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- “descent with modification”
- complex process by which the characteristics of living organisms change
over many generations as traits are passed from one generation to the next.
- occurs only when there is a change in gene frequency within a population
over time. These genetic differences are heritable and can be passed on to the
next generation, which is what really matters in evolution: long term change.


A. Phylogeny
- family tree,
a hypothesis illustrating the relationships of all
species on earth.
Tree-like not ladder-like therefore does not show
- Uses
o Testing hypotheses about evolution
o Learning about the characteristics of
extinct species and ancestral lineages
o Classifying organisms

B. Genetic Variation in Populations
1. Gene flow
- when individuals move between one population and another, new
genes may be introduced to populations

2. Mutation
- a random change in a gene or chromosome resulting in a new trait
or characteristic that can be inherited.
- can be a source of beneficial genetic variation, or it can be neutral
or harmful in effect
- For evolution to occur, the forces of natural selection must
distribute an advantageous trait (caused by mutation) to other members
of a population.
- Types
o Somatic - Mutations occurring in cells that do not form
gametes, mutations that do not end up being carried by eggs
or sperm. For example, mutations in your skin, muscle, or
liver tissue are somatic mutations.
o Germ line - Mutation that occurs in reproductive cells and
ends up being carried by gametes (e.g., eggs and sperm).
C. Natural Selection in Populations
- sorts out the useful changes in the gene pool. Beneficial new genes
quickly spread through a population because members who carry them have a
greater reproductive success, or evolutionary fitness, and consequently pass
the beneficial genes to more offspring.

A. Importance of Biodiversity . causing alleles for intermediate forms of a trait to become less common in the gene pool 4.variety of habitats. Disruptive . between species.variation in the genes within a species . Ecosystem diversity .increases the likelihood that individuals will be able to survive major disturbances due to inheritance of disease-resistance and other useful traits for survival .Complex ecosystems with a wide variety of plants and animals tend to be more stable B. millions and billions of different species have been born. This results in the biodiversity of the planet. BIODIVERSITY -the variability among living organisms from all sources including.promotes ecosystem efficiency because each species has a role in the ecosystem 3. Sexual . and of ecosystems.can occur through a predator/prey or host/ parasite relationship.instead of “natural choice” of reproducing.reduces the incidence of unfavorable inherited traits caused by inbreeding 2. 2. competition between species.two extremes are fabvored. terrestrial.1.a measure of the diversity of a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring – called species—within an ecological community . living communities and ecological processes— called ecosystems—in the living world . Artificial Selection . this includes diversity within species. Co-evolution . Species diversity . causing the allele frequency to shift over time in the direction of that phenotype. Levels of Biodiversity 1. only certain plants and animals with desirable characteristics are allowed to reproduce E. Stabilizing – the intermediate version of a characteristic is favored instead of one of two extremes 3. or between mutualistic species Through these mechanisms of extreme phenotype is favored over other phenotypes.when two species affect each other’s evolution. some have gone extinct while others still evolve as time goes by. Genetic diversity . marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part. Directional . .some individuals out-reproduce others of a population because they are better at securing mates D.

Contribution to climate stability d.This occurs when a particular area is converted from a usable to an unusable habitat. water. compete with them for food. Wood products d. and can lead to extinctions. increase sea levels. change flow of currents and disrupt food chains. Breeding stocks. and water extraction are all central causes of habitat loss. mining. or disrupt important interactions. deforestation. Research. it also encompasses the interactions between the species. Diversity in genes. species and ecosystems 3. Biological resources a. Recovery from unpredictable events 2. national forests. Over-harvesting . Soils formation and protection a. 2. Ornamental plants e. aquaculture. Protection of water resources b. Maintenance of ecosystems e. D. and other public lands 2. population reservoirs f.New species can parasitize or predate upon residents. bring unfamiliar diseases. Threats to Biodiversity 1. Cultural values C. Habitat destruction .This includes targeted hunting. Recreation and tourism c. agriculture. Habitat protection . and the living conditions in which they exist. Ways to Protect Biodiversity 1. 1. Social benefits a. Nutrient storage and recycling b. hybridize with them. energy and other resources. Future resources g.developing and implementing conservation plans that will preserve environmentally important areas long into the future and shaping smart conservation policies for managing national wildlife refuges. how they survive. Pollution . 3. Medicinal resources and pharmaceutical drugs c.The discharge of toxic synthetic chemicals and heavy metals into the environment has a huge impact on species abundance.Biodiversity goes beyond simply a literal list of species. education and monitoring b. Pollution breakdown and absorption c. modify habitats. 5. what they do. gathering or fishing for a particular species as well as incidental harvesting. use of less harmful substances than hazardous ones. Food b. Introduced/invasive animals . 4. Climate Change – Temperature shifts are making it difficult or even impossible for many species to survive because they diminish polar habitats. Ecosystem services a. elimination of toxic substances in production processes . Prevention of Pollution – includes the efficient use of raw materials. Industrial activities.

in automated nurseries.seeds or embryos are preserved at very low temperatures iv. C. Seed bank – preservation of dried seeds by storing them at a very low temperature. Controlling invasive species . v. Biotechnology techniques in Biodiversity Conservation 1. Pollen bank – storage of pollen grains. can be a whole plant.plant genetic resources are kept as live plants 3. chemical. Genomics – evaluation of genetic diversity by using molecular markers and DNA and protein profiling 5. also detection and elimination of diseases in such i.replacement of electricitydraining conventional streetlights. Use of germplasm– refers to living tissues from which new plants can form. Dealing with Climate Change – global efforts must be exerted to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and halt deforestation RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AND ISSUES IN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND BIODIVERSITY A.3.facilities where plant genes are stored. Tissue bank . Field gene bank . protocorm and meristematic cells are conserved through particular light and temperature arrangements in a nutrient medium. ii. Use of gene banks . pollen. Genetic Erosion . Bioremediation B. or even just a number of cells. . biological and cultural components in prevention and control measures of invasive species 4. Recent Developments 1. Cryobank . also its safe and more efficient distribution to users 4.provides benefits to the biotechnology industry by creating a legal framework to regulate access to genetic resources and provide fair and equitable sharing of benefits.employing manual. lit-up road signs and interior lighting with bioluminescence by splicing genes from bioluminescent firefly and marine bacteria into trees 2. Seed and tissue culture . all identical clones. stem. Streetlights into Tree lights (2014). can propagate up to 10 million eucalyptus seedlings. or part of a plant such as leaf. Creation of improved genetic variations of crops – use of conventional and modern biotechnology techniques such as hybridization 6. iii. for example.Commercial biotechnology may unleash a new era of genetic erosion.buds.methods for collecting and storing genes 2. The Nagoya Protocol (2010) . Issues 1. mechanical. A commercial venture in Chile.

Ecological risks arise from introducing genetically engineered plants into centers of diversity. a good number of them resistant to herbicides. Transgenic varieties.2. Biosafety . Gene flow to weeds from resistant plants could have far-reaching consequences.biotechnology is seen by some to ‘interfere with the workings of nature and creation . 3. have been produced in more than 40 crop plants. Ethical aspects .