estimat-
ing the historical bearing of this testimonium esdentio it matters an end in itself-a mere barrier between God‘s people
little whether we take the decree as actually pronounced by a and the world at large. Jesus maintains, as we have
council of apostles at Jerusalem3 or regard it as a later finding of seen, the opposite doctrine. H e declares too that his
the church of that city (cp C OUNCIL OF J ERUSALEM).
view of the law as a whole, and the interpretation of the
W e now return to the thesis with which this article Sabbath law which it involves, can be historically justi-
opened, viz., that the attitude of Jesus towards the Rab- fied from the Old Testament. And in this connection
4. Attitude binical Sabbath (see Mt. 121-14 Mk. he introduces two of the main methods to which histori-
2 2 7 ) is in harmony with the main result cal criticism of the Old Testament has recurred in
ofJesus, of modern criticism. I n his trenchant
resumed modern times : he appeals to the oldest history rather
criticism of the scribes the general position than to the Pentateuchal code as proving that the later
which Jesus takes up is that ‘ the Sabbath is made for conception of the law was unknown in ancient times
man, and not man for the Sabbath,’ which is only a (Mt. 1 2 3 4), and to the exceptions to the Sabbath law
special application of the wider principle that the law is which the scribes themselves allowed in the interests of
not an end in itself but a help towards the realisation in worship ( v . 5) or humanity (n. II), as showing that
life of the great ideal of love to God and man, which is the Sabbath must originally have been devoted to
the sum of all true religion. On the other hand, the purposes of worship and humanity, and was not always
rules of the scribes enumerated thirty-nine main kinds the purposeless arbitrary thing which the schoolmen
of work forbidden on the Sabbath, and each of these made it to be. Modern criticism of the history of
prohibitions gave rise to new subtilties. Jesus’ disciples, Sabbath observance among the Hebrews has done
for example, who plucked ears of corn in passing through nothing more than follow out these arguments in detail,
a field on the holy day, had, according to Rabbinical and show that the result is in agreement with what is
casuistry, violated the third of the thirty-nine rules, known as to the dates of the several component parts of
which forbade harvesting; and in healing the sick, the Pentateuch.
Jesus himself broke the rule that a sick man should not The historical results of criticism may be thus sum-
receive medical aid on the Sabbath unless his life was
in danger.* In fact, as Jesus put it, the Rabbinical
Of the legal I ..
” uassaces that sneak of the
P1.e-exilic Sabbath all those which show affinity
theory seemed to be that the Sabbath was not made for post-exilic with the doctrine of the scribes-re-
man but man for the Sabbath, the observance of which garding the Sabbath as an arbitrary
was so much an end in itself that the rules prescribed Sabbath. sign between Yahwk and Israel. enter-
for it did not require to be justified by appeal to any ing into details as 70 particular acts that are forbidden,
larger principle of religion or humanity. T h e precepts and enforcing the observance by several penalties, so
of the law were valuable in the eyes of the scribes that it no longer has any religious value, but appears a s
because they were the seal of Jewish particularism, the a mere legal constraint-are post-exilic (Ex. 1623-30
barrier erected between the world at large and the ex- 3112-17 3 5 1 - 3 ; Nu. 1532-36); the older laws only
clusive community of the grace of YahwB. For this demand such cessation from daily toil, and especially
purpose the most arbitrary precepts were the most effec- from agricultural labour, as among all ancient peoples
tive, and none were more so than the complicated rules naturally accompanied a day set apart as a religious
1 Zahn, Gesch. desSonniags, etc., 168, 353. festival, and in particular lay weight on the fact that
P Id trtsufr, 173. the Sabbath is a humane institution, a holiday for the
3 Sd’Weizsacker, AjostoZic Age 1rggf: labouring classes (Ex. 23 IZ Dt. 5 12-15). As it stands
4 [In like manner the length of‘journey that could be under-
taken withollt breach of the Sabbath came to be also strictly in these ancient laws, the Sabbath is not at all the
defined (cp Mt. 2423). For by the thirty-ninth rule it was for- unique thing which it was made to be by the scribes.
bidden to carry anything from one ‘place’ to another-a I The Greeks and the barbarians,’ says Strabo (x. 39),
prohibition plainly based on Ex.1629, ‘let no man go out of his
place onthe Sabbath day’-in other words ‘let every one stay ‘have this in common, that they accompany their
at home. A definition of ‘place’ in this cAnnection was found sacred rites by a festal remission of labour.’ So it
in the measurement of the ‘suburbs’ of a Levitical city as laid was in old Israel : the Sabbath [which the Israelites
down in Nu.35r-s-mm cubits square. This gave the
‘Sabbath limit’ (n$+ nrnp), and thus the ‘Sabbath day’s 1 See the Mishnah tract‘Shab~th,’and]u~iZees, chap. 1 ;and
journey’ (Acts 1 1 2 ; wzpfldrnv 686s) was fixed at z m o cubits or corn are Schiirer, GjVPJ, 2 428 451 470.478, where the rabbinical
about 1000 yards.] Sahgath is well explained and illustrated in detail.
4175 4176
may have taken from the Canaanites-an agricultural for we see from Is. 40-55 that this doctrine was a main-
people (see WEEK)] was one of the stated religious stay of Jewish faith in those very days of exile which
feasts, like the new moon and the three great agri- gave the Sabbath a new importance for the faithful.
cultural sacrificial celebrations (Hos. 2 1 1 ) ; the new But, if the week as a religious cycle is older than the
moons and the Sabbaths alike called men to the idea of the week of creation, we cannot hope to find
sanctuary to d o sacrifice (Is. 1 1 3 ) ; the remission of more than probable evidence of the origin of the
ordinary business belonged to both alike (Am. 8 5 ) , Sabbath. At the time of the exile the Sabbath was
and for precisely the same reason.1 Hosea even takes already an institution peculiarly Jewish, otherwise it
it for granted that in captivity the Sabbath will be could not have served as a mark of distinction from
suspended, like all the other feasts, because in his day heathenism. This, however, does not necessarily imply
a feast implied a sanctuary. that in its origin it was specifically Hebrew, but only
This conception of the Sabbath, however, necessarily that it had acquired distinguishing features of a marked
underwent an important modification in the seventh kind. What is certain is that the origin of the Sabbath
century B.c., when the local sanctuaries were abolished, must be sought within a circle that used the week as
and those sacrificial rites and feasts which in Hosea's a division of time. Here again we must distinguish
time formed the essence of every act of religion were between the week as such and the astrological week,
limited to the central altar, which most men could visit Le., the week in which the seven days are named each
only at rare intervals. From that time forward the new after the planet which is held to preside over its first
moons, which till then had been at least as important hour.
as the Sabbath, and were celebrated by sacrificial feasts If the day is divided into twenty-four hours and the planets
as occasions of religious gladness, fell into insignifi- preside in turn over each hour of the week in the order of their
cance, except in the conservative temple ritual. The periodic times (Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury
Sabbath did not share the same fate ; but with the aboli- Moon),we get the order of days of the week with which we ar;
familiar. For, if the Sun presides over the first hour of Sunday,
tion of local sacrifices it became for most Israelites an and therefore also over the eighth, the fifteenth and the twent
institution of humanity divorced from ritual, So it second, Venus will have the twenty-third ho& Mercury t l i
appears in the deuteronomic decalogue, and presumably twenty-fourth, and the Moon, as t h e third in drder from the
also in Jer. 17 19 27. In this form the institution was Sun, will preside over the first hour of Monday. Mars, again
as third from the Moon, will preside over Tuesday (Dies Martis:
able to survive the fall of the state and the temple, and Mardi), and so forth.
the seventh day's rest was clung to in exile as one of the
few outward ordinances by which the Israelite could This astrological week became widely current in the
still show his fidelity to Yahwt and mark his separation Roman empire, but was still a novelty in the time of
from the heathen. Hence we understand the impor- Dio Cassius (37 18). That writer believed that it came
tance attached to it from the period of the exile onward from Egypt; but the old Egyptians had a week of ten
(not seven) days, and the original home of astrology
(Ezek. 20 I~ 22 8 23 38 Jer. 17 19-27 Is. 56 1-7 58 13), and
the character of a sign between Yahw& and Israel and of the division of the day into twenty-four hours
ascribed to it in the post-exilic law. This attachment is Chaldza. It is plain, however, that there is a long
to the Sabbath, beautiful and touching so long as it step between the astrological assignation of each hour of
was a spontaneous expression of continual devotion to the week to a planet and the recognition of the week a s
Yahwt, acquired a less pleasing character when, after a n ordinary division of time by people at large. Astro-
the exile, it came to be enforced by the civil arm logy is in its nature an occult science, and there is not
(Neh. 13: cp Neh. 1031). and when the later law even the slightest trace of a day of twenty-four hours among
declared Sabbath-breaking a capital offence. It is just, the ancient Hebrews, who had the week and the
however. to remember that without the stern discipline Sabbath long before they had any acquaintance with
of the law the community of the second temple could the planetary science of the Babylonian priests. More-
hardly have escaped dissolution, and that Judaism alone over, it is quite clear from extant remains of Assyrian
preserved for Christianity the hard-won achievements calendars that our astrological week did not prevail in
civil life even among the Babylonians and Assyrians:
of the prophets.
they did not dedicate each day in turn to its astrological
As the Sabbath was originally a religious feast, the
planet. These facts make it safe to reject one oflen-
question of the origin of the Sabbath resolves itself into
Origin of an- inquiry why and in what circle a repeated explanation of the Sabbath, viz., that it was in
its origin what it is in the astrological week, the day
festal cycle of seven days was first
the Sabbath. established. In Gen. 2 1-3 and in Ex. sacred to Saturn, and that its observance is to be
derived from an ancient Hebrew worship of that planet.
2011 the Sabbath is declared to be a memorial of the
In truth, there is no evidence of the worship of Saturn
completion of the work of creation in six days. It
among the oldest Hebrews (see CHIUN AND SICCUTH).
appears certain, however, that the decalogue as it lay
T h e week, however, is found in various parts of the
before the deuteronomist did not contain any allusion to
world in a form that has nothing to do with astrology
the creation (see DECALOGUE), and it is generallybelieved
that this reference was added by the same post-exilic or the seven planets, and with such a distribution as to
make it pretty certain that it had no artificial origin, but
hand that wrote Gen. 11-24 a. T h e older account of
suggested ilself independently, and for natural reasons,
the creation in Gen. 2 4 b - 2 5 does not recognise the
hexznieron, and it is even doubtful whether the original to different races. In fact, the four quarters of the moon
supply an obvious division of the month ; and, wherever
sketch of Gen. 1 distributed creation over six days. The
connection, therefore, between the seven-days week and new moon and full moon are religious occasions, we get
the work of creation is now generally recognised as in the most natural way a sacred cycle of fourteen or
secondary. T h e week and the Sabbath were already fifteen days, of which the week of seven or eighi days
known to the writer of Gen. 1, and he used them to give (determined by half-moon) is the half. Thus the old
the framework for his picture of the creation, which in Hindus chose the new and the full moon as days of
the nature of things could not be literal and required sacrifice; the eve of the sa'crifice was called upavasatha,
some framework. At the same time, there was a and in Buddhism the same word (uposatha) has come
peculiar appropriateness in associating the Sabbath with to denote a Sabbath observed on the full moon, on the
the doctrine that Yahwt is the Creator of all things; day when there is no moon, and on the two days which
are eighth from the full and the new moon respectively,
with fasting and other religious exercises.1
1 [Hence also the Sabbath was quite readily made use of for From this point of view i t is most significant that in
the purpose of paying a visit to a man of God ( 2 K. 4 23) or the the older parts of the Hebrew scriptures the new moon
like; quite the op osite of the later practice which forh6de all
travelling on Sabgaths and feast-days (cp Mt. 24 20 and Jos.
A-nt. xiii. 8 4 : O+K &riv 82 t p i u 087. i v TO;F uippaurv acre i v 1 Childers, Pali Dict. 535: Kern, Buddhisnrus (Germ.
Tn <OPT< bb'ekLV).-K.M.] Transl.) 8: Maahdvaega, ii. 1 I (ET 1239, 291).
4177 4178
and the Sabbath are almost invariably mentioned Nowack (Hebr. Arch. [1894] 21408) gives a lucid sketch
together. T h e month is beyond question an old sacred of current theories and their grounds. See also Jensen,
division of time common to all the Semites ; even the Sunday School T i m e s (Philadelphia), Jan. 16, 1892, and
Arabs, who received the week at quite a late period Jastrow, Amer. J. of Theol 1898, pp. 315-352.
from the Syrians (BirBni, ChronoZogy, ET 58), greeted Jensen is cautious and reserved on the question of a
the new moon with religious acclamations. And this Babylonian origin of the Sabbath, which, however.
must have been an old Semitic usage, for the word Gunkel (ScllifJ 14) and Jastrow (09.c i t . ) expressly
which properly means ' to greet the new moon ' (uhuZlu) affirm. The bridge which Gunkel fails to construct
is, as Lagarde (Orientuliu, 219) has shown, etymologi- between the Babylonian atonement-Sabbath and the
cally connected with the Hebrew words used of any Hebrew rest-Sabbath, Jastrow endeavours to point out.
festal joy. Among the Hebrews, or rather perhaps H e remarks that the Heb. fabbdh8n does in fact, like
among the Canaanites, whose speech they borrowed, the Bab. fubattum, convey the idea of propitiation or
the joy at the new moon became the type of religious appeasement of the divine anger, and he is of opinion
festivity in general. Nor are other traces wanting of that the Hebrew Sabbath was originally a hbbith8n-
the connection of sacrificial occasions-Le., religious ;.e., a day of propitiation and appeasement, marked by
feasts-with the phases of the moon among the Semites. atoning rites. At this stage of development it was
T h e Harranians had four sacrificial days in every month, celebrated at intervals of seven days, corresponding
and, of these, two at least were determined by the con- with changes in the moon's phases, and was identical
junction and opposition of the moon.' in character with the four days in each month (7th. 14th,
That full moon as well as new moon had a religious signi- 21st, and 28th) that the Babylonians regarded as days
ficance among the ancient Hebrews seems to follow from the which had to be converted into days of propitiation.
fact that, when the great agricultural feasts were fixed to set
days, the full moon was chosen. In older times these feastdays There were also, however, other Bab&ththan days, such
appear to have been Sabbaths (Lev. 23 11; cp PASSOVER, NEW as the New Year's Day, the Day of Atonement, the
MOON). first and eighth days of the annual pilgrimage to the
A week determined by the phases of the moon has an average chief sanctuary.
length of zgh+4=7# days--le., three weeks out of eight would
have eight days. But there seems to be in I Sam. 20 27, com- The introduction, in consequence of profound changes
pared with m. 1824, an indication that in old times the feast of in religious conceptions among the Hebrews, of the
the new moon lasted two days-a very natural institution, since custom of celebrating the Sabbath every seventh day,
it appears that the feast was fixed in advance, whilst the Hebrews
of Saul's time cannot have been good enough astronomers to irrespective of the relationship of the day t o the moon's
know beforehand on which of two successive days the new moon phases, led to a complete separation from the ancient
would actually he observed.9 In that case a week of seven view of the Sabbath, whilst the introduction, at a still
working days would occur only once in two months. We cannot later period, of the doctrine that the divine work of
tell when the Sabbath became dissociated from the month ; hut
the change seems to have been made before the Book of the creation was completed in six days removed the Hebrew
Covenant, which already regards the Sabbath simply as an Sabbath still further from the point at which the develop-
institution of humanity and ignores the new moon. In both ment of the corresponding Babylonian institution ceased.
points it is followed by Deuteronomy.
Hence the position of the Sabbath in the Priestly Code.
The word 'Sabbath' (&zbuftuv),with the explanation
T h e field, however, is still open for further investigation.
' day of rest of the heart,' is claimed RS Assyrian on the Cp also Toy, ' T h e earliest form of the Sabbath,'
basis of a textual emendation made by
7. The J B L 1 8 1 p 8 (1899) ; and C. H. W. Johns, Assyrzan
Fried. Delitzsch in 2 Rawl. 32 16. T h e Deeds and Documents (who finds that the 19th day of
Babylonian value of this isolated and uncertain
and Assyrian testimony cannot be placed very high, the month was observed by abstinence from secular
Sabbath. business; but the deeds do not indicate that the 7th,
and it seems to prove too much, for it 14th, aist, and 28th days were Sabbaths).
is practically certain that the Babilonians at the time of W.R. S.-K. M.- T. K. C .
the Hebrew exile cannot have had a Sabbath exactly
corresponding in conception to what the Hebrew Sab- SABBATH DAYS JOURNEY. See SABBATH,
bath had become under very special historical circum- § 4 n.
stances. What we do know from a calendar of the
intercalary month ElDl 11. is that in that month the 7th. SABBATHEUS (CABBATAIOC [BA]), I Esd. 914=
14th, Igth, aIst, and 28th days had a peculiar char- Ezra 1015,SHABBETHAI, I.
acter, and that on them certain acts were forbidden to
SABBATICAL YEAR. The Jews under the second
the king and others. There is the greatest uncertainty
temple observed every seventh year as a Sabbath accord-
as to the details (cp the very divergent renderings in ing to the (post-exilic) law of Lev. 25 1-7. It was a
RP, 7 16of. ; Schrader, K A TM 19 ; Lotz, Qu. dehistoriu year in which all agriculture was remitted, in which the
Subbati, 3 9 J ) ; but these days, which are taken to be fields lay unsown, the vines grew unpruned, and even
Assyrian Sabbaths, are certainly not ' days of rest of the natural produce was not gathered in. That this
the heart,' and to all appearance are unlucky days, and law was not observed before the captivity we learn from
expressly designated as such.3 If, therefore, they are Lev. 2 6 3 4 8 ; indeed, so long as the Hebrews were an
' Assyrian Sabbaths ' at all, they are exactly opposite agricultural people with little trade, in a land often
in character to the Hebrew Sabbath, which was described ravaged by severe famines, such a law could not have
by Hosea as a day of gladness, and never ceased to be been observed. Even in later times it was occasionally
a day of feasting and good cheer. [Cp Jastrow, in productive of great distress ( I Macc. 649 53 ; Jos. Ant.
the article mentioned below.] xiv. 162). In the older legislation, however, we already
Besides the works already mentioned, reference should meet with a seven years' period in more than one con-
be made t o W. Lotz, Questionurn de historin Sabbati nection. T h e release of a Hebrew servant after six
Zibri duo (18833, which takes account of years' labour ( E x . 2 1 2 8 D t . 1 5 1 2 8 ) has only a
Literatnre. the Assyriological evidence. Hirschfeld's remote analogy to the Sabbatical year. But in Ex.
' Remarks on the etymology of Sabbath' 23x08 it is prescribed that the crop of every seventh
( J R A S . April 1896, pp. 353-359). according t o Jastrow. year (apparently the self-sown crop) shall be left for the
misunderstands and misquotes the Babylonian material. poor, and after them for the beasts. The difference
between this and the later law is that the seventh year
1 The others-according to the Fikrist, 319 14- are the 17th
and the 28th. is not called a Sabbath, and that there is no indication
2 It appears from Judith86 that even in later times there were that all land was to lie fallow on the same year. In
two days at the new moon on which it was improper to fast. this form a law prescribing one year's fallow in meven
3 Lotz says they are lucky days. but the expression which he
renders, diesfuurfus is applied th every day in the calendar. may have been anciently observed. It is extended in
The rest of his bwk does not rise above this example of acumen. v. I I t o the vineyard and the olive-yard ; but here the
4179 / "7
culture necessary to keep the vines and olive-trees in SACK. T h e wide diffusion of this word throughout
order is not forbidden; the precept is only that the the European lafiguages is probably due in the first
produce is to be left to the poor. In Deuteronomy instance to Phenician trade and commerce.’ The
this law is not repeated ; but a fixed seven years’ period word, it is true, does not happen to be found in either
is ordained for the benefit of poor debtors, apparently Phenician or Punic; but it is vouched for in Hebrew,
in the sense that in the seventh year no interest is to be Syriac, Ethiopic, and possibly Assyrian. See S ACK-
exacted by the creditor from a Hebrew, or that no pro- CLOTH.
ceedings are to be taken against the debtor in that year I . juk, j@ ( U ~ I C K O S [but &pu~mros, Gen. 44 1x1, saccus),
(Deut. 1518). W. R. S. Gen. 42 zj 35 (E!; in 2’. z7a. it is due to R (Holz.); Lev. 11 32
Josh. 9 4. See SACKCLOTH.
SABBEUS ( c A B B ~ ~ A [BA])c I Esd. 9 3 z = E z r a 1031,
2. kc?&, ?>?, Gen. 42 25u (+y&ow), RV ‘vessel ’ ; cp BAG.
3. ’umtd&th, npn! (.\/spread out, cp I s . 4 0 ~ 2 )only ~ in
SABEANS occurs four times in AV, representing
Gen. 41-42 J (4225z7J35 4312 etc.). On E’s term see (I)
three. distinct Hebrew words in MT ; ( I ) , in Job 1 1 5 above. @ in 42 27f: 43 12 papurams.
(N;y, RVmS SHEBA) and Joel 3 8 (P’&2?, RV MEN 4. &&iLha, ii+ z K. 4 42t RV (AV, R V w . ‘ husk,’ AVmg.
OF S HEBA ) ; ( z ) in Is. 4.514 (P’&;?q), see S EBA ; and ‘scrip,’ ‘garment’), cp FOOD, col. 1539 n. 2. AVms gives a
( 3 ) in Ezek. 2 3 4 2 (AVmg.and RV ’drunkards’), where, superficially plausible sense (cp ScRlp)-derived from an anony-
however, it is no part of the original text. T h e Kt. mous Greek translator’s K ~ ~ V K O(Field’s
S Hex.) ; hut &p is
o*x>iD-i.e., a * m i D , the reading for which the Kre sub- [It has been conjectured elsewhere (see PROPHET, 0 7) that
stitutes o*m,o whh the same meaning (drunkards), is Elisha, like Elijah, was specially a prophet of the Negeb, and
an obvious interpolation due simply to dittography of that $D>, is a popular corruption of SNDni.. If so, iiSpr>
probably comes from @+rn*z, ‘Beth-gallim,’ where 03$1 is
the preceding a . d m ~ . On the further textual corruption
of the verse see Cornill, ad Zoc., and Toy (SBOT). Of another corruption of 5NDn-p E!isha was at a place called
Beth-gallim, or (see v. 38) Beth-gilgal, or (since Gallim and
course none of these words has anything to do with any Gilgal=Jerahmeel) Beth-jerahmeel, in the Negeb formerly he-
of the religious sects that have at one time or another longing to the Jerahmeelites. Rut Lagarde’s reading &?
been called Sabians-Le., Baptists (see art. SABIANS ‘wallet’(?), suggested by the @ a + d A s O of @ A and Theod. (sd
BDB), is ingenious.-T. K. c.]
in Ency. Brit. 21 128)-a name which is etymologically
quite distinct. SACKBUT (N?&’), Dan. 3 5 7 IO 1st. See M USIC,
SABI. I. (caBel [A]), I Esd. 5 2 8 R V = E z r a 2 4 ~ , § 6 (10).
SHOBAI. SACKCLOTH (@; CAKKOC ; succus, ciziciumz). It
2. (ua@[s]q [BA]) I Esd. 5 34 AV, RV Sabie=Ena 2 57 ; see
POCHEKETH-HAZZEBAIM. is probable that the Heb. juk was originally a coarse
1. Use. textile fabric made from the hair of the camel or
SABIAS (CABIAC [BA]) I Esd. 1 9 R V = z Ch. 359, the goat (cp the meanings of u d ~ ~ oasborrowed
H ASHABIAH. 6. word). Like the SimZuh it could he used also as a wrap
SASTA (Kg?D, C ~ B A TP ~I 3 caBaea CAI, ce. [LIP or bag (cp M ANTLE , z [I]) ; see S.4CK. Referring
I Ch. l g ) , or Sabtah (n$?D, caBaea [ADEL]. Gen. the reader, generally, to the articles DRESS and M OURN -
1 0 7 ) , one of the sons of Cush. See CUSH. If ‘ Cush’ ING CUSTOMS, we propose here to indicate the nature
here means the N. Arabian region of that name, we are of the garment expressed by the word j a n , and to
entitled and indeed compelled to suppose that ‘ Sabtah ’ endeavour to ascertain the origin of the custom of
and ‘ Raamah ‘ have arisen by corruption and editorial wearing it.
manipulation from the names of places near the S. T h e usage of the word suggests that the Sa& was
border of Canaan. ~ 7 will 3 probably
~ come from n>ya nothing more than a loin-cloth, similar, no doubt, to
c Maacath’ (the southern Maacah), which is also the the i&rim3of Moslem pilgrims at Mecca. It was worn
original of SUCCOTH in the earliest story of Jacob and as a token of grief after a death (Gen. 3 7 3 4 z S. 331
in Ps. 608, and of SOCOH in I s. 17 I . c p SHABRETHAI. Joel 18), more commonly, however, in times of trial, to
From the ordinary point of view Dillmann finds some remove a calamity, or as a means of propitiation.
plausibility in Tuch’s suggestion that Sabta= ,Zap@aOa Thus, the iuk is worn after hearing bad news (2 K. 6 30 19 I Est.
( P e r e l . 27 ; also Ptolemy, Strabo), the Sabota of Pliny 4 1-4, etc.), to avert a pestilence ( I Ch. 21 r6), when one’s neigh-
hour lies in sickness (Ps. 35 13), or as a sign of general undefined
(6 32 1232). This was the capital of the Chatramotitae grief (Ps. 30 I I [12] 69 1 1 [IZ]Is. 22 12). It is often preceded hy
(see HAZARMAVETH), and was famous as the centre of the rending of the clothes (Gen. 37 34 I K. 21 27-the rending
the trade in incense. The name is the Sab. ni2w. alone in Job 1 zo), or by the covering of one’s head with ashes
or (Neh. 9 I 2 Macc. 1025) earth.4 Like the ihrcim, the S+ is
According to Glaser, Sabta is the Za@a of Ptol. vi. 730. also worn by women (Joel 18, cp Judith 8 5 10 3 2 Macc. 3 19).
and is to be placed at Sudeir or in the NE of Yemaniah ; In Jon.38 it is ordered to be worn by both man and beast
Sabta, Raamah. and Sabteca representing the districts (6ihPmcih)
on the coast of the Persian Gulf (SRizze, 2252J). The passages in which the Suk is mentioned as worn
T. K. C. next the skin are probably not exceptional ( I K. 2 1 2 7
SABTECA (N?V?D. caBAKaea LADE]. caBe. [L] 2. A sacred z K. 630 Is. 3211); Doughty has re-
marked the half-naked appearance of the
in Gen. ; C ~ B E K A ~ [ABI,]. -ea)(&[A] in Ch. ; d there-
fore indicates rather S BKTHA ), one of the sons of Cush wearers of the ihrim- ‘ like bathing-
(Gen. 1 0 7 I Ch. l g t ) . AV has Sabtechah in Gen. 1 Some ( e g . , Whitney, in the Cent. D i d . ) have supposed
and Sabtecha in Ch. Glaser. following Bochart, con- this diffusion to be due to the incident in the story of Joseph,
where the cup was hidden in the SUA. This does not explain
nects this with the name Samydake in Carmania, on the various meanings of U ~ K K O S saccus and as a matter of
the E. side of the Persian Gulf (SRizae, 2252) ; but fact, the Heb. S+ appears only h e i; the ’story, whilst the
Dillmann calls attention to the phonetic difference. synonym ’a.mtd&th occurs no fewer than fourteen times
It is perhaps really a dittographed S ABTA, the 3 being (see S ACK, 3).
2 Succus and cizicium are about evenly distributed. For
a record of a reading Nn3D (cp d in Gen.). T. K. C. cilicium (a goat’s-hair cloth used for tents), see CILICIA,li 2
end and cp T ENT $ 3.
SACAR (7&). Probably an ethnic of the same ’$4is frequehy used with hcixur, ‘gird on,’ the reverse
group as I SSACHAR , ZICHRI. The name has, of course, process being described by zttuh, ‘loosen‘ (Ps. 3011 [121
no connection with that of the little known Egyptian I s . 2 0 ~ ) . The &r&m (on wkih ‘cp Wellh. Neid.(l) 116f:
(2)123) is a loin-cioth covering the knee one-lap of which may
god Sakar (cp I SSACHAR , col. 2292, n. 5 ) . I. On be cast over the shoulder (Doughty A r . Des.2479 481). In
the name in I Ch. 1135, see SHARAR and I SSACHAR, Eg. sa-g, with the determinative ‘ hai;,’ is a woollen Palestinian
5 6 (end). garment of the poor (WMM OLZ rgor col. 191).
4 Jastrow JA0S2013g sug es& tha; in Judith91 (m08d.v)
2. A son of OBED-EDOM ( q . ~ . ) ,1Ch.264 (cwxap the translator mistook +hir gee T URBAN , 5 2 ) for Zjhrr. likl
P I , C ~ X A P[Ll, caxiap [AI). his predecessor in 2 S. 13 19.
134 4181 4182
men‘ (A Y . Des. 2 4 7 9 8 537). and the dress doubtless the pu’pose. There are some indications that this held
resembled the prophet’s girdle which, in Job1218, is good among the ancient Hebrews ; and if we bear in
worn as a mark of humiliation by a king. See GIRDLE. mind that the Sa& is worn at times of great trouble,
The sackcloth of the OT, therefore, must not be when Yahwes help or forgiveness is besought, we may
regarded as in any way akin to a sack or sackcloth in perhaps surmise that such occasions were formerly
the modern sense of the word, and, in endeavouring to accompanied by a sacrificial rite when a special garb ( I f
ascertain the origin of the custom of wearing such a we may judge from the Arabian evidence) would not be
garb, we must not be led away by the early Christiau or unnatural. It would be just at such a time as this that
the later ideas with which it is associated.‘ the individual would feel himself brought into closest
That conservatism prevails longest in matters of cult is a contact with his deity. At all events, ideas connected
familiar experience, and Schwally, Nowack, and Kittel ( H K on with worship of the dead do not cover the whole
I K. ‘22 27) favour the view that the Sak is the clothing of an
earlier half-forgotten time, which, though it may long have cou- ground.
tinued to be worn-e.<. by slaves and the poorer people-was The king of Nineveh removes his royal mantle before donning
nevertheless adopted e)xceptionally hy the ruling classes on the Sak (Jon. 3 6),l the ‘holy ’ occasion requires ‘holy ’ clothes
specific occasions (cp DRESS, $ z , col. 1136, n. 4). Another and thk primary object of the rending of the garments is prohi
view is possible. ably to put oneself in a state of nakedness as quickly as possible
(Schwally, Frey).
It is t o ’ b e observed ( a ) that the corresponding
ihrdm is essentially a dress for a sacred occasion ; (6) That the nse of this special garment should have been
that the prophets wore a garment similar to the iuk ; retained long after the (ex hyp. ) ritual died out is not
and ( c ) that the sacred ephod itself was probably once a without analogy. The gradual decay is further illus-
mere loin-cloth (see EPHOD, J I, and cp T. C. Foote, trated by the fact that sometimes even it was the custom
JBL 21 41-44 [xgoz)). On these grounds, therefore, it not to wear the 9ak but to lie upon it ( 2 S. 21 10 Is. 5 8 5 ) ,
seems extremely probable that the J u was ~ pre-eminently and that in later Jewish times the rending of the gar-
a sacred garment, and it agrees with this interpretation ments was confined to a small slit (Nowack, H A 1193).
See the literature at the end of M O U RNIN G CUSTOMS : also
that we find it worn by people of all classes on any Schwally, Das Leden n a h d. Tode (~Sgz),1 1 8 , Frey, Td,
especially solemn occasion ( I Ch. 21 16 Joel 113 Dan. 9 3 SeeZe@au6e, etc. (1898), 3 4 8
I Macc. 347 z Macc. 1025 etc.). On sackcloth and nakedness, cp Jastrow, Z A T W 2 2 1 1 7 8
I n view of what has been said elsewhere on the bear- (
, which appeared since the above article was written.
S. A. C .
ing of ideas of holiness upon such a matter as dress,2 a
3. m y worn. plausible explanation of the custom SACRBMENT (sacramentum, the Vg. rendering of
may be attempted. Garments that pum$p(w in Eph. 1 g 3 3 5 3 2 Col. 1 q I Tim. 316 Rev.
have come in contact with holy things are unfit for 120 1 7 7 ) . See MYSTERY, 5 5.
common use, and in early Arabia certain rites were per- SACRED (ispoc) I Cor. 9 1 3 2 Tim. 315 RV. See
formed either in a naked state or in clothes reserved for CLEAN AN D U NCLEAN, $ I, a.

Innoducto (5 I). Wild animals and spoils of war (5 8). Worship (I r6$).
Sacrifices Znomads (5 2). Israel in Canaan : sources ($ 9). Founding of klngdom : effect (8 19).
Firstlings (8 3). Agricultural civilisation ($ IO). Foreign idueuce ($3 20).
Spring sacrifices (8 4J). Z&ah and ‘8ZZh (5 rrJ). Seventh century laws; Ezek. ($ ax).
Peculiar rite (8 8). Victims and oblations (8 13J). Destrnction of temple (5 22).
Protgtion by blood (5 7). Seasans and occasions of sacrifice (0 15).
Introductory (0 23). Thankofferin (8 296). Libations (S 35).
Offering in general : species (8 q). Oblations antilibations ($6 3031~). Incense ; salt (5 36).
Sacra publica et privata ($ 25). Frankincense: salt (D 316). Public piacula ($ 37).
i. Priuata : ii Publica : Scapegoat ; red heifer (g 38).
Burnt and trespass offering (s z6f.’). Daily holocausts and oblations (5 32). Installation of priests (8 39 a).
Sin offering (0 28 a). Sabbaths and festivals I S 33). Consecration of altar (8 39 6).
Peculiar piacula ($ a8 6). Shewbread ($ 3 4 4 . Peace offerings in sacra publica ($ 40).
Peace offerings ($29 a). Peculiar oblations (0 34 b).
As a ift to God (5 41). Effect of sacrifice (5 45). Suach : Philo (0 so).
Sacrifcial feasts (8 42). Theory of blood atonement ($46) Schoolsoflaw: efficacyofsacrifice($5i).
Blood of victim (8 43). Efficacyofsacrifice :popular belief@47). Moral and religious conditions of atone-
Propitiation and expiation (S 44). The prbphets (D 48). ment (%5%).
Peraan and Greek periods (5 49). How does sacrifice expiate? (!j 53).
ewish sacrifices :the Gospels (0 54) Johannine writings (S 60).
4a d (8 55).
Hebrews ($56).
Death ofChrist : Pauline Epistles($57).
I n Hebrews (5 58).
In I Pet. (S 59).
Genesis of idea (5 61).

Bibliography (0 62).
I. HISTORY O F SACRIFICE I N O T the present article the word will be used in this more
restricted sense, whilst offerings of grain, meal, bread,
T h e term ‘ sacrifice ’ may with etymological propriety oil, and the like (Heb. mdtzhM) are called ‘oblations.’
be employed of all offerings to G o d ; in common use T h e term ‘ offering’ will be employed as the equivalent
1. Introductorg. it denotes specifically that class of of the comprehensive korbdn, as well as in such phrases
offerings in which a victim is slain, as ‘ burnt offering’ (‘Zda‘h, holocaust), peace offering
corresponding to the Heb. zL6u& (lit. ‘ slaughter ‘).s I n (JLZem), sin offering (&a@th), trespass offering ( d f d m ) .
For convenience, certain species of offering are made
1 Cp Schwally, Lebcn xurh d. To& IIJ For the early
Christian usages see Smith, Did. Chl;st.’AI.f., S.V. 1 Cp Wi. AOF229, where the Assyrian king tears off his
2 See ReZ. Sm.PJ 451$, D n ~ s sS, 8, and cp generally CLEAN royal garments, and clothes his body in the ‘b&wlu, the dress
AN D UNCLEAS. of the penitent. Wi. (op cit. 44) paints out that 6aSiPnru is
3 See WRS EB(Q), 21 132, Rel. Sem.(z), 2 1 3 3 elsewhere glossed by F
.a+ (= ~ b ) . .
the subject of special articles : see F IRSTBORN , I NCENSE , The sacrifice of firstlin-s like the offering of first-fruits, with
'rAXATION, T I T H E , VOW, VOTIVE OFFERING. c p S k O which it is sometimes agdciated (Neh. 1 0 3 5 f : cp Ex. 23 2 9 f :
1 4 ~ 3 was
note also the connection with tithes, 'etc., Dt. 1 2 6 1 7
) ~ regarded in later times as a tribute to God (Nu.
COST, T ABERNACLES ; and, for Babylonian parallels, 18 15fi Neh. 10 3 5 x ) . and as such it has been surmised that the
R ITUAL . The present article deals in its first part (I§ cutom of devoting firstlings to God arose after the settlement
in Canaan by ' a secondary extension of the practice of offering
1-22) with the history of sacrifice in the Or; in its
the fruits of the field.' (So Benzinger, P ASSOVER, $ 8 end.)
second ($5 23-40) with the developed Jewish system: The existence of firstling sacrifices among the Arabs shows that
the third part ($5 41-53) discusses beliefs and ideas this inference is unwarranted. The sacrifice of firstlings, as the
connected with sacrifice, its intent, significance, efficacy, widespread custom of offering firstborn children indicates (see
Frazer, Goiden Bough I%), 243#), was not originally conceived
and operation; the fourth part ($5 54-61) treats of as a tribute to the deity (see TITHE). That there is no mention
sacrifice in the NT. of these offerings before the invasion of Canaan is not a suffi-
Before the invasion of Palestine the Israelite tribes cient reason for doubting their antiquity.
were nomads ; their living and their wealth were in their In the history of the exodus Moses asks the Egyptian
2. flocks of small catt1e.l These also king to let the Israelites go into the desert to sacrifice
furnished the material of their sacri- 4. spring to their God Yahwk, ' lest he fall upon us
of nomads. fices. Offerings were doubtless made sacrifices.l with pestilence or with the sword' (Ex.
also of the spoils of war, and perhaps of animals taken 5 3 J, cp 3 1 8 5 8 1 7 ; 5 1 E ) ;. the presence
in the chase (see below, 8). Our knowledge of the of all the people, young and old, is requisite; and
character of these sacrifices is derived not so much they must take with them their flocks and herds to
from the stories of the patriarchs in JE as from sur- furnish the victims ( 1 O 9 2 5 ) . From 5 3 it might seem
vivals in later custom and law. The nature of these that the sacrifice in the wilderness was something
survivals, together with the permanent conditions of unusual, demanded on this occasion by an oracle;
nomadic life in the deserts of Syria and Arabia, justify 5 1 (E) and 1 0 9 (J), however, represent it as an estab-
us in supplementing or interpreting our scanty material lished institution, ' t h e brig of Yahwe.' The season
by what is known of Arab sacrifice in pre-Islamic times was the spring of the year, in the month called by the
and among the modern Bedouins." Canaanites Abib (Ex. 1 3 4 ) , corresponding to the Syrian-
The occasions of sacrifice are many and various. Babylonian NisZn.
Among the modern Arabs sacrifices are offered on the It is natural to connect this &ig festival with the
birth of a son, a circumcision, marriage, the coming of spring festivals of other Semitic peoples. T h e first eight
a guest ; for the recovery of the sick or for the health days of the month Rajab, which in the old calendar fell
of flocks and herds ; on the inception of an enterprise, in the spring (see Wellh. ProZ.I2),viii. ; Heid.N, 9 4 8 ) .
such as setting out for a foray, breaking ground for was a great sacrificial season among the heathen Arabs.
tillage, opening or enlarging a well, laying the founda- T h e poets compare the carnage of battle to the mnlti-
tion of a building ; on the conclusion of a compact or tudes of victims lying around the sacred stones.' T h e
covenant ; the return from a successful expedition ; on victim, commonly a sheep, was called 'uttrah (pl.
the anniversary of a kinsman's death, and the like. *at:'+) ; its blood was poured on the head of the sacred
The rites of sacrifice are of primitive simplicity. T h e stone (Nuwairi, quoted in Ramussen, Aa'dit. 7 9 ) , the
owner ordinarily slaughters his own victim. T h e blood flesh consumed in a feast. Such sacrifices might be
is poured upon the ground, smeared upon the sacred offered at home ; but it was probably more common to
stone, upon the tent ropes, the door-posts of houses, or take them to some more famous holy place (see Wellh.
upon persons or animals. The flesh makes a feast for Heid. 74, 94). T h e sacrifice, like Arab sacrifices in
the owner, his family, tribesmen, and guests. general, was often made in fulfilment of a vow. T h e
A species of sacrifice which in all probability goes Rajab sacrifices were at first kept up by the Moslems ;
back to the nomadic stage is the offering of firstlings a tradition reports Mohammed to have said : ' Every
bPkJrJth, sg. blkjr) of animals, that is, Moslem is bound to offer each year an 'a$hmlih (the
3' !he first offspring of the dam, which sacrifice of the tenth of the month Dhu-I-Hijjah) and an
'opens the womb' (pqter r&m. Ex. 3 4 1 9 1 3 2 1215 Nu. 'atfruh ' (in Rajab [Lismliz vi. 211 1 4 f . l ) ; subsequently,
18 15 ; cp p@er fLger bMFmmlih, Ex. 13 12). The shepherd however, he prohibited the 'atir-ah as well as thefuru'
Abel makes his offering 'of the firstlings of his flock (see above, $ 3). I n the time of Mohammed the month
and of their fat portions' (Gen. 4 4 J ) ; the laws in- DhB-1-Hijjah, in which was held the great festival in
sistently claim all firstlings as God's right (Ex. 132 12-15 the vicinity of Mecca, fell at the beginning oi spring
2 2 2 9 f : [ z 8 J ] 3 4 1 9 f . Lev.2227 2726 Nu. 1815-17 Dt. (Wellh. PYOZ.(~), ' o s ) , and a comparison with the
1 2 6 17 1 4 2 3 l 5 q - q , cp Neh. 1 0 3 6 ) . The animal was Passover naturally suggested itself ; 4 but further studies
primitively sacrificed shortly after its birth ; the oldest in the old Arab calendar have shown that this coin-
rule is : ' Seven days it shall be with its dam ; on the cidence in date is accidental.
eighth day thou shalt give it to m e ' (Ex.2230 [ ~ 9 ] ) . ~ Among the Syrians, the chief feast of the year at
A similar custom existed among the heathen Arabs; Hierapolis was in the spring (Lucian, Den Syria, 49) ;
the first birth (calledfura') of a she-camel, goat, or ewe at HarrHn the first half of Nisan was a season of
was sacrificed, frequently while still so young that its special sacrifices (Fihrist, 322 ; Chwolsohn, Ssabier
flesh was gelatinous and stuck to the skin. This offer- 2 2 5 ) ; evidence of the sacredness of Nisan appears in
ing of firstlings was permitted in the earliest years of the Nabatean inscriptions at Madsin Sllih ;5 and at
Islam, hlohammed advising, however, that the sacrifice Palmyra ; the great festival of the modern Yezidis falls
should be deferred till the victim was a year or t x o old ; at the same season.'
later he prohibited the fara' as well as the sacrifices in A closer connection between the Hebrew spring
Rajab ('atirah, see below, $ 4).6 1 See PAssovEn FEASTS.
1 See CATTLE GOAT SHEEP. The nomadic Semites have no Hag is a relibious qathering (N6. Z D J f G 4 1 7 1 9 ) . The
neat cattle, and ;he adestors of the Israelites do not appear to word is used not only k the Canaanite-Israelite agricultural
have been among the tribes that possessed camels (see CAMEL). festivals, hut also of Arab (and S a b a n ) festivals, which brought
2 See Wcllh. Reste n f f a u a b . Heidenfumes; Snouck- Hur- multitudes together. There is thus no ground for the assump-
gronje, H e t mekRaamcke Feesf: WRS Rel. Sem. ;for modern tion that the use of the term here is due merely to the later
Arab customs, Burckhardt, Travels i n A r a b i a , 1829, Bedouins association of the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread
and WahLbys, 1830 ; Burton, Piigrimage to e l - M e d i m k and (8% ha-?nassbfk).
Meccah, 1855 ; Palmer, Desert of fhe Exodus; Doughty, 3 CP mod& descriptions of the sacrifices at the Meccan
A r a d i a D e s e r f a ; Curtiss, Primitive Semific Religion, etc. feast.
See F IRSTBORN, PASSOVER, $? 8J ; T AXATION A N D TRIBUTE, 4 See Snonck-Hurgronje Hef mekkaansche Feesf 65f:
$8 11-13. 5 Berger, Contpfes RendLs de Z'Acad. d e s Znscr., ; 8 8 4 , 3 7 7 f i
4 On the later modification of this rule see helow g M. 6 WRS EBW, 18 '99, n. 2.
6 See the two traditions in LisdnlOIrgf: ;WRS her. Scm.P), 7 Badger, Nesfonans I ~ x g j ? Vernal festivals are, of
4623 course, not peculiarly SeAitic.
4185 4186
festival ' Passover ' \ and the Arab Raiab sacrifices has In Ex. 1221-27 (ultimately from J ) the elders are
5. Firstlings been thought to be established by bidden to take sheep or goats, one for each clan (mi;-
at them. evidence that both were primitively 7. Protection pi&&), slaughter them, and, dipping
offerings of firstlings.' In the Penta- a bunch of herbs ( ' hyssop ' ) into the
teuch, laws prescribing the dedication of firstlings by blood. blood, to strike it upon the lintel and
stand in juxtaposition to ordinances for the Feast of door-posts ; Yahw& will not suffer ' the destroyer ' to
Unleavened Bread or the Passover (see Ex.3418 f. enter a house on which he sees these blood-marks.
Dt. 1519-23 l 6 1 J Ex. 1243-50 131 3-10 11-13 14-16); the This, an editor adds, is the historical origin and ex-
slaying of the firstborn of the Egyptians has been planation of a custom in use in later times ; with it he
interpreted as a reprisal upon them for withholding connects etymologically the name ' Passoser ' (pLsu&),
from YahwB, by their refusal to let Israel go, the first- because Yahwe ' passed over' (p6sah) the marked
lings that were his due (see Ex. 318 8120 1 0 2 4 8 ; houses of the Israelites (Ex. 1224-27). The object of
Wellh. 86). It has been shown, however, under the rite is to protect the inmates of the house from ' t h e
P ASSOVER (5 8),that the passages cited, though com- destroyer' ; that is, in primitive conception, from the
patible with such a theory of the original character of demons of disease and death. Similar customs with
the Passover, by no means require it ; and opposing the same motive are found among many peoples.'
considerations of much weight are to be drawn from the Whether this rite was originally connected with the
peculiar ritual of the Passover (see below, 1 6), in Hebrew spring feast is not clear. J , who prescribes
which-to name but a single point-one victim is re- the marking of the houses, says nothing about a feast,
quired for each household, rich or poor, whereas the and, indeed, repeatedly insists that the festival of
number of firstlings must have varied with the owner's Yahwe cannot be celebrated in Egypt (Ex. 5 3 825-27);
possessions. P orders that the blood of the lamb slain for the feast
Nor is it satisfactorily established that the Arab Rajab be applied to the door of every house in which it is
sacrifices were firstlings. It is true that the term eaten (Ex. 1 2 7 . cp r g ) , a direction which Jewish tradition
'utiruh, by which these victims are usually designated, and practice regarded as applying only to the ' Egyptian
is by some lexicographers made equivalent to furu', Passover' ; Dt. makes no mention of this use of the
firstling.2 This is, however, nothing more than the blood at the PASSOVER ( q . ~ . , 1 3 ) . ~ It is not nnlikely
confusion which frequently occurs in their accounts of that a rite originally occasional, as in the outbreak of
the religious customs of ' the times of ignorance,' and an epidemic, came to be practised annually for the
over against it must be put the fact that not only the protection of the household during the coming year,
traditionists but also the lexicons generally distinguish and in connection with the old spring feast.4 The
the two clearly enough. name pds& probably belonged, notwithstanding J's
The Passover differed conspicuously from all other etymology, to the feast rather than to the blood
Israelite sacrifices, and preserved to the last, essentially marking.
6. Peculiar unaltered, its primitive peculiarities. I n Some Semitic peoples, both nomadic and settled,
the earliest times, the carcass of the offered in sacrifice animals taken in the chase. Gazelles
rite. victim was probably roasted whole, either 8. Wild were offered by the Babylonians
over an open fire or in a pit in the earth (as by the anima,s. (Jastrow, ReZ. Ba6.-Ass. 661) and
modern Samaritans), and the flesh sometimes eaten half spoile of ,&,. probably by the Phcenicians (Sacrificial
raw or merely softened by fire. Dt. 1 6 7 prescribes that Tariffs, CZS 16550 1675 : CD I SAAC ,
it shall be boiled, like other sacrifices. This, however, 5 4, n. 2). Among the heathen- Arabs; a&, gazelles
did not prevail ; P preserves the primitive custom while were sacrificed, but were regarded as an inferior offer-
guarding against abuse : the Passover is neither to be i n g ; men who had vowed sheep or goats from their
eaten raw nor boiled in water, but roasted in the fire flocks sometimes substituted gazelles5 The nomadic
(Ex. E g ) , with head, legs, and inwards. T h e sacrificial forefathers of the Israelites may have made similar
feast was held by night at full moon ; the participants offerings; but there is no reminiscence of this in the
were in their everyday garb, not in ceremonial apparel ; OT. The requirement that the blood of animals taken
everything was done with haste : the whole victim was in the chase be poured ont and covered with earth (Lev.
devoured-including, doubtless, in ancient times the 1 7 1 3 . cp Dt. 1 2 1 6 24) is not necessarily an attenuated
exte which in later sacrificial ritual were offered to God survival of a sacrificial rite ; the belief that the soul is
by fire, and therefore strictly forbidden as food : only in the blood (Lev. 1 7 1 4 , on which see below, 46) is
the bones must not be broken ; the flesh must all be reason enough.6
consumed before daybreak; if aught remained it was Sacrifice was doubtless offered also of the spoil of
to be burnt up at once ; with the flesh was eaten-not war, as in' later times ( I S. 1515 21 cp 1 4 3 4 ; see also
originally unleavened cakes, but-a salad of bitter herbs Gen. 1420). Similarly the Arabs on their return from
(Ex. l 2 9 J , cp Nu. 9 1 1 $ , also Dt. 1 6 4 ~ 3 ) . ~ a foray sacrificed one beast of those they had taken and
With this singnlar ritual has been compared the feasted on it before dividing the booty.7 T h e Arabs of
description given by Nilus of the customs of the Arabs in whom Nilus wrote took by preference a human victim,
the desert S. of Palestine and in the Sinaitic peninsula a fair youth, from among their captives ; in default of
in his own time-the end of the fourth century A.D. such, they offered a white camel.8 The Carthaginians,
They sacrificed a white camel to Venus, the morning after a victory, sacrificed the fairest of their captives
s t a r ; after the chief or priest who presided at the by night as burnt offerings (Diodorus Siculiis, 2 0 6 5 ) ;
sacrifice had slain the animal, all rushed upon the
1 See, e.g., Zimmern, Eeitr. 2no. 26, col. 3, 1. 20 f :Palmer,
carcass with knives, hewed it to pieces, and devoured Des. Exod.go 118 etc. . Doughty Ar. Des. 1499452 2 100 etc.;
it in wild haste, hide, inwards, bones, and all, that not Kingsley, Trave[; in d'mt Africb, 444 45.7. A large collection
a scrap of it might be left for the rising sun to look of material is found in Curtiss, Pnnzztrve Semific Religion
upon.6 Today, chap. 1 5 8
2 So also the modern Samaritans : Petermann, Reisen, 1237.
1 WRS ReZ. Sem.?), 227 f: n. 464 5 ;Wellh. PvoZ.W, 86; 3 See below f, 20.
Now. H A 2 147; Benr H A 4 6 9 5 4 A very sir;lilar ceremony at a great annual festival in Peru
2 LLrdn, 6 210. Note also the identical custom described in is described by Garcilasso de la Vega Comnz. Reales 7 6 .
the Lisdn under fara', in the Trij(33os) under 'atirah. 5 HZrith Mu'aZZa&alr, 69, with 'the scholia; a(-Laith in
3 See BokhBri, ed. Krehl, 3 5 1 4 5 Lis&vi. d 1 9 .
4 Contrast the Arab sacrifice of Nilus, below. See W R S 6 Cp the burying of blood drawn in blood-letting, or from a
Rel. Sem.P), 345. nose-bleed, e g . , Doughty, A Y . Des. 1492; Kingsley, TraveZs
5 See the descrintion of the Passover of the modern Samari- in W e d A f i c a , 447.
tans Petermann k'risen 1 2 3 5 s 7 WRS Re[. Sem.?), 491, and the Arab authors there cited.
6 Migne, Pad. Gr. 79br3, cp 612; W R S Rel. Sem.(zi, zm,? ; 8 Mign;, Pnfr. Gr. *i$612f: 6.q 681 ; see WRS ReZ. Sem.('4,
Wellh. Heid.(])119J 362 fi
4187 4188
similar instances have been adduced from the records and sacrifices and oblations and frankincense , .. unto
of Assyrian kings (Shalmaneser, MonoZitlr, obv. 17). the house of YahwB. ’
The slaying of Agag, whom Samuel hewed in pieces The Heb. ~ 4 6 ~ nzx,
6 , is ordinarilyrendered i n 6 by h u l a , the
before Yahwi: in Gilgal ( I S. 1 5 3 3 ) , has sometimes been corresponding verb by Blio, less frequently tJuur&<w. The verb
regarded as a sacrifice of this kind ; but it is doubtful means properly ‘slaughter,’and may he used of the killing of
whether this interpretation is correct (see below, 5 13 domestic animals for food without religious rites @.E., Dt.
12 15 21); but since in earlier times animals were seldom if ever
end). killed thus, it ordinarily inrports sacrificial slaying. The place
T h e many accounts of sacrifices in the hooks of to which animals are brought tobe killed is the miz6&&, literally
Samuel and Kings - are in large - part
. taken from old ‘ slaughter place ’ ; in Canaan this was generally the stone or
pile of stones on which the fat was burned, whence mi.&=&
and good sources, and give us com- comes to be equivalent to altar (see A LTAR , MASSEBAH,8 5).
9. In paratively full and trustworthy informa-
sources’ The occasions of sacrifice were of different kinds (see
tion for the period which they cover. above, 5 2 , and below, $ IS), and distinctive names
By their side we may place the similar descriptions in for some of them were probably early in use ; peculiari-
Judges, and in the patriarchal story as narrated by J ties of ritual, too, no doubt belonged to certain varieties
and E (e.&, Gen. 157 8 ) . The laws in the same of sacrifice, as to the Passover or the covenant sacrifice
sources (especially in Ex. 34 and 21-23) dealing with (cp Gen. 159 8 Jer. 3418 J ) , but, however ancient
feasts and offerings, with the other-not inconsider- the custom itself may be, our knowledge of the details
able-remains of early collections of law preserved of the sacrificial ritual comes chiefly through later
in Dt. and H, represent the usage of Israelite and sources. For this reason, as well as to avoid repetition,
Judaean sanctuaries in the time of the kings ; the con- the species of sacrifice and their characteristic rites will
demnation of many customs in the reform legislation
be considered below in their place in the completed
of the seventh century bears witness to the prevalence
system (5 2 3 8 ) .
of the practices so zealously prohibited. The prophets, One term is, however, so certainly old and so frequent that it
finally. paint vivid pictures of the religion of their con- cannot he passed over here ; viz. S i h n , P > t (Am. 5 zz), gener-
temporaries, with all its abuses. ally pl. SiZznrim (EV ‘peace offerings’): In many passages
The regions E. of the Jordan first occupied by &%imim are coupled with ‘cilcillr (burnt offerings) in descrip-
Israelite tribes are CaDable of suouortinc enormous-
dgricultural flocks upon their rich and extensive
tions of greater sacrificial occasions, precisely as ‘alcifh and
z&i&Zi?e elsewhere ; see, e.&-.,Ex. 20 24 326 z S. 6 17f: 24 25 I K.
3 15 9 25 Ezek. 45 I j 43 27 46 2 TZ etc. In other instances we
civilisation. p a ~ t u r e s . ~Much of the land is very have the phrases oV+j nib, n*++ ’nt!, ‘sacrifices of peace
fertile and abundantlv rewards culti-
offerings’-e.g., I S. 108 Jos. 2223 Prov.714. The SiZzmim
vation; but the conditions do not constrain nomadic appear to have been hy far the most common kind of sacrifices
tribes taking possession of the country to become so that when the word zibrifZim was used without qualificationi;
tillers of the soil. T h e case was different in Western would be understood to refer to EZiminz ;on the other hand,
the name sFl&mimis probably shortened from zi6hi Sihirrzinr.
Palestine. In the S. indeed. in the Negeb and the The original significance of the word is not certain. Q5 trans-
Wilderness of Judah, the new comers continued to be lates, um$pia, (Buuiar) 706 uw-q lou, so also Philo, De victimis,
chiefly shepherds even after they adopted fixed habita- 0 4, 2 245 Mangey : @ in Samuef and Kings (Buuiar) cipqvrrrai or
tions ; but in the central highlands (Mt. Ephraim) and TGY ripqvrrrirv, so Aq. Symm. Theodot. ; Vg. viclima garifica,
#ucz~cuirr (SC. s u c n ~ c i u m;) hence EV ‘ peace offerings.’
in the N. they were soon compelled to get most of their These interpreters connect the Heb. word dith the simple stem
living from the soil. They learned from the older of the verb &, ‘be whole, sound, safe,’ or the noun SRlawz,
population of the country to raise crops of grain and d$,‘peace.’1 Josephus, who renders Bvuiar Xaprunjpror
pulse and to cultivate the fig, the olive, and the vine. (Ant. iii. 9 z), apparently associates it with the meaning of the
With the arts of agriculture they learned also the intensive stem, Sillam ‘requite, repay, pay’‘ so that these
religion of agriculture. T o the sacrifices and festivals sacrificeswould he a ,eturn to God for benefits received from
him, or the payment of an obligation to him ; cp Prov. 7 74 : ‘ 1
of their nomadic forefathers were now added the proper bad Seliyim-sacrificesto make ; to-day I have paid (SiZZamfi)
offerings for the bounty of the land and the season my vows. The word occurs also, as the name of a species of
feasts of the husbandman’s year (see FEASTS, 5 4 J ) . sacrifice($53 &u), on an inscription from a Phcenician temple
Animal sacrifice is still the most important part of at Marseilles (CIS 165 3 fi). It is perhaps a Canaanite term
adopted by the Israelites. [On Ass. &dmuseeR~Tm~, 5 11, iu.]
worship, as we see clearly from the historical books ; T h e blood of the victims was poured or smeared upon
neat cattle, kept as plough-beasts, are added to the the sacrificial stone as had been done by their nomadic
victims from the flock.3 First-fruits or tithes of grain forefathers. Besides this, portions of the animal,
and wine and oil must be consecrated in their season especially of the internal fat ( I S. 2 1 5 5 ) , ~were now
according to an established ritual. The worship was burned upon a raised altar-monolith or heap of stones
offered at the ’ high places,‘ that is, in general, the old or earth-as upon a hearth ; and this part of the per-
Canaanite holy places (see HIGH PLACE, $5 2-4). formance was so essential that the verb ’ burn,’ with or
The most general term for offering, whether of
without an object (‘ the fat ’), becomes equivalent to
animals or of other things, is ninhih, nnjn, ‘gift’ - ‘ offer sacrifice. ’
ll. Species (a 7 : .

GGpov, more frequently Bwla), a word In older times the intensive stem &t@r, YE?, ‘make smoke,
of sacrifice : not confined to religious uses4 I n dis- burn ’-rarely with the object (X>p;, I S. 2 r j J h i s used ; so
-xL-L tinction from other offerings specifically frequently in the prophets, of the heathenish sacrifices of their
named-such as ‘ihih, z&ah-mminhih contemporaries. In later texts the causative hiktir, l*pz?,
sometimes refers particularly to oblations of bread, prevails. See We. ProZ.(4! 64J n. I . The burning of the
meal, oil, and the like (see $ 1 4 ) . ~Animal sacrifices offering is probably to be re‘gardei as a means of conve ing it
fall into two main classes : ‘ d i h , EV ‘burnt offering,’ to God ; the fragrant smoke was, at least in later times, tzought
in which the victim was all consumed by fire; and of as containing the ethereal substance of the sacrifice. (WRS,
Rrl. Sem.P!, 236 ; see also below, 8 41.)
zL6a4. EV ordinarily ‘sacrifice,’ in which, after the
T h e flesh of the victim was boiled ( 2 S. 21jJ I K.
e.vtu had been burnt upon the altar, the flesh was eaten.
1 9 2 1 ) ~and furnished a feast for the offerer with his
These species are often enumerated together, as in Jer.
family, friends, and guests ( I S. 1 4 8 9 12 2 2 8 , etc. ).
1 7 2 6 : a they shall come . . . bringing burnt offerings
I n Canaan, bread, wine, and oil, the products of agri-
WRS, ReL Sem.P!, 363. Nowack ( H A 2 2 0 5 ) includes in culture, took their place in the feast beside the flesh of
the same class the killing of Zebah and Zalmunna, Judg. 8 21. animals from the flock or herd (see e.g., I S. 124);
2 GASm. Hisf. Geog. 523f: ; cp Nu. 32 I 4 2 K. 34, etc. See these again were in part obligatory offerings-first-fruits,
also CATTLE 5 3.
3 On chanies in the rites of sacrifice see helow 11. 1 See also the etymological explanations in Sighri on Lev. 3 I
4 In the technical language of the later ritual the compre- (fol. 13u, ed. Weiss).
hensive term is 4or6i7z ; see below, 5 24. 2 From Judg. 6 1 9 8 it has sometimes been inferred that in
5 On the more restricted technical use of the word in the later early times boiled flesh was offered (cp also Nu. 6 19); but the
ritual see below, 8 24. evidence is insufficient to sustain the conclusion.
4189 4190
tithes, etc.-in part occasional and voluntary. Of it was part of a great sacrificial occasion these probably
them also a part was given to God, probably upon the went with the other sacrifices (aPba&m). The regular
altar by fire (see Am. 45). T h e bread offered was that iaily burnt offering in the temple may have had such
which the participants in the feast themselves ate ; that an accompaniment ; but the earlier custom seems to
is, in ordinary cases leavened bread; unleavened cakes have been to offer the minhdh daily as an evening
when, for religious reasons (as in the maTT5th feast) or at oblation corresponding to the morning ‘ d i h (see below,
a meal hastily prepared for an unexpected guest, they 19, 32). In the passages which speak of the burnt
ate their own bread unleavened. The bread offered offering alone (cited above, col. 4191, n. z), there is no
was probably moistened with oil or dipped in it, as was mention of a min&Eh. Judg. 620J 1 3 1 9 cannot be
the bread eaten by the worshippers (cp the later rituals, alleged ; in these places a meal prepared for a guest is
30). Of the wine a libation was made to God (Hos. miraculously consumed by fire ; this may be called an
9 4 ) . See below, $4 14, 31a. 5ZEh, but obviously no inference can be drawn as to the
The peculiarity of the ‘ Z E h (ziy) is that no part of ordinary ritual of burnt offerings.
the victim was used for food ; the flesh as well as the The animals sacrificed were neat cattle, sheep, and
sacrificial portions of the inwards and goats; also, at least in certain rites, turtle doves and
12. 13. Victims. pigeons, clean birds easily procured by
ofFering, ,olBh. fat was burned.
T h e term is derived from the common dwellers in towns and cities. The choice
verb ‘&Zh (he), ‘ g o up, ascend,’ and signifies. ac- of victims for particular sacrifices, or occasions was
doubtless to some extent regulated by custom; in
cording to the prevailing interpretation, the sacrifice
ordinary cases it was left to the worshipper to determine
which (all) ’ comes up ’ upon the altar (Knob., Wellh.,
what his offering should be, in accordance with his
Nowack, etc.), or that which ‘goes u p ’ in smoke to the
means, his disposition, and his motive, or his previous
sky (Bahr, Del., Dillmann, etc.). In @ generally
intention or vow. It is very likely an ancient rule that
bhoKadrwpa, bXoKahwuis, Vg. hozocaustum.
the burnt offering should be a male ; though I S. 6 1 4
Another term for the sacrifice given as a ‘whole
shows that it was not always so. Sometimes very
offering’ to God is k6Z.Z $? ! (Dt. 3310 I S. 7 9 Ps.
young animals were offered even as a burnt offering
5121 ; cp Dt. 1317 Judg. 2040). which appears as a (I S. 79, sucking lamb) ; but ordinarily, no doubt, a
technical term in Phcenician also ; see the sacrificial mature animal was chosen for this sacrifice.l
tariffs of Marseilles and Carthage, CISi. 1 6 5 3 5 , etc., That the offering of a human victim as a holocaust
1675. was not unknown in old Israel we learn from the story
The whole burnt offering was naturally much less of Jephthah, Jndg. ll3of. 34-40. The narrator repre-
frequent than the sacrifices which furnished a feast for sents this sacrifice a s extraordinary, but does not con-
the worshippers; it is seldom mentioned alone, and demn it a s abhorrent to the religion of Yahw&.* The
then in peculiar circumstances.2 Ordinarily the burnt statement in I K. 1 6 3 4 to the effect that Hiel, who in
offering occurs in conjunction with other sacrifices the days of Ahab rebuilt Jericho, laid its foundations
(st%i&im or fZl&mim); e.g., 2 S. 6 1 7 f: 2425 I K . 9 2 5 with Abiram his firstborn, and set u p its gates with
2 K.1024, etc. It was probably originally an extra- Segub his youngest son,’ hardly admits any other inter-
ordinary offering made by great persons or on great pretation than that he offered them as foundation
occasions (We. PvoZ. @), 70). The daily burnt offering sacrifices, in accordance with a widespread and persistent
in the temple at Jerusalem ( z K. 1615)-and doubtless custom. 3
at other royal sanctuaries-wasthe king’s daily sacrifice, It does not appear, however, that human sacrifices were
and was followed by many zBE&im for the court and frequent in the early centuries of the Israelite occupation of
by private persons. Canaan. The offering by parents of their own sons and
daughters, especially the firstborn, about which there is so
The ritual of the burnt offering is not described in much in the prophets and laws of the seventh century,r was not
any ancient account ; it may be assumed that the blood the recrudescence of ancient custom, hut a new and foreign cult
was treated in the same way as that of the other (see MOLECH,0 4 3 ) . The lesson of Gen.22 is that though
sacrifices ; it is supposed by both the narratives in J E Yahw.?might claim even an only son, he does not require such
sacrifice but accepts instead a victim from the flock; cp Mi. 0 7.
and by the laws that the flesh and fat of the holocaust The expiation of Saul’s massacre of the Gibeonites by the
were consumed upon the altar.3 The hide, according execution of seven of his sons and grandsons ‘before Yahw.?’ at
to Lev. 78, fell to the priest, and this is not improbably the famous sanctuary of Gibeon ( z S. 21 9), important as the
story is for the idea of expiation and thus for sacrificial concep-
an ancient rule; it was, in fact, the only toll he could tions, is not itself to he considered as a sacrifice. Nor is the
take for his services. devotion of the inhabitants of a conquered city-or an Israelite
It is possible that at an earlier time the burnt offering city that has fallen into the worship of other gqds (Dt. 13 1 2 3
was burned on the ground or in a pit, rather than in a -to the deity by slaughter and burning (&nm, see BAN]
properly regarded as a form of human sacrifice.
raised altar ; this is said to have been done for a special
T h e offerings of bread, oil, and wine which formed
reason at the dedication of Solomon’s temple ( I K. part of the sacrificial feast have been spoken of above
8 f 1 4 ) . ~ The analogy of the human sacrifices at rhe
-14. in that connection (I 11). There were
Tophet (see MOLECH,TOPHET; cp, however, Gen. also independent offerings of the pro-
2‘29), and the burning of the carcass of certain sin ducts of agriculture. The deity which gave the increase
offerings without the sanctuary, may also be noted. It to man’s labour received from him portions of all ; only
is probable, however, that the burning of the holocaust
when these had been duly rendered could the rest be
upon the altar was the Canaanite custom, adopted by
used by the owner (see Frazer, GoZden Bough?),2 3 1 8 8
the Israelites.6
Whether the burnt offering was accompanied by an 4 5 9 8 ).
These offerings, which fall under the general head of
oblation of bread or by a libation is uncertain.’ When first-fruits, were called by various names : first-fruits
(bikkziritiz, Ex. 3426 2 3 1 9 ) , tithes (ma‘Zsfr5fh), prime
1 I S. 10 7 Am. 4 I; : leavened bread in certain &imim even
in Lev. 7 I < cp 23 17.’ portions (rZEth), portions set apart (t&%mEh), and
2 Gen.Sno 2213 N u . 2 3 1 3 Judg.626 (131623) I S.614 others. T h e original distinctions are not always clear ;
T K. 3 4 1538.
3 The carcass w a s previously cut up ; I K. 1R 23 33. 1 Mi. 6 6 speaks of burnt offerings of yearling calves ; the
4 So in the sacrificial tariff of Carthage (CIS 1 167) ; in that daily burnt offering in P is a yearling lamb.
of Marseilles the priest has a fee in money, and a part of the a JEPHTHAH, B 6. Compare Mesha’s sacrifice of his son,
flesh whilst the hide belongs to the offerer. 2 K. 3 27.
. . Lucian. Den S-y r i a :. WRS. ReZ.
5 s o also at HieraDolis: 3 See HIEL. On these sacrifices cp Tylor, Prinr. CuZt.P),
Sem.P), 378. ? 1 0 4 3 ; Liebrecht. 21crVolkskunde,2 8 4 3 ; especially Sartori,
6 An argument may perhaps be drawn from the size of the Das Bauopfer,‘ Zcifschr.J Ethnol. 30 13 (1898).
Canaanite rock-altars that have been discovered. 4 See Jer. f 31 Ezek. 20 26 23 3 6 3 Lev. 18 21 20 2 8 Dt. 18 IO
7 In I K. 864 the words ‘and the nrin&ih’ are a gloss. etc.
4191 4’92
the definitions of P and the Mishna may sometimes be That independent libations of oil were made is intrinsic-
suspected of making systematic discrimination between ally not improbable, though not conclusively established
terms once loosely equivalent. T h e tendency of the by reference to Gen. 2818 Judg. 99 Mic. 67. (See Now.
ritual development was to reduce to rule and measure H A 2 m a ; cpbelow, S 3 1 a . )
what was once more free, and to convert into a tax, for Sacrifices were generally offered at home ; every
the support of the clergy, what formerly, as a gift to village had its altar (neiabPeQ, slaughter place), where
the deity, had actually fallen in whole or in part to his the victims were &in and feasts held ;
15. Seasons
occasions~ thither the firstlings and other obli-
ministers. Aparchz M-ere offered not only of things
that were eaten, but also of flax and wool (Hos. 25 9 Dt. gatory offerings were brought (see
1st). Inasmuch as these offerings have a history of H I G H P LACE , 4). There were more famous holy
their own it has seemed best to treat them separately ; places to which men resorted in numbers, especially
see T AXATION , TITHES. Religious dedications of a at the autumn festival (see F EASTS, 4). The
different character are the ‘orZid of fruit-trees in the times of sacrifice were in part fixed by custom, in
first three years of bearing, followed in the fourth by part dependent on the occasion or on the will of the
the consecration of the crop as &i&iZim (Lev. 19q-z5), worshipper. T o the former class belong the Passover
which corresponds to the sacrifice of the firstlings of at the vernal full m w n (see above, 4 8 ) , and the
animals ; the @ i h , or unreaped corner of the grain- agricultural season feasts at the beginning and end of
field ; the gleanings of the harvest-field, orchard, und the grain harvest. and at the close of the vintage (see
vineyard (Lev. 1 9 9 f . ) ; and the spontaneous crops of F EASTS ).~ At the last three custom required every man
the fallow year (Ex. 23 IO$ ). (See N ATURE WORSHIP, to ‘see the face of YahwB,’ with an offering (Ex.
53.) 23 17). T h e new moon was a favourite time for feasts :
T h e form of presentation of first-fruits is described Saul expects all his court to be present on such an
only in part. In Lev.231of: 14 (old laws in H) the occasion (I S.204 f., cp IS 24 8 ) ; the annual sacri-
first sheaf of barley (originally from each field, or from fice of David’s clan at Bethlehem is held on a new moon
each village) is brought and ‘waved’ (he%.@& 7’!0, a ( I S. 305J zg). See N E W MOON. TheSabbath, appar-
gesture of throwing) before Yahwe at the local sanctuary ; ently in a lesser degree, enjoyed the same preference.
until this is done the new crop must not be used in any When a regular cultus became established at the greater
form ( v . I,,) ; unleavened cakes (ma::&) of the new sanctuaries, more numerous victims were offered on
barley meal are eaten for seven days (see FEASTS, these days (see below, 33). The specific occasions
P ASSOVER ). At the end of wheat harvest a correspond- of sacrifice were manifold-the circumcision or wean-
ing ceremony is the presentation in a similar way of two ing of a son, marriage, the coming of a traveller, the
loaves of leavened bread (originally from each house- making of a compact, consultation of an oracle, the
hold, Lev. 2315-17 zou). Cp Frazer, GoZderz BougM2J, mustering of a clan for war or the return from a
2319. Dt. 2 6 1 8 prescribes that specimens of the campaign, the accession of a king, the dedication of
choicest of the fruits of the land shall be brought by a temple, the staying of a plague. Many sacrifices
each landowner in a basket and set down before the were offered in fulfilment of vows for the obtaining
altar with a solemn liturgy of thanksgiving; the pre- of the most varied objects of human desire. Men
sentation is followed by a feast (see below, $j2 2 ) . sacrificed alike when they rejoiced in the evidence of
Another kind of oblation. which, though of much less YaBw&’s favour, when they besought his bounty or
primitive character than the kinds just mentioned, can his help, and when they had need to propitiate the
be traced back to an early period in the history of Israel offended God. Many kinds of uncleanness required
in Canaan, is the setting before the deity of a table purification by sacrifice.
spread with food and drink (see, further, below, § 34a). The companies of worshippers for whom and by
Such was the custom at Nob { I S. 21 4-6 [5-7]) as well as whom sacrifices were brought originally - . corresponded
at Jerusalem ( I K. 748), and probably wherever God 16.worshippers. to the natural groupings of the
had a house or temple. On this table stood bread, people, the family or clan for itself
which at certain intervals was exchanged for fresh loaves (e.g., I S. 206), the-viliage community at its own high
hot from the oven ; the loaves that were removed were place (e.g.. I S. 912). Even at the greater holy places,
eaten as ‘holy bread’ by the priests, and-under ex- which were frequented at the festival seasons by
ceptional circumstances-bylaymen who had ‘ hallowed ’ multitudes from different tribes, these gronps preserved
themselves ( I S. 21 4-6). It is natural to suppose that, their identity. Deuteronomy assumes that this will be
a s among other peoples, wine too, in cups or chalices, the case at Jerusalem when all bring their sacrifices
mas placed upon the table ; but there is no mention of it thither ; and in the Passover the ‘household,’ even
in the Or. (On P see below, § 34a.) I n the Zecti- when casually constituted, continued to the last, and,
sternin of other religions flesh also was thus set before indeed, still continues, to be a distinct sacral group;
the deity; it is not probable, however, that such was the great mass of worshippers did not become one wor-
ever Israelite custom. Like the flesh or fat of animal shipping community, but remained many companies.
sacrifices and the oblation of bread, wine, and oil with The only body of worshippers in ancient times in which
them, the loaves of shew bread’ were ‘ the food of the natural groups are sunk is the army in time of war.
God ’ ( o ~ ohh ) . How far the persistence of the family as a society of
Offerings of wine in the form of libations were made worship in the national religion is to be attributed to
at the sacrificial feasts (above, 5 1 1 ) ; a libation of the survival OF proper family cults, the worship of
Stifidr. properly any fermented drink other than wine, is ancestors, it does not fall within the province of this
spoken of in a late law (Nu. 287 ; see below, article to discuss.e
but in no ancient source ; there seems to be no reason The worshippers prepared themselves for participa-
why such libations should not have been made. Honey tion in the sacrifice as ‘ holy ’ by halloaing themselves’
was excluded from the preparation of sacrificial cakes (hifdkaddZf, I S. 165 Nu. 1118, cp Ex. 191014). An
(Lev.211), in which it was much used in other cults ; 1 obligatory part of this ‘ hallowing ’ on solemn occasions
It was brought with the other choicest products of the was abstinence for a time previous to the appearance
land in the ceremony described in Dt. 261$:, but did at the sacred place from sexual intercourse (cp I S.
not come upon the altar. Milk, ofteti offered by other 215J Ex. 1915); other preparatory ceremonies were
peoples in libations,2 was not so used by the Hebrews. purifications. ablutions, the washing of garments. Men
1 Libations of honey in antiquity, Theophrastus in Porphyry put on festal attire, garments and ornaments not of
De adst. 2 zof: ; reasons for the prohibition in Jewish law:
Philo, De sacri/Eranti6rrs,P, 6, 2 255, Man ey 1 Sheep-shearing was also a time for feasting I S. 25 7.
2 I n Arabia, We. Heid.PJ, ~ r r j : Mi& in Abel’s offering 2 See F AWRS
3 See 9 2 ; Sem.(?,
~ ~Rel.
M v, Sta. G V 454J.
I ~ ~ ~ O &
(Jos. A n t . i. 2 I ) is a mistranslation of the ambiguous anxsn.
4103 4194
everyday wear (Ex. 322 11.J 1 2 3 5 3 HOS.213[15] bread or dough, oil. wine (the min+&) was presented
Ezek. I 6 1 z J f . ~ (see I K. 182936, cp Dan. 921 Ezra94f:).' The animals
For the -ordinary sacrifice (&a+) the assistance of a required for food by the king's great household were, no
priest was unnecessary ; the rites were simple and known doubt, slaughtered at the temples with a sacrificial dedi-
cation ; the name @&hihim, lit. ' butchers,' applied to the
'" Priests'2 aodtb:o:
The older historical books
in instances of sacrifices by
laymen of all ranks ; the father offered sacrifice for his
palace guard, has been thought to bear witness to this
custom (WRS HeZ. Sern.(It,396). At the festivals and
household, the ' elders ' for the clan or the village com- on special occasions greater numbers of sacrifices were
munity, the commander for the army, the king for the offered by the king and his court, as well as by the
people. T h e offerer slew and flayed his own victim- people who came together to celebrate the feast.
as, indeed, continued to be the rule to the latest period ; Foreign luxuries, such as incense, came into use at
doubtless he also in early times poured the blood upon these sanctuaries. The support of the regular cultus
the sacred stone or altar, afterwards a specifically came from the king's treasury, either from imposts
priestly act. At the holy places which had a resident levied in natura ( 2 K. 1 6 1 5 Ezek. 4 5 9 f l ) , or by the
priesthood-often proprietary-the priests burnt the fat assignment to the temple of the revenues of a district.
upon the altar ; for this service they took toll ( I S. (See T AXATION.)
2 1 3 8 ) . The customary right of the priests may have A considerable number of priests must have been
differed at different places, as it certainly changed in attached to the greater temples, and the necessity of
course of time (cp I S. 2 1 3 8 Dt. 1 8 3 Lev. 734).3 The order and authority was doubtless early felt. In
priests participated also by guest-right in the sacrificial Jerusalem we read of a chief priest and a second priest.
feasts. T h e most important functions of the priesthood T h e better organisation probably in part recognised, in
were not, however, direction or assistance at sacrifices, part created, a differentiation of functions. The same
but the custody of the sanctuary, the consultation of the conditions were favourable to the growth of the ritual
oracle, and instruction concerning purifications, piacular in elaborateness and splendour, and to a concomitant
rites, and the like. estimate of its importance. In a word, the ritualistic
T h e sacrificial worship of ancient Israel had a pre- and sacerdotal tendencies in the religion of Israel had
~ _. character : to eat and drink and reioice their seats at the royal temples, especially at Jerusalem.
18. Charrtcter ?fore Yahwb ( D t . ) is a description of By degrees the worship at Jerusalem came to be a very
of worehip.4 it which holds good to the end of the different thing from that at the country high places,
kingdom. T h e stated feasts in harvest- and thus things were preparing both for the deutero-
time and vintage, :he new moon and sabbath, were nomic reforms and for the ritual law.
all seasons of rejoicing; and the occasions of public T h e greatest change, however, which followed the
and private sacrifice at other times (see above, 8 IS) establishment of the kingdom was the institution of a
were, in general, of a joyful nature. The banquet regular public cultus maintained by the king for himself
was accompanied by music and song (Am. 523, cp 6 5 ) , and his people. Thus a national religion was created.
not always of what we should call a religious kind ; When Israel took its place among the nations,
dances, also, were customary (Ex. 5 2 1 9 I S. 186 Ex. political and commercial intercourse opened the way for
1520 Judg. 1134 2 1 1 9 8 ) . T h e excesses to which such ao. Foreign religious influence. Solomon's new
festivities are exposed did not fail to occur (I S. 1 1 3 8
2 2 2 Is. 287J Am. 2 7 3 Hos. 414).
infiuence. temple was built by a Phoenician archi-
tect after Phoenician models ; Ahaz
But while joyfulness was thus the predominant note exchanged the altar for a copy of one he had seen in
of worship, it must not be imagined that ancient religion Damascus. The more complete apparatus of worship
had no other note. In times of private distress or -the bronze reservoir and portable lavers, the many
public calamity men set themselves to expiate the utensils provided for the service of the altar, for example
offence, known or unknown, that had provoked God's -suppose corresponding elaboration in the ritual. The
anger, to propitiate him by gifts and recover his favour vestments and ceremonial ornaments of the priests also
(see z S . 2 1 1 8 2 4 1 8 8 D t . 2 1 1 8 etc.). Such scenes were probably patterned after those in use in Phcenician
as are described in I K. 18z6fl (the priests of Baal on temples. T h e influence of foreign religions was much
Carmel) were probably not without parallel among the deeper in the seventh century, during the long reign of
Israelites on like occasions. Fasting before YahwB, Manasseh. Not only were many new cults, especially of
wearing the garb of mourning, was an ancient and Assyrian origin, introduced (see Q UEEN OF HEAVEN,
common means ofappealing to his mercy (see FASTING). N ATURE W ORSHIP , 5J), but the worship of Yahwh
I n ordinary cases propitiatory sacrifices differed from was enriched by new rites and offerings ; the burning of
common sacrifices, not in rite, but in the spirit and costly gums and spices, for example, is first heard of in.
mood of the worshippers. When God was manifestly this period.2 The sacrifice of children as burnt offer-
perilously incensed men would hardly venture to ings, with peculiar rites, to Yahwb under the title
approach him with sacrifice till they had reason to hope ' king' (ham-mdek),which also became prevalent in this
that his wrath was somewhat appeased (see, e.g., age, is probably a foreign-Phcenician or Syrian-cult
2 S. 24). adopted by worshippers of Yahwe (see M OLECH).
Like other ancient monarchs, the kings of Judah and The reforms of Josiah not only suppressed for a time
Israel built temples at old holy places, such as Bethel, these foreign rites, but also made a radical change in
19. E*ect of and in their capitals, as at Jerusalem !he whole sacrificial system by destroy-
208.reaction. ing the high places, carrying away
monarchy. and Samearia Worship at these royal and
sanctuaries was under the direction of their priesthoods, and forbidding the
the sovereign ; on great occasions the king in person offering of sacrifice at any place in the kingdom except
offered sacrifice in them ( I K. 8 5 64 ; especially 9 25 z K. the temple in J e r u ~ a l e m . ~A necessary corollary of
1 6 1 ~ 8; )the priests were appointed by him. It was this restriction of sacrifice to one altar was the slaughter
probably in these temples that the custom of offering a of animals for food at home without sacrificial rites
daily holocaust grew up. This sacrifice was made early (Dt. 1 2 1 5 J 2 0 - 2 5 ) , contrary to the ancient rule (see
in the morning; in the late afternoon the oblation of Lev. 173f.).4
A large part of the occasional private and family
1 We. Prol.(4t, 71. See DRESS, 8 8.
2 See PRIEST 5 4 3
3 To prevent'controversy or extortion, tablets on which the 1 On the later custom, see below 8 32.
legal tariff for various species of sacrifice was inscribed were 2 See I NCENSE , 5 3. I t is worth; of note that Ezekiel gives
sometimes set up before ancient temples (see CIS1 165 167 : C I L it n o place in his reformed cultus.
f 820). 3 See DEUTERONOMV, I SRAEL , 5 37f: ; JOSIAH, 5 I .
4 See F EASTS , 5 5f: 4 Disregarding redactional changes ; see L EVITICUS , 8 28.

4'95 4196
sacrifices thus drop out. The change is even greater 14 23, cp 1 2 6 11 : in the third year, 14 28f: ; liturgy, 2G I Z ;~
on the other side ; the season feasts must now all be firstlings, 15 1 9 8
kept at Jerusalem ; thither firstlings and tithes, first- T h e sacrificial laws in H are of the same age.]
fruits-in a word, all obligatory offerings-must be Species : ‘ 6 W Lev. 22 18, etc., ‘&h and d b a h 17 8 zi6hP
2Zamim 17 5 19 j , i6dah 22 2 9 3 , ndder and n&ibkh 22 ;8 21 2
brought, there all vows must be paid, and freewill offer- tithes and firstlings are not named in the remains of H (nor in
ings made. Various modifications of the ancient custom Ezek. 40-48) ; sacrifices as kidd.Giii 22 2 qf:, cp 19 8 : offerings
became necessary ; the lustration of houses with blood a r e ‘ t h e f o o d o f G o d ’ ( ~ ~ m ~ I L i 21681721
m), 2225,cpEzek.
4 4 7 ’ animals sacrificed, b@&r and sbn tar kdbeS ‘dz ’ human
at the Passover must have ceased (see above, 5 7) ; the sacriiice forbidden, 18 21 20 rf . victimshdbe pe;fect,’22 18fi
age at which firstlings should be offered (eight days, less strict rules for freewill off&gs, 22 23 : must he brought t;
Ex. 2230 [ ~ g ] ) is now a minimum limit-they may be the holy place, not slaughtered elsewhere 173f: cp 8f: . 3
brought at any time after they are a week old (Lev. blood not to he eaten, 17 IO, cp 17 1 3 8 19 k 6 ; the &mal is nbt
described (17 6 probably secondary); the flesh of &%mim must
2227): The removal to Jerusalem of the feasts in which be eaten on the day they are offered or on the following day
the tithes were consumed, besides other changes (Dt. 1 9 5 8 ’ of the Zlidrfh on the day of sacrifice itself, 2229 f !
1424&), deprived the poor of the village of the partici- feasts; bfferings, and ritual, 23 (the parts of the chapter derive‘d
from H).4
pation in these feasts which they enjoyed by ancient
right of hospitality ; compensation is made by the con- Contemporary with the laws in H, and from the
version of the tithes of one year in three to charity same or cognate sources, is a large part of Lev. 11-15,
(Dt. 14 28 f. ; see T AXATION , 5 I O , TITHES). T h e on uncleanness and purification (see L EVITICUS, 24f:);
country priests who were transported to Jerusalem were cases requiring sacrifice are enumerated, 126J 15 14f.
nct allowed to offer sacrifice in the temple, though they 2 9 5 141-7 (49-53).
had their living from its revenues ; an inferior order of In Lev. 1 - 7 , also, the older sacrificial tGt%th, not
ministry was thus, in fact, established. only in 1 and 3, but also in parts of 5&, represent
By the centralisation of worship its natural connection pre-exilic usage and formulation in later redaction.
with the common life of men was much loosened. T h e Another source from which knowledge of the worship
Israelite could visit the holy place to offer his sacrifices in the temple a t Jeriualem may be gained, is Ezekiel’s
at most but thrice a year, more commonly, perhaps, 218. Exekiel. programme for a restored and purified
but once or twice. At other times he knows that stated cultus in 40-48. The prophet’s pur-
sacrifices are offered in the temple daily, and with pose was not to create a new system of sacrifices and
greater pomp a t all the festivals. The possibility of a rites, but to introduce such safeguards as should prevent
cultus carried on for the benefit of those who are not those invasions of Yahwe‘s holiness which had provoked
present, of a sacerdotal religion done for the people by him in anger to destroy his desecrated house and make
the priests, and operative, if correctly performed, is an end of the polluted worship. Knowing as we do
thus prepared. These consequences were not per- the characteristic motives of Ezekiel’s reformatory zeal,
ceived, much less realised, in the few remaining years and having from other sources reasonably good informa-
of Josiah’s reign, nor, in their full effect, for many tion about the temple worship in the last half-century
generations afterwards. before the fall of Judah, we should not find it difficult to
T h e spirit of the sacrificial laws in Deuteronomy is distinguish the old from the new in Ezekiel’s sketch,
that of the older time ; ‘rejoice before YahwB‘ is still and thus to use 40-48 for the history of the cultus.6
the common expression for worship. The increased This testimony is the more valuable because Ezekiel
emphasis on the olden hospitality of the sacrificial feast had a priest’s intimate acquaintance with the ritual
is in accord with the prominence of motives of charity and affection for it.
In comparing Ezek. 40-48 with the sources hitherto examined
and humanity in the deuteronomic legislation, but is it is important to observe that Ezek. deals almost exclusivel;
doubtless due in part, as has been already suggested, with sacra#ubZica,7 the others with private sacrifices. As the
to the consciousness that the transfer of these feasts to p,uhlic ceremonies had, doubtless in all ages, a more solemn
a distant sanctuary imperilled this feature of them. ritual the fuller liturgical detail; in Ezek. as compared, for
examile, with Dt., signify much less than h6s sometimes been
In the disastrous times that followed the defeat a t made of them. Besides the species of sacrifice with which we
Megiddo and death of Josiah, in the reaction from the have already become acquainted (‘alZh, zP6a4, G l Z m i m ) , Ezek.
deuteronomic reforms which not unnaturally ensued repeatedly names two others, ha<?&th and &&7n (EV sin offering
and trespass offering-RV gudt offerin ), 40 39 42 13 43 1 9 8
upon the disappointment of the high hopes based upon 442729 45 1 7 8 4620 (:e! below, $5 27x7. The minhrih is an
them, every trace of these reforms was swept away. offerin$ of flour and oil In specified quantities (4657’11, etc.).
Not only were the old altars a t the high places rebuilt a libation ( d s e k ) is also provided for (4517). The animal;
and the foreign worship restored, biit men sought more sacrificed are the same as in the other sources (birds are not
efficacious means of expiating guilt and securing divine The public sacrifices are provided by the prince from the
protection in private cults-in part, perhaps, revivals of proceeds of a tax levied in kind (.?&zZwz&h45 ‘3.17). A lamb is
old Israelite practices, in part of foreign origin, such as offeredevery morning, the regular holocaust (‘alath i*mid), with
an accompanying oblation (min&h 46 13-15) ;8 the sabbath
are described in Ezek.8. These strange rites were burnt offeringis six lambs and a ram with their oblations
celebrated as mysteries by societies of initiates. Their (46 +$) ;9 on the new moon the victims ;re the same with the
sacramental sacrifices were unclean ’ beasts, such as addition of a bullock (466)x).At the passover a h o c k is
swine, dogs, mice.’ T h e strong taboo of the flesh of offered on the first day as a sin offering for the prince and
people; during the seven days of the feast, each day seven
these animals made them peculiarly potent piuculu, the bullocks and seven rams as burnt offerings,and a he goat as a
highest grade of ‘ uncleanness ’ being convertible with sin offering(4523f:). the feast of the seventh month has the same
exceptional ‘ holiness.’ sacrifices (4525); thkre is no summer festival (Pentecost). At
the great festivals, new moons and sabbaths, the prince also
The laws in Dt. relative to sacrifice and offering provides iZZ&mim (45 17), doubtless as a feast for the people.
represent older custom adapted to the plan of reform
which made Jerusalem the sole place of worship (see 1 Setting aside the double redaction. See LEVITICUS, $8 14fi
2 The a&im in 19 21 is from R P .
above, 5 20).
Species of offerings: Dt. 126, cp 11 17, see also 2?6$ 33 I O ;
* The principle, no slaughter without sacrificial rites, is re-
affirmed; see LEVITICUS, @ I j, 28.
prescribed offerings(firstlings tithes etc.) are @d&m ‘sacred ’ 4 Passover is not named.
(belongin; to Gbd by right) in distinction See LEVITICUS, $8 sf: and, on riP712 and hag@ifh,helow,
21. Seventh from votive and free-will offerings, and from
cent. laws. animals slaughtered for food 12 26. victims “ ? d e custom of the temple after the restoration, which fre-
from the flock and herd (b&+& sbn ;’.&, .ik) ; quently followed the older usage rather than Ezekiel’s innora-
human sacrifice prohibited, 12 31, cp 18 IO ; vikms must be tions, furnishesan additional criterion.
perfect, 17 I , cp 15 21 : ritual of holocaust and sacrifice, 12 27 : 7 Even the ZZ&mimat the feasts, new moons, and sabbaths,
burning of fat, libations, cp 32 38; offerings at the feasts and are to be provided by the state, 45 17.
ritual, 16 13, cp 26 18; priests‘ dues, 18 I& ; tithes, 12 17 8 No evening .?&mid: see helow 5 12.
9 The general rule for the oblktio’n to be offered with each
1 Is. 65 3 8 663 17 (late post-exilic rites of the same kind) ; cp kind of victim, 46 11, cp 5 7 ; the quantity of wine for the liba-
Ezek. Sgf: See WRS, Eel. Sem.P), z p f l 343. tion is nowhere fixed.
4197 4198
The number of these victims is necessarily left undetermined. established (I SRAEL , 5 45), with survivors of the old
A table (or altar) for the shewbread stands in the temple (41 22); priesthood for its ministry. Probably, however, the
but no rules are given for the presentation of offerings upon it-
probably the old custom is to he followed without change.' An public sacrifices-the daily holocaust and the offerings
elaborate ritual is provided for the consecration of the altar on Sabbaths and feast days-which had been supported
(43 r8-27),and for the semi-annual racula (on the first of the by the king, ceased, and only private sacrifices were
first and seventh months, by whicff'the temple and altar are offered, as at other high places. With the appoint-
purified (45I E - z o ) . ~ The rites of sacrifice are given in some
detail: the slaying and dressing of the victims (40 38-43, cp the ment of a native governor and the rebuilding of the
description of the court and altar, 40 2 8 8 . 43 1 3 8 ) ; the dash- temple, the public services were doubtless resumed on
ing of the blood upon the altar (48184 or-of the sin offering in such a scale as the poverty of the community permitted.
consecration and purification ceremonies-the application to the The ritual, aiso, no doubt, conformed to the ancient
altar and other parts of the temple and court (4.3 m4.5 191. The
fat and blood of sacrifices are the food of God (447). The flesh custom and tradition of the sanctuary as far as possible
of public sin offerings is burned (4.321): that of private sin under these conditions; and as the prosperity of the
offerings and of trespass offerings belongs to the priests (4429); Jews increased, and Persian kings and governors from
there are kitchens in the inner court where they boil their meat time to time made contributions to the support of the
and bake their rizin&h bread (46 19J), and chambers in which
they eat this ' very holy' food (42 13). temple, it recovered something of its ancient splendour.
Of private sacrifices the freewill offerings of the prince ('&A The opinion that the cultus was first restored by priests
or S2Limim) are sacrificed by the priests (46 2); the private returning from the exile, and afterwards thoroughly
sacrifices of the people are slain for them by the Levites (de-
graded priests of the old high places), who wait upon the offerers reformed by Ezra in accordance with the prescriptions
and serve them (44TI) ; the flesh is boiled in kitchens in the of a liturgical work (' Priest's Code ') which he brought
four corners of the outer court by temple servants (4G21-24). with him from Babylonia, rests in both parts on the
The priests are supported by offerings: the flesh of the (private) same late testimony, and greatly exaggerates the share
sin offerings and of trespass offerings, the oblations of flour and
oil, and everything that is devoted to Yahwe fall to them; that the Babylonian Jews bore in the development of
besides this they have a right to all kinds of first-fruits and Palestinian Judaism in the Persian period. Babylonian
dedications (442 8 8 . ) . influence upon the terminology of the later ritual, if not
Ezekiel supposes that his readers are familiar with upon the rites themselves, is indeed manifest; but, in
the terms he uses and their significance; he does not view of the evidences of the same influence in other
deem it necessary, for example, to define the nature or Syrian religions in the Persian and Greek period, it is
occasion of the trespass offering (see below, $ 17). not clear that we must look to the exiled priests in
T h e sacra pubCcu, which before the fall of Judah had Babylonia for the explanation.
been maintained at the king's charges, are to be pro- An important landmark in the history of the ritual is
vided for by the prince from the taxes.8 The rules the description of a typical series of iacrifices-sin
prescribing the kinds and numbers of victims to be offering, burnt offering, peace offerings-at the inaugura-
offered at the feasts, and the proportion of flour and tion of Aaron in Lev. 9, a chapter which is universally
oil with each, may perhaps make new requirements; assigned to the original History of the Sacred Institu-
but it may safely be assumed that there had been similar tions, and was written probably in the fifth century
B.C. (see H ISTORICAL LITERATURE, $ 9). The rites
rules fixed by the custom of the temple under the kings.
T h e periodical expiation of inadvertences or mistakes agree closely with the older sacrificial t5r5th; many
by which the holiness of the temple might have been refinements of the later laws are still nnknown to the
author, in particular such as are connected with the
sullied, appears to be an innovation; 4 but the rite is
inner altar, the s p r i d d h g of blood in consecrations and
simple and old, and had probably been practised in
expiations, and the like.
earlier times when occasion required. In general, the
It can hardly be questioned that the philhellenic
ritual of public sacrifice does not seem to be much
Driests of the Ptolemaic and Seleucid times introduced
changed in Ezekiel's new model of temple worship.
various ceremonies in imitation of the
T h e consequences of Ezekiel's system would doubtless 22 s. cults of Syrian-Greek temples, some of
have made greater changes in the sphere of private sacri-
which were preserved till t h e destruction of Jerusalem.
fices. The tax to be paid to the prince and the assign- The procession at the offering of first-fruits, headed by
ment of all first-fruits to the priests apparently are to take
an ox with gilded horns and crowned with an olive
the place of all the offerings (firstlings, first-fruits,tithes,
garland, the flute player making music before them,
sacrifice for appearance at the holy place, and the like)
etc., is an example in point.1 But such innovations
which in former times the Israelite had been bound to
were probably in matters of vestments, processions,
bring to God. Even the sacrificial feasts (SPZrimim) at
and the like, rather than in the ancient rites of sacrifice
the great festivals were provided from the public treasury.
There would remain vows and freewill offerings, and
the sin and trespass offerings, in which, as it appears, The two features in which the sacrificial cultus of
later times differs most from the worship of old Israel
no change was intended. I n the ritual of private sacri-
fice Ezekiel proposed a very radical departure from are the enhanced importance of the sacra pubZica and
immemorial custom: the owner was henceforth not to the greater prominence of expiatory rites. Both are
offer his own victim, but to look on while one of the natural consequences of the conditions of the age.
inferior ministry of the temple (Levites) slaughtered it The Jews were a widely scattered people; most of
for him. This innovation, however, did not prevail ; them could visit Jerusalem only at long intervals-
in the ritual law and in the practice of the Herodian perhaps but once or twice in a lifetime. But sacrifices
temple, the worshipper retained his old right (see were regularly offered for them-the daily holocausts,
the burnt offerings and sin offerings on the sabbaths
below, $ 26).
The destruction of the temple in Jerusalem did not and new moons and at the feasts. These sacrifices
cause a long interruption in sacrificial worship in Judza. were now maintained, not from the revenues of the
Not only were there other holy places in king or prince, but by a tax collected from Jews in all
22 cultus
586. theland (seeHlGHPLACES,$g; MIZPAH, parts of the world, who thus became participants in all
I ), but there can be no doubt that the
their benefits. The cessation of the daily sacrifice was a
altar in Jerusalem was soon rebuilt and worship re- calamity that deeply affected the whole race (Dan. 8 I I ~ .
1 1 3 ~1211.cp Jos. BJvi. 22).
1 There is no mention of incense or an altar of incense, of a Piaczrlu of various kinds were doubtless common in
candelabrum, or of anointing oil. old Israel, as in other religions (see, eg.,Dt. 2 1 1-9);
f Observe the use of the terms R$#rr and +it<s:see below, many of the purifications-which fall under the same
0 45. head-are unquestionably ancient customs (e.g., Lev.
T AXATION, $15x -
3 On the auestion how far this is a change of svstem.
, , see
4 It did not establish itself in the restored temple, where in
later times a corresponding, but much more elaborate, rite was 1 M BikkBrirn, 8 3 : Philo, De Redo co#Aini. See Spencer,
celebrated annually. See ATONEMENT, DAY OF. Leg& ritual. lib. 4, cap. IO
4199 4-
people that they had offended God (e.g.,2 S. 24 18J? ; or of cakes baked therefrom.
above, §S 18, 20). In the Persian period, they became The species of sacrifice are the same as in Ezek. : burnt

of the year. All rites of consecration and inauguration

are begun by piacular sacrifices. Not infrequently, as
in Ezekiel, the whole cultus is regarded as expiatory.
The prevalence of such a conception of G o d s holiness
as we find in Ezekiel, inevitably led to the multiplication
Tabernacles (Tz-38).
of expiatory rites ; the depressed and unhappy state of 3. Thesinofferingsatthenewmoonsandfeasts(Nu.2515 22 30
the Jews in Palestine during a large part of these 29 5 1 1 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 38).
centuries may be regarded as a contributory cause. 4. The goat of the Day of Atonement (Lev. 1 G 15. etc.).
The differences between the sacrificial worship of Occasional piacula are :
old Israel and that, say, of N T times must not, I.The sin offering of the congregation (Nu. 15 z z x Lev.
however, be exaggerated. T h e public cultus did not 4 13 8).
2. The sin offering of the ' anointed priest,' because his sin
supersede private sacrifices. The Jews, even from the brings guilt upon the people (Lev. 4 3 8 ; cp Lev. 186.11 14).
remoter parts of Palestine, frequented Jerusalem a t the In this class may be included also sacrifices of con-
feasts in great numbers, bringing the prescribed offerings secration for the temple and altar (Lev. 814J ; cp
and paying their vows ; the population of the city itself Ex. 4 0 1 3 ); and the sacrifices for the installation of
a n d of neighbouring J n d z a alone was sufficient with priests, especially the high priest (Ex. 29 Lev. a).'
their sacrifices to give employment and support a t Public sacrifices as a rule are either burnt offerings
ordinary times to a great number of.priests. Nor must or sin offerings ; the trespass offering is always a private
it be thought that the worshippers were habitually sacrifice, and the only public peace offerings are the
oppressed by a sense of sin, or that the expiatory side two lambs a t Pentecost (Lev. 2319, see below, 40);
of the cultus so dominated their conception of sacrifice the consecration ceremonies also include W d m i m .
as to exclude all others. The contrast sometimes Private sacrifices may be of any of the four chief
drawn between Dt., with its rejoicing before Yahwk. species, and frequently comprise more than one kind.
and P. with all its sin offerings and trespass offerings, They are either prescribed or voluntary. T h e prescribed
even if it fairly represented the spirit of two legislations, sacrifices are :
cannot legitimately be taken as evidence of a corre- I. Sin offerings, trespass offerings, and purifications of various
sponding difference in the spirit of religion in two ages.a kinds according to the occasion.
2. The sacrifices obligatory upon those who appeared at the
From our other sources it is easy to show that no such temple at a festival season; with which may he included the
radical diffFrence exists. Passover.
11. DEVELOPED JEWISH SYSTEM Voluntary private sacrifices were brought either in
fulfilment of a vow, as freewill offerings, or as expres-
I t is proposed in the following para,mphs briefly to sions of gratitude (nPder, ntdibrilr, tiddh).
describe the Jewish sacrificial system in its final form, I t will be most convenient to begin with private
23. Introductory. as it was in practice in the last sacrifices, since these are more fully described in the
century before the destruction of Pentateuch, and afterwards to treat of the public cultus
Jerusalem. In this system the rules and rites of sacrifice in the temple, for the details of which we are mainly
in the Pentateuch, of uhatever age and origin, were dependent upon Jewish tradition.
combined, and their often conflicting requirements in The victim might be from the flock or the herd
some fashion harmonised. There was also a traditional (Lev. 1z) ; a turtle-dove or a pigeon was also a ~ c e p t e d . ~
usage, not wholly dependent upon the written law, and If a quadruped, it must be a male without
a t all events much more detailed, without a knowledge 26. Burnt blemish, a bullock, ram, or he goat. A
of which we should often be hopelessly a t a loss in our 0 f f e ~ g ' 4list of twelve defects which rendered an
effort to reconstruct the rituaL3 Our sonrces, therefore, animal gnfit for sacrifice is given in Lev. 2 2 2 2 - 2 5 ; much
include, besides the Pentateuch, the descriptions of the more minute rules are found in the Talmud.6 If the
cultus in Jewish authors-Sirach, the Epistle of Aristeas, dissection of the victim disclosed abnormal or diseased
Philo, the N T , Josephus, etc.-and the school tradition organs, this also caused its rejection. The age of the
embodied in the legal midrash (MeKiZtd, Siphrd, victim is sometimes prescribed ; in general, animals that
Siphr-4, the Mishna, and the Tosephta." had attained their full groa th were preferred for burnt
The comprehensive name for offerings - of all kinds, offerings. The offerer brought the victim to the
24. Offering including dotations to the sanctuary, is court of the temple, rested both hands heavily upon its
in general &orbin me), ' present, gift ' (Nu. 7 12-17, head, slaughtered and flayed it, and cut up the carcass.
species. etc.; cp also Neh. 1035 1331). The priest received the blood and carried it to the altar,
This term, which is found only in technical and afterwards burnt the flesh and fat.
use, first appears in the sixth century (Ezek. 20 28 40 43, sacrificial That the offerer slew his own victim is the rule in Lev. 1 5 11,
laws in Lev. 13), and is probably a borrowed word, as is sug- and is universally assumed in Palestinian tradition (see, e.g.,
gested also by the unusual form of the noun; cp Assyr. ill. Zgbdhim, 3 I ; Siphwi, Par. 4 ; cp M. KPIinz 18, etc.; so also
kur6dnu (RITUAL,$5 I , ilia), Aram.-Syr. . &.&<in.
. The Jos. A n i . iii. 9 I). @, indeed, in Lev. I.c. has indefinite plurals
technical use of the verb hi&rib (I,???),'present' an offering
to God, is of the same age. 49 renders the noun by G+av, Vg.
variously and often freely Tg. and Pesh. kurhin.
1 ' Publica sacra, qure publico sumptii pro populo fiunt . . .
privata, quz pro singulis hominibus, familiis, gentibns fiunt,'
Festus; the distinction is made by Josephus(Ani. iii. 91), Philo
1 See ATCNEXENT, D AY O F , 5 2 : LEVITICUS $ 12. . victinris o B r . 5 3) and in the Xlishna.
( e . ~ .De
2 Msoy critics appear to be misled by the woid 'sin offering.' 2 The installation sacrificis might from another point of view
See helow $ 2811. he regarded as private sacrifices, and are in fact so regarded
3' It wduld be quite impossible, e.g., to understand the by Jewish tradition.
ceremonies of the Day of Atonement from Lev. IF. 3 The offering of birds as burnt offerings is ,permitted as the
4 This tradition-carefully to be distinguished from the only kind of sacrifice possible to the poor in cities.
scholastic exezesis and casuistry in t h e same writings-goes 4 On the name see above $ 12.
back to priests who had sarved in the temple. 5 See M . BEkhitlz 6, TO;.BikarZh 4, REkarath 3 7 a f i
4201 4202
(+&uuL), aTd is naturally followed by Philo De victimis, 61-7 [5zo$], 514-16; cp Lev. 2214-16 and Nu. 55-8).1
2 241 Mangey. hut their interpretation is not td be accepted.1 In such cases restitution of the property with the
Ezekiel would L v e the sacrifices of laymen slain by Levites (see
above, 21) ;but there is no evidence that this ever became the addition of one-fifth its value must be made, and a ram
actual practice.2 The place for the slaughter of the burnt offered Y!: a ' trespass offering.' The term d E m prob-
offering was in the Court of the Priests (see TEMPLE), on the ably originally si-ified the mulct by which such an
N. side of the great altar (Lev. 1 II), where also the sin offer- offence was punished ; the application to the sacrifice is
ing and. the trespass offering were slain ( eace offerings might
be slain in any part of the court ; M. ZZ&m 5 18). Here secondary. An &im in silver is named in z K. 1216
were rings in the pavement for tying the victims, posts supporting as one of the sources of the priests' income; as a
beams with hooks to hang theni up on, and low marble tables species of sacrifice d E m is mentioned first in Ezekiel,
for dressing the large cattle (M. Middath 3 5 5 z M. TEnzid 3 5
M. ShZ&Rrilim 6 4, etc.). The blood was caught by a priest in a but in a way which implies that it was well known.
bason, and thrown from the vessel against the altar in such a In the redaction of the laws the distinctive character of
way that some of the blood struck each of the four faces of the the &Em is lost, and a ' trespass offering' is prescribed
altar. The carcass was then cut up according to a certain
order ; the inwards and shanks (with the feet) were washed ; and in many cases in which the offence is of a different
all the parts of the animal, except the hide3 and the contents of nature and restitution is impossible (see, e.g., Lev.
the intestines, were borne by priests to the sloping ascent of the 5 1 8 1 7 8 19208) ; the confusion with the sin offering
altar where they were salted ; finally they were carried up to remarked above thus arises.
the tbp of the altar, flung on the great fire,4 and burned. In
later times, at least, an oblation was offered with private holo- T h e victims required by the laws differ in different
causts (Nu. 15 18). cases-a bullock, he goat, she goat, ewe Iamb or kid,
The offeringof a bird had necessarily a different ritual (Lev. 28a. Sin or a dove (see below). T h e animal is
114-17; M. ZZ66rihim 6 5). The dove or pigeon, which might
be of either sex was taken by the priest to the altar. ascending brought to the temple court, and after the
the ramp and ;tanding at one corner, he pinched ok the bud's imposition of hands, as in the burnt offering,
head with his thumb-nail, squeezed out the blood so that it is slain by the offerer (Lev. 429) on the N. side of the
flowed down the side of the altar, drew out the crop with the altar. The distinctive feature of the ritual is that the
entrails through an opening in the breast, and threw these, with
the feathers, on the ash heap E. of the altar. Then with his priest, instead 3f dashing (pit) the blood against the
hands he rent the fowl by its wings without actually pulling it sides of the altar from the ground, ascends the altar,
in two, rubbed it with salt, and threw it upon the fire. and, dipping his finger into the bason, smears (rm,
I n the Pentateuch, especially in Lev. 5, there is some ' p u t ' ) blood upon each of the four horns of the altar
confusion between tresuass offerines and sin offerines in order ; the rest of the blood is poured out at the
see L E V ~ I C U5 S , the original di<- base of the altar. The parts offered upon the altar are
2';~$~a!inction both in occasion and ritual is, the same which are thus consumed in the peace offerings
however. sufficientlv clear..~ and is in ( 5 29) and the trespass offering ( 5 27). The flesh
general justly observed by the Jewish tradition. In the belongs to the priests; it is, like that of the &im,
dfdrn the victim is regularly a ram (d-vil, $5 Lev. 5 1 5 5 a very holy,' and must be eaten under the same restric-

18 6 6 [525], Nu. 5 6 Lev. 19z1f., cp Ezra101g; in two tions.

late laws M e t , b ? ~ Lev. , 1412 21 Nu. 6r2).6 The The holiness of the &a@& is in other respects more
animal, according to the Jewish interpretation of Lev. intense than that of the &.Ern;everything which comes
5 15. must be worth at least two shekels. The ritual in in contact with the flesh becomes ' sacred ' (cp Hag.
Lev. 7 I 8 prescribes that the trespass offering shall be 212),that is, becomes the property of God-in effect,
slain, like the burnt offering, on the N. side of the great of the temple; an earthen pot in which the flesh is
altar ; the blood is thrown against the altar precisely boiled must be broken, a metal one scoured and rinsed ;
as in the burnt offering ( 5 26) ; when the animal is cut a garment upon which the blood has accidentally spirted
up certain parts are taken to be burned upon the altar, must be washed in a a holy' place (Lev. 627-29 [ZO-a]).
viz., the fat tail, the fat that covers the entrails T h e piacular character of the sacrifice accounts for this
(omentum), the two kidneys with the fat upon them, higher degree of holiness.
and the excrescence on the liver.* No oblation or In offering a dove as a sin offering the priest kills it
libation accompanies them. The flesh of the animal with his thumb-nail (as in the burnt offering), but does
falls to the priests (according to Lev. 77, to the officiat- not completely sever the head from the body ; sprinkles
ing priest) ; it is 'very holy,' and may he eaten only some of the blood upon the side of the altar (not on the
by males in a state of ceremonial purity and in a holy horns), and squeezes out the rest of the blood a t the
place. base; there are no altar portions to b u r n ; the flesh
I n the ceremonies for the purification of the leper prescribed goes to the priest (Lev. 57-9 626 [IS]).
in Lev. 149 8 , wbicb have a striking-and surely not accidental In cases of extreme poverty a sin offering consisting
-resemblance to the consecration of priests (Lev. 8), the helamb only of a tenth of an ephah of fine flour, without oil or
with whose blood the leper's right ear, thumb, and great toe
were anointed 'is called an &"Em; hut the ritual-note the frankincense, was accepted ; the priest burned a handful
' waving' of the lamb, the accompaniment of oil, the anointing of it upon the altar and took the rest for himself as in
with blood and oil, sprinkling of oil, etc.-has nothing in other oblations (Lev. 5 11-13).
commm with that of Lev. 7 (see below, 5 286). A late law (Lev. 4 ; see LEVITICUS, 5 5) establishes
I n the oldest laws about the E f d m this species of a sliding scale of sin offerings according to the station
sacrifice seems to have been required only in expiation of the offerer : the common man has to bring a female
of the unlawful appropriation of the property of another goat or sheep (428 32), as was doubtless the older rille
(conversion), or of the tribute due to Yahwe (see Lev. (cp Lev. 5 6 Nu. 1 5 ~ 7 ) . ~If too poorforsuch asacrifice,
1 A man might have his sacrifice offered by another; but the
he is allowed to substitute two doves or pigeons, one
other was not necessarily a priest. as a sin offering and one a s a burnt offering; or, in
2 The slaying of the paschal lambs by the priests had a extremity, an oblation of flour (see above) ; a prince
particular reason in the urgent need of expedition. ( ~ 3 ~ 2in ) a similar case must offer a he goat (Lev. 4 23 f: ,
3 The hide fell to the priest who conducted the sacrifice (Lev.
7 8 ) ; a different rule seems to have prevailed in the Herodian cp Nu. 7 16, etc. ) ; the ' anointed priest ' a bullock (see
temple; see Schiirer, G/V(3) 2 248. below, 5 37c).
4 E#. A r i s f . . ed. Thackeray, 535x, admixes the strength as
well as the skill with which this was done. The name 'sin offering' suggests to the niodern
5 Heb. &im (Or$), @ 7 b m p i 6 s rrhqpprhslas, $ d q p p C h e ~ a , 1 M n i t y to H has been noted in the primary stratum of
Vg. hosfia j r o deZicicto. On the technical meaning of the term
these t8rofh.
see col. 4204, begin. 2 Heh. &t&ith (nNFfl), Q r b r e p ; +r kpapdar, Vg. hostia
6 The female nctim in Lev. 5 6 is a sin offering. So are also gropeccato.
the doves and the offering of flour allowed to he substituted by 3 For this reason a second bud is ordered as a burnt olfering.
the poor, Lev. 5 7 - 1 3 ; see LEVITICUS, S 8. 4 Female victims in piacrla, see, e g . , Schoemann, 2 226 ; cp
7 There is no mention of the imposition of hands. also Nu. 19 2 Dt. 21 3.
8 The same parts of the sheep are burned when it is a sin 5 These mitigations are not understood to apply to those sin
offering or a peace offering, or an inauguration sacrifice. offerings in which a certain victim is prescribed for all.
4203 4204
reader a sacrifice for the expiation of rin in our sense the trespass offering ; the sin offering alone requires a
of the word, and it is often imagined that the Jewish peculiar application of the blood. The portions con-
sacrificial system provides and requires such expiation sumed upon the altar are the fat that covers the entrails
for every sin. Both these notions are erroneous. T h e (great omentum) and all the fat upon the entrails, the
cases in which a ha;?(ifh is prescribed fall for our appre- two kidneys with the mass of fat upon them, and the
hension into two classes: first, the ignorant or in- excrescence upon the liver, which is to be separated
advertent transgression of certain prohibitions ( ' taboos ' with the kidneys ; if the victim was a sheep there u-as
-including sonie in which we see a moral character), added to these the whole fat tail, removed close to the
or unintentional failure to observe the prescriptions of os sacrum.
the law (Nu. 1 5 2 2 8 ; from the context it is clear that The precise meaning of the phrase ??I?? \y n?niip, or
religious observances are primarily meant) ; second, in 1 2 2 nyn)*
~ (Lev.516 919) is disputed. @ b hopor b ;ai mi)
purifications of various kinds, as of a woman after ijraror, b A O ~ O F708 qrrams, Vg. reticulum 3kcoris, etc., E V
childbirth, a leper, etc., or of things, such as an altar 'the caul upon the liver.'l According to Jewish tradition it
(see below, 5 45). For the former class the general was not fat ( T m . Hullin 9 '4) ; in the Mishna it is called ISN,
'finger' (M. T Z m i d 4 3 ) ; Saad. translates, ziyridat aZ-,&&,
rule in the Mishna is that any transgression the penalty a n Arabic anatomical term which etymologically corresponds to
of which, if wilful, would be that the offender be cut off, Heh. nlni,. The question cannot be discussed here : the view
requires, if comm-tted in .gnorance or through inad- of the present writer is that the Zodus cuudutus is meant,
which lies close against the right kidney.
vertence, a &a??iifh( M . &?&hJfh 1 2) ; the catalogue of Another phrase which has been variously rendered is
these transgressions (i6. 11) ranges from incest and "tpl my!, Lev. 3 9. The nriy is not the 'coccyx,' as many
idolatry to eating the (internal) fat of animals and modern writers absurdly say, nor the vertebral column, hut the
imitating the composition of the sacred incense, but os sacrnm.
does not include the commonest offences against morals. These parts having been removed, the carcass was
In the second class (purifications) fall the &z??iiihof a cut up, and the owner proceeded to present his offering
woman after childbirth (Lev. 1 2 6 ) ; of a man who has to God by taking upon his two hands the altar portions
suffered from gonorrhea ( 1 5 1 4 $ ) , or a woman from and the breast and ' waving ' thein before Yahwe (Lev.
menorrhagia (15 29 f:) ; of a Nazirite accidentally 7 s g f : ). I n conformity with the example in Ex. 29 24.
defiled by the proximity of a dead body (Nu. 6 .of. )-in the priest, in later times, put his hands beneath those
all these cases the victim is a dove or pigeon; of a of the offerer and moved them backward and forward,
leper (Lev. 1 4 IO 8 ; a ewe lamb, for the poor a dove or up and down; the right leg was also added to the
pigeon) ; of a Nazirite at the end of his term (Nu. 6 1 4 ; breast (cp Lev. 921 Ex.2927). After this ceremony the
ewe lamb) ; a man defiled by contact with the carcass priest salted the altar portions and burned them ; the
of an unclean animal, etc. (Lev. 5 z J , ewe lamb or breast and leg went to the priests ; the rest of the flesh
she goat, o. 6). made a feast for the maker of the sacrifice ; women as
In connection with the &z??iithbrief reference may be well as men might partake of it, if only they were in a
made to certain peculiar ceremonies of similar intent and state of ceremonial purity (Lev. 719-21). (See C LEAN
The most characteristic of these A N D UKCLEAN. ) I t might be eaten anywhere in Jern-
Peculiar iseffect.
the old rite for the purification of the Salem on the day on which it was offered or the following
piacula* leper (Lev. 141-8); a clean bird is killed day before sunset ; whatever remained after that time
over an earthen vessel 'containing' fresh water in such a must be burned (Lev. 716-18 195-8). One species of
manner that its blood mingles with the water ; the priest St'Liimim, however, the tdiih, had to be eaten on the
dips cedar wood, wool dyed crimson, and 'hyssop,' day of sacrifice (see 5 296 ; also 5 39a).
together with the living bird, into the vessel, sprinkles The increase of the tariff in 7 32 appears in the very construc-
the water upon the leper, and lets the living bird fly tion of the sentence. In Dt. t h e priest receives a foreleg, the
jowl, and the stomach (tripe) ; the older stratum of priestly laws
away.* The expiration of the term of the Nazirite's gives him the brearit (nip, rr+vrov, pectuscduum) instead (see
vow (Nu. 6 13-21) is celebrated by a complete series of
Ex. 29 26 Lev. 7 31) : this is presented to God (' the wave breast ')
sacrifices, beginning with a ewe lamb as a sin offering, and ceded by him to his priest. Lev.732 adds the right leg as
a he lamb as a burnt offering, and a ram for a peace a tax(np1p) paid by the Israelites to the priest (cp Nu. 620).
offering ; the oblation consists of a basket of different The rules of Dt. and P are harmonised in the Mishna by apply.
kinds of cakes. The boiled shoulder.(only here) of the ing the former to,the latter to &Zd&finz(M. HulZin 101,
rani with a specimen of each kind of cake is ' waved ' S i p h a on Lev. Z.C.).
before Yahwe (see 5 29a), and then belongs to the The priests' portions of the JlZiimfrn were not subject
priest. to the severe restrictions of the ha?@i'thand the d E m ;
The Ordeal of Jealousy has been described elsewhere the flesh might be eaten by the priests and their families,
(see JEALOUSY, O RDEAL OF). including slaves, anywhere in Jerusalem. The same
The best description of the peace offering ritual is in rule of time applies to the priests' part of the flesh as to
the offerers
Lev. 3. CorresDondinp. to that of the burnt offering
I " in 1.: The ordinary JZitaim described in the last section
aga. Peace see also 7 1 1 8 2 8 3 2 2 2 1 8 , Nu. 15 13
offerings.3 The victim may, as the owner pleases, be were offered either in fulfilment of a specific vow to
from the flock or the herd. either male or zgb. Thank- sacrifice such and such victims as peace
female, and of any a g e ; it is required only that it be offeriw. offerings (nt?deu),2or as a 'freewill
without blemish (see above, 5 26), a rule that is relaxed offering' (nPd&%)-that is to say, a
in the freewill offering alone. The presentation and sacrifice not made obligatory by the law or by the
imposition of hands occur precisely as in the burnt owner's engagement (vow). These two kinds only are
offering ; but whereas '&h, &afWh, and dGm must be named in Dt. 1 2 1 7 Lev. 2 2 1 7 8 Nu. 151s Lev.
killed on the N. side of the altar, the JtLiirnim may be 7 1 1 8 (see also 2229J ) joins with these a third species
slain in any part of the court-obviously because a t of SZZiimim, the tidiih (AV ' sacrifice of thanksgiving,'
c thank offering '; on the name, see below, begin. of next
certain seasons they were brought in such numbers that
the space on the N. of the altar, with its apparatus, did col. j, to which in some respects different rules apply.
not suffice. T h e slaughter of the victim and the dashing T h e t5d(ih was accompanied by a prescribed oblation
of the blood upon the altar, again, differ in no respect of a peculiar kind, in which, besides various kinds of
from the corresponding acts in the burnt offering or sacrificial cakes, Zeuvened bread is included (see 5 30).
The flesh of the victim must be eaten on the day of the
1 The later Iaw ; cp the old purification, Lev. 14 1-8: see
sacrifice, 'none of it must be left until morning' (715,
below 8 z8d LEV~TICUS 5 IO.
N D U N ~ L E ASN16,. On the later ritual (Lev.
9, d e C L E ~ AN 1 On the history of interpretation, see Dilhann-Ryssel on
see also above $ 27. Lev. 3 4.
l4;%)the term 5Zl&wz and its meaning see above, $ 11. a The votive offering might also he an 'bZZh, S 26.
4105 . 4206
2230 [HI). T h e cakes and bread were naturally suh- and eaten by the males of priestly families within the
jected to the same restriction (ZZbii@n, 36n). T h e temple precincts.
limit of time is the same which is fixed in Ex. 2318 3425 ( b ) The oblation of cakes baked in the oven (iun), Lev.
for the sacrifices of YahwB's feast (An),' and in Ex. 1210 24 (see BAKEMEATS,B READ). Of these the law
(P) for the Passover. I t is therefore evidently a n old describes two species-unleavened cakes (&aZZ&) mixed
rule for a t least some sacrifices. with oil. and unleavened wafers (rZ&&%z) smeared with
According to the Talmud (Zi6l&im,36a)the limit applied also oil. Both were made of fine flour ; the &zZl5th were
to the &-Ern and &atfEth the flesh of which was eaten by the
priests, and to the peace offerings of the congregation (Lev. thicker cakes shortened with oil, the rtF&&n thin wafer
23 19) and the peace offering of the Nazirite (Nu. 6 17). bread mixed with water only and after baking smeared
The offering of leavened bread, also, is doubtless an with oil (as we should butter it). These cakes were
old custom (see above, 1 1 1 ) ; the cakes of unleavened baked in the temple ; the offerer broke them into pieces,
bread seem to be an accommodation to the ordinary put them into a liturgical vessel with the quantum of
rule, Lev. 211. There seems, therefore, to be no suffi- frankincense, and brought it to the priest, who pro-
cient reason for regarding the tcdah as a late develop- ceeded as in the former case.
ment. (c) Baked on a griddle or fried in a pan (Lev. 2 5f. 7 8 ) .
The name n$n signifies praise, thanksgiving' (cp 65 Bv& Heb. ngnri? Sj! n,"Ip, n t m p nglp respectively. The
alvdocos, Lev. 7 5 , p p f i o o u ' q s 22 29, Vg. lrostia pro g~atiarum utensils are described in S@lrrE, ad loc. and in Ai? MZndhbth
actione); its use in connection with sacrifice is old (Am.45 5 8 : the mahd6ath is a griddle ;the nrarh&th a somewhat deep
n$n YlJFQ 1Bp [note the conjunction with nZ&hEh], cp Jer. pan with a &over,in which the dough fAed in its own fat ; see
C OOKING, p 7.
17 26 33 TI), and the law in Lev. 22 29 was apparently contained T h e flour and part of the oil were put in a vessel and
in H. It was perhaps, as Jewish scholars explain, a sacrifice of
gratitude for some signal manifestation of God's goodness, such mixed by stirring, the mass was kneaded with lukewarm
as deliverance from a great peril. The apparent conflict in the water, baked on the griddle or fried in the pan as the
laws may he explained by the fact that the taddh was regarded offerer chose (or as he had vowed to do) ; the cakes
by some compilers as a distinct species of sacrifice, by others as
a variety of &Zimim. were then broken into pieces, the rest of the oil poured
T o the class of the JZlZmim belongs also the +iigLgiBLih,to over them (Lev. 26), and frankincense placed upon
which a bookof theMishna is devoted-ie., thesacrifices them. T h e priest proceeded as in the previous cases.
made by pilgrims a t the feasts, especially in the spring. An independent oblation is prescribed by the
The animals thus offered furnished the flesh for the law as the sin offering of the very poor (Lev. 5 11-13) ;
sacrificial feasts which are so often commended in Dt. it consisted of one tenth of a n ephah of fine flour (sdleth),
(e.g. 126$, nf.,etc.) : they might be purchased w-ith without oil or frankincense. The priest burned a hand-
the proceeds of the sale of the ('second') tithe (Dt. ful of it on the altar as an azRirEh, and took the rest
l d z q j ? ) , or he taken from the cattle tithe (Lev. 2732). for himself. A similar offering of coarse barley
Besides the h d ~ g d hXiirnirn9 which were obligatory, meal, without oil or frankincense, is required in the
the Rabbis distinguish i d m i sim&ih, 'joyous sacrifices,' peculiar ritual of the ordeal of jealousy, Nu. 5 118(see
a t the feasts, which might he either votive or freewill J EALOUSY , O RDEAL O F ). The oblation at the installa-
offerings ; the cattle tithe might be used for these also. tion of priests and the daily oblation of the high priest
The oblation (min&Zh) consists of flour and oil either will be treated below under sncrupubZicn (139u).
merely kneaded in a mass or baked or fried in cakes of T h e general rule for the oblation accompanying
Salt is required in all, private sacrifices is laid down in Nu.151-16. Every
30. Oblations.a variousand a portion kinds. of frankincense accom- victim from the flock or the herd,l offered as ' d d h or
panies many of these oblations; leaven, and honey, at?buh, whether in fulfilment of a vow, as a freewill
which in other countries was commonly used in sacrifi- offering, or a t the feasts, must be accompanied by a n
cial cakes, are prohibited (Lev. 2 11). The minhdh is oblation proportioned to the value of the animal : with
either an independent offering-voluntary or prescribed a lamb or kid, one tenth of a n ephah of fine flour
-or the obligatory concomitant of certain species of mixed with one fourth of a hin of oil ; with a ram, two
sacrifices. tenths of flour, one third of a hin of oil; with neat
The rules for the min+dh as a n offering by itself are cattle, three'tenths of flour and one half a hin of oil for
found in Lev. 2, which corresponds to 1 (burnt offering). each animal. The preparation and offering of the
and 3 (peace offering). The following varieties are oblation are the same as in the independent oblation of
recognised : .
(a)T h e oblation of fine wheat flour (n$, u~pL16aXis),~
fine flour (above, u).
The following oblations are prescribed as the accom-
paniment of certain sacrifices of purification :
Lev. 2 1-3,as a votive or freewill offering. The quantity ( u )In the (secondary) ritual for the purification of the
is for the giver to determine ; tradition fixes the minimum
a t one tenth of an ephah. For each tenth of a n ephah
lepers (Lev. 1410 8 21 s), with the animals to be
offered, are required three tenths of an ephah of fine
one log of oil is required.4 The offerer put the flour flour mixed with oil and one 16g of oil (u. I O ) ;. in case of
and part of the oil into a vessel and mixed them by poverty the flour may be reduced to one tenth, but the
stirring, transferred the mass to a liturgical vessel, quantity of oil remains the same ( v . 21). ( a ) The
poured the rest of the oil over it, and put frankincense Nazirite, on the completion of his vow (Nu. 615), has to
on top of it.5 The priest carries it to the altar, takes bring.with his three victims, a basket ofunleavened bread
a handful of the mass and puts it in another vessel of both kinds which are baked in the oven (viz. cakes
with all the frankincense, ascends the altar, puts salt mixed with oil and wafers smeared with oil ; above, 6 ;
upon the oblation. and places it upon the fire. T h e according to the Mishna, ten of each variety), ' a n d
portion thus consumed is called the aakdrdh (Lev. 2 2 , their [the victims'] oblation and libation ' - L e . , as
' reminder,' EV ' memorial ') ; the rest of the dough understood by Jewish tradition, in addition to the cakes,
goes to the priests. I t is 'very holy,' like the sin the oblation of fine flour and oil that according to rule
offering and the trespass offering, being ceded to the should accompany every burnt offering and peace
priesthood from the offerings of Yahwk made by fire ' ; offering.3 The purification of a woman after
it may not be leavened (Lev. 6 16f: [gf:]), hut is baked, childbirth required a lambas a burnt offering (Lev. 126) ;
a n oblation is not named in the law, hut the case was
1 The words ' the Passover ' in the second passage are regarded
by many as a gloss. brought under the general rule of Nu. 153-5.
a See above $5 14. 1 Birds are not offeredon the occasions specified, and there-
3 On the prLparation of the wheat, see M. MinEMtk 6 5 ; cp fore are not mentioned in the rule.
FOOD$1. 2 Sin offeringsand trespass offerings have no oblations. The
4 dreparation of the oil, M. MZnEhath 8 3 8 ; see OIL. Mishna makes an exception of the sin offerin and trespass
5 This, it is observed, corresponds to the slaying and dressing offeringof the leper, Lev. 14 IO ( M . Me=nZ&itk 9%.
of a victim by the owner. 3 This is perhaps only a n exegetical oblation.

4207 4208
Nu. 151-16 prescribes with the oblation, and in the in the Herodian temple, however, the offering was, on
same cases, a libation of wine a s the obligatory accom- ordinary days, between three and four o'clock in the
31a. Libations.l paniment of private burnt offerings afternoon (AI. Pi'&i@n 51) and on the fourteenth of
and sacrifices; with a lamb or kid Nisan even earlier, in order to give time for the slaughter
one fourth of a hin ; with a ram, one third : with a of the paschal lambs after the Tlmid. The
victim from the herd, one half. No libation is made lambs for the daily holocaust, after having been duly
with any oblation offered by itself without the sacrifice examined. were kept (never less than six at a time) in a
of an animal (see Lev. 3 619-23 [ K Z - I ~ ] Nu.515) ; nor room in the temple, set apart for this purpose, in the
with sin offerings or trespass offerings, for the same NW. corner of the priests' court ( M . Midd8th 1 6 ) ;
reason that these sacrifices have no oblation ; 2 nor they had to be in readiness fonr days before they were
with birds. A libation accompanies the peace offering offered ; a second inspection preceded the s1aughter.l
at the release of the Nazirite's vow (Nu. 6 15 1 7 ) ; it is No peculiarities in the ritual of these sacrifices are in-
not named with the burnt offering and oblation of dicated in the laws : in the Mishna the chief difference
the cleansed leper (Lev. 14rozo), nor with that of the between them and private burnt offerings (above, 26)
puerpera (Lev. 126f.). I n these cases also Jewish is the participation of a greater number of priests.
authorities apply the rule in Nu. 1 5 3 8 No ritual In addition to the proper oblation for the holocaust,
directions for the libation are found in the O T ; see there was offered at the same time the high priest's
below, 0 35. daily oblation of cakes (Lev. 6 19-23 [ ~ z - r d ] ) , made of
Nothing is said in thePentateuch about an independent one tenth of an ephah of fine flour baked on a griddle,
libation ; but the Mishna recognises a votive offering or broken in pieces, and soaked in oil. These were made
freewill offering of wine ( M iWnd+fith 125, cp 1 3 5 ) , fresh every morning in a special chamber in the temple ;
and there is other evidence that such libations were one half was offered in the morning, half in the evening.
made (cp Jubilees 75) ; the quantity is fixed a t three I n the Hercdian temple the daily burut offering formed
Egs, a11 of which was thrown upon the fire (Zt'a&m of a complex and minutely regulated service of which o n r :
brief outline can be given here.
g r b , cp Jubilees, Z.C.). A votive offering or The regular duties of the temple service were distributed daily
freewill offering of oil (without flour) is also recognised among the members of the course of priests on duty by a method
by the Rabbis, though R. 'AkibH does not allow it of counting out. Four such drawings were held in succession
( M . Ztb@iav 108); the quantity should be not less in the early morning; the first designated the priest who should
have charge of the removal of the ashes from the great altar and
than one lag ; a handful was thrown upon the fire, the the rebuilding of two fires upon it-the third fire was kept hum-
rest went to the priests for food. ing night and day. By the second drawing thirteen priests were
Frankincense (see INCENSE,5 I J ) is a necessary chosen for different specified parts in the sacrifice of the lamb
and the offering of the oblations, and for the cleansing of the altar
accomoaniment of everv nrivate oblation (Lev. 21 f:
__ . - . If:
z I

. 6 IA [7$]). except of the pauper's sin

.mg of fine flour and in the ordeal
of incense and the lamps ; the third, to which only those were
admitted who bad not previously enjoyed the honour, deter-
mined who should burn the incense in the temple; the fourth,
of jealousy ; the offering of first-fruits of who should ut the parts of the victim upon the fire. As soon
as dawn ligfted up the E. a lamb was taken from the pen
grain-roast ears, crushed corn--also requires it (Lev. inspected by torchlight, giv& a drink of water, and led tn th;
2 14f: ). The quantity was fixed : one handful for every place of slaughter on the N. side of the a!-. The two priests
min&ih. whether great or small. whose duty called them into the temple, o ned d e great door
T h e frankincense
was put on the dough ot fine flour mixed with oil, or
of the temple, gathered into a vessel d e asEs from the altar of
incense, and tnmmed and refilled the lamps, removing the old
the broken pieces of the sacrificial cakes, io a liturgical wicks and oil. T h e lamb was kid on the pavemcnt with its
vessel, and, with a handful of the dough or the cakes, head toward the S., its face to the W. (Le., toward the temple),
and at the sound of the opening door the sacrificing priest slew
was thrown upon the fire on the great altar and con- it ; a second caught the blood m a vessel, carried it to the NE.
sumed. Fraokincense might also be given by itself as corner of the great altar, and standing on the ground threw.
a votive or freewill offering. Salt was used someof the blood against the angle so that it spread on both
with all sacrifices and oblations (Lev. 2 r 3 . cp Ezek. faces repeated the ceremony at the SW. comer and poured
out the rest of the blood at the base of the altar dn the S. side
4 3 z + Mk.9 4 9 , Jos. Ani. iii. 91, ,W27zd&ith z o n ) . See where it was carried off by a drain. The carcass was the;
below, 36 hung up, skinned, and dissected by the sacrificing priest in a
T h e custom of offering a daily burnt offering and particular manner and order, and the inwards cleanad and
washed. Six priests, standing in order before him, received the
oblation probaMy originated in the royal temples of several parts of the victim as they were separated ; three others
33. Secra Judah and Israel. In the ninth cen- held respectively the oblation of the burnt offering, the high
tury the burnt offering seems t o have priest's oblation of d e s , and the wine foh the lihatiou. They
pabblica: been in the morning and the oblation now carried all these to the ramp of &altar, laid them down
in order less than half way up the slope, salted them, and
h o , ~ ~ t sin. the evening (above. 5 19). Ezekiel descended to the marble hall (nu? mt>) for the morning
(4613-15) provides for both holocaust prayers. The offering of incense on the inner altar followed, as
and oblation in the morning only. The rule in Nu. described under INCBNSE,0 7. After this the priests took their
28 1-8 Ex. 29 38-42 requires holocaust and oblation both stand on the steps of the prostyle, those who were for the day
morning and evening, and such was the practice of the ministers of the temple at the S. end with the vessels in
their hands. The priest to whose lot this service had falleh
later times (Dan. 811.14). Similar sacrifices once or carried the parts of the victim one by one up to the top of the
twice daily were frequent in antiquity ; Nebuchad- altar and threw them upon the great fire ; the priests upon the
rezzar, e.g., is said to have offered six lambs daily; steps of the temple intoned the benediction : the altar priest
at Hierapolis there were regular sacrifices morning offered the oblation, the high priest's sacrificial cakes, and last
of all the wine. A t the moment of the libation, upon a signal
and evening, etc. from the master of ceremonies, the cymbals clashed, two priests
The technical name in Hebrew i 1.e.
(n$b, F n ) , S ' gave a blast u n their trumpets, and the chorus of Levites set
up the song opphe day ; when they paused, the trumpeters hlew
M o K ~; v~& & ~x ~
~ ~,~ L
, ~MKUUS~XWI .w@fernrm, bra- another blast, and all who were in the court prostrated thern-
~ U U S t ~ ' M ~
selves-nine times in all.
T h e victims were yearlmg lambs, perfect males ; the The same ceremonies were repeated in the evening by the
accompanying oblation for each consisted of one tenth same priests-no fresh drawings were held-except the removal
of the ashes from the Feat altar and the renewing of the fires,
of an ephah of fine flour mixed with one fourth of a which took place only in the morning.
hin of fine oil ; the libation was one fourth of a hin of As the daily burnt offering was made for the people,
wine. T h e morning sacrifice was offered between dawn the people was represented at it each morning and
and sunrise (M. TEmid 32) : the evening sacrifice, evening by a deputation appointed for the purpose (the
'between the two e>-enings' (Ex. 2939; see D AB, 2 ) an12 ha-ma'a'mdd. called also a n 9 k o l - I ~ r d ' Z Z ) .There
--i. e . , perhaps originally between sunset and dark ;
1 On the blemishes which made them unfit see above 8 26.
2 M. Tu'ririth 4 2, Tm. Ta'i*fh 4 2Jt: similar deiegation
1 IIeb. lg,03 4 6 05 twelve laymen appears at the Samaritan P w o v e r as cele-
2 They are not meant t o hepuln)ra brated in our own time ; see Petermann, Reisen, 1 q6.
4109 4zro
was such a delegation of the laity for each of the twenty- baked and set upon the table in two piles of six each ;
four weekly courses of priests. Any members of a frankincense in golden urns stood beside them. The
deputation who were not present with their fellows in bread was changed every sabbath ; the loaves that u-ere
the temple held a special synagogue service a t home. removed were eaten by the priests within the precincts
The age of this institution is not known ; it long out- ( ' in a holy place ').
lived the destruction of the temp1e.l Additional details are derived from Josephus and the Mishna.1
In addition to the daily burnt offerings more numerous The loaves were unleavened ; the dough was mixed with water
only-not, like other oblations, with oil. They were as we
sacrifices were made on the sabbaths a n d new moons, should infer from the quantity of flour, of consideradle size-
33. Additional the first of the seventh month (civil new according to the Mishna, shaped like a brick, ten handbreadth;
sabbathsand year), the three season feasts, and the long, five wide, and seven fingers thick. In the Chronicler's time
the loaves were made by a family of Kohathite Levites (T Ch.
festivals.2 Day of Atonement. Nu. 28$, which 9 3 2 ) ; in the first century of our era by a family of priests named
fixes the kind and number of the Garmo, with whom the art was a secret.2 They were moulded
victims for these occasions, is late (see N UMBERS, 5 in forms, and baked in a chamber on the N. side of the temple
I O ) ; but the multiplication of public a s well a s private
court. The loaves were piled on two salvers, six on each. On
the sabbath four yiests of the outgoing course entered the
sacrifices a t festivals is common, and doubtless ancient temple to remove t e old loaves and frankincense followed by
among the Israelites as well as other people^.^ four of the new course, two bearint,the salvers &th the new
On the Sabbath the additional (masdjh) sacrifice was a burnt bread, and two the urns of fresh fran incense. The change was
offering of two yearling he lambs, with their oblation and so effected that there was no moment when there was not bread
libation according to rule (two tenths of an ephah of fine flour upon the table. The last week's oblation was carried out, the
with one half a hin of oil and half a hin of wine ; cp Ex. 29 40 frankincense burned on the great altar (at the close of the
Nu. G 4 . L etc.). The sacrifice-likeall the additional sacrifices additional sacrifices of the sabbath) and the loaves equally
-was made immediately after the morning holocaust, by the divided between the incoming and' the outgoing course of
same priests, and with the same rites. The priests of the out. priests ; each course gave some of its loaves to the high priest.
going course pronounced at the proper place an additional Ex. 25 29 provides vessels for wine to stand upon the table, as
benediction on those of the incoming course (M. TCTmid 5 I). well as for the bread and the frankincense ; according to I Macc
For the new moon are prescribed (Nu. 28 11-15) two bullocks, a 122, Antiochus Epiphanes carried off with the table its flagons
ram, and seven yearling he lambs as burnt offerings, with the and chalices.3 It is not likely that empty cups were set before
oblation and libation demanded for each by the rule in Nu. Yahwl: ; but there is no reference in the OT to the presentation
15 1-12, with the regular ritual ; further, a he goat as a sin of wine with the shewbread, and neither Josephus nor the
offering for the people (below, $ 37). At the Passover from the Mish~iamentions it.4 See $35.
first (fifteenth of Nisan) to the seventh day of the feast'inclusive T w o interesting survivals of ancient agricultural rites
were offered daily the same additional victims as on the ne;
moon (Nu. 28 19-24) ; on the second day (sixteenth of Nisan) 4 are the presentation of the sheaf of barley at the Pass-
besides these, one he lamb as a burnt offering in connectidn 3Qb. Peculiar over and of the two loaves at Pentecost
with the wavesheaf(Lev. 23 10-13; see below, (346). At Pente- (Lev. 239-14 15-20 ; see LEVITICUS, 5
cost, the same additional offerings as on the first of the month, oblations. 20). The old t&-& (incorporated in
the oblation from the new flour (' thP two loaves,' Lev. 23 15-21 ;
see 8 3 4 4 , and with this bread, one bullock, two rams, and H ) required in the 'case of the Passove; that -at the be-
seven he lambs as burnt offerings and a he goat as a sin offer- ginning of harvest a first-fruit sheaf of barley should be
ing ;6 finally, two he lambs as peace offerings of the people (see brought to the priest (at thelocal holy place), who should
below, B 40).
The first of the seventh month the civil new year was cele- wave it before Yahwe ; until this has been done the new
brated by the so-called Feast of'Trumpets. Its sacrifices are, crop may not be used in any way-in bread, parched
first the daily holocaust; second, theofferingsfor the new moon. corn, or grits (see above, 5 14). When this rite was
and'third, the sacrifices proper to the season-viz., one bullock'
one ram, and seven yearling he lambs as burnt offerings, wit; made part of the public cultus of the temple in Jerusalem
their oblations, and a he goat for a sin offering (Nu. 29 1.6). its character was greatly changed. The reaping of the
If the day was also a sabbath, the additional victims for the barley (on the night preceding the sixteenth of Nisan)
sabbath were offered directly after the daily sacrifice. The became a liturgical act ; the sheaf itself was not waved,
order of victims in each is-bullocks, rams, lambs, goats ; which
is t o be noted, because by general rule the sin offering should but the grain was threshed, winnowed, cleansed,
precede burnt offerings. The additional offerings of the Day of roasted, ground, sifted, etc., in the temple precincts,
Atonement (loth of the seventh month) are the same as those mixed with oil, like the ordinary nrinh-h, ' waved,' and
of the New Year's day (Nu. 29 7-11) : the piacular sacrifices of
Lev. 16 are distinct (see below $? 37). At Tabernacles the burnt. The accompanying sacrifice was a yearling
greatest feast of the year, the adhtional sacrifices are multklied lamb as a burnt offering (Lev. 2312J ).
pr,odigionsly (Nu. 29 1.8) . begin on the first day (15th)
They The two leavened loaves of new wheat flour a t
with thirteen bullocks. two rams, and fourteen lambs as burnt Pentecost (5 14) were also originally a local offering;
offeerings, with their respective oblations and libations severally
and a be goat as a sin offering. On the succeeding days tb; in later times they were presented in the temple for the
number of bullocks diminishes by one each day, so that on the whole people. The preparation of the fine flour, and
seventh day there are seven bullocks the other victims remain- the leavening and baking of the loaves, are minutely
ing throughout the same. On the eiihth day the sacrifice con-
sists of one bullock, one ram, and seven he lambs as a burnt regulated. T w o yearling lambs are presented with
offering with their oblations and libations, and a he goat as a the loaves, waved before Yahwk, and offered a s peace
sin offering (Nu. 2935-38). At this feast all the twenty-four offerings (5 40). T h e bread does not come upon the
courses of priests took part, in a fixed order (M. Sukkdh 56). altar, but is eaten by the priests. The additional burnt
A ceremony peculiar to Taheriiacles was the libation of water;
see below, $ 35. offerings on this day have been enumerated above
Ex. 25 30 merely prescribes that bread shall always (5 33).
stand on the table before Yahwe; more particular A libation of wine and a n oblation accompany every
directions are given in Lev. 2 4 5 - 9 public burnt offering : the daily holocaust (Nu. 2 8 7 J
34a' Shewbread.' (see L EVITICUS, 5 21). The bread 36.
Ex. 29 4 0 J ) ; the additional burnt
was made of fine flour, two tenths of an ephah of which offerings on sabbaths, new moons,
was required for each loaf. Twelve such loaves were a n d festivals (Lev. 23 18 37 Nu. 2 8 9 14 29 18 etc. 33 39) ;
the lamb offered with the first sheaf (Lev. 2 3 1 3 ) ; and
1 See Hamburger RE 2 sa7J
2' See -
I -
.. ., 8 27 ?F,zkielh
3 See, e.g., f:r-;b>-Egyp;ians Erman Acgyi)ten, 375f: ; for
the bullock of burnt offering sacrificed with the sin
offering of the congregation (Nu. 1624). The manner
the Greeks, Stengel, KulfusaZte~iz2merd,97. of offering wine is referred to only in Nu. 2 8 7 : ' in the
4 See Now. H A 2 r76f: ; PASSOVER 5 15.
6 This duplication results from takidg the laws in Nu. 28 and
holy place (zh& Pv TG d$y) offer a libation of strong
Lev. 23 as independent of each other ; see R. 'Akib5 in M&d- drink (v@, U ~ K E ~toU )YahwB.
hdfh 456. It is possible that the practice was not so lavish as
ihis exegesis ; cp R. Tarphon, Z.C.
1 Ani. iii. 66, 10 7. See esp. M. M&i&ifh 1I 8
6 See above, 0 14. Heb. O'??? Do) (IS. 216[71 Ex. 2530 2 1M. Y8md 3 II .M. ShZkZZim 5 T. /w.Slz&iZZm 48 d,
35 13 39 36), cp Babylonian a k a l j d n i ; also i l ~ l '5,
~ ~from
X its etc. On the specialHrt of baking sacrific(ia1cakes sei Athenaeus,
R rrcn.
arrangement on the table (1 Ch. 9 32 23 29 Neh. 10 34) ; l',CC? '$3 3 See also E#. Arisf., ed. Thackeray, 532f:
Nu. 4 7. @3usually d p r o ~6 s rrpoOiuew (so in NT), Vg. &nes 4 Ex. 30 9 prohibits a libation on the inner altar.
jrujusitionis. 5 See above, 19 14 and 31a.
4211 4212
The passage is difficult; ;2kcZr is not elsewhere prescribed for 29 11 demands, with the additional burnt offerings, a he
libations ; if old wine' (Tg.) or 'unmixed wine ' is meant it is goat as a sin offering, ' beside the goat of atonement '-
bard to see why the unusual term should be used (cp W I N E );
equally strange is a libation in the temple itself, yet the words that is, the goat chosen by lot in the special rites of the
admit no other natural explanation. day as a 4agrith (Lev. 1659 15). It was offered after
The oblation, of which the libation is a standing the peculiar expiatory ceremonies of the day, with the
accessory, was offered on the great altar, and there, ordinary ritual ; its flesh was eaten.
undoubtedly, the libation accompanying the burnt offer- The propria of the Day of Atonement (Lev. 16) *
ings also was made. Evidence that this was the custom begin with the sacrifice by the high priest of a bull as a
is given by Sirach (50 15 [16f:]) : the high priest ' stretched sin offering for himself and the priesthood in general ;
forth his hand to the chalice and made a libation of the its blood was carried by him into the ' most holy place '
blood of the grape ; he poured it out a t the base of the and sprinkled there in a minutely prescribed manner.
altar, a fragrance well pleasing to the Most High the The sin offering of the congregation, a he goat, was
universal king' ; so also Jos. A n t . iii94. In the same next offered, and its blood in like manner sprinkled in
way the rite is described by Maimonides.' &Z. d l h i - the adytuni. The blood of both was then applied to
48th 8 6 names some places where the best wine for the the horns of the altar and sprinkled with the finger
temple service was produced, and forbids wine grown seven times upon the altar-that is, according to the
or prepared under certain conditions. It must he pure later practice if not to the original intention of the
natural wine, not sweetened, smoked, or boiled. law, the altar of incense (Ex. 30 I O ) ; cp Lev. 47 18 ; the
One of the most striking ceremonies of the Feast of rest of the blood was poured out at the base of the
Tabernacles was the libation of water which was made great altar. The usual parts of both victims were
every morning during the seven days of the feast a t the burned on the altar of burnt offerings ; the rest of the
same time as the libation of wine accompanying the flesh (cut u p as for an 'ZXh),with the head, legs, in-
morning holocaust.2 The water was carried up from wards, and hide, were carried out to the place where
Siloam through the water-gate, and poured into a basin the ashes from the altar were emptied, and there con-
on the top of the altar a t the SW. corner, the wine sumed by fire. T h e general rule is that the flesh of sin
being poured into another. The bringing of the water offerings whose blood is brought into the temple must
into the precincts was accompanied by trumpet-blasts not be eaten (Lev. 630[23]. cp 47 1 1 , etc. 1627). The
and loud j ~ b i l a t i o n . ~ attendant who thus comes in contact with the holy flesh
T h e oblation in the sacra publica was not accom- is unclean, and must bathe before again coming into
panied, as was that of individuals ( 5 31 b ) , by a portion the city (Lev. 1628, cp Nu. 195.10).

36* zi.nSe; of frankincense burnedbn the greit altar.

In place of this, a costly compound in-
cense was burned on the small altar in
( c ) Occasional sin offerings. The sin offering of the
anointed,priest (Lev. 43-12)must be regarded as public,
because the premiss is that his inadvertent transgression
the temple a t the morning and the evening sacrifice (see has brought evil consequences upon the people (4zf.).
I NCENSE , 0 6f:). Urns of frankincense stood on the The victim is a bull ; the blood is taken into the holy
table of shewbread ; the contents wwre removed every p1:ice. sprinkled seven times before the veil, and applied
sabbath and burned on the outer altar (above, 3 4 a ) . to the horns of the altar of incense; the subsequent
Salt was required with all public as well as all private procedure is the same as in the case of the high priest's
offerings ; even the compound incense contained salt. bull on the Day of Atonement. The sin offering of the
Large quantities of salt were consumed in the temple ; whole congregation (Lev. 4 13-21) for an unknown trans-
Josephus ( A n t . xii. 33) records that Antiochus the Great gression, the consequences of which they suffer, is a
ordered 375 medimni (annually) to be delivered to the bull ; the imposition of hands is by the elders ; the
Jews for the maintenance of the w o r ~ h i p . ~Rock salt minister is the high priest ; the ritual is the same as in
( ' Sodom salt ' ) is specified in the formula for the com- his own sin offering above. An older parallel to Lev.
pounding of incense, and was doubtless used for other 413.21 is Nu. l 5 ~ 2 - 2 6 . ~The sacrifices here required
purposes (see S ALT, 2). are a bull as a burnt offering, with the regular oblation
( u ) Stated sin offerings a t new moons and feasts. and libation, and a he goat as a sin offering. I t is
With the additional burnt offerings (Nu.28f: ; above, assumed that the ordinary ritual is followed ; the flesh
3 3 ) it is ordered that one he goat ( ~ y k ) is eaten by the priests.
37' shall be sacrificed as a sin offering on ( d ) Sin offerings in ceremonies of con~ecration.~In
piaculit. the new moon, on each of the seven days the consecration of priests, Ex. 2 9 1 8 (cp Lev. 818),a
of Unleavened Bread, a t Pentecost,6 on the first of the bull is offered as a sin offering, with the usual ritual;
seventh month, on the tenth of the same month, on the the flesh, hide, and offal are destroyed by fire. Similarly
seven days of Tabernacles, and on the closing (eighth) in the inaugural sacrifices of Aaron, Lev. 9, he sacrifices
day of that festival. No special rules for these sin for himself a bull-calf as a sin offering with the same
offerings are given in the Pentateuch; the ritual is rites. The,disposition of the flesh is not mentioned;
doubtless the same as that described in Lev. 915, c p from D. 15 it may be inferred that it was burned ; but a
8-11 ; that is, identical with that of the private sin
late passage (10 16-20) maintains that it should have been
offering (I 28 a ) , except that there is no imposition of eaten, since it did not fall under the rule of 630. At the
hands ( M . iWZn&h#th 9 7 ) ; the flesh was eaten by the dedication of the Levites (Nu. 8 6 ) a bull is sacrificed as
priests under the same restrictions as that of the private a sin offering without specification of the ritual.
sin offering.6 In addition to the several sin offerings of the Day of
( b ) The sin offerings of the Day of Atonement. Nu.

hak-kor6dnbth 2 I .
R. Abraham b. David, on the
38. Scape-goat;
Atonement, a goat, on whose bead the sins of the people
had been solemnly laid by the high
priest' was Sent away into the
1 Ma'Zsd red heifer. ness ' t o Azazel' (see A TONEMENT,
contrary, hold; that t h e wibe-as at the water libation at Taber-
nacles-was poured into a basin on the top of the altar, whence D AY O F ; AZAZEL). This was the great expiation for
--..--... II.

M. Sukkifi 4 9 , 5 1 : J'uRKih 51a6, cp 426, 4 ~ 48ab: .

/e.. .TukkEh 556: Ta'rinith 3a: /<ashha-Shimih 16a,etc. 1 See ATONEMENT DAY OF.
3 For an exdanation of the rite See N A T U RE WORSHIP.
, 8"A._
~~ _.._
...-& v i f i m + i o n nf the
2 1nawnw-h 2 9 the = _ _ _ i~
nriest .I_.inrli<nen.ihle
nn .
reliminary to the grand piucula of the day, this sin okLnkyL
I_ I

4 C Ezra 6 7 2 2 Jos. A n t . xiii. 2 3.


5 Tfe sin o&ring)of Lev. 23 19 is thought by most critics to Eere classed with the sacrapublica.
be an interpolation from Nu. 2627& ' the Tews however de- 3 Rabbinical exegesis hamonised them by interpreting Nu.
cide that it was distinct from that. Se'e M. &T&hdtA 4 2 ;'Jos. 15 2 2 of the sin of idolatry as the violation of all the command-
6 See Jus.
n i . iii. 1 0 6
A n t . iii. 10 5. This is the rule for all sin offerings
4 The consecration sin offerings are not without significance
whose blood is not brought into the holy place. for the theory of suchpiacula.
135 42'3 4214
peculiar rite which, though widely differing from 111. BELIEFS AND IDEAS
ordinary sacrifice, must be mentioned here, is the
burning of the red heifer, with whose ashes is prepared T h e prevailing conception of sacrifice and offering in
a holy water that purges the uncleanness arising from the O T is that of a gift or present to God. T h e two
contact with a dead body (Nu. 19). T h e rites, as de- generic terms minhdh and korbdn both
41. Sacri~ce
scribed in the Mishna (Pard.),are plainly assimilated gia to God. express this idea.' iMinQah applies
to those of a burnt offering (see CLEAN AND UNCLEAN, equally to Cain's gift of the fruits of
17; N U MBERS , 5 20). Another noteworthy the earth and to Abel's- of animals f;om his flock (Gen.
piaculuin is the slaying of a heifer to atone for a 43-5, J). T h e same word is used of a gift to a fellow-
murder the perpetrator of which cannot be detected man as a token of friendship (Is. 3913, an act of
(Dt. 21 1-9). homage ( I S.1027 I K.10z5), tribute to a suzerain
In the directions for the consecration of Aaron and his (Judg. 3 15 17 f: z S. 8 2 6 ) , to propitiate a powerful
sons (Ex.29, cp Lev. 8), after the sacrifice of a hull as a person who has been wronged or offended (Gen. 33 13 18
sin offering (above, 37) and a ram as 33 1.3) ,or to procure favour and assistance (Gen. 43 I 18
39s' Instal- a burnt offering, another ram, called the Hos. 106), etc. I n the later technical language of the
1;2?ft:f 'installation r a m '(nwp iy, w. z z ) is ritual &whin, ' present,' is the comprehensive name for
sacrifice and offering of every kind. The general rule
offered. Its blood is rubbed on the tip
that no man should come into the presence of God
of the candidate's right ear, on his right thumb, and without a gift holds in all ages ; see Ex. 2315 3420 Dt.
his right great toe ; the blood is then dashed against 16 16, Ecclus. 354 'W. +'Zg<gih 1 I . Girts to God were
the altar as in other sacrifices. T o the parts usually made with the same variety of motive as to man.
burned upon the altar in the sacrifice of a sheep as a Theophrastus names three : homage, gratitude, and
peace offering, is added in this case the right leg, which
:eed (4 yhp 6ih rrfi+v i ) 6ib xdpiv i ) 6ih ~ p e i a vTGV
in a layman's sacrifice would fall to the priest. From a
ayaOdv, ap. Porphyry, De abstin. 224). Philo distin-
basket containing loaves of bread, cakes made with oil, guishes sacrifices in which men pay to God the
and wafers smeared with oil-all of fine flour (cp Lev. honour due to him with no self-regarding motive from
7 1 1 8 , § 30)-one of each kind is taken and placed, those brought for the benefit of the offerer, either that
with the altar portions and the leg, on Aaron's hands, he may obtain good things or be delivered from evils2
and ' waved' by Moses before Yahwb. They are then T h e commonest gift to God is something to eat and
burned upon the altar. The breast of the ram, which drink, the flesh of the domestic animals used for food
Moses waves before Yahwe, is his portion ; the rest of by the Israelites, grain, fruit, oil and wine.2 T h e
the flesh of the rani is boiled in a holy place and, with phrase a food of God' ( O ~ mi). N which occurs re-
the remainder of the contents of the basket, eaten by peatedly even in comparatively late contexts (see Lev.
the newly consecrated priests. Any that is left till 21681721 2225 [HI. Ezek.447 cp 16x9; also Lev.311
morning must be burned ; it may not be eaten after 16 Nu. 2 8 ~ 2 4 ) ,shows to what end such offerings were
that time. It is implied in Ex. 2 Q 2 9 8 (secondary)
made; cp Dt. 3298 : the gods whom the Israelites
that the same ceremony is to be performed whenever a worshipped ' eat the fat of their sacrifices and drink the
high priest is to be inducted ; cp Lev. 8 3 3 8 wine of their libations ' ; see also the protest of Ps. 50 13.
I n Ex. 2936$, the blood of the bull offered as the
Doubtless those who first used the phrase 'food of
sin offering of the priests also purifies the altar ( re-
God' meant it quite literally (see the end of the third
moves its sin,' 'expiates for i t ' ; see
396' tablet of the Babylonian Cosmogonic Epic), though
below, 45) ; cp Ezek. 4 3 1 8 6 Thus
Of observation and reflection may have early led men to
the altar becomes 'very holy ; what-
draw the distinction which modern peoples in low
soever touches it is thereby made sacred ( L e . , belongs planes of culture often make between the visible things
to God). In a still later supplement, Ex. 30268, the offered and their subtle essence or 'soul' which the
holy anointing oil is applied to the tent and all its deity extracts for his enjoyment -a conception a s
furniture, as well as to the priests. literal, though not so crass, as the other. The mode
Peace offerings were ordinarily private sacrifices ; the of presentation varies. T h e shewbread (originally ac-
feast of the worshippers was their characteristic feature. companied, doubtless, by wine ; see above, § 3 4 a ) was
It is, indeed, not improbable that at
40. Peacein the high festivals the kings furnished kept standing continually on a table in the house of
offerings Yahwb ( I S. 21 6 Ex. 25 30 Lev. 24 5-9) ; in animal
B B ~ publica.
a animals in great numbers (as their free- sacrifices certain parts-in the holocaust all the flesh-
will offerings) for the assembled people,
of the victim were consumed by fire upon the altar, as
and Ezekiel plainly contemplates the continuance of this were also sacrificial cakes of various kinds and unbaked
custom (4517); but in P there is no recognition of dough ; other offerings, as the firstfruits, were set down
offerings of this kind. In the completed sacrificial before the altar with a dedicatory formula (Dt. 264-IO),
system there are, however, certain public or quasi- or waved' ; that is, with one of those fictions so common
public sacrifices which fall under this head. The instal- in ritual, in makebelieve thrown upon the fire.
lation ram of the priests (Ex. 29) is plainly a peace T h e custom of burning the offerings to God upon
offering with certain peculiar rites. The inaugural a sacrificial fire seems to have been adopted by the
sacrifices of Aaron in Lev. 9 include an animal from Israelites after their settlement in Canaan, from the older
the herd (Er) and a ram as peace offerings for the inhabitants (see above, § IZ), probably without much
people ; whether the author means it to be understood inquiry or reflection about the significance of the new
that their flesh was eaten by representatives of the mode or the reason for it. T h e verb which is commonly
people or by the priests is not clear. The annual used, however (&i@r,see above, 11), implies that the
sacrifice of the two lambs offered with the two loaves of object was not so much to consume by fire as to make a
new wheat bread at Pentecost (Lev. 2319) are public savoury smoke (see I NCENSE, I and n. I ). In this
peace offerings ;2 the flesh fell to the priests and was fragrant smoke, as it arises, the finer essence of the
very holy. With this exception the rule holds that all gift, etherealised, is conveyed to the deity." This is
public sacrifices are either burnt offerings or sin
1 See above, $5 11, 24. Cp also in NT, Mt. 5 235 84 2318f:
offerings. (8iUPOV).
a De vicf. o f i r . 8 4, 2240 Mangey. On the relation of
1 The aspersion of blood and anointing oil on the vestments of Philo's analysis to Theophrastus, see Bemays, 82j: 103.8
the priest is a later addition. Dotations and votive offerings to temples which do not fall
a This results from transferring a local rite in which the under the definition of sacrificeare not considered in this article.
lambs were real E&rniix to the central sanctuary; see 06 14 See VOTIVE OFFERINGS.
and 346. 4 Cp 11. 13x7 etc. Porphyry explains the burning as an
&rdavar&v ($e adstin. 2 5).

4215 4216
manifestly an advance upon the setting before God of primitive apprehensidn, against the spirits which cause
food and drink just as the worshippers use them. these evils. To the same end the modern Arab rubs
The offering by fire (zXeh, 3yK)produces a 'soothing-that is, the blood of a sacrifice upon his tent-ropes, or smears
an agreeable-odour ' (TS?I nihaafi, gh'! E'?, Gen. 8 21, J ; it upon his camels (Doughty, Ar. Des. 1499). It is
often in the ritual laws). Yahwl: 'smells' this odour, and is said that in an outbreak of cholera a t Hamath in 1875
appeased or gratified by it (Gem S 2 1 I S. 2G 19); when he is Christians procured blood from the slaughter-house and
angry he will not enjoy the smell of it, that is, he rejects the made with it a cross on the door of every room in their
sacrifice (Lev. 26 31 Am. 5 21). The burning of aromatic gums houses (Curtiss, Primitive Semitic ReZigion To-day,
and spices is a later refinement (see I NCENSE, 5 3); the ideas
which prompt it are the same.' 197$, cp 181, IS?$). With the same motive sacri-
All common private sacrifices ( z d b a t , fXdrnim, i8ddih). ficial blood is applied to sick persons or animals-the
same power which averts evil can expel it. The use of
whether obligatory or voluntary, were accompanied by
blood in 'purifications' is similar. T h e leper whom
42. sacri~ciala feast, in which the offerer participated
with his family, neighbours, and guests.2 the priest's inspection proves to be free from the
feasts. Since these feasts were held 'before disease is sprinkled with water mingled with the blood
YahwA,' at the holy place, after God had received his of a bird,' while another bird after being dipped in the
portion, it is a natural surmise that a meal in which bloody water is allowed to fly away.Z In the later rite
God and men join is a n essential feature of ordinary blood is applied to the man's ear, hand, and foot. It is
sacrifice, and that the.hospitality of table communion is not improbable that in other purifications the blood was
a pledge and bond of friendship between God and his primitively applied to the person to be cleansed, rather
worshippers as it is among men, a bond closer than than to the altar only, as in the actual ritual of the
that which isestablished by the acceptanceof a gift. It ' sin offering.' The efficacy of blood in removing un-
must be admitted, however, that this conception of the cleanness is exemplified also in ceremonies of dedication
nature and efficacy of sacrifice is now-here distinctly for the temple or altar, and for their periodical purifica-
expressed in the OT, and it is difficult to say how tion from accidental and unknown defilement, as well
clearly it was present in the consciousness of Israelite as in the consecration of priests ; s the removal of
worshippers.3 Much less do our sources throw any ' uncleanness ' and the establishment or restoration of
light upon the origin of such a conception. The ' holiness ' are effected by the same means.
scholars who contend that the sacrificial meal was Different from these uses of blood as a means of
primitively not a mere hospitable fellowship but sacra- averting or removing disease and defilement is the dis-
mental communion in the divine life of a totem animal, position made of it in ordinary sacrifice, where it is
d o not maintain that the Israelites in O T times regarded poured, splashed, or smeared upon the sacrificial stone
their sacrifices in any such way ; the most that would (rna@dh, altar).' The significance of this rite seems
be claimed is that certain survivals in the cultus and to be that by it the sacrifice is not only brought im-
superstitions without it point to this as the original mediately to the attention of the deity to whom it is
character and significance of the sacrificial feast. offered, but-at least in earlier conception-physically
It is clear, however, that whether the feast at the conveyed to him ; in Arab sacrifice nothing else is
sanctuary was conceived of as a table-companionship of made his. Covenant ceremonies like that in Ex. 244-6,
God and men or not, it must actually have strengthened in which the blood is applied both to the altar and to
the bond of religion by the sen= of God's presence and the people-that is, to the two contracting parties, as
friendliness. in blood covenants between men-are also to be noted.
Our investigation in the first part of this article of the T h e profane use of blood is stringently prohibited ; to
history of Israelite sacrifices and of the ritual has shown taste blood, or flesh with blood in it, is one of the worst
43. Blood that from first to last the utmost im- and most dangerous things a man can do. Domestic
of victim. portance attaches to the disposition of animals were in old times slaughtered a t the sacrificial
the victim's blood. Indeed, it may be stone and the blood poured out there; after the
said that this is the one universal and indispensable abolition of the high places it must be allowed to drain
constituent of sacrifice. When Saul's victorious followers into the ground, as that of beasts killed in hunting had
rushed upon the spoil of the Philistines and began to previously been. T h e blood of some species of sacrifice
slay cattle and eat them, the king had a great stone made taboo everything it touched.
rolled up, and commanded that they should slaughter The common root of these diverse uses and restric-
there, and not sin against YahwA by eating ' with the tions is the almost universal belief that blood is a fluid
blood,' that is the flesh of animals whose blood had not in which inheres mysterious potency, no less dangerous
been poured out at a sacrificial stone or altar ( I S. when misused than efficacious when properly employed.
1 4 3 2 - 3 4 ) ; cp Lev. 1 7 3 8 (see LEvmcus, 15). W e In the outpouring of the blood at the sacrificial stone
have seen that in Arab sacrifice also the pouring of the we may perhaps recognise the feeling that this is the
blood upon the sacred stone or anointing of it with safest disposition of it, as well as the belief of a some-
blood was the essential rite. This use of sacrificial what more developed theology that it belongs to the
blood is older than the offering of part of the victim by deity of right. What makes the blood so powerful for
fire, and is the necessary antecedent of the feast, its good or ill is that the life is in it ; the theory of Lev. 17 I I
religious consecration. The offering or application of is based on a fact of the simplest observation.
the blood cannot very well be regarded as a gift to God, Many of the practices that have been noted above
or as a mere incident in the preparation for a com- manifestly originated in an animistic nature religion, in
munion meal. It is, indeed, plain in the OT itself that which alone they have meaning. In the national
the ideas and beliefs that are connected with the use of religion of Israel they become part of the worship of
sacrificial blood belong to a different and a more primi- YahwA or of the custom of the people under his
tive circle of ideas. sanction. This connection logically involves a change
In the application of blood to the doorposts and of apprehension : the rites are not efficacious by the
lintels of a house to prevent ' the DESTROYER ' ( q . ~ . ) inherent potency of the blood or the virtue of the
from entering to slay the inmates (see above, 3 7) we have 1 Cp the 'water of uncleanness' containing the ashes of the
an instance of the belief that the blood of a victim serves red heifer in purification from contact with death.
2 Cp the Arab custom of release from widowhood, Ta3'$
as a protection against disease and death; that is, in v. 70 IS^; Wellh. Neid.P), 1 7 1 ; WRS Rel. Sem.R 422.
8 That this ceremony was felt to he a purification is shown hy
1 Cp the Babylonian Flood Tablet, 1. 1 6 0 s the imitation of it in the late rite for the cleansing of the leper,
2 See above, 5 11. The flesh of the trespass offering and of Lev. 14 1 4 3
all ordinary sin offerings furnished a banquet for the priests. 4 Curtiss, ofj. cit. ch. 15, has collected many modern instances
3 The idea of communion in sacrifice with the deity is ex- in which the blood of a victim is smeared on the portal of a
pounded by Paul, I Cor. 10 18-z~. shrine, which takes the place of the old sacred stone.
4217 4218
operation, but as the means which God has app0inted.l effect and operation of sacrifice the meaning of the
T h e more positive the conception of religion becomes, 41. E ~ e c tof verb kipper with its cognate words and
the less motive there is to seek any other explanation synonyms has filled a large place ; and,
of such practices than that God has commanded them. sacri~ce: by a fault of method which has been
If, finally, the irrationality of such ceremonies comes to terms. fruitful of error in the study of the OT,
be felt, and their incongruity with spiritual religion, the investigation has frequently set out from etymological
allegory and symbolism will find some profound signifi- assumptions instead of from the plain facts of usage.
cance in them. Yet the ignorant multitude will doubt- K8fiher, a word ofjural associations, is the mean-payment
less continue to have faith in the virtue of the ceremony gift, bribe-by which a man buys himself off from the coni
sequences of his deed : see Ex. 21 30 ( = a ransom for his life),
itself, and to understand better than their teachers its Nu. 35 31-33 Prov. 6 35 138 Job3324 Am. 5 12 T S. 12 3 (hrihe ;
true import, because the old animism is still a reality to cp Is. 47 11) ; Ex. 30 12 (head money). The verb hi@er (de.
them. nominative use of the intensive stem) means to make satisfaction
A corresponding change is wrought in the conception by such means; see especially 2 S.213 Gen.3220 [=I]. Since
the object is to avert the consequences of misdoing, the verb
of ' uncleanness. ' Whereas originally it was a physical often signifies to seek or procure remission, without regard to a
thing whose evil was in itself, it becomes in the national material satisfaction, to propitiate ; thus Ex. 32 30 (Moses' in.
religion a pollution offensive to Yahwb; it is incom- tercession with God for forgiveness of the people's sin), cp 2 Ch.
30 18. The passives regularly mean 'be forgiven,' e g . , Is. 22 14
patible with his holiness and the holiness which he I S. 3 14 Dt. 21 8 ; and conversely the active, frequently, ' for-
demands of all that approach h i m ; its consequences give,' e g . Ezek. 16 63 Jer. 16 23. With these senses and uses
are not only natural but penal ; it requires to be not in commdn life and religion the uses which we should call
specifically ritual connect themselves. Offences against God
merely purged but expiated. Uncleanness is in this light are not confined to moral wrong-doing ; the infringement-even
a moral wrong, and involves guilt. On the other hand, unwitting-f ceremonial rules or of the many laws concern-
a not inconsiderable class of what we regard as moral ing ' uncleanness ' may have dire consequences unless expiated.
offences were included in the category of taboos requir- The defilementmay be contracted by thing=.?$ well as by persons,
and these also require to he purged in a similar way; in the
ing purifications. W e have difficulty in realising that consecration of a new altar it is necessarj to 'remove its sin to
guilt was believed to have the same physically con- ' expiate' (hipper) the altar (Ezek. 43 20 26) ;1 the semi-anrhal
tagious quality as uncleanness-one man who had purificationof the temple is a removal of the sin of the sanctuary,
an expiation of the house (Ezek. 45 2 0 ) ; cp Ex. 29 36f: Lev. 8 15
touched @rem (am) could infect and bring defeat upon 16 16 24. The sacrifices or rites, of whatever nature, by which
a whole army (Josh. 7). Almost equally strange to us the consequences of unwitting or inadvertent invasion of the
is the notion that guilt, like uncleanness, can be con- sphereof' holiness'arenullifiedareexpiatory,and theverhkififier)
tracted without knowledge and intention ; and that the is the technical term for their effect. Other verbs are frequently
first intimation a man may have that he has offended joined with it, especially &Z, xFn (privative), 'remove sin'
God is that he suffers the consequences ( i s a m ) ,with (of things), tihur, lDU, 'make pure or clean' (of things and
its converse, that misfortune is the evidence that persons), &idda:d??, ' make holy,' which is the positive counter.
he has offended without knowing how. These are part of the preceding terms.
things, however, which must be kept in mind if we The word Kifijer is not so common in old tarcifhas might be
expected. It occurs with especial frequency in the old laws for
are to understand the piacilar aspects of Israelite the trespass offeringin Lev. 5 and the supplements to then], the
sacrifices. usual formula, standing after the directions for the sacrifice,
A man who has offended God may seek to propitiate being, ' and the priest shall make propitiation (3x1) in his behalf
him by a gift, as he might an earthly ruler ; so David and he shall be forgiven' (see Lev. 5 6 10673 16 IS 6 7 [5 261
@$9 22 Nu. 5s); also in the purification of the leper (Lev. 14
44. propitiation in the time of plague offers burnt 18-20, cp 29 37 53), the Nazirite defiled by death (Nu. 6 II),
offerings in the threshing floor of purification after childbirth, gonorrhea, menorrhagia (Lev.
and expiation. Araunah ( z S. 2418-25). More fre- 12 j-f: 15 15 30); further, in the sin offering of the congregation
or an individual for an inadvertent omission (Nu. 15 25 28, cp
quently, perhaps, he made a vow that if Gods anger Lev. 4 20 26 31 35), and in the several strata of the ritual of the
under which he was suffering were withdrawn, he would Day of Atonement (Lev. 16). In most oft+ passages wherq
make him a specified sacrifice, either holocaust or peace the priest is subject, Kipper ( ~ ( r A a b n a y a r ) , make propiiiation,
offering,2 or both together, with such and such victims. might equally well be translated, 'make intercession,' as in Vg.
(oruTe, rogure, defrecuri, etc.), by Saadia (isfughfuru, 'beseech
This was probably in all periods the most numerous forgiveness'), and others.
class of votive offerings. T h e same means by which The propitiatory or expiatory effect of sacrifice is not
man in prosperity sought the continuance and increase restricted to any particular species or class, though
of God's favour were employed to recover it when in specific offences have prescribed piucuh, not only
any way it had been lost. trespass offerings and sin offerings, but also the private
The special pimula called sin offerings have a very limited burnt offering (Lev. l 4 ) , and even peace offerings and
range of employment (see above 0 2 8 ~ ) . They are prescribed oblations ' atone ' ; the whole public cultus is a means
chiefly for unintentional ceremonial faults or as purifications; of propitiating God and obtaining remission for sin and
the trespass offering is even more narrowly restricted (above,
27). The great expiation for the whole people, in later times uncleanness (Ezek. 4 5 1 5 17). Nor is the operation of
at least, was the scape-goat ; not any form of sacrifice. propitiatory sacrifice centred exclusively, as has often
Sacrifices offered to propitiate the offended deity been contended, in one part of the ritual, the shedding
require no peculiar rites ; the outpouring of the blood, and application of the victim's blood: it is only in
certain peculiar purifications that this is really the case ;
the burning of the fat or of the holocaust, are precisely
elsewhere the very formulation of the laws shows that
the same as when these species of sacrifice are made,
say, in gratitude for the signal goodness of God. The the whole ceremony has atoning value (see, e.g., Lev.
426 31 35 5 IO 13, etc. ). The sin offering of the pauper,
blood of the sin offering is smeared upon the horns of
which is only a little meal, i s a s effectual as the bloody
the altar instead of being splashed against its corners ; but
whatever the origin of this difference may be,3 we may, sacrifices of his more prosperous fellows.
The term kipper is used in relation to other than
in view of the whole character of the bu?tdthlt, confidently
affirm that it is not a purposed heightening of the sacrificial expiations ; thus when a plague broke out,
application. Aaron went among the people with a censer of burning
In the discussion of Hebrew ideas concerning the incense, and made expiation for the people ( o y n $y l L o * l ) ,
and the plague was stayed (Nu. 1646J [1711J]); the
slaughter of a guilty man by Phinehas made expiation
1 The constant tendency is to assimilate ceremonies of pro-
tection or purification to the ritual of sacrifice to God. for the Israelites (Nu. 2513) ; murder profanes the land,
2 Neither sin offering nor trespass offering could he vowed. no blood-wite ( k Z @ e ~ )shall be taken for it, ' the blood
3 If a conjecture may be allowed, we may surmise that the which has been shed shall not be expiated save by the
presence of the polluted man requires apurification of the altar ; blood of him that shed it ' (Nu. 35 3 2 5 ) ; an offering of
or that the blood which in the primitive rite was applied to the
person of the man to be cleansed has in the cult been transferred
to the altar. 1 Cp exjiundum forum Romunum, Cic. Phil. i. 1 2 30.
4219 4220
jewelry from the spoils of war serves ‘ to make expiation God requires of men is not gifts and offerings hut faith-
for our lives ’ (Nu. 31 5 0 ) ; cp also Nu. 8 19 Lev. 1016fi fulness and obedience, not cult but conduct. This
141afl 1610. was the necessary consequence of their idea of God and
Whether the primary meaning of the root 1103 in of religion. Yahwe is a righteous God ; that is to say,
Hebrew was ‘cover up,’ as in Arabic, or *wipe, wipe his character is perfectly moral ; being such, by his very
off,’ as in Syriac, we need not here inquire, inasmuch nature he demands righteousness of his people, and can
as it is not used in the O T in a physical sense at all, or accept nothing in lieu of it. The sphere of righteous-
with any reminiscent consciousness of such a sense. It ness is not ritual and ceremonial bnt social and political ;
is of more moment that the same verb is used in Assyrian it means truth, integrity, justice, goodness to fellow-men,
of ritual purifications or expiations for persons and in all the relations of life. T h e demand of righteous-
things, performed by the aSipu-priest.’ Cp R IT U A L , ness is not something aside from religion, is not a minor
§ 8. part of religion ; it is its fundamental law, its sum and
On kappo’reth, see MERCY SEAT. substance. The sacrifices of unrighteous men are an
One passage only seems to contain a more explicit insult to God, because they imply that he is like them-
theory of expiation by blood. Lev. 1711 (Rp) gives as selves. They deceive themselves fatally when they
a motive for the oft-repeated prohibition think that they can buy his favour or his forgiveness.
of eating blood : For the life of the body And where there is the character in which he delights,
a $ ~ ~ is~in ~thet blood, . and I have given it to there is the pure religion and undefiled which has no
you to use upon the altar to make ex- need of sacrifice. T h e utterances of the prophets are
piation for yourselves; for the blood makes expiation too familiar to need more than the briefest reference
by virtue of the life [in it] ; cp D . 14. That the life or h e r e ; see Am. 4 4 521 8 Hos. 4 8 13 5 6 811 143f:
soul of the animal is in the blood, or, shortly said, the Is. 1 1 1 8 2212f: 287f: Jer. 620 7 2 1 8 , etc.
blood is the soul (cp Gen. 94 Dt. 1223 Lev. 1714), gives The substance of the prophetic conception of religion is
it the mysterious potency which is the ground both of summed up for all time in Mic. 6 6-8 : Wherewith shall I approach
the prohibition and of the piacular efficacy of blood (see Yahwk: bow to the exalted God? Shall I aumoach him with
burnt offerings and yearling calves? Will‘ Yahw& accept
above, § 43). T h e author of Lev. 1711 merely says thousands of rams, myriad streams of oil? Shall I give my
explicitly what is implied in the use of blood in rites firstborn for my transgression, the child of my body for my own
of purification and expiation ; it is not as a fluid like sin? He has told thee, Oman; what is good, and what doth
water or oil or wine that it is efficacious, but by virtue Yahwl: seek of thee, save to practise justice and to love charity
and to walk in humility with thy God?
of its inherent life.3 This beginning of reflection on
the operation of sacrifice is interesting because it is re- It is not probable that the prophets distinctly enter-
flection; it also truly expresses the conception which tained the ideal of a religion without a cultus-a purely
underlies the rites. W e should err, however, if we spiritual worship; sacrifice may well have seemed IO
sought in it the profounder idea of the substitution of them the natural expression of homage and gratitude.
the victim’s life for th‘e sinner’s which is suggested by But they denied with all possible emphasis that it had
the Greek translation, r d ybp d p a d r o F dvr1 r?js $u;y?jr any value to God or any efficacy with him ; he had not
2(tXduesuc, or perhaps even that the offering of a Zzye to appointed it ; his law was concerned with quite different
God is the essential thing in sacrifice.’ things (Jer. 7 z z f . ).
There is no doubt that the Israelites in all ages firmly T h e deuteronomic reform attempted to cut off the
believed in the efficaciousness of sacrifice to preserve abuses of the worship at the high places against which
and restore the favour of Yahwe. I n the prophets had inveighed by suppressing the high
47. Efficacy of times of prosperity they acknowledged places themselves ; and made by consequence consider-
sacrifice : his goodness and besought its con- able changes in the old customs, the most serious of
popular belief. tinuance by sacrifice; in times of which was that which permitted domestic animals to
distress they multiplied sacrifices to appease him and be slaughtered for food without any sacrificial rites ;
make him again propitious. T h e worship of God by but, so far from detracting from the religious im-
sacrifice and offering was, indeed, the central thing in portance of sacrifice, Dt. greatly enhanced it by incor-
their religion, we might almost say was their religion. porating its ordinances in a law book of professedly
Its rites, as they had been received from their fore- Mosaic origin, divine sanction, and national authority.
fathers, they believed-long before the age of the written Ezekiel lays out a detniled plan for the sacrificial cultus
law books-to have been ordained and sanctioned by of the restoration ; Haggai and Zechariah zealously
Yahwe himself; the experience of generations had urge the rebuilding of the temple, in the conviction that
shown that he honoured the faithful observance of the prosperity of the community depends upon it. T h e
them ; how should they not have confidence in them? collections of /Crith made or edited in the sixth and
That this confidence was often the sincere and earnest following centuries are largely occupied with ritual
faith of godfearing men is beyond question; hut bad prescriptions.
men also confided in sacrifice as an effective means of It is manifest that in the Persian and Greek periods
placating God, and persuading him to wink at their sacrifice held both in the actual worship and in the
unrighteous deeds, just as a gift might serve to turn estimation of the people the same place
49. Persian in religion that it had had under the
aside the anger of a king, or to corrupt a judge. This
confidence in the efficacy of sacrifice involved an im-
and Greek kings; see, e.g., M a l . 1 7 f i 33f: 8 3
periods* Joel1913 2 1 4 D a n . 8 1 1 8 , cp 1 1 3 1
moral idea of God and of religion : it was, indeed, the
very stronghold of these false conceptions. Against it, 1211 Ecclus. 5011fl I Macc. 4 4 2 8 , etc.
therefore, the prophets direct their attack. In the Psalms the religious spirit of sacrifice finds
The prophets of the eighth century not only denoiiuce frequent and pious expression ; eg.. 266J 276 6613-15
the abuses and corruptions of the worship at the temples 10722. T h e teaching of the prophets was. however,
48. The and high places-the drunken revelry, the not forgotten: God has no delight in sacrifice and
prophets. consecrated prostitution, the greed of the offering ; what he requires is to do his will with delight
priests and their perversion of the t6rHh ; and have his law in the heart, etc. ( P s . 4 0 6 8 ) ; the
they deny the efficacy of sacrifice altogether. What fault God fin& with Israel is not about their sacrifices
1 See Zimmern, Beitr. 2 292 : Haupt, JBL, 19 61 80 (IF).
and continual burnt offerings ; how absurd to imagine
2 So v3j> is probably to be taken, not ‘instead of’ (@ that he to whom belongs the world and all that is therein
V5. etc.). needs their beasts, or that he eats the flesh of hulls and
See above, 8 43. It may be recalled that in the temple pains drinks the blood of goats ! (Ps.5 0 7 8 ) ; he desires not
were taken, by stirring it, to keep the blood from coagulating
before it was brought to the altar. sacrifice, nor is he pleased with burnt offering; the
4 No such theory appears in later Jewish thought. sacrifices of God are a broken spirit, a broken and
4221 4212
contrite heart God does not spurn-repentance, not in the law ; for what kinds of offence the burnt offering
expiation (Ps. 51 1 6 J , cp 7 5 ).. The Proverbs teach that atones (Lev. 1 4 ) is discussed in 7-03, .&fimihitfh10 12.
to practise uprightness and justice is preferred by God In the O T all saclea publica are sonietimes regarded as
to sacrifice (Prov. 213 ; cp I S. 1522) ; the sacrifice of atoning (propitiatory) ; so Ezek. 45 15 17 (above, 3 45).
wicked men is the abomination of Yahwk, but the Piacular value attached, however, especially to the sin
prayer of the upright is well-pleasing to him (Prov. 158, offerings-goats--at the new moons and feasts, and
cp 2127 ; see also 166). on the Day of Atonement (see above, 37). In AI.
The teachings of the wise concerning sacrifice in the .Sh#bzi'fith 12-5 the things for which these sacrifices
second century B.C. are well illustrated by Jesus son of respectively atoned are classified. It would be profitless

'O'ip Sirach. H e describes with enthusiasm

; the splendour of the temple service when
the high priest Simon offers sacrifice
to enumerate them here ; it must suffice to say that they
are without exception cases of ignorant or unwitting
intrusion of the 'unclean' into the sphere of 'holiness,'
( 5 0 1 r Z ) , and evidently has much interest in priesthood as when a man ceremonially unclean, in ignorance of
and cultus (cp 7 3 1 4514 f.). But his religious estimate the fact, enters the precincts of the temple, or eats
of sacrifice is thoroughly ethical. ' holy' food without knowing that he was unclean or
The long passage, 3418-35 [31zr-32], is of high importance that the food was holy, and the like ($y Y I J ~ ] W I153
throughout. The sacrifices of the wicked are a mockery of i*ulp W ~ , Y DnND3, M . ShE6. 1 4 end, cp 15 end). Even
God : he will not accept them nor forgive men's sins for the
multitude of their sacrifices (3419); it IS vain to try to bribe the special sin offering of the Day of Atonement, whose
God by offerings (cp Ju6iZees 5 16), for he will not accept them blood is brought into the adytum of the temple, atones
or to rely on an unrighteous sacrifice, for the Lord is ad for the same kind of offences, but for such as were
impartial judge (35 1.8); offerings made of goods wrung by
extortion from the poor are like murder (3420.22, cp 18). A committed presumptuously ; cp Lev. 1616 with v. 19.
man who fasts for his sins and then repeats them is as one who, ' For the rest of the transgressions defined in the law,
after performing his ablution to cleanse hini from contact with a venial or heinous, presumptuous or inadvertent, con-
dead body, goes and touches it again,; who will hear his prayer, scions or unconscious, of omission or commission,
or what profit is there in his humiliation? (34253). Obedience
to God and love to men take the place of sacrifice; he who including sins the penalty of which is excision from the
observes the law makes many offerings ; he who gives heed to people [by God] or death by the sentence of a court,
the commandments sacrifices a peace offering. He who shows the scapegoat atones' ( 2 . 16, end). This is the
kindness offers fine flour ; and he thnt practises charity sacrifices
a thank-offering.1 The acceptance of God is secured by avoid- authoritative statement, based upon Lev. 1 6 21 f:
ing wickedness, and forgiveness by abstaining from unrighteous- Another authoritative forn~ulation'of the doctrine of
ness (35 18). Literal sacrifices are to be brought when nien sacrifice is found in M. Yfimd 8 8 J : Sin offering and
visit the temple, because they are enjoined by the command- prescribed trespass offering atone ; death and the Day
ment (v. s), not because they have a moral or religious value in
themselves. But the character and disposition of the worshipper of Atonement atone if accompanied by repentance ;
is still the esrential thing (u. 8 s ) . The same lessons are repentance (by itself) atones for venial sins whether of
emphasised elsewhere in the book ; see, e.g., 7 8 3 omission or of commission, and in the case of heinous
For a representative of Hellenistic Judaism we turn sins it suspends the punishment till the Day of Atone-
to Philo. It must suffice to quote a single passage. ment comes around and atones. ( 9 ) If a man sqys.
There are those who think that slaughtering bulls is religious- o I will sin and repent over and over again,' no oppor-
ness, and who set apart for sacrifice-inexpiable sinners that
they are !-a portion of what they have got by theft or breach tunity of effectual repentance is given him ; if he says,
of trust or robbery, in order to escape punishment for their ' I will sin and the Day of Atonement will atone,' the
misdeeds. 'Tosuch I would say : The tribunal of God is incor- Day of Atonement does not atone for him. Trans-
ruptible : those who have a guilty conscience he turns away
from, even if they offer a hundred hulls every day; but the gressions which are between a man and God, the Day of
blameless, even if they bring no sacrifice at all he receives. Atonement atones : transgressions that are between a
For God delights in fireless altars surrounded b;the chorus of man and his fellows, the Day of Atonement does not
virtues, not in altars blazing with a great fire that the impious atone until he has propitiated the injured party (cp 3er.
sacrifices of unhallowed men (bvdpwv & ~ O L Guaiac) have set
aflame, which do but remind him of the ignorance and deep Yirna', 3 9 8 , ed. Sitomir).
guilt of each who so offers (De pZantaf. Noe, ii. $j25, 1345 Somewhat fuller, and fortified by biblical proof textr, is the
Rlangey). See also Vif. Mos. iii. $ IO, 2 ~ 5 1 ;and on the teachinz of R. Ishmael concernins four kinds of sins and their
character of the worshipper, especially De oirt. 0 5, 2241 : De atonement which, in slightly vzrying forms: is repeated in
sac+cantibus, 0 13 ; De meyc. nrerefr. $ I, 2 264A, Frag. many placks and may be regarded as containing the generally
34. etc. accepted ddctrine ; see Toa. Yam Kzj5jlirim 5 6 [46]; P Z n i
The superiority of uprightness and goodness to sacri- 86a ; Jer. l ' b m i 456 : Jer. Sh26li'dth 336 ; Jet-. Sanhedrin
27c; MekiZtci, Yithro, 5 7 (76a, Weiss), etc. Ishmael recognises
fice is not infreouentlv emohasked bv Palestinian
& , I the chastisements of God as expiatina
- - sin in whole or in part:
61. schools of rabbis : Hos. 66 ( ' I desire mercy and see below, 0 52.
not sacrifice,' cp Mt. 913 127) 1012 ( b ) T h e Mishna and R. Ishmael include repentance
law: Mic. 6 8 Prov. 21 3 are quoted in proof. among the things which obtain the remission of sins,
of sacri5ce. That God has repard. not to the 62. Moral and and bring us naturally to the question
0 .

magnitude and costliness of the offering but to the spirit whether, in general, repentance is re-
religious quisite to the efficacy of piacular sacri-
of the worshipper, is authoritatively declared. ~f

conditions fices, or whether they expiate sin en

Without dwelling longer on this aspect of their teach- atonement. opere operaio, without regard to the
ing, we pass directly to the inquiry, What was taught
in Palestinian schools of the first and second Christian penitence of the Gbject..
centuries, or defined by their authority concerning- The latter theory was held by some eminent authorities,
a,the efficacy of sacrifice or of particular sacrifices ; b, among them, if he be rightly understood, by R. Judah
the religious and moral conditions of their efficacy (I the patriarch, who maintained that the great expiation
5 2 ) ; and c, the mode of their operation (§ 53)? of the Day of Atonement (the scapegoat) atoned for
( a ) The effect of sacrifice is expressed. as in the the sins of all Israelites who had not deliberately put
Pentateuch, by the verb Kipper (see above, § 45), themselves outside its effects by breaking with the
' make propitiation, expiation ' ; in translating passages religion of their p e ~ p l eindependently
,~ of anything in
in which it occurs we shall render as consistently as the conduct or disposition of man himself, a view which
possible atone.' T h e general principle is that all might find support in a literal interpretation of Lev.
private sacrifices atone, except peace offerings (including 1622. In I e r . Y i m i 8 7 , where this utterance of Rabbi
thank offerings), with which no confession of sin is is recorded, it is asked with surprise whether he can
made.a Sin offerings and prescribed trespass offerings have meant that repentance is not essential, and it is
atone in the specific cases for which they are appointed 1 See also Jer. Targ. on Lev. 69.
1 Cp the saying of Simon the Just A'bafh 12. 2 They expiate certain specified offences.
2 In the 'world to come' the thahk offeiing (tcidrih) will be 3 By atheism the effacing of circumcision, irreverent liberties
the only species of sacrifice ; Tanchiimri, Emor, 14. in the interpretkon of the law.
42-23 4224
explained that he held that in this respect the Day of death was exhorted to make a penitent's confession : only
Atonement was like death, of which also he taught- then will his death be an expiation for all his crimes.
contrary to the general opinion-that it expiates sin T h e sufferings, and especially the death, of righteous
even without repentance. The prevailing view, how- men atone for the sins of others. Is. 53 IZ is interpreted
ever, was that repentance is the condifio sine qua non of Moses, who 'poured out his soul unto death (Ex.
of expiation and the forgiveness of sins, as is laid down 3232) and was numbered with the transgressors (the
in the Mishua quoted above (.W.Y i m i 8 8 ) , and even generation that died in the wilderness) and bare the sin
more sweepingly in Tos. Y f m Kippzirim 59 1491 : Sin of many ' that he might atone for the sin of the golden
offering and trespass offering and death and the Day of calf ( S i t i h 14a). Ezekiel suffered ' that he might
Atonement none of them atone unless accompanied by wipe out the transgressions of Israel ' (Sunhdrin 39a).
repentance ; for it is said, ' Only' (lit, Lev. 2327) ; if a The general formulation of the doctrine is, ' the death
man repent. atonement is made for him (15 y9>n,?--i.e., of the righteous makes atonement' (Mi'Zd @&tinzSa,
he is forgiven), but if not no atonement is made for etc.); cp 4 Macc. 627-29 1722.
him. R. Eleazar quoted, 'And clearing' (np~i,Ex. ( c ) The only explicit answer to the question how
347) ; he clears those who repent, but not those who do sacrifice expiates in the Jewish amhorities of our period
not repent. R. Judah (ben %ai) taught : Death and is that of Lev. 1711 (see above, 46) ; what atones in
the Day of Atonement atone, with repentance ; repent- 63. How does sacrifice is the blood (Siphrii on Lev.
ance atones with death, and the day of death is like Z.C., cp Y i m i 5a, ZZ6ihim 6a). The
repentance (another reading is, by means of repent- question, How has the blood this
ance '). See also Yimd 856, and esp. 86a. In accord-

efficacy 'i is not raised ; and the specu-

ance with this doctrine the importance of repentance lations to which Le;. 1711 seems to invite by its
and its effects are much dwelt upon : see especially Y m d association of the blood with the life, and in which
86a 6,a collection of eulogiums on repentance from the Christian theology has been prolific, appear not to
lips of various teachers. have been started.l T h e theory that the victim's
A fine sa ing may be quoted from Jer. Makk2h26 (also life is put in place of the owner's is nowhere hinted
PcsiktcZ, Sh&ih, 1586): Men asked philosophy (nnIn), What is at. perhaps because the Jewish doctors understood
tne consequence of sin? It answered: Evil pursueth sinners
(Prov. 13 21). They asked prophecy. It answered : The s o d better than our theologians what sin offerings and
that sinneth it shall die (Ezek. 184). They asked the law. It trespass offerings were, and what they were for. Nor
answered : Let him bring a trespass offering and it shall be is there any discussion of the mode in which the blood
forgiven him (15 7g3n.r). They asked God, and he answered : of sacrifice operates expiation. T h e verb Kipper and its
Let him repent ( 3 3 1 nvy,),
~ ~ and it shall be forgiven him.
derivatives are used, precisely as in the Or, in the
The nature of repentance is well defined. Who is a sense, ' make propitiation, expiation, procure remission,'
truly repentant m a n ? it is asked. One, the reply is, without recourse to etymology and imagined ' primary
who, having sinned and repented, does not yield to the meanings.' Hence we hear nothing about the ' cover-
same temptation again ( Y f m i 866). Genuine repent- ing' of the sin or the sinner, or the ' wiping off'-or
ance is a resolute turning from s i n ; a man who ' out '-of guilt.2 T h e ancient etymological niidrash
commits a sin, and confesses it, but does not turn from attaches itself not to the verb Kipper but to the noun
it, is like a man who holds some crawling vermin (yi$) 'lamb.' T h e daily morning and evening holocaust
in his hand ; though he were to bathe in all the waters was a lamb (KPfiej); the school of Shammai said : It
in the world it would avail him nothing; but if he ' trampies down ' (K@l)ai)the sins of Israel (cp Mic. 6 9) ;
throw it away, a bath of forty s&hs suffices to make the school of Hillel replied : What is trampled down
him clean, for it is said, H e who confesses and for- comes up again ; sacrifice ' washes ' (D;D, Ri6bes) Israel
sakes his transgressions shall obtain mercy (Prov. 28 13.
T a ' J n i f h 16a ; cp Philo, De vict. 3 11, 2247 Mangey). free from sin (PesiKtd,ed. Buber, 616):.
The ethical distinction is clearly made between the Outside the ritual sphere-in the ethical sphere of
repentance that springs from love to God and the religion, that is-it is repentance that atones ; it is the
counterfeit of it which is only the expression of fear condition of God's forgiveness ; and the ultimate ground
inspired by chastisement ( Yimii 86a 6 ) . of forgiveness is God's love; love covereth all trans-
For a wrong done to a fellow-man, we have seen gressions (Prov. I o n ) , for God loves Israel ( Way-
that neither repentance nor the great expiation of the Day y i k r i K. c. 7 begin.). As a motive, the merits of the
of Atonement avail to obtain of God remission, until forefathers are often referred to. See also, on the
the offender has propitiated the injured party ( M Yimd nature of repentance and its relation to G o d s forgive-
89, above). This propitiation includes the reparation of ness, the fine passage in Philo, De exsecrationibus, § 8 f.
the material injury, the confession of wrongdoing and It does not fall within the scope of the present article
sorrow, and the obtaining of forgiveness (cp Mt. 523s). to describe or discuss later theories of the nature and
If forgiveness be not granted at the first seeking, the effect of sacrifice, such as the poena vicuria, or the
penitent must return with other members of the corn- sacramental theory, further than to say, a s the result of
munity, and in their presence confess his fault and the whole preceding investigation, that they are not
beseech pardon (Jcr. Yfmii88).2 derived from the O T but imported into it.
An expiatory character is attributed to suffering,
regarded as the chastisement of God ; whence R. 'AkibB IV. SACRIFICE I N N T
taught that a man should praise God not merely i n It is assumed in the Gospels that Jesus throughout
Chastisement but for it, since through it his sins are his life observed in the matter of sacrifice. as in other
atoned for (cp I Cor. 1 1 3 2 ) ; and R. Eleazar ben Jacob respects, the Jewish law as it was
quoted : 'Whom the Lord loveth he correcteth, even 64. Jewish
commonly practised in his time. Lk.
as a father the son in whom he delighteth ' (Prov. 3 12, the hspeis.
relates that his mother offered in due
cp Heb. 126). Death in a state of penitence also time the sacrifice of Durification after
expiates sin ( M . Yimi88); or, in the more detailed childbirth prescribed for the poor (Lk. 2 2 2 8 , cp !9,
exposition of R. Ishmael, death finally wipes out (pm) Lev. 12 2 4 6 8) ; at the age of twelve he first went with
the remainder of guilt which, in certain great sins, his parents to Jerusalem to the Passover (Lk. 2 4 1 8 ) .
neither repentance nor the piacula of the Day of Atone- He kept the Passover with his disciples the night before
ment nor the chastisements of this life suffice urholly to
' 1 Philo, indeed calls the blood +w,y.ic mov&j, hut pursues the
atone for. Hence, for example, a criminal sentenced to subject no farthe;
2 These senses-unknown to the ancient translators or inter-
1 An attempt to harmonise the opinion of Rabbi with the preters-were discovered in the Middle Ages. If either etymo-
Rlishna is made in Y8vrcZ 856. logy had suggested itself to the Jewish scholars in the Talmudic
2 Cp a corresponding procedure, Mt. 18 1 5 8 period it would doubtless have been the latter (' wiping off 'h
4225 . 4226
his death (Mk. 1 4 1 2 8 and 11s). T h e Fourth Gospel W e have already referred (above, J 42) to the
tells of several other visits to Jerusalem at the annual important passage, I Cor. 10 1 8 8 , in which Paul, in
feasts ( 2 1 3 8 5 1 8 7 2 8 ) . Jesus bids the leper whom warning his readers against heathen sacrificial feasts,
he has healed offer the sacrifices appointed in the law argues, as from something that would be understood
for his purification (Mk. 144 and lis, Lev. 14). The and conceded by all, that, as among Jews (cp also
injunction to effect the reconciliation of an injured Heb. 1310)so also among Gentiles, those who eat the
fellow-Israelite before offering sacrifice (Mt. 523f:),l flesh of the sacrifices, sharing it with the altar, become
supposes the continuance of sacrifice among those commensals of the God whose altar it is-the sacrificial
who should be his disciples; cp also 2313 3 23. meal is a communion, just as the Christian eucharist is,
There is in the Gospels no such denunciation of in which men partake of the table of the Lord.
the sacrificial worship of Jesus’ contemporaries as we Figures drawn from sacrifice-some of them more
find in the prophets (see above, 5 48); the forms ingenious than natural-are not infrequent in the
of Pharisaic piety which Jesus assails are of a different Pauline epistles. In Rom. 1516 Paul describes himself
kind-the ostentatious fasts, almsgiving, and prayers. as a priest ( h e ~ ~ o u p y bof
s ) Jesus Christ to the Gentiles ;
He quotes Hos. 66, ‘ I desire mercy and not sacrifice’ the ministry of the Gospel is a sacerdotal function
(Mt. 9x3 1Z7), as proof that goodness to our fellow- (iepoupyoOvTa ~b etayy.!hiov TOO OeoD), which he performs
men is of much higher value in the sight of God in order that the offering ( ~ p o u @ o p b )of (consisting
than offerings to himself; the scribe who recognises of) the Gentiles, may be made acceptable to God, being
that love to God and man is worth more than all burnt consecrated by the Holy Spirit. In anticipation of his
offerings and sacrifices is not far from the kingdom of approaching death he speaks of his blood as a libation
God (Mk. 1232-34). Such utterances are, however, not poured out upon the sacrifice and priestly ministry of
infrequent in the words of the scribes themselves. It his converts (Phil. 2 17, cp 2 Tim. 46) ; Christians are
cannot be said that the teaching of Jesus in this respect exhorted to furnish their bodies as a sacrifice, living,
differs from that of the Jewish masters of his time,2 holy, well-pleasing to God, their rational worship
though it may be inferred from his whole attitude that (Rom. 121, cp I Pet.25); the contributions of the
he set far less value on observances of any kind than Philippians to the apostle are ‘ a gratifying odour,’ an
they did. Mt., indeed, represents him as declaring acceptable sacrifice, well-pleasing to God (Phil. 4 18).
emphatically that not the minutest particle of the law The references to the death of Christ as a sacrifice will
should cease to be observed ‘till all things be accom- be discussed below (J 57). It is to be noted here only
plished’-ie., so long as the present order of things that Paul does not, like the author of the Epistle t o
lasts ( 5 17) ; and as bidding his disciples do and observe the Hebrews, explicitly declare that the sacrifices of the
all the things that the scribes and Pharisees, as the law came to an end with the death of Christ. To
custodians of the law and successors of the legislator, draw from his silence the inference that his Jewish-
enjoined (231-3); but this is rather the evangelist’s Christian opponents themselves no longer regarded
attitude than the master’s ; cp Mk. 7 5 8 ( = M t . 15 r f ) . sacrifice as binding is most unsafe.
In the accounts of the last supper Jesus calls the wine T h e argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews is
‘ m y covenant blood’ ( ~ alp6 b pou T + S 6taO4~(1/s),~in developed in a running comparison between the sacri-
obvious allusion to the blood by which the covenant at 66. Hebrews. fices and priestly ministrations of the
Sinai was ratified (Ex. 246-8). T h e various additions, old covenant and the work of Christ,
‘ which is poured out in behalf of many ’ (Mk. ), ’ unto to which we shall return in a later paragraph (see J 58).
remission of sins’ (Mt.), bring out the accessory idea of Here we shall touch only upon the author’s view of the
atonement through his blood; cp Mk. 1045 Mt. 2028 intent and effect of the sacrifices of the law. Sacrifices
(see below, J 60). Scholars have often found in the and offerings are made for sins (5 I , cp 8 3 99).
’ new covenant’ an implicit abrogation of the old, with ‘
In the phrase gifts and sacrifices’ ( G p d T e rcai Bvuiar) the
all its institutions ; it is certain, however, that the early words according to prevailing OT use, correspond to Heb.
Christians in Palestine saw nothing of the kind in it ; kor6& and milrhrih respectively, and, thus coupled the &pa
they continued to worship in the temple like their are bypre-emineice ‘sacrifices the Bvuiat, ‘oblatiois ‘not vice
versri, as N T commentators frkuently take them (cp $V ‘gifts
fellow- countrymen. The inference is first explicitly and sacrifices’).
drawn by the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews
They do not, however, really take away sin or purge
(chap. 10). the conscience of the sinner ; the blood of bulls and
According to Acts Paul more than once plans a
goats cannot possibly do that ( l o 4 11) ; they serve
journey so as to bring him to Jerusalem in season for a rather, in their stated recurrence-the author is thinking
feast (1821 2016 ; in the former passage the
61z. of the solemn pz’aczda of the Day of Atonement-to
words are lacking in KAB, etc. ) ; he declares bring to mind the sin which they cannot expiate (103).
in his defence before Felix that he came thither to The system, indeed, contemplates only what we should
worship (2411),to bring charitable gifts to hi5 country- call ceremonial faults. The sin offering of the Day of
men and make offerings ( ~ p o u @ o p b s ,2417), and was
Atonement, whose blood is taken by the high priest
arrested in the temple in the midst of this pious occupa-
into the adytum of the temple, is offered for the un-
tion (v. 18). T o give the lie to reports that he per- witting offences of the people (dyvo$pa.ra, 97 ; cp
suaded Jews in the provinces to abandon the observance
I GNORANCE). Sacrifices and offerings cannot restore
of the law, he consented to assume the cost of sacrifices
the worshipper to his integrity in the forum of con-
for the release of four Jewish Christians from the
science; they have to do only with such matters as
Nazirite’s vow (Nu. 6 1 3 8 ) , and, after the usual purifi-
foods and drinks and diverse ablutions ’-prescriptions
cations, accompanied them into the temple (2120-26),
of bodily purity imposed till the time comes for making
where offering was made for each of them, thus proving
things right (9gf.). The blood of goats and bulls, and
that he himself lived in observance of the law ( v . 24).
the ashes of a heifer sprinkling those that have con-
That Paul really made a profession so contrary to his
tracted defilement, make them (ceremonially) ‘ holy,’ so
own precept and example it is difficult to believe (cp
that their body is clean ; in contrast to the purging of
Gal. 2118 ; also ACTS, 5 7). conscience (9 q). T h e application of blood is a rite of
1 Without this the sacrifice would be of no avail, as the lustration or purification ; at the ratification of the
Rabbis taught. See above, 0 52. covenant Moses sprinkled the law book and the people
2 See above $ $ 5 0 8 and Sukkcilt 496. T o infer from Mk. with the blood of young hulls and goats, ’with water
1228-34 that jesus hi&elf probably offered no sacrifices is
3 Mk. 14 24 Mt. 26 28, cp Lk. 22 20 x Cor. 11 25 ‘the new 1 That is, inadvertent transgression of the rules of clean and
covenant in my blood’ ; cp Jer. 31 31 Heb. 9 1 5 8 e‘tc. On the unclean. This is, at least, the more probable interpretation of
original form of the saying, see E UCHARIST, )s I,? the obscure connection.
4227 4228
and scarlet wool and hyssop ’ (9 19) ; in like manner he death with sacrifice has been sought in the references to
sprinked with blood the tent and all the utensils of his blood as the ground of the benefits conferred by his
worship (cp D. 23) ; according to the law nearly every- death (Rom. 325 59) ; the thought of sacrifice is so
thing is purified with blood, and without outpouring of constantly associated with his death, it is said, that the
blood no remission (drpeu~s)is effected ( ~ z I J ) . ~ one word suffices to suggest it. But in view of the
The writer’s conception of the expiatory rites of the infrequency, to say the least, of sacrificial metaphors in
law thus agrees entirely with the teaching of the Jewish the greater epistles, it is doubtful whether aTpa is not
authorities (see above, 51). For him, however, the used merely in allusion to Jesus’ violent death. Nor
system was typical and prophetic of the one real and is the case clearer in Col. 120 Eph. 1 7 2 13 ; the really
all-sufficient sacrifice of Christ. When this had been noteworthy thing is that the context contains no sug-
made there was no longer reason or room,for the gestion of sacrifice either in thought or phrase. The
sacrifices of the law (1018). Henceforth the only words ’for sin ’ ( m p i bpuprias) in Rom. 83, are often
sacrifices are praise to God and goodness to men mechanically translated sin offering,’ because in
(1315J, alluding to P s . 1 0 7 ~11617 ~ Hos. 1 4 2 et^.).^ Leviticus this phrase is the common rendering of
That ‘Christ died for ( h d p ) our sins according to /2a?Wh; even bpapriav, 2 Cor. 521, has been understood
the scriptures ’ is an article of the common tradition of in the same way-the death of Christ specifically a sin
~~. Death of the Christian faith which Paul delivered offering. The misconception of the nature of the sin
Christ: Paulineto his converts as he had received it offering which underlies this strained interpretation has
from those who were before him been commented on above (5 28 a ) . l
epistles. cor. 152). Bv his death men are In conclusion, it may be noted as an indication that
redeemed, justified, forgiven, reconciled to God ; see the idea of expiatory mc@e was not prominent in
Rom.425 5 8 8 832 2Cor.515 Gal.14 1Thess.510 Col. Paul’s thought of Christ’s death, that he nowhere uses
1Z I J Eph. 1 7 Tit. 214 etc. The death of Christ, that the characteristic terms inseparably associated in the
is, was expiatory ; he suffered on the cross, not for his OT with these sacrifices, ikdmopui, &XduKopai, acd
own sins but for those of others, and by the expiation their derivatives ; iXaur.ilpiov, Rom. 3 2 5 , is the only
which he thus made they were delivered from the conse- word of the family in all the Pauline literature. This
quences of their transgressions (see further, below, 60). group of words is, however, rare in all the N T ; even
T h e idea of expiation is. however, as we have seen, in Hebrews iXdoKeuBac occurs but once; ihaupbs but
closely associated with sacrifice; one great class of twice in the N T ( I Jn. 2 2 4 IO).
sacrifices, among both Jews and Gentiles, was piacular For the author of Hebrews the priesthood and
in motive and intention ; and in a looser sense the whole sacrificial institutions of the old dimensation are but
sacrificial worship was often thought of as atoning (see types and shadows of the heavenly
above, 145). It was natural, therefore, that the death 68*1nHebrews*reality that was to come ( 8 5 101,cp
of Christ should be conceived as a sacrifice, or spoken 99). The main thesis of the book is that the Son, the
of in sacrificial figures. In Paul, however, this con- mediator of the new and better covenant (86-13 915
ception is not developed as it is in some of the other etc.), is the true high priest. Now every high priest
N T writings. must have something to offer ; this is his constitutive
In the much-vexed passage, Rom. 3 25, ‘whom God set forth as function ( 8 3 ) ; Christ, therefore, brings his sacrifice.
a hilasterion through faith in his blood ‘ (b rrpoi8cro b Bebc The nature and effect of this sacrifice is developed in
ihaunjprow Srk m i u r s o ~Gw r+ a h ) &arr), the interpretation
‘atoning sacrz$ce’ (after the analogy of uomjprov, x p p ~ u n j p r o v , chaps. 8-1018. in contrast to the sacrifices of the law,*
~ r h e u n j p r o v ,etc.) is not entirely certain, though highly proh- particularly to the sacrifice (Ex. 244-8) by which the old
able ; the more general ‘means of expiation’ satisfies the con- covenant was ratified ( 9 1 5 8 1029, cp 1224 1320),$and
text, and the addition of the words ‘in his blood’ does not
necessarily imply that this means is thought of as sacrificial. to the specific piacuZa of the Day of Atonement, in
Cp M ERCY SEAT, 5 8. which the Jewish system culminated.
Even if we translate Roni. 325 outright ‘ an expiatory The Jewish high priest, having human weaknesses
sacrifice’ the expression would still be only a passing ( 7 z 8 ) , had first of all to offer a sacrifice for his own sins
metaphor in a context of a different tenor-Christ’s (727 97) ; Christ, the perfect priest, had no such need
death the demonstration of the righteousness of God. (72628). In the Mosaic sacrifices was offered the blood
Christian theologians, indeed, have been so long of bulls and goats, which could not possibly take away
accustomed to regard the OT sacrifices from the jural sin ( ~ O ~ I I ) but, effected only a purification of the
and governmental point of view-that is, in the light of body (99J I Z J ) ; Christ entered the holy place of the
their construction of the atoning work of Christ e t h a t greater and more perfect sanctuary, that is, heaven itself
they hardly feel the reference to an expiatory sacrifice ( 9 ~ 4 through
)~ his own blood, having found an eternal
here as even a change of figure ; but Paul was not a redemption( 7 2 7 9 1215 1 0 I O ). Sacrifices could not relieve
modern theologian. men’s conscience, but served rather to call sin to mind
No greater emphasis is laid on the idea of sacrifice in (99 101-3) ; the blood of Christ purges the conscience
I Cor. 5 7 f . . where, in an exhortation to put away evil, from dead works to serve the living God (914. cp 1022).
its leaven-like working suggests the scrupulous care with They had, therefore, to be perpetually repeated, just
which a Jewish house was purged of leaven on the eve because they had no real efficacy either objective or sub-
of the Passover, and that, again, leads to the thought jective (96 1 0 3 8 ) ; his sacrifice is made once for all, for-
‘ for indeed our Passover is sacrificed, Christ ; so let us ever perfecting them that are sanctified (7 27 9 12 z 5 J 28
keep the feast not with the old leaven of malice and 10 IZ 14). The sacrifices of the law, finally, did not open
wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity to men a way of access to the holy presence of God
and truth.’ (98) : by the blood of Jesus a new way is made by
Evidence of a more pervasive association of Christ’s which they may confidently approach him (1019f.).
T h e sacrifice of Christ thus not only expiates the sins
1 The heightening of the rite described in Ex. 248 by traits
borrowed from Lev. 1 4 5 8 (the leper) shows that the author of the people (IXduKcuBar, 217), but also establishes the
conceives it as a lustration. new covenant foretoid by Jeremiah (31318),under Q-hich
Cp the use of the verb in the &“dm laws (see Lev. 5 IO 16 IS? God lays his laws upon men’s hearts and inscribes them
also 4 2631 34 etc.): rai iC;rh&war mcpi a i r & b iepdir ..
. rrar
&+8juerar a h 6 (1s &i). The remission is the consequence 1 There are less excusable errors in the books. In Sanday-
of the propiriatibn made by the priest with the sacrifice. Headlain R0?72UnS, 193. we are told that ‘the ritual of the
3 The Rabbis also taught that the ‘praise offering’ (tadzh~ sin-offeriAgis fully set forth in Lev. iv. The most characteristic
was the only sacrifice that would remain in the ‘world to come feature in ‘,f is the sprinkling with blood of the horns of the altar
(cp above, col. a 2 2 3 n. 2). of incense.
4 The assertion sometimes made that the Jewish conception 2 On the author’s view of the latter, see above 56.
of sacrifice was similarly influenced by the idea of divine justice 3 This parallel is suggested in the Gospel &counts of the
is unsupported. institution of the Lords Supper.
4229 4230
on their minds, and no longer remembers their sins and to discuss the various theories which theologians have
iniquities (1016 8 , cp 8 8 8 ) - a real remission which 61.Genesis from time to time set up concerning the
makes all other sacrifice useless. Two things are sacrificial death of Christ, nor even the
especially noteworthy in the author's treatment of the ofideH. constructions of biblical theology. Many
subject ; first, the importance attached to the subjective of these, even among the most recent, rest-upon pro-
effect of Christ's blood in purging the conscience of man ; found misunderstandings of the nature of the OT sacri-
and, second, the ultimate end, the creation of a new fices, and entirely ignore Jewish conceptions of the effect
way of access to God by which men may confidently and operation of sacrifice. The task which remains t o
draw near to him. In these conceptions we see a us is only to explain briefly the facts that have been set
positive ethical and religious interpretation and valuation in array in the foregoing paragraphs.
of the death of Christ going far beyond the mere sacri- T o begin with, it is necessary to say that in describing
ficial expiation of sins or forensic justification of the the death of Christ as a sacrifice the N T writers are
sinner. How the blood of Christ has these effects the using figurative language. Some modern theologians,
writer does not reflect, any more than he or his con- indeed, still affirm that ' t h e apostles held it to he a
temporaries reflected on the mode of operation of the sacrifice in the most literal sense of the word ' (Paterson,
blood of the O T sacrifices. in Hastings, DB 4343 f.); but such writers do not
By the side o f sacrificial ideas and terms, such as P a d < e t v
expect us to take their 'literal' literally. The author
9 ~3 19 21 1 0 z z , .aOapi<crv 1 3 9 14 22, &y~.15;iv10 IO 14 29, words of the Epistle to the Hebrews, for example, regarded
of different association sometimes occur : h d r p o o r p 9 12, brohd- the death of Christ as the true sacrifice, because by it
r p w o r s 9 15, b r a h h h v u e r v 2 ~5 ; but the characteristic Pauline was really effected what the O T sacrifices only pre-
'justify' (Sirratnib) and cognate words and phrases are absent. figured ; but he was too good an Alexandrian to identify
T h e references to the death of Christ in I Pet. are ' true ' with ' literal.'
in the nature of allusions rather than of doctrinal state- In the second place, it is essential to note what the
59. pet. ment or argument ; their phraseology problem was which confronted these early Christian
often suggests reminiscences of earlier thinkers, in the effort to solve which they came to con-
N T writings. Christ died once for sins, a righteous ceive of the death of Christ as a sacrifice. They did
man for unrighteous men, that he might bring us to not set out, as has frequently been supposed, to answer
God (318); he suffered for his followers, leaving them the question how God without detriment to his justice
a n example (221, cp 4 1 ) ; persecuted Christians are or to his moral government, could remit sin, and find
partakers of Christ's sufferings (413. cp 4 1 , etc.) ; he the solution in the sin offerings of the law, by whose
carried their sins in his body on to the cross (2z+)--the blood the sinner was ' covered ' (so the common etymo-
whole passage, vv. 21-25, is an application of Is. 53 to logical metaphor) and protected from the righteous
Christ ; they are redeemed (thurppLj6')lTE) from the foolish wrath of God ; they had a far more urgent task, namely,
way of life they learned from their fathers by costly to account for the death of Jesus.
blood as of an unblemished unspotted lamb, Christ T h e death of Jesus was a severe shock to the faith of
(1IS$) ; one of the ends of Christians' election is his disciples ; and though the resurrection speedily re-
sprinkling with the blood of Christ (12). T h e latter established this faith, they had need both for its con-
phrase suggests a passage in Heb. (1224, cp 102s firmation and for its defence before their unbelieving
9 q1921), in which epistle alone the expression occurs. countrymen, to whom a crucified Messiah was an in-
In 118f. it is not improbable that the blameless lamb superable stumbling block, of proof from the scriptures
of Is. 537 (cp 9) is in the mind of the writer, who that his sufferings were the fulfilment of prophecy.
makes such large use of that chapter in 2 2 1 8 ; for That there were predictions they could not doubt ; and
the rest cp Eph. 1j ('redemption [ d ~ o h ~ b p w u r sthrough
] as now with a new insight they searched the scriptures,
his blood, the remission of our trespasses') Rom. 324f. it was as if the Master himself opened their mind to
Heb. 912. A direct allusion to the paschal lamb (Ex. understand them (Lk. 2 4 4 5 8 ) , and interpreted to them
125) would probably have heen more distinct. the prophecies concerning himself (vu. 25-27).'
The references to the sacrificial aspect of the death of Thus the cross, instead of being the refutation of his
Christ in the Fourth Gospel are few and of the slightest claims, became their most conclusive demonstration.
kind. The Baptist hails Jesus as the Among the scriptures which they thus for the first time
60. Johannine Lamb of God which takes away the understood, Is. 53 was, with good reason, the most
writings. sin of the world (lzq), with evident important. Not only did the picture of the suffering
allusion to Is. 537. cp 4f. 1 1 ; in l i 1 9 ~ ; i ntheir behalf Servant of Yahwlt seem to foreshadow even in minute
I hallow myself,' dyrdrw is a word of sacrificial associa- details the experience of Jesus, but in fact the author of
tions, whether we reIer it to the consecration of the the chapter had undertaken to solve the same problem,
victim or (with greater probability) to the preparation viz., Why did the Servant (Israel), for no fault of his
of the priest for his functions. I n I Jn. the allusions own, suffer what seemed the extremities of God's dis-
are more frequent; we read not only that Christ pleasure? His answer was, T h e sufferings of the Servant
laid down his life for us-wherefore we ought to lay of Yahwi: are an expiation for others' sins, ' t h e Lord
down our life for the brethren ( 3 16)-and that our sins laid on him the iniquity of us all and by his stripes we
are remitted for his name's sake (212), but also that he are healed. '
was manifested that he might take away sin (35). that T h e idea that sins could thus be expiated hy the
he is a propitiation (Ihuupbs) for our sins and for those suffering of one who had not deserved it was not re-
of the whole world ( 2 2 IO), and that the blood of Jesus pugnant to ancient minds, in which the sense of social
cleanses us from every sin (17 9). But everywhere such solidarity was stronger than that of individual rights ;
expressions appear as familiar Christian phrases, rather it seemed, in fact, most natural. T h e sufferings of the
than as part of the distinctive Johannine conception of righteous were frequently represented as an atonement
the salvation in Christ. for their people. Thus, of the Maccabaean martyrs it
The .lamb in the Apocalypse is probably, as in Jn. is said : ' Having become as it were a vicarious ex-
129, derived from Is. 53 : as in I Pet., the idea of purchase piation ( d v d p u x o v ) for the sins of the nation, and
(byopd&v, I Cor. 620 7 2 3 ) by the blood of Christ has through the blood of those godly men and their atoning
been combined with the older conception of the expiatory death (iXuar)lpfou Buvdrou), divine providence saved
suffering of the Servant of YahwP ; see 5 6 8 138 143f. Israel which had before been evil entreated ' ( 4 Macc.
The other representation of purification by his blood 1722, cp 6 27-29) ; cp also Rom. 5 7 Col. 1 ~ 4 . ~
appears in 7 14 ; cp 22 14, and note the variant in 15 :
1 See Holtmann NT TheoL 1 3 6 7 8
XdUUVTL . . . PK, hOdUUVT1 . . . dS6 (TI& d p U p T h V ) . a Lipsiusin Scheikel,BL 2493 ; Holtnnann, NTTheoZ. 13asLf:
It does not fall within the scope of the present article 8 See above, $ 52, end.

4231 4232
The great influence of Is. 53 upon the early conception of the SACRILEGE. In Rom. 222 the question : ‘ Thou
death of Christ is manifest not only in Acts 8 32-35 (Philip an: .hat abhorrest idols, dost thou rob teniples’ ( X V ‘commit
the Ethiopian eunuch ; cp also 3 13 26 4 27 f: 30-ak ‘servant, iacrilege ’ ; 6 pGduuu6pevos TU c1Gwha kpp0uuXcis) is to
Is. 52 13 a standing title of Jesus), and the epistles)(Heb.928
I Pet. 211.25 I Jn. 3 5, etc.), hut also in the fact that it has ,e interpreted in the light of Dt. 7 25 where not only is
worked back into the gospel tradition (Lk. 2 2 37 Jn. 129 36). t commanded to burn the graven images of the gods of
The first point established was, therefore, that the :he nations with fire, but it is also forbidden to covet
death of Christ was not for his own sins, it was not a .he silver or gold that is on them or to ‘take it unto
triumph of the wicked over the good, an inexplicable :hee ; for it is an abomination (@m) to Yahwe thy God,
tragedy; it was an expiation for the sins of others. and thou shalt not bring an abomination into thy house
This is the tradition which Paul had received (above, 50 as to become an anathema like it ; thou shalt utterly
5 57). This expiation was originally thought of in ietest and abominate it, for it is anathenia ’ (see AROMI-
relation to the punishment of sin ; by virtue of it the NATIOX, 4 ; I DOL , z d ) . I n Jos. Ant. iv. 810,5 207,
sins whose penalty would otherwise have been visited this law is rendered ‘ Let no One blaspheme those gods
upon the offender are remitted and he is cleared. From which other cities esteem such ; nor may any one steal
this side Paul works out his theory of atonement. The the sacred things of strange temples (p$h uvXiiv kppb
association of expiation with sacrifice in the law and in F E Y ~ nor) take any treasure that may be dedicated to
the common ideas of the time leads to the employment any god.’ I n accordance with this, in Acts 1 9 3 7 we find
of sacrificial figures and terms in speaking of the work the town clerk of Ephesus urging in the case of Paul
of Christ ; but even in Hebrews, where the idea of the and his Jewish companions that their offence has at
death of Christ as a sacrifice is most elaborately de- least not been of the most aggravated kind, they being
veloped, it is plain that the premise of the whole is that a neither robbers of temples (iepouBhous) nor blasphemers
Christ by his death made a real expiation for the sins of our goddess. ’
of men, by which they are redeemed. It was not, there- As regards sacrilege against the temple in Jerusalem 2 Macc.
fore, the conception of the death of Christ as a sacrifice 139-42 records the sacrileges (kpowhrjpara) committ:d in the
which brought in the idea of expiation and propitiation. city by Lysimachus with the consent of Menelaus, the riot it led
to, and the death of the sacrilegious person (~rp6wAap)beside
but the opposite. Hence the freedom and variety in the sanctuary. The alleged attempt of Antiochus Epiphanes to
comparing his death to the different species of OT rob a temple (;cpowAeiv) in Persepolis is alluded to in 2 blacc.
sacrifices, as they suggest different aspects of his work- 9 Z , and in 2 bfacc. 13 3-8 the death of Menelaus by precipitation
from the tower for the punishment of ‘him that is guilty of
the covenant sacrifice, the Passover, the expiations of the sacrilege (kppowhla) or has attained any pre-eminence in any
Day of Atonement. Hence also the fact that there is no other evil deeds’is related. In Ant. xvi. ti 2 Josephus records a
doctrine of the sacrifice of Christ in the N T as there may decree of Augustus in the course of which it is enacted that the
be said to be doctrines of redemption or of justification. sacred things [of the Jews] are not to be touched (76 r c &pi c h a r
;v & w h i p ) ,and that ‘if any one be caught stealing their holy
On the OT sacrifices see the commentaries on the Pentateuch books or their sacred money, whether from the synagogue (-a@-
(see E XODUS , $ 7, LEVITICUS, 0 33, N UMBERS , 8 23, DEUTERO- f3awiov) or from the public school (ivSpWvop), he shall be deemed
N O M Y , $ 33), among which those of
a sacrilegious person(Icp6mAov), and his, goods shall be brought
62. Bibliography.a Knobel-Dillmann may he specially men- into the public treasury of the Romans. In xviii. 3 5f: the ex-
tioned ; also, for their Jewish learning, pulsion of the Jews from Rome in Tiberius’s time is said to have
Kalisch on Exodus and Leviticus. Spencer De legfibus been due to the wickedness of four Jews who embezzled Fulvia’s
ritualibus, 1675 (bk. 3); J. D. Michaelis, Mosai&hes Recht,Pi gift of purple and gold for the temple at Jerusalem.
1775; Saalschiitz, Mosaisches Recht, 1846, Arch. d . Heb., 185; ;
Waehner, Ant. E6reorum, etc., 1743 ; Ew. Alt. fsr.,(3) 1866, SADAMIAS ( S A L A M E ) , 4 Esd. 1I A\’=SHALLUM, 6.
E T 1876 ; Nowack, H A , ‘894 ; Benz. H A , 1894. On sacrifices
in particular : Outram, Desncri‘iciis, 1677; Kurtz, D e r Alttes- SADAS (ACT&& [A]), I Esd. 5 13 AV, RV ASTAD;
famentliche O$ferkultus, 1862, E T 1865 ; Rahr, .?y;xbolik de: see A ZGAD . T h e AV is derived from the Geneva
mosaischen CuZfus 1837 ; also articles ‘ Opfer Sacrifice version.
etc. in the Bible’ dictionaries of Schenkel, Riehm, Smith),
Haitings, and in PRE. On particular species of sacrifice: Thal- (AaaAaioc [B]),
hofer, Dig unblutigen Ojfeer des mosaischen Kulfus, 1648 ; 845. See IDDO(i.).
Riehni, ‘ Uber das Schuldopfer,’ Sha’ifn und Kritiken, 1854,
p. 93 p; ‘Rinck, ‘Das Schuldopfer, ib. 1855, p. ,399 6 ;
Schmo ler, Wesen der Siihne in der a.-test. Opferthora, At. Kr.
SADDLE. The word I??P, m e r k d , is in Lev. 159
1891, 205 j?; Vatke, Reli’’on des Alien Testaments, 1835 : rendered ‘ saddle ’ in EV, but AVn’g. has ‘ carriage ‘ (cp
Wellhausen, Prole,. (1878),(5J 1899, E T 188; ; H. Schultz, I K. 4 1 6 [56]). The word literally means ‘ place of
AltfestamentZich TheoZogie,W 1896; Smend, A l f . Rel.-gesch.,(% riding’-ie., riding seat (cp CHARIOT, I , begin.),
1899; Dillmann, AN. Theol. 1895; Marti, Gesck. dev fsraelit-
ischen Religion,P) 1897. Signification of sacrifice : Riehm, and in Cant. 3 I O it clearly means the seat of Solomon’s
Be,p-if der SCne im Alten Testament, 1877 ; H. Schultz, palanquin (see RV and L ITTER ). Not less evidently
‘ Significance of Sacrifice in the OT,’ Anrer. Journ. of Theol. this sense will not suit in Lev. ( I . c . ) . A suggested
4 2 5 7 8 (.goo). Systematic works : Ritschl, Rechtfwtigung emendation is im?, ’ rug ’ (see T APESTRY ).
und Yers8ltnung,P)1889 ; Cave, Scriptural Doctrine of S a r i -
&ce,P) 18 o See also Hubert and Mauss, ‘ Nature et fonctinn It is to he remarked that though riding was the most common
du sacri?c,,’ L’anndc Sociohpque, 1897.1898, 29-138 (based mode of travelling in Rihle days, saddles in the modern sense of
on comparative study of Jewish and Hindu sacrifice). the word were not used but only ‘ horse-cloths,’ or, failing that,
On the Jewish sacrificial system : Maimonides, J’adhZzd&Zh, a garment (Mt. 21 7). Fnrrer (BL 5 191) compares Ezek. 27 20
in which the material from the Ilfishna and similar sources is as showing that costly horse-cloths were brought to market at
collected and methodically arranged, is indispensable, not only Tyre by the Dedanites. But the text is corrupt (cp AV and
as an exposition of the system hut also as a key to the scattered RV). For the most probable reading see CLOTH, n. I ; young
sources. Modern works are : Duschak, Gesch. U. Darstelluung- steeds, not cloths, are referred to. On the camels’ ‘furniture,
despsjiidischenCultus; Edersheim, The Tenzjle and itsMinistvy see C AMEL $ 2 end. The word for ‘tp saddle’ (&*>n,+&ai),
1874. For Jewish ideas concerning sacrifice Christian scholar; Nu. 22 2 1 ek., herally means ‘to b i d .
genef;tlly turn to Weber’s Lehren des Talwzuds,a work not only
uncritical but dominated by a false theory ; Bacher, Die Agada SADDUC, RV Sadduk ( C ~ A A O Y K O Y[AI, caAAoy-
der Tannuiten, 3 vols. (critical sifting of the material) ; see also
Kohler ‘ Atonement,’/ewish Encyclopedia, 2 27;X
hoyftoy P I , CEAAOYK [L]), I Esd. 82. See ZADOK.
Sacrikce in the N T : in addition to the commentaries on the SADDUCEES. The origin of the name Saddiikim
N T and the comprehensive works named above; Pfleiderer,
Urchndenthunf, 1887, i”) 1902 ; Der Paulinisnzus,P) 1890 ; (D’pVly,
so probably, rather than D’pl7S) has been
Weizsicker, Das a~ostolischeZeitalteter(2) 1892 H. Holtzmann
NT Theol. 1897. Sanday Prikstltodd and kacr$ce 1900
explained in two ways :
I. As if froin saa‘a‘ik (?w),the specially righteous-
W. H. Ward, ‘$he N T doctrine of the relation of bhrist’;
a most unsatisfactory derivation, although favoured by
death to the OT sacrificial system,’ Bi61. Sac. 51 2 4 6 X (1894).
~~ .. ~~
G . F. M.
1. Name : Jerome and other of the Fathers. T h e
1 In Is. 53 IO (riS;im) the connection seems to he preformed ; change from saddi@ (pvii.) to SaddGk
but 6 translates otherwise. explasationa. !pis) is warranted by no analogy, nor
2 Of the immense literature on the various aspects of the IS the name as explained at all appro-
subject only a selection can he given here. The list is intended
to include works which either are of value to the modem student priate. There is no evidence that the Sadducees ever
or hold an important place in the history of discussion. made any special claim to ‘righteousness,’ as under-
4233 4234
stood by the Jews, and certainly they were not credited hazarded, thoneh with ereat diffidence. I n modern
with it by their opponents. Such a claim was far more
likely to be made by the Pharisees.
4. anithersense of Manicham, or, in a general
-Persian ;he word eindik is used in the

2. From the personal name Zadok (piir). This is sense. for infidel. one who does not
not much more satisfactory than the other, for it does believe in the resurrection or in the’omnipotence of God.
not account for the well-attested double d in !uddukim It has been adopted in Arabic (zzndiku*, plur. z u n d d i p
(q~i?~), and besides there is no direct proof of a con- and zanEdika‘U”) with the meaning of infidel. and also
nection with Zadok. Three persons of that name have in Armenian (cp Eznik [sth cent.] against heresies,
been suggested : ( u ) a certain Zadok, otherwise un- chap. 2 on the errors of Zoroastrianism). Mas‘Mi (10th
known, who is said to have been with a certain cent.) says that the name arose in the time of Manes to
Boethos, a disciple of Antigonus of Socho; ( 6 ) an denote his teaching. and explains that it is derived from
unknown founder of the aristocratic party ; (c) Zadok the Zend, or explanation, of the Avesta. T h e original
the priest in the time of David and Solomon. Avesta was the truly sacred book, and a person who
a. For the first (disciple of Antigonus) we have only followed only the commentary was called a Zindik, a s
the authority of the Ab6th di R. Nathan, a late com- one who rejected the word of God to follow worldly
pilation, probably of the ninth century, which carries tradition, irreligious. But the term cannot have
no weight with regard to historical events earlier by 1000 originated in the time of Manes (3rd cent. A . D . ) . for
years. It is likely that this represents a Talmudic the Zend ‘ commentary,’ whatever view be taken of its
tradition, since the Boethusians are sometimes confused date, was by then already becoming unintelligible. It
with, and (even in the T#@tE) put for the Sadducees. must be much earlier and have acquired the general
T h e story is, in the common Rabbinic manner, due sense of infidel very soon. Mas’Mi, indeed, himself
solely to a desire to account for the supposed origin of implies that J&j was used long before in this sense,
Sadduceism from the well-known dictum of Antigonus and makes Zoroaster the author not only of the Avesta,
(Pirkd A%iLh, 1 3 ) that we should serve God without but of the Zend and PHzend (super-commentary), parts
expectation of reward, which is then said to have been of which he says were destroyed by Alexander the
perverted by his disciples to mean that there will be no Great.’ Makrizi (15th cent.), who borrows largely from
retribution after death. Apart from the unhistorical Mas‘fidi, confuses the Zansdikah with the Samaritans
nature of the story, however, the saying refers quite as and Sadducees, and says that they deny the existence
much to rewards in this life as to the future, and, in of angels, the resurrection, and the prophets after
any case, accounts only for one side of Sadduceism. Moses, whence it has been suggested that ZanLdieh
6. T h e second Zadok (a person assumed to account is a corruption of Zaddfikim. T h e reverse may, how-
for the name), although supported by Kuenen, may be ever, be the case. It is quite possible that the Persian
dismissed as purely hypothetical. word was used about 200 B. c. in the sense of ‘ Zoroas-
c. T h e least unlikely is the third (Zadok the priest, trian,’ a and if so, it might well be applied by opponents
temp. David and Solomon). Ezekiel certainly insists to a party in Judzea who sympathised with foreign
strongly on the ‘ sons of Zadok ’ (pi?: :~g)as the only ideas, and rejected beliefs which were beginning to be
legitimate holders of the priestly office ;’ but his pro- regarded as distinctively Jewish. It would thus have
phecies were uttered in circumstances wholly different been used at first in a contemptuous sense, and later,
from those in which the Sadducean and Pharisaic when the original meaning was forgotten, was, in the
parties became distinguished. In Ezekiel’s time Israel well-known Jewish manner, transformed in such a way
appears to have been sunk in idolatry, and he depicts as to bear the interpretation of ‘ sons of Zadok ’ ( p i i r VI)
an ideal state of things which for the most part was with a suggestion of righteous ’ (0-pis). This would
never realised. A great gulf is fixed between his explain the daghesh (for suppressed 3 ) with pathah, and
time and that of Ezra. Modern Judaism, a system the 1 for*. It may be mentioned, though perhaps as a
quite distinct from anything pre-exilic, may be said mere coincidence, that zunEdika is used for Sadducees
to have begun with Ezra, and the people never again in Arabic translations of the NT. That they did not
fell into idolatry. The breach of continuity is so hold Zoroastrian views is no objection to this explana-
definite that what might be true or desirable in the sixth tion. In later Jewish literature Epikurus (~iiii).~~) is
century B.C. forms no argument for what was the fact used for a freethinker, without any idea of his holding
in the third century. It must be remembered too that the views of Epicurus (see E PICUREANS), and is con-
Ezekiel was himself a priest. A much stronger argu- nected, by a popular etymology, with the root ips. I n
ment might be derived from the Hebrew text of Ecclus. fact, after the real meaning of the name has been for-
511z[9] (ed. Schechter), ‘Give thanks to him who gotten, Epikurus becomes in the Talmud doctrinally
chose the sons of Zadok for priest,’ if the passage is almost the exact representative of the earlier term
genuine, as it probably is. However, there is evidence Sadducee, the errors chiefly condemned in the ‘ sect ‘
that this view did not prevail exclusively, for in I Ch. 24 being their denial of the resurrection and the rejection
the sons of Ithamar share in the priesthood, and in of the oral law. It is very probable that Sadducee
later times the priests are designated by the wider term, never had any more definite sense than this.
‘sons of Aaron.‘ The form of the name is not the T h e beginning of the party naturally can not be
only difficulty ; it does not appear that the Sadducees traced. In its Dolitical amect it must have existed
ever claimed to be, or were regarded as, sons of Zadok. 3. History of actually or potentially ever since there
Whilst they chiefly belonged to the priestly or aristocratic was a Jewish state, if the view taken
Saddncees. below is correct. Doctrinallv too. if
caste, that party was in its essence political, and the
name, which denotes a certain set of doctrines, or rather it is in essence the opposite of the Pharisaic develop-
the negation of them, seems to have been applied to them ment, its origin goes back to the first beginnings of a
as a term of reproach by their opponents. That is to law which had to be interpreted. The uncertainty of
say, it was used as a theological, not a political term, the evidence and its paucity prevent our assigning any
referring not to the origin of a particular family, party, definite date for the first (Pharisaic) amplification of the
or caste, but to the special form of supposed heterodoxy Torah. W e may, however, feel sure that the Law-book
which happened to be characteristic of that party, so of Ezra enlarged the existing documents sufficiently to
that a man might have been described as a Sadducee meet all the requirements of the time. It must have
on account of his views, although not necessarily being 1 The question of the origin of the Zoroastrian writings is
a member of the party-a case which, however, was extremely difficult, and very little is certain except that the
Gathas are the earliest stratum See ZOROASTRIANISM.
unlikely to occur. a The meaning of ‘ infidel ’ would then be due to the later
3. A third explanation of the name may perhaps be influence of Christianity and Islam.
4235 4236
been later that the progressive school began to develop from the law and the prophets to suit the requirements
tradition. In the Mishna tractate A%h, after the of the time. If Judaism was to continue as a living
canonical authorities, the first link in the chain of system, it became necessary to adapt it to altered con-
tradition ( n h p n n 5 o h ) is the ’ Great Synagogue,‘ and ditions not contemplated by the law of Moses, and
the first personal name is that of Simon the Just (prob- hence arose the whole body of oral-tradition (sy>a niin
ably early in the 3rd cent. B.c.). No doubt the first m). At a time, too, when theological speculation was
steps had been taken before his time ; but it seems that widely cultivated, it was equally natural that Judaism
historical record did not go farther back. W e shall should be affected by the striving after those spiritual
perhaps not be far wrong in placing the actual be- hopes which at all times have been, rightly or wrongly,
ginnings of the new teaching about 300 B . c . , and this the most cherished sonrce of comfort in human suffer-
agrees very well with the conclusion which has been ing. Hence arose the doctrines of a future life with
drawn from other evidence, that after the time of Alex- rewards and punishments compensating for the apparent
ander the Great Judaism became powerfully affected by incompatibility between virtue and happiness in this
that Persian influence to which may be traced the life. How keenly this problem appealed to the Jewish
increasing popularity of the doctrine of a future life with mind is evident from the Psalms ( e . 8 , Ps. 73). Per-
rewards and punishments. The rise of the liberal haps to no people has it appealed, for various reasons,
party, or school of theological development, implies the more poignantly. Naturally, however, it was to the
formation of a conservative opposition. It is not to be poor, the weak, and their sympathisers, that the need
supposed that the two parties were from the first sharply for a future rectification in the cause of justice was most
divided, still less that they acquired distinctive names. apparent. It is, therefore, only what would be expected
It is historically more probable that the divergence when we find that those a h o reject such comfortable
increased gradually, and was intensified, and at last words are a relatively small party of the well-to-do (TOSS
definitely realised in the religious revival of Maccabean e ~ ~ 6 p o ufiL6vov
r ~ X ~ V T W V ) . Whilst, however, it appears
times. As to the first use of the name to indicate to have been generally the case that Sadducean views
differences consciously felt, it does not occur in the O T were held by the aristocratic ( L e . , primarily, the priestly)
or in Ecclus., and, in fact, the earliest documents which party, we must beware, as suggested above, of regarding
mention Sadducees are the Gospels (but not Jn. ). There aristocrat, priest, and Sadducee as convertible terms.
is, however, no reason to reject the testimony of Many of the priests were Pharisees, as we see, e&, from
Josephus that the name was used in the Maccabaean the names of doctors quoted in the Mishna with the
period, and if it was then well-established, we may title ’ priest’ (I”>), etc., and, moreover, the separation
assume that it was used, if not generally, at least between the higher and the lower classes of priests was
sporadically, at an earlier time to denote opposition to as great as between the aristocratic party and the common
doctrines which are afterwards known as Pharisaic. In people. Nor again was the difference betv een Pharisees
Josephus they always appear as a definite political party, and Sadducees politically insuperable. They could sit
an inexact, though convenient, view which is due to the together on the Sanhedrin (Acts236), and priests and
colouring of the historian. Under the earlier Macca- Pharisees could combine in a common cause (Jn. 7 3 2
baeans, as would be expected, they are not much in 45). That the Sadducees were, however, in an oligar-
evidence ; but with the Hasmonaeans they again come chical minority is evident from the fact that they seem
into prominence. John Hyrcanus definitely allied him- to have found it advisable to conform at times to the
self with them. Alexander Jannaeus, as being himself more popular Pharisaic practice-e.g., YCmd 196,
high priest, was supported by them (cp SuRKah, 486), ‘although we are Sadducees we are afraid of the
and his war may be regarded as a contest between the Pharisees ’ ( n w n m in p1.m 1m p i x o b y k), where
Pharisaic and the Sadducean parties. In their political the whole passage shows a strong anti-Sadducean feel-
relations they Show a sympathy with foreign inflnences ing.’ Cp also Jos. Ant. xviii. 14.
which was strongly reprobated by the nationalistic Taking then the view that Sadducean opinions were
Pharisees. Thus we find them accused, perhaps justly, held mainly by members of the dominant aristocratic
of tolerating Greek religious practices, and even of 5. Dah. class, we have now to consider those opinions
adopting them. This is the less surprising if it be con- in detail. T h e data furnished by the NT,
sidered that the Judaism which they professed can have though clear, are meagre. The account in Josephus is
had (to use a modern phrase) no religious hold on them. fuller (see especially A n t . xviii. 12-4. BYii. 8 14). His
It was rather the machinery by which a certain political statements are, however, coloured partly by his own
system was worked, and when circumstances changed, strong Pharisaic prejudice, and still more by a desire to
it could be adapted to the new conditions. In the express himself in terms of Greek philosophy. It must
Roman period their influence diminished again. T h e be remembered that philosophical notions which appealed
party, always in a minority, was not likely to be largely to the Greek mind were entirely foreign to the methods
recruited. They apparently had no existence outside of thought underlying Sadducean belief or disbelief.
Jerusalem with the temple and its ritual, the centre of I n this respect Jew and Greek start from different
religious and political life. With the fall of Jerusalem premises, representing a racial distinction. Roughly
they disappear from history, and a century later the speaking, the one founds his faith on the will of God
Mishna knows of them only by tradition. (See, further, and the revelation bound up with it, the other deduces
P HARISEES , $5 17-20). his scheme of the universe from a metaphysical con-
It would seem that Sadduceeism is to be rightly ception of the necessary conditions of being.
regarded as negative. Wherever reference is made to T h e distinctive Sadducean views may be classed (as
4.&ctrine : it, the suggestion is that certain views are by Schiirer) under three heads : ( I ) they denied the
This naturally follows from resurrection, personal immortality, and retribution in a
negative. whatrejected.
has been said above. Phariseeism future life ; ( 2 ) they denied angels, spirits, and demons ;
represents the tendency which ultimately resulted in (3) they denied fate (dpapp.iv?). and postulated freedom
modern Judaism. It was at once exclusive in that it of action for every man to choose good or evil, and
strenuously opposed all dealings with the foreigner, and work out his own happiness or the reverse.
popular in that it provided for the spiritual needs of the I. With regard to the first point, Sadduceeism un-
people. The doctrines which we find the Sadducees doubtedly represents the old Jewish standpoint. What-
rejecting are precisely those which had been deduced ever doctrines may be inferred from the Torah, it is
1 The rabbinical accounts of the great synagogue are irrecon- 1 This seems possibly true to the circumstances though
cilable with the received chronology. If Ezra’s date could be Talmudic references are not to be implicitly acceptLd. The
put a century later, as has been suggested, many difficulties GCmira is not to be trusted for distant historical facts, but may
would be removed. represent a true traditional atfitwde.
4237 4238
evident that the theory of a future life and future the Talmud the system is further extended, and later, in
6. Resurrection. retribution is not inculcated in it. the ' practical KabbBlZh,' it passes all bounds.
The object of, at any rate, the earlier 3. For the third point-the freedom of will and the
parts of the Torah was not spiritual teaching, apart denial of fate-we have only the authority of Josephus.
from the edification to be derived from the historical s. Free-will. Schiirer points out that this-waybf stating
narrative, but to set forth the practical details of the the case is entirely un-Jewish, althouEh
ritual of Yahwbism. Such words as ' holiness' and the question of God's providence was -undoubtedly dis-
' purity ' had a technical religious meaning quite distinct cussed. I n spite of its not being confirmed by other
from the moral content which has been put into them evidence, it is very probable that Josephus' account is
by later theology. From a law-book the poetical, the substautially correct. T h e doctrine is in agreement
spiritual, the emotional were fittingly excluded. Into with the worldly, materialistic character of Sadduceeism,
the causes of the development which we find in the noted above, and with their tendency to keep to the
other canonical books, in Phariseeism, and in later Jewish simplest elements of faith, rejecting all admixture of the
thought, we need not enter here (see P HARISEES ). supernatural. It also probably represents the point of
That development was necessary. Sadduceeism only view of the Pentateuch (e.g.,Dt. 4 and 6). T h e Sad-
emphasised the earlier point of view by rejecting the ducees would not have denied that good and bad actions
new doctrines with unvarying conservatism. When we brought their respective consequences in this world, for
consider that the Sadducees had a certain sympathy with a moral sanction is necessary; but they would reject
Greek and foreign influences generally, this attitude any theory of predestination as well as that of future
may be thought remarkable. It is not so if we rightly retribution. Possibly Persian influence may be traceable
understand the nature of the original Torah and the here.
Semitic mind which is deeply interested in the problems There remains yet a fourth point to be considered.
of the present, but shows only a slight capacity or According to the church fathers (Origen, Jerome) the
inclination for dealing with the questions of modern Sadducees accepted only the Torah, reject-
theology. T h e Jewish mind can indeed insist on the 9.
ing all the other canonical books. This
oneness of God ; but how misplaced in a Midrash, nay, seems to be a misconception based on Mt.223rf.
how impossible, would be for instance a discussion of Why should Jesus have chosen an argument from the
the doctrine of homoousia, even if it could arise. Such Pentateuch, when others more obvious were to be found
questions have, or had, an attraction for the western in the other books, unless the Sadducees acknowledged
mind. They have none for the Jew. Moreover, we only the authority of the Pentateuch in such matters?
may well suppose that in the aristocratic party a certain W e have, however, no evidence for such a view, which
materialistic tendency would show itself, that practical could hardly fail to be laid to their charge if there were
politics would absorb attention to the exclusion of more the least ground for it. The argument from silence is
contemplative pursuits. Whilst thus holding to primi- not conclusive ; but it is very strong here, for nothing
tive, formal Judaism, the Sadducees would, so far as could have been better calculated to damage an opponent
they were disposed to be controversial, look with sus- than to show that he rejected any of the canonical
picion on Pharisaic developments, as tending, by a sort books. The truth is. however, that the Jews have
of self-contradiction, to vitiate the observance of the always regarded the Torah as on a wholly different
Law. The Pharisee was, indeed, exact in paying tithes level of holiness and authority from the other books.
of the mint and the cummin ; but a later teacher could In the time of Ezra, which may be regarded as the
say, 'Whoever gives a poor man a coin attains six starting-point of Judaism, as we understand it, the
blessings ; but he who addresses to him soothing words Torah must have been the only sacred writing. Other
attains eleven blessings' ( i l u u p.nn
~ *>pi m i i inim
~ 51 documents won their way only gradually to a canonical
~ limn n ' i n 3 ~D-*DEII nni3). Besides the danger
n n i N;I position. T h e conservative Sadducees would, no doubt,
of such teaching in undermining the foundations on hold more rigidly than others to the supreme position of
which the Sadducean position rested, there may also the Torah, and would view with a certain suspicion any
have been a conscientious desire to arrest the breaking enlargement of the canon as showing a Pharisaic
up of that system by which alone the nation could tendency. (Cp the attitude of the Protestant churches
rightly serve God. They accordingly rejected entirely towards the Apocrypha.) It must be admitted too that
the oral tradition ( m h ~ w min) by which the Pharisees the prophets and hagiographa generally lend more
supplemented the written Law. According to Phari- countenance to Pharisaic views than the Torah, and
saic doctrine this was of equal authority with the were, in fact, a result of the same development. Though
written Law, and in a sense even more binding, since we need not suppose, therefore, that they rejected them,
it provided for what was not to be found in the Law. the Sadducees may well have used them only ' f o r
Later teachers claimed that the whole of tradition was example of life and instruction of manners' ; and the
revealed to Moses, who transmitted it orally to Joshua argument in Mt. 2232 is probably chosen from the 'Torah
and the seventy elders. T h e difficulty of preserving it in order to be above criticism. The statement of the
intact through so many centuries was evaded by the fathers is no doubt partly due to a very common con-
theory of a sort of apostolic succession (&pn n\&), a fusion with the S AMARITANS (p...). who did accept only
series of authoritative teachers. The whole of this the Torah (for the same reasons which caused the
superstructure. and therewith the doctrines deduced by Sadducees to regard it with special veneration), and,
it, chief among which was that of the future life, were curiously enough, use the very passage quoted in Mt.
ignored by the Sadducees. as an argument for the future life. A . E. C.
2. With regard to the second specific point-the dis- For the literature see SCRIBESA N D PHARISEES, 5 21.
belief in angels. spirits, and demons-the Sadducean SADOC. I . (saoocx)4 Esd. 1 I. See ZADOK.
7. Angels. position was probably in advance of the 2. (ua8ort [Ti. WH]), Mt. 114. See G ENEALOGIES ii.
Torah, where we still find traces of the belief,
SAFFRON (Ph?, k a r k i m ; KPOKOC, Cant. 4141).
common to all primitive peoples, in the existence and
power of demons. How they could abandon this, still The Hebrewword is probably identical with Syr. RurkPmd.
more bow tney could explain it ( e . ~ .the
, rite connected Ar. kurkum, both of which denote the crocns or saffron.
with Azazel) we do not know. It is. however, a natural T h e same word is found in Persian and Armenian (in
consequence of the materialistic tendency and of the the iatter probably borrowed from Heb. : Lag. G A 58,
attitude described above. No doubt it was also A r t . St. 161). and the common origin seems to b e
emphasised by opposition to the Pharisaic development Sans. kunkuma. The source of saffron is Crocussativus,
of angelology and demonology. Already in the Book L., a plant of doubtful origin,' which, though found i n
of Daniel angels have names; in the MidrBshim and 1 See the discussion in Fluck. and Hanb.@)6 6 4 s
4239 4240