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Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila

University of the City of Manila


Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

Table of contents

CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

Objectives
Introduction
History of Sugar
Uses and Applications of Sugar
Properties of Sugar
I.
Physical Properties
II.
Chemical Properties
Raw Materials for Industrial Manufacture of Sugar
Sugar Mills in the Philippines
Sugar Substitutes
Manufacturing Process
I.
Industrial Sugar
a. Manufacturing Process
b. Process Layout
c. Equipment Layout
II.
Refined Sugar
a. Manufacturing Process
b. Process Layout
c. Equipment Layout
By-Products of the Sugar Industry
References

OBJECTIVES
General objective:
CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

To identify and enumerate the raw materials, unit operations and


equipment involved in the manufacturing process of sugar

Specific objectives:
To present the history of sugar, uses, properties and sugar mills in the
Philippines
To identify major and minor sources/raw materials of sugar
To identify the step by step process of manufacturing industrial sugar
To enumerate and evaluate the step by step process of manufacturing
table sugar

SUGARS
Carbohydrates, sugar and starches are the most widely distributed and
abundant organic chemical on earth. They have a central role in the metabolism
of animals and plants. These serve as the basic food, accounting for a large
CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

portion of total nutrient intake.


Saccharum is the Latin word for sugar and the derived term saccharide is
the basis of a system of carbohydrate classification. The simplest sugar belong to
the carbohydrate class, monosaccharide; they include fructose and glucose which
are the smallest unit of sugar.
Sucrose, in commercial usage usually refers as sugar. It is a disaccharide
sugar that occurs naturally in every fruit and vegetable. It is the major product of
photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the energy of the sun into
food.
HISTORY OF SUGAR
DATE
8000 B.C

400 B.C
10TH CENTURY A.D

6TH CENTURY A.D

1493

1600

1747

1800

EVENT
Ancestry of sugar cane traced in New
Guinea, migration to the southern Asia,
Indonesia, Philippines, Malay, Indochina
and eastern India
Knowledge of sugar prevalent in India
Sugar cultivation and manufacturing had
become important industries in Persia
and Egypt.
The early Islamic movement spread the
knowledge of the sugar industry
throughout the Mediterranean sea
Christopher Columbus took the sugar
cane to the Caribbean islands of Santo
Domingo for trial planting
The sugar industry was the largest in
tropical America; sugar was then treated
as luxury. Referred to as white gold
General chemist, Andrea Sigismund
Margraf and his pupil Achard, established
that sugar from sugar beets was the
same with sugar cane
Sugar beet had replaced sugar cane as
the main source of sugar in continental
Europe

In the Philippines, the industry of sugar started two to four thousand years
CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

before the Christian era wherein vessels from the Celebes came to Mindanao with
sugarcane cuttings. According to Spaniard writings, in 1521 when Magellan
arrived, Filipinos already know how to extract juice from the sugar cane but
through a primitive way.

USES/APPLICATION OF SUGAR

1.

Food-Sugar is now a highly valued food and sweetener and also serves as
an edible preservative

2.

Sugar as a source of energy -Sugar is an important source of food


energy. During digestion, all food carbohydrates (starches and sugars) break down
into single molecule sugars. These sugars are absorbed from the intestine into the
blood stream and travel to the cells, where they are used to provide energy for
cellular functions.

3. Aid for dehydration -Table sugar can be used to make oral rehydration
solution (ORS), which can help prevent dehydration in children who have
infantile diarrhea or vomiting in developing countries.

4. Fighting nutrient deficiency- Fortification of foods with micronutrients


is generally recognized as the most cost-effective long-term strategy for
eliminating micronutrient malnutrition. Sugar is a safe and economical
foodstuff that is accepted and consumed by populations at risk including
those who are very poor. So fortified sugar can play a critical role in
fighting nutrient deficiency. Sugar is used as a vehicle for supplying
vitamin A in a number of Central American countries (Guatemala,
Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador), in Zambia and more recently in
the Philippines.

5.

Hair removal - Sugar is used for hair removal, in a practice that is thought
to date back to the ancient Egyptians. A warm paste of sugar, water and lemon
juice is applied to the skin. Strips of cloth are then pressed over the paste and
torn off quickly, taking the hair with them. Sugar is also used in soap-making and
as an abrasive scrub to exfoliate skin.
CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

6.

Industrial uses - production of surfactants, cement, fabrics, alcohol, fuelethanol production


PROPERTIES OF SUGAR
Physical Properties

Melting point approximately 188C

Density 1.5879 g/cm3

Polarization sugar in solution rotates a polarized light to the


right in equal proportion to the quantity of the sucrose present.
A saccharimeter is used to directly read the percentage of
sucrose present in sucrose-bearing material.

Solubility - sugar is very soluble in water and the ability to


produce variations of sugar concentrations is very important in
the food industry. Eg. A high level of solubility is essential in
beverages to provide sweetness and to increase viscosity to
create a desirable mouthfeel'. Its solubility is also important in
the preparation of canned fruits, jams, jellies, preserves and
syrups to impart the desired level of sweetness and to aid in
preservation

Solubility - sugar is very soluble in water and the ability to


produce variations of sugar concentrations is very important in
the food industry. Eg. A high level of solubility is essential in
beverages to provide sweetness and to increase viscosity to
create a desirable mouthfeel'. Its solubility is also important in
the preparation of canned fruits, jams, jellies, preserves and
syrups to impart the desired level of sweetness and to aid in
preservation.

Freezing point- Sugar is effective in lowering freezing points.


Freezing point depression is an important property in ice-creams,
CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

frozen desserts and freeze-dried foods to ensure the development


of fine crystal structure and product smoothness.

Boiling point The concentration of sugar in a solution affects


the boiling point by raising it. This characteristic is important in
candy manufacture as boiling point elevation allows for more
sugar to be dissolved in solution, creating a super saturated' and
more concentrated solution. It is this specific concentration of the
supersaturated sugar syrup, which is achieved at specific boiling
points, which inevitably determine the candy's final consistency.

Chemical Properties

Antioxidant Activity
Sucrose has been reported to exhibit antioxidant properties
which help to prevent the deterioration of textures and flavours
in canned fruits and vegetables. These effects may be partially
attributed to sucrose's ability to lower water activity.
In addition, the products of the hydrolysis of sucrose (glucose
and fructose) appear to have the ability to block the reactive
sites of ions such as copper and iron and, to a lesser extent,
cobalt. This characteristic of monosaccharides aids in food
preservation by impeding catalytic oxidation reactions.

Chemical formula of sucrose

(C12H22O11)

CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

RAW MATERIALS
Major sources
SUGAR CANE
(Saccharum officinarum L. ) is a member of the
grass family (Poaceae) and is widely cultivated,
providing around 70% of the worlds sugar.
Sugar cane yields the highest number of
calories per unit area of cultivation of any plant.
It contains 11 to 15% sucrose by weight.
Description:
Overview: A tall grass, which looks rather like a bamboo cane, and grows
3-6 m high with culms (stems) 20-45 mm in diameter.
The thicker-stemmed forms are commonly known as 'thick' or 'noble' canes
CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

because of their tall, handsome, colourful stems.


Leaves: Broad (up to 6 cm wide), 70-150 cm long, borne alternately on the
stem, with leaf base encircling the stem.
Fruits: An oblong caryopsis (small, dry, one-seeded fruit), 1.5 mm long.
Saccharum officinarum can be recognised by its hairless or short-haired
panicle axis, and leaf-blades up to 6 cm wide.
Besides Saccharum officinarum, four other species in the genus
Saccharum have been used for sugar production:
S.
S.
S.
S.

barberi, known as 'Indian cane' or 'thin' cane


robustum
sinense, known as 'Chinese cane'
spontaneum, which is known as 'wild cane' and used for hybridization

SUGAR BEET
(Beta vulgaris) is a large pale brown
root crop similar to parsnip, and has a
sugar content of 16% when it is
harvested. It grows in the temperate
climate of Europe and North America.
Sugar beet differs from the ordinary
table beet in that it is much larger and
is not red. Sugar beets contain 13 to 17 %
sucrose and 0.8% ash.
Description:
The sugar beet has a conical, white, fleshy root (ataproot) with a flat crown.
The plant consists of the root and a rosette of leaves.
Minor sources
1. Maple tree
2. Sugar palm trees
CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

3. Insects
4. Sweet sorghum
SUGAR MILLS IN THE PHILIPPINES
1. Central Azucarera Don Pedro Inc. (Region IV-A)
Lumbungan, Nasugbu, Batangas
Capacity: 12,000 TC/day
2. Biscom Inc. (Region VI)
Brgy. San Vicente, Binalbagan, Negros Occidental
Capacity: 14,000 TC/day

CHEMISTRY OF SACCHARIDES

10

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
3.

Central Azucarera de Carlota (Region VI)


Brgy.

RSB,

Lacarlota

city,

Negros Occidental Capacity:


16,000 TC/day
4.

Victorias Milling Company Inc. (Region VI)


Victorias City, Negros
Occidental Capacity:
15, 000 TC/day

5.

Busco sugar milling company, Inc. (Region X)


Brgy. Butong, Quezon, Bukidnon
Capacity : 18, 000 TC/day
*Source: directory of sugar mills 2014-15 of the Sugar Regulatory
Administration
SUGAR SUBSTITUTES
Sometimes called artificial sweeteners or intense sweeteners, are
synthetic compounds that are many times sweeter than compounds.

KINDS OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS


1.

Acesulfame-K
Is

the

potassium

salt

of

6-methyl-1,2,3-

oxathiazin-4(3H)-one-2,2-dioxide.

Discovered

in Germany and was first approved by the FDA


in 1988 for use as nonnutritive sweetener.
2.

Alitame
Is a sweeter based on amino acid. It is a
very

intense

sweetener,

possessing

power of about 2000 times that of sucrose.


3.

Aspartame

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
The chemical name for aspartame is L-aspartyl-Lphenylalamine methyl ester. It is noted for a clean,
sweet taste that is similar to that of sucrose but is
about 200 times sweeter than sucrose.

Cyclamate

4.

Discovered in the United States in 1937. It is 30 to


80 times as sweet as sucrose and was widely used
until late 1969, when it was banned by the FDA
because of questions on safety.

I.
-

INDUSTRIAL SUGAR
Raw sugar or the sugar that does not undergo the refining process

A. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF RAW SUGAR


Sugarcane plants are propagated by planting sections of the stem
having a bud at the base of each leaf. The buds sprout into shoots from which
several other shoots arise below the soil level to form a clump of stalk or
stool. Afterwards, the mature stalks are harvested either by hand of by
mechanical means. It is then immediately transported as the sugarcane loses
is sugar content with respect to time. The canes are then washed to remove
any soil and unwanted foreign debris. The washed canes pass through a
coarse shredder following a crushing machine. The juice is then extracted or
milled, later to be filtered and purified. After purification, the cane juice is
reduced by evaporation to increase the sugar concentration by up to 60
percent. Seed crystals are then added to induce crystallization. As the
crystals form, it leaves behind a residue called molasses, which are separated
from the crystals by means of a centrifuge. The crystals are dried and stored,

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
ready for distribution.
B. PROCESS LAYOUT

EQUIPMENT

PROCESS

Conveyor belts with washer

Washing
At the mill, the cane must be clean
as possible. Truck loaders unload the
cane into a receiving table and into a
conveyor belt that takes it into two
phases of water

Industrial cutter/ shredder

Shredding
The washed cane is then
into cutters to decrease
make shredding easier.
passed to a shredder
decreased the bulk size

Milling Train

transported
the bulk to
It is then
to further

Milling
Shredded can passes through a
series of roller mills to extract the
cane juice. The bagasse or cane pulp
and the raw cane juice is collected.

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
Filtration tank

Filtration
The raw cane juice is filtered to
remove any unwanted particulates. It
is then clarified for quality purposes

Evaporator

Evaporation
The juice is reduced via evaporation
of
moisture
to
increase
the
concentration of sugar by up to 60
percent

Crystallization tank

Crystallization
After evaporation, the resulting
concentrated
cane
juice
is
transported to a crystallization tank,
where seed crystals are added to
induce crystallization.

Centrifuge

Centrifugation
After the crystallization process, it is

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
then spun into a centrifuge
remove the residue (molasses)

Dryer / storage tanks

to

Drying
The crystals are then dried and then
stored, ready for distribution

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
C. EQUIPMENT LAYOUT

Heart of the Process


Crystallization this process is the most distinctive step in sugar making.
The processed cane sugar is disintegrated by inducing crystallization, leaving
the molasses behind. There is no real chemical reaction in this process since
the crystals itself are made of the same substance as the sourced sugarcane

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
carbohydrate, sucrose. The process is purely phase transformation.

II.

Refined Sugar

Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates,


many of which are used in food. They are carbohydrates, composed of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides
and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose and galactose. The
table or granulated sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a
disaccharide. (In the body, sucrose hydrolyses into fructose and glucose.)

Sugar cane is the most common raw material used in the production of
sugar. It grows in almost all types of soil, from sandy loams to clay loams and
from volcanic soils to calcareous sedimentary deposit s. At least 17 provinces
located in 8 regions of the Philippine archipelago have grown sugarcane
crops, of which the two on Negros island account for half of the countrys
total production. As of Crop Year 2009-2010, 29 mills are operational divided
as follows: 6 mills on Luzon, 13 mills on Negros, 4 mills on Panay, 3 mills in
Eastern Visayas and 3 mills on Mindanao. The harvest period is from October
to December and ends in May.

A. MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF REFINED SUGAR


Overview

Raw sugar is light to dark brown in color, slightly sticky, and

contains about 1 to 2 percent ash, starch, and coloring matter. The


purpose of refining sugar is to remove these impurities and produce

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
refined sugar of nearly 100 percent purity. Achieving this 100 percent
of purity allows the sugar to be consumed and digested by people.
However, the refining of raw sugar removes some of the essential
vitamins and minerals from the sugar cane

B. PROCESS LAYOUT
EQUIPMENT
Affination Centrifuge

PROCESS
Affination
The first step in refining is removing the adhering
film of molasses from the crystals of raw sugar by a
washing process known as affination. This is done by
mingling the raw sugar with hot raw syrup in a large
trough containing a mixer paddle and scroll. Surface
impurities (molasses) dissolve in this syrup are
removed. The affination process yields a palecolored sugar, which is discharged by ploughs into
continuous- melter tanks.

Melting Tanks
Melting
The washed sugar is melted in hot water in the
melter tank where it meets a stream of hot sweet
watersfrom the process. The melted liquor is
strained through a plain screen to remove insoluble
debris.

Cane Juice Clarifier

Clarification
The melted sugar liquor is then purified, utilizing
either the carbonation or phosphatation process.
These processes trap suspended impurities in larger
particles which are easier to separate from the sugar
liquor. It is the complete removal of the undesirables

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

like yeast, molds and foreign objects.

Bleaching Unit

Decolorization
The clear but tan colored sugar solution is pumped
through a series of columns containing an ion
exchange resin which absorbs the remaining color to
produce a clear and colorless solution known as fine
liquor.

Crystallizer
Decolorization
Thick liquor is transferred to boiling vessels known
as pans where under controlled vacuum the liquor is
boiled at low temperature to further concentrate the
solution. As water evaporates and the liquor
concentrates, sugar crystals begin to form,
their growth being controlled by careful
adjustment of the boiling conditions. When the
crystals are large enough, the crystals and syrup are
discharged from the pan. This mixture of crystals
and syrup is called
"massecuite".

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
Centrifugal Drum
Centrifugation
The mixture of crystals and syrup or massecuite is
transferred to centrifuges for removal of free liquor,
it is where the crystals are separated from the syrup.
They are conveyed to holding bins located above
dryers.

Granulator

Drying
The refined sugar crystals are dried by tumbling
them through a stream of air. The dryers are called
granulators because they rotate and keep the
crystals from sticking together.

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

C. EQUIPMENT LAYOUT

Carbonation and Phosphatation


Are both chemical treatment processes, which form a precipitate in the liquor;
filtration uses inert filter aids that permit filtration under pressure.

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila
Carbonation
The sugar is redissoved and calcium hydroxide and
carbon dioxide are added to the solution. These react
according to the following equation:
Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O
Colour, gum and amino acid impurities
precipitate out with the calcium carbonate. The
carbonation precipitate is removed by pressure
filtering the sugar liquor through cloth in a pressure
leaf filter, leaving a straw-coloured, crystal clear
liquid.
Phosphatation
Involves adding phosphoric acid to the melted
sugar and removing the precipitate as a layer from the
top of a clarifier. The phosphatated liquor is generally
also filtered through sand in a deep bed filter to remove
any residual precipitate left after clarification.

Filtration
The most-straightforward, probably the oldest form of sugar liquor
clarification process. Carbonated liquor (solution) is pumped through a series
of leaf filters which retain the calcium precipitate in the filter and discharge a
clear but colored sugar solution.

BY-PRODUCTS OF SUGAR INDUSTRY


1.

Molasses
is the final effluent obtained in the preparation of sugar by
repeated crystallization. The sugar it contains cannot be removed
economically. The molasses from cane sugar is most commonly known
as backstrap and that from beet is called beet molasses. Molasses is
mainly used for the manufacture of ethyl alcohol (ethanol).

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

2.

Bagasse
a fibrous residue of the cane stalk that
is obtained after crushing and
extraction of juice. It consists of water,
fiber, and relatively small quantities of
soluble solids. Bagasse is usually used
as fuel in the furnaces to produce
steam in sugar factories. It is also used
as a raw material for production of
paper and feedstock for cattle.

3.

Mud
The material removed from the filters
during clarifications of the juice
contains the settled insoluble solids.
The mud is returned to the fields as
fertilizer. Some sugar factories extract
a crude wax from the filtered mud,
which is used in the manufacture of
polishes.

4.

Pulp

The pulp produced after the extraction of sugar is pressed in screwtype presser to remove water. The pressed pulp is enriched by the
addition of molasses or concentrated steffen filtrate and is dried in
rotary driers. Molasses dried beet pulp is an excellent cattle feed.

Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila


University of the City of Manila
Gen. Luna cor. Muralla St., Intramuros, Manila, Metro Manila

REFERENCES
Ali, Mohammad F. (2005). Handbook of industrial chemistry: organic
chemicals
Riegel, Emil R. (1983). Riegels handbook of industrial chemistry, 8th
ed.