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PENTINGNYA NITROGEN
BAGI TANAMAN TEBU
Bahan kajian MK. Pupuk dan Pemupukan
Diabstraksikan oleh Prof Dr Ir Soemarno MS
Jur Tanah FPUB September 2011

Defisiensi N sering terjadi pada tanaman tebu yang ditanam pada


tanah-tanah berpasir. Aplikasi pupuk N secara bertahap selama
musim pertumbuhan tanaman tebu diperlukan untuk mencapai
produksi tebu yang baik pada tanah-tanah berpasir, yang biasanya
kandungan bahan organic tanahnya rendah. Kegagalan mensuplai
cukup N pada fase pertumbuhan kritis mengakibatkan tanaman
kerdil, pemasakan premature, dan hasil biomasa serta hasil gula
menurun (The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, IFAS,
University of Florida).

Muchovej and Newman (2004) (Southwest


Florida Research and Education Center, University
of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Science,
2686 State Road 29 North, Immokalee, FL 341429514).

There is limited information on the impact of N fertilizer


applied to sugarcane on sandy soils regarding soil and
groundwater quality. This study determined soil and
groundwater characteristics as affected by varying N rates on
a sandy soil planted to sugarcane cultivar CP 78- 1628. Three
rates of N fertilizer (170, 280, and 390 kg N ha-1 yr-1) were
evaluated. The N rates were divided into four split
applications. After planting, piezometers were installed in the
center of each plot to a soil depth of 1.3 m. Rainfall and
temperature data were recorded by a weather station located
<1 km from the study site.
Soil macro- and micro-nutrients plus Al, Na, Cl, pH, buffer pH,
organic matter, and electrical conductivity were not affected
by the N rates when sampled at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths
between the plant-cane, first and second ratoon crops. Soil
and groundwater N concentrations indicated a rapid loss of
the applied N due to leaching after the split application.
Lowering the quantity of N ha-1 with each split application
and increasing the frequency of the splits may increase the N
utilization efficiency of sugarcane. Based on results from this
study, it is suggested that split application rates of
ammonium nitrate fertilizer to sugarcane grown on sandy
soils in south Florida during June through September should
be lower than 70 kg N ha-1 and at time intervals between 2.5
and 6.5 wk.
For the sugarcane cultivar CP 78-1628 grown on a sandy soil
in south Florida, positive relationships between rates of
ammonium nitrate fertilizer and plant available soil N

concentrations at 2.5 wk after application were verified.


However, the effects of varying N rates were not always
present at 6.5 wk after the split applications. The
groundwater NO3-N response to increasing rates of N
fertilizer in the first ratoon crop indicated that leaching might
be a major cause of low N use efficiency of sugarcane on
sandy soils in south Florida. Based on the regression analysis
of collected groundwater data, split applications of
ammonium nitrate fertilizer should be lower than 70 kg N ha1 to prevent groundwater NO3-N enrichment above the
acceptable EPA drinking water concentrations and to provide
the needed N fertilizer to the sugarcane crop during the
growing season.
-----------------------Nitrogen merupakan salah satu unsur hara makro primer yang
sangat diperlukan oleh tanaman tebu, sehingga seringkali diperlukan
pemupukan N untuk mengoptimalkan pertumbuhan dan hasil tebu.
Dosis pupuk N tergantung pada tingkat kesuburan tanah, kandungan
bahan organik tanah, tekstur tanah, KTK, dan jumlah biomas tanaman
yang dihasilkan. Kelebihan dan kekurangan nitrogen menyebabkan
gangguan pada pertumbuhan tanaman, produksi dan kwalitasnya.
Efisiensi penyerapan nitrogen ditentukan juga oleh jumlah, frekuensi,
cara, dan waktu pemupukan N. Analisa daun, analisa tanah dan
percobaan pemupukan di lapangan merupakan dasar pembuatan
rekomendasi pemupukan N yang terintegrasi pada pengelolaan yang
baik.
Kecukupan pupuk nitrogen sangat menentukan pertumbuhan
tanaman. Indikatornya terlihat jelas pada ukuran daun, tinggi batang,
luas permukaan daun dan jumlah anakan tanaman tebu. Kekurangan
unsur ini membuat pertumbuhan tanaman merana, ukuran daun
mengecil, kurus dan berwarna kekuningan. Penyebab rendahnya
produktivitas pada tanaman tebu memang cukup banyak, salah satu
yang cukup dominan adalah masalah pemupukan. Pemberian pupuk
buatan yang terus menerus ternyata membuat tanah menjadi keras
dan kecenderungan produktivitasnya semakin rendah. Penggunaan
pupuk organik secara terus menerus tanpa dibantu oleh pemberian
pupuk buatan mempunyai kecenderungan produktivitasnya rendah.
Namun penggunaan keduanya akan menghasilkan sinergi positip
yang dapat meningkatkan produktivitas tanaman. Pemberian pupuk
nitrogen dalam bentuk urea, ZA masih diperlukan dalam jumlah yang
cukup banyak; karena biomas yang dihasilkan tanaman tebu sangat
banyak, setiap tahunnya tidak kurang dari 100 ton biomas per ha yang
dihasilkan tanaman dan tidak kembali ke tanah lagi.
Permasalahan yang muncul adalah seberapa banyak dosis
pupuk N yang diperlukan tanaman tebu untuk mendapatkan
pertumbuhan dan produktivitas optimum? Selain itu seberapa jauh

hasil analisis daun dapat digunakan untuk menyusun rekomendasi


pemupukan secara terintegrasi diagnosis and recommendation
integrated system (DRIS).
Kandungan hara nitrogen pada daun yang dinyatakan medium
adalah 1.70 %, jika kandungan N-daun 1.70 % - 2.00 %, maka
dikatagorikan medium-plus atau baik-minus; apabila nilainya 1.40
% - 1.70 % tergolong medium-minus atau kurang-plus. Apabila
nilainya kurang dari 1.40 % , tergolong kurang-minus, sedang jika
kandungan N lebih dari 2.0 %, tergolong baik-plus.

N-tanaman tebu
Peranan nitrogen bagi tanaman tebu adalah (a) meningkatkan
produksi dan kualitasnya, (b) untuk pertumbuhan vegetatif
(pertumbuhan tunas, daun, batang), (c) Pertumbuhan vegetatif berarti
mempengaruhi produktivitas.
Gejala defisiensi nitrogen antara lain (a) daun berwarna kuning
pucat, (b) ruas lebih pendek, (c) pertumbuhan daun semakin lambat,
(d) batang lebih pendek dan kurus, (e) akar lebih panjang, tetapi lebih
kecil ukurannya, (f) jika defisiensi berkelanjutan, ujung daun dan daun
yang terbawah menjadi nekrosis.
Kelebihan unsur nitrogen dapat berakibat negatif juga yakni (a)
efek racun untuk tanaman, (b) pertumbuhan vegetatif memanjang, (c)
memperlambat kemasakan, (d) mengurangi kadar gula, (e)
mengurangi kualitas jus (nira), (f) Menambah nitrogen yang larut pada
jus dalam stasiun klarifikasi, (g) mudah roboh, (h) lebih mudah
terserang hama dan penyakit.
Tanaman menyerap nitrogen dalam bentuk nitrat (NO3) dan
ammonium (NH4+). Efisiensi relatif absorpsi ammonium dan nitrat
dipengaruhi oleh pH tanah dan potensial redoks tanah. Pupuk Nitrat
bersifat sangat mobil, cepat diserap dalam bentuk ion nitrat (NO3-),
dan mudah tercuci. Nitrogen dalam bentuk nitrat dapat bergerak ke
atas bersama air kapiler selama musim kemarau. Ammonium tidak
mudah tercuci karena kation ini diikat oleh partikel liat (clay),
pengikatan ini sedemikian rupa sehingga tidak mudah tercuci, tetapi
masih tersedia bagi tanaman.

N-tanah
Tanah yang strukturnya baik memungkinkan udara masuk ke
dalam pori tanah, demikian juga air akan tertahan dalam ruangan
tersebut. Ujung akar dengan bulu akarnya akan mudah tumbuh pada
kondisi seperti ini. Bulu akar merupakan organ tanaman yang
menyerap unsur hara dan air dari dalam tanah. Jumlah bulu akar ini

sangat dipengaruhi oleh (a) jumlah akar yang tumbuh,(b) diameter


akar, (c) diameter batang, dan (d) Panjang akar. Semakin banyak
jumlah bulu akar, akan semakin tinggi kemampuan akar dalam
menyerap air dan unsur hara.
Pada tanah yang subur dekomposisi bahan organik akan terus
terjadi secara berkelanjutan, sehingga kebutuhan nitrogen mudah
dipenuhi. Sedangkan pada tanah berpasir yang miskin bahan organik,
tanpa penambahan pupuk organik akan sulit menyediakan N dalam
jumlah yang cukup. Itulah sebabnya pada tanah yang demikian perlu
penambahan frekuensi pemupukan nitrogen dan perlu pemberian
pupuk organik.
Apabila mikroba tumbuh dengan baik di daerah rizosfer, maka
unsur hara nitrogen yang tersedia dapat diserap oleh tanaman melalui
akar dengan baik. Nitrogen yang diserap akan semakin banyak
jumlahnya. Apalagi jika ditunjang oleh perakaran yang baik dan jumlah
akar aktif maka kemampuan penyerapan unsur hara semakin tinggi.
Dengan demikian tanaman dapat tumbuh lebih baik dan
menghasilkan produksi yang lebih baik.

Pemupukan N tebu
Tanaman tebu memerlukan unsure hara dalam jumlah yang
tinggi untuk dapat tumbuh dan berproduksi dengan baik. Dalam 1 ton
hasil panen tebu terdapat sekitar 2.00 kg N; 0,40 - 0,80 kg P2O5 dan
1,20 - 6,0 kg K2O yang diserap dari dalam tanah. Oleh karena itu
diperlukan pemupukan N, P dan K yang cukup tinggi agar hasil panen
tebu tetap tinggi dan kesuburan tanah dapat dilestarikan.
Penambahan pupuk N karena hara N yang tersedia dalam tanah
berasal dari luar tanah, yaitu : (1) bahan organik sisa panen tanaman,
(2) fiksasi N dari udara oleh mikroba tanah, (3) air irigasi, dan (4)
pupuk N.
Hasil-hasil
penelitian
menunjukkan
bahwa
efisiensi
pemupukan N pada budidaya tebu masih relative rendah, yaitu sekitar
30 - 35%. Efisiensi pemupukan N rendah tersebut disebabkan karena
sebagian hara N dari pupuk hilang melalui proses-proses penguapan,
pencucian, imobilisasi, denitrifikasi dan erosi & runoff.
Tingkat kekurangan N tanaman tebu sangat bervariasi
tergantung pada kiondisi tanah, dan perkembangan tanaman. Pada
awal pertumbuhan tanaman tebu, kekurangan N dapat mengurangi
jumlah anakan, dan jumlah batang pada ratoon, daun menguning,
pendek dan sempit. Kekurangan N pada masa vegetatif dapat
menyebabkan menurunnya diameter batang dan jumlah batang tebu
yang baik. Kekurangan N yang ringan dapat mengurangi laju
fotosintesis, pengaruhnya sangat besar kalau terjadi pada awal
pertumbuhan tanaman.

Pupuk Urea dan ZA telah lazim digunakan dalam budidaya


tanaman tebu. Namun teknologi inovasi dalam aplikasi pupuk N ini
masih sangat diperlukan untuk meningkatkan efisiensinya.
Frekuensi aplikasi pupuk nitrogen seringkali sangat
berpengaruh selama periode pertumbuhan tanaman. Kegagalan
aplikasi nitrogen tepat waktu akan menyebabkan tanaman menjadi
kerdil, masak sebelum waktunya dan mengurangi jumlah hasil tebu.
Analisa tanah sebagai alat kontrol umumnya tidak dapat diandalkan
karena N tersedia dapat berubah dengan cepat akibat berubahnya
iklim (temperatur, hujan) dan faktor budidaya tanaman. Kehilangan
nitrogen dapat dikurangi dengan menghatur frekuensi aplikasi
pemupukan.
Pupuk nitrogen dapat digolongkan menjadi tiga yakni:
(1). Pupuk Nitrat (Nitrate), misalnya Sodium Nitrate; Calcium Nitrate;
Potasium Nitrate. (2). Pupuk Amomonium, misalnya A. Sulphate
(S.A./Z.A.); A. Chloride; A. Anhydride; dan (3) Pupuk Amida (Amide),
misalnya Urea; Calcium Cyamnamide.
Pupuk ammonium sulphat (ZA) juga mengandung sulphur.
Pemakaian ZA terus menerus dapat mengasamkan tanah. Aplikasi
pupuk ZA dengan dosis 4-6 ku/ha (beragam tergantung kondisi
tanah) dapat menghasilkan hablur gula yang diharapkan.
Pupuk amida bersifat lambat tersedia, N dalam pupuk ini tidak
langsung tersedia bagi tanaman tetapi harus melalui beberapa
perubahan kimia dahulu. Hasil akhirnya dalam bentuk Ammonium
(NH4+) dan Nitrat (NO3-). Jenis pupuk ini berkadar N tinggi, misalnya
Urea = 46%. Sifat urea yang mudah larut dalam air
memungkinkannya untuk dipakai sebagai pupuk daun.
Dengan bantuan mikroba tanah, nitrogen yang ada dalam
pupuk dapat dikonversi menjadi bentuk yang tersedia bagi tanaman.
Proses perubahannya banyak tergantung pada iklim dan kondisi
tanahnya. Konversi berjalan cepat apabila kadar air, aerasi,
temperatur dan pH nya sesuai.
Aplikasi pemupukan sebaiknya 3 sampai 4 kali yakni pada
saat sebelum tanam (pupuk dasar), setelah perakaran tumbuh (1-2
bulan), pada masa pertumbuhan tunas (tillering, 3 bulan) dan masa
pertumbuhan, namun minimal dua kali setahun. Semakin sering
frekuensi aplikasi pupuk dengan dosis rendah, hasilnya akan semakin
baik, terutama bagi jenis pupuk yang cepat larut dalam air seperti
pupuk ZA dan Urea.
Pada akhir musim kemarau yang panjang, akar banyak yang
mati , itulah sebabnya waktu pemupukan harus menunggu pada saat
akar mulai tumbuh kembali sekitar 1 sampai 1.5 bulan setelah hujan
pertama datang.

Semakin rendah kandungan bahan organik tanah, maka dosis


pupuk nitrogen akan semakin besar. Dosis pupuk N ini juga
tergantung pada frekuensi aplikasi, karena nitrogen yang sifatnya
sangat mobil mudah tercuci (leaching) dan menguap (volatile). Cara
aplikasi menentukan efisiensi pemupukan nitrogen, misalnya disebar
(broadcast) akan lebih boros dibanding dengan dibenam
(placement). Waktu aplikasi tidak dapat setiap saat dilakukan, karena
curah hujan dan kelembaban tanah tidak setiap saat cocok. Pada
prinsipnya, semakin tinggi kandungan bahan organik tanah, semakin
tinggi KTK akan semakin banyak nitrogen yang tersedia dan dapat
diserap tanaman. Itulah sebabnya analisa daun dibutuhkan untuk
melihat sejauh mana nitrogen dapat diserap oleh tanaman, karena
analisa tersebut dapat segera dibandingkan dengan hasil pengamatan
secara visual. Analisa tanah saja tidak dapat diandalkan, karena
pergerakan nitrogen dalam tanah yang begitu cepat sebagai akibat
perubahan iklim (suhu, hujan) yang dinamis.
Teknologi Pupuk N
Pemupukan N tanaman tebu memegang peranan sangat
penting, selain dapat meningkatkan produksi biomassanya, pupuk N
juga dapat meningkatkan keragaman dan kualitas hasil tebu. Masalah
utama penggunaan pupuk N pada lahan kebun tebu adalah
efisiensinya yang relatif rendah karena kehilangan N akibat pencucian
dan penguapan. Untuk itu diperlukan rekayasa teknologi pupuk N
untuk peningkatan efisiensi pemupukan N, misalnya dengan rekayasa
urea-humat. Teknologi pelapisan urea dengan asam humat
diharapkan dapat menghasilkan pupuk urea yang lebih tidak mudah
larut. Dengan pelepasan N yang lebih lambat diharapkan
ketersediaan N dalam tanah lebih besar dan pemupukan menjadi
lebih efisien.
Secara spesifik asam humat dapat digunakan untuk stabilisasi
urea, sehingga meningkatkan efisiensi pemupukan urea pada
tanaman tebu. Dengan menstabilkan urea memakai asam humat ini
diperkirakan efisiensi urea dapat ditingkatkan hingga menjadi sekitar
50%. Proses stabilisasi urea dengan asam humat sangat sederhana
dan dapat dilakukan dengan cara konvensional, yaitu dengan cara
meyemprot secara merata urea dengan asam humat, dan kemudian
dicampur hingga merata. Dosis untuk 100 kg urea menggunakan 1
liter (atau sesuai dengan kebutuhan asam humat).
Rekayasa stabilisasi urea dengan asam humat menghasilkan
urea yang lambat melepaskan nitrogen (slow release), hal ini
diperlukan untuk meminimumkan kehilangan N melalui proses
pencucian dan penguapan.

A recent study on ammonia loss from urea by


using acidic materials such as Humic Acid (HA)
has been successful. Besides reducing ammonia
loss, the mixture of urea-HA improves plant
growth and development (American Journal of
Applied Sciences, Nov, 2009).
Amending urea HA can reduce ammonia loss in
acid soils by improving ammonium retention.
This may in effect improve urea N use efficiency
as well as reducing environmental pollution in
agriculture
(American
Journal
of
Applied
Sciences, 5(5):588-591 2009).
Urea-TSP-MOP-HA mixtures effectively reduced
ammonia loss and retained soil exchangeable
ammonium compared to urea alone. The acidic
nature and high CEC of HA aided in reduction of
ammonia loss and retained soil exchangeable
ammonium. However, the addition of HA in the
urea-TSP-MOP mixtures was not beneficial since
the mixtures alone without HA able to reduce
NH3 loss and improved NH4 retention. This may
be due to K+ contained in the acid that reduce
the quantity of H+ in the mixtures thus
increased soil pH.
Urea, TSP and MOP amended with HA or HA and
FA significantly reduced ammonia loss. The
outcome of this study may contribute to the
improvement of urea N, P and K use efficiency as
well as reducing environmental pollution.
(American Journal of Environmental Sciences 5 (5):
605-609, 2009).

The use of liquid organic N fertilizer has the


ability to reduce NH3 volatilization in acid soil.
The use of both humic and fulvic acids could be
effective in promoting NH4+ retention. Thus, it
can be concluding that, humic substances, in
general, have great ability in controlling NH3
loss and retaining NH4+ in acid soils. It could be
a cheapest, practical and easiest way to control N
loss.
The CEC provided by HA, which ranged between
417-583 cmol kg-1 may have contributed to

ammonia loss reduction. The negative sites due


to ionization of carboxylic (COOH) and phenolic
(OH) might have improved NH4+ retention
hence reduction in N loss. These negative
charges could develop with the level of salt and
pH, that occurred in soil. More salt will produce
more negative charge in soil. A similar situation
will occur at high pH. Thus, the presence of
KOH, as a source of salt, could enhance HA
charges and indirectly reducing the N loss.
(American Journal of Agricultural and Biological
Sciences 4 (1): 18-23, 2009).
Purpose of this research was offering basic data
for the production of humic acid slow-release
fertilizers. The effects of NH4+ concentration,
equilibrium time and pH value on the NH4+
adsorption of humic acid extracted from Shanxi
brown coal and its absorptive regularity were
studied by ion-exchange equilibrium method in
this paper.
Results showed that with the increase of NH4+
concentration, adsorption capacity of NH4+
increased. The adsorption of NH4+ on humic
acid could be well described by Freundlich
equation and its kinetics adsorption fit Elovich
equations best. Under the condition of pH lower
than 7.04, pH increase of medium was of great
advantage of NH4+ adsorption and could
improve the velocity of adsorption reaction.
Under the condition of pH lower than 4.03,
physical adsorption was the dominant. However,
under the condition of 4.03 < pH < 7.04,
chemical
exchange
was
dominant.
The
adsorption capacity could be increased by 58.03
% at the optimal condition. On the whole,
chemical exchanged played a more important
role on NH4+ adsorpiton. Adsorption capacity
rose markedly in the beginning of the adsorption
process, however, it slowed down later. While
suitable ratio of solid to liquid could increase
unit adsorption until the ratio increased to some
extent, then the unit adsorption would decrease.
When the ratio was 0.04 and 0.03, the unit

adsorption reach maximum being 34.9 ,72.2


mg/g, respectively. (Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer
Science. 2005,11(4) : 516-523)

SERAPAN N PUPUK TANAMAN TEBU

G. J. C. Gava; P. C. O. Trivelin; A. C. Vitti and M. W.


Oliveira. 2003. Recovery of nitrogen (15N) from urea and
cane trash by sugar cane ratoon (Saccharum spp.). Rev.
Bras. Cinc. Solo vol. 27 no. 4 Viosa July/Aug. 2003

An experiment was carried out to evaluate how mineralized


nitrogen from cane trash and urea nitrogen applied to the soil
is utilized by sugarcane ratoon. The field experiment was
carried out from October 1997 to August 1998 on a Paleudalf
soil in Piracicaba, State of So Paulo, Brazil. Four treatments
were established: (T1) application of a vinasse and urea
mixture over the whole soil area covered with cane trash- 15N
(crop residue); (T2) application of a vinasse and urea- 15N
mixture over the entire soil area covered with cane trash
(crop residue); (T3) application of a vinasse and urea- 15N
mixture over the whole area without cane trash; (T4) urea- 15N
buried in furrows on either side of the cane rows, with
previous application of vinasse on the soil without cane trash.
The experiment was installed in a randomized block design
with four replications. Components of crop productivity;
accumulation of nitrogen in the aerial part of the sugar cane
ratoon; and the crop's use of 15N nitrogen of urea and of
mineralized cane trash were evaluated for each treatment.
The plant development occurred in a 315 day cycle and was
similar in both conditions, with and without cane trash. Ten16 % of the total nitrogen accumulated in shots of sugarcane
ratoon came from the fertilizer and an average of 4 % was
absorbed from the mineralized N of cane trash. Mean
efficiency of the utilization of urea nitrogen by sugarcane
ratoon was 17 %, with no difference among treatments, and
that of the cane trash 8 %. Cane trash nitrogen was available
to the plant towards the late crop cycle.
---------------

10

SERAPAN N, P, K TANAMAN TEBU


Rakkiyappan, P.; S. Thangavelu, K. V. Bhagyalakshmi and
R. Radhamani. 2007. Uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium by some promising mid late maturing
sugarcane clones. Sugar Tech. Volume 9, Number 1, 2327, DOI: 10.1007/BF02956909
A field experiment was conducted at the ECC farm of
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore during 19992000
to evaluate promising mid late maturing sugarcane clones for
nutrient use efficiency. Twelve clones including three
standards were planted in a clay soil (Typic Haplustert).
Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents were
estimated in dry leaves, green tops and stem on dry weight
basis and their uptake in different parts was calculated. Total
nutrient uptake and uptake per tonne of cane were also
computed. Significant clonal variations in N, P and K uptake
by various plant parts viz., dry leaves, green tops and stem,
total uptake in above ground parts and uptake per tonne of
cane (physiological use efficiency). Total N uptake ranged
from 88.55 kg/ha in CoTl 93116 to 148.52 kg/ha in Co 7219.
The lowest uptake of 0.88 kg N per tonne of cane was
recorded in Co 86032 and the highest uptake of 1.47
kg/tonne of cane was registered in Co 93018. Clones
identified for better N use efficiency were Co 94011, Co
94015 and CoTl 93116. Total P uptake by above ground parts
ranged from 34.95 kg/ha in CoTl 93116 to 57.97 kg/ha in Co
7219. The uptake of phosphorus per tonne of cane ranged
from 0.34 kg in Co 94012 to 0.56 in Co 93018 with a mean of
0.48 kg. Clones Co 94012, Co 94016, Co 94015, Co 94009
and CoTl 93116 were identified for better P use efficiency.
The total K uptake in above ground parts varied from 108.55
kg/ha (CoTl 93116) to 305.98 kg/ha (Co 7219) with a mean of
210.25 kg/ha. The K uptake per tonne of cane ranged from
1.44 kg in CoTl 93116 to 2.91 kg in Co 7219 with a mean of
2.09 kg. Clones identified for better potassium use efficiency
were CoTl 93116, Co 93018 and Co 94012. Co 86032 was
found superior among the standards in nutrient use
efficiency.

PEMUPUKAN N DAN SUPLAI AIR TANAMAN TEBU

11

OBREZA, T.A.; D.L.ANDERSON; D.J. PITTS. 1998. Water


and nitrogen management of sugarcane grown on sandy,
high-water-table soil. Soil Science Society of America
journal. 1998, vol. 62, no4, pp. 992-999.
Little information exists regarding water and N fertilizer
management for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) production on
Florida's high-water-table sandy soils. We hypothesized that
sugar yield and N-use efficiency would be affected by water
table depth and N fertilizer application timing. Sugarcane (cv.
CP 72-1210) was grown in >1-ha plots for three seasons on
Basinger sand (siliceous, hyperthermic Spodic Psammaquent)
to determine the effects of water table depth (0.46 vs. 0.57
m), N fertilization frequency (13 vs. 7 split applications for 3
yr, at 224 kg N ha-1 yr-1), and Mg fertilizer rate (0 vs. 60 kg
Mg ha-1 yr-1) on cane and sugar yields. Annual mean highand low-water-table differences were 0.13, 0.11, and 0.10 m,
resulting in a 0.2 to 1.4 J kg-1 difference in soil water matric
potential at middle of the root zone, and a 0.02 to 0.11 m3
m-3 difference in soil water concentration in the top 0.30 m.
Three-year mean yields for low vs. high water table were 73.7
vs. 67.9 t sugarcane ha-1 and 9.23 vs. 8.51 t sugar ha-1. High
vs. low N fertilization frequency yielded 75.0 vs. 66.5 t
sugarcane ha-1 and 9.41 vs. 8.33 t sugar ha-1. There were no
water level x N fertilization frequency interactions. Where
mean Mehlich 1 extractable Mg was 25 mg kg-1, Mg
fertilization did not affect yield, suggesting that this Mg level
should be classified in the unresponsive (high) range.
Although increasing N fertilization frequency increases the
fertilization program cost, its use is justified by increased
sugar yield.
--------------PEMUPUKAN
LIAT

N TANAMAN TEBU PADA TANAH

(Increasing N application had detrimental effects on


sugarcane juice quality, but the magnitude of the effects
were small compared to increasing cane growth responses,
therefore sugar yield continued to increase as N application
increased.)
SUGARCANE RESPONSES TO N FERTILIZER APPLICATION
ON CLAY SOILS. Robert Wiedenfeld. Texas Agricultural

12
Experiment Station , Texas A&M University Research and
Extension Center Weslaco, TX 78596. B-Wiedenfeld@tamu.edu

Sugarcane fertilization practices have been developed for


the Rio Grande Valley of Texas based on numerous studies;
however, few have been conducted on clay soils. Nitrogen
has been found to be the primary nutrient needed, and
responses to N fertilization have been limited in the plantcane crop and increase incrementally in succeeding ratoons
to its highest level in the second and following ratoons. This
study was conducted to evaluate the effect of rate and timing
of N fertilizer application on sugarcane growth, and to
determine optimum fertilization practices for sugarcane yield
on clay soils. As in previous studies, responses to N
application did not occur in the plant cane crop, but were
observed in the first through third ratoons. Increasing rate of
N application improved stalk population, stalk growth rate,
leaf area index, cane yield and sugar yield. Early N
application resulted in depletion of available N before full
growth potential had been reached, possibly to microbial
immobilization or leaching. Late fertilizer application caused a
loss of early growth, an effect that was mostly, but not
entirely, compensated for by later growth. Soil NO3--N levels
varied little even though yield responses to N fertilization
indicated that there were some dramatic differences in soil N
availability and residual levels. Increasing N application had
detrimental effects on sugarcane juice quality, but the
magnitude of the effects were small compared to increasing
cane growth responses, therefore sugar yield continued to
increase as N application increased. Early fertilizer
application resulted in lower sugar yield due to lower cane
yield, while late fertilizer application resulted in lower sugar
yields due to lower juice quality rather than any loss in
growth. Nitrogen fertilizer application to sugarcane on clay
soils in subtropical South Texas is not required on plant cane
crops, and should be at least at or above the level of 224 kg
ha-1 used in this study in ratoon crops. Timing of a single
application should be in March or April, or split into 2-3
applications on clay soils.

PEMUPUKAN N DAN AKUMULASI SUKROSE


TANAMAN TEBU

13

(Increasing
N
supply decreased
the
sucrose
concentration in dry millable stalks, this effect was
relatively small compared to the large positive effect of
N supply on stalk biomass).
Muchow, R.C.; M.J. Robertson, A.W. Wood, B.A. Keating. 1996.
Effect of nitrogen on the time-course of sucrose accumulation in
sugarcane. Field Crops Research. Volume 47, Issues 23, August
1996, Pages 143153

Sugarcane is harvested commercially at ages varying from


9 to 36 months. Since high N supply can decrease the
sucrose concentration in fresh millable stalks and
consequently decrease the commercial value of the stalks,
the opportunity exists to manipulate N supply (both from
fertiliser and that mineralised from soil organic matter) to
maximise economic return at different times of harvest.
Accordingly, this study describes how N supply the timecourse of sucrose accumulation in sugarcane and determines
yield both on a dry weight basis (as commonly analysed by
crop physiologists) and on a fresh weight basis (which is how
cane is paid for commercially). Data on crop N uptake and its
efficiency of utilisation are also presented.
There was a trade-off between maximising sucrose yield and
sucrose concentration in fresh millable stalks with different N
supply and this varied with time of harvest. Sucrose
concentration in fresh millable stalks, particularly during early
growth, was maximised by low N supply. The lower sucrose
concentration (on a fresh weight basis) with high N supply
could be largely explained by a decrease in stalk dry matter
content. Most of the variation in stalk sucrose yield could be
explained by variation in stalk biomass irrespective of N
supply. Whilst increasing N supply decreased the sucrose
concentration in dry millable stalks, this effect was relatively
small compared to the large positive effect of N supply on
stalk biomass. It is concluded that N has a marked effect on
stalk dry matter content, and hence a greater effect on the
commercial measures (yield and sucrose concentration of
fresh millable stalks) of sugarcane production than on the
physiological measures (stalk biomass and sucrose
concentration on a dry weight basis) of crop performance.

STATUS N TANAMAN TEBU

14
The biomass/N ratio varied with cultivar and crop class, and
increased with crop age.
Wood, A.W. ; R.C. Muchow, M.J. Robertson. 1996. Growth of
sugarcane under high input conditions in tropical Australia. III.
Accumulation, partitioning and use of nitrogen. Field Crops
Research. Volume 48, Issues 23, October 1996, Pages 223
233.

Leaf nitrogen (g N m2 leaf) is an important determinant


of crop radiation-use efficiency. It is not known to what extent
sugarcane can maintain high leaf N over its long growth
duration. This study analyses the accumulation of N in two
contrasting cultivars of sugarcane (Q117, Q138) under plant
and ratoon crop conditions, and the partitioning of N to the
various plant components, including the leaf. The crops were
grown for 15 months under irrigated conditions in the same
season and received 34.4 g N m 2 as fertiliser over the first
100120 days of the season. Higher early N accumulation by
the ratoon crop was associated with higher early biomass
production. However, maximum N accumulation was
unrelated to maximum biomass accumulation, with the plant
crop (25.9 g N m2) accumulating more than the ratoon crop
(21.3 g N m2), which resulted in widely varying values for
biomass/N ratio. N accumulation ceased later in the plant
(200 days) than in the ratoon (150 days) crop, and this
occurred 100140 days before maximum biomass. More work
is needed to determine if this is due to exhaustion of soil N
supply, reduced root activity, or a lowered crop N
requirement. Leaf N was maintained above 1.2 g N m 2 for
300 days of the 450 day season. Decline in leaf N below 1.2 g
N m2 at the end of the season was associated with loss in
leaf and total crop N accumulation, and apparently unrelated
to the timing of cessation in biomass accumulation.
Throughout the season, leaf N was higher in the plant than
the ratoon crop (averaged over cultivars), and Q117 versus
Q138 (averaged over crop classes), however these
differences could not explain crop-class differences in RUE.
Cultivar differences in leaf N were due to higher N
accumulation because specific leaf area and partitioning of
biomass and N to leaf were unaffected by crop class or
cultivar. The biomass/N ratio varied with cultivar and crop
class, and increased with crop age.

15

PEMUPUKAN N, STATUS N TANAMAN DAN


HASIL GULA
INMAN-BAMBER, N. G.. 1984. THE EFFECTS OF NITROGENOUS
FERTILIZER ON SUGARCANE VARIETIES AND VARIETAL DIFFERENCES
IN THIRD LEAF NUTRIENT CONTENT. Proceedings of The South
African Sugar Technologists' Association - June 1984. South
African Sugar Association Experiment Station, Mount
Edgecombe.

Pengaruh dosis pupuk N terhadap hasil tebu (relative


terhadap hasil pada pemupukan 150 kg N/ha) tiga
varietas pada ratun ke tiga.

16

Pengaruh pemupukan N terhadap kadar sucrose


tanaman tebu umur 12 bulan (persentase dari kadar
sucrose tanaman tebu pada perlakuan dosis pupuk N
tertinggi)

Pengaruh pemupukan nitrogen pada hasil sucrose


tebu tiga varietas yang dipanen pada ratun ke empat
(A) dan ratun ke tiga (B) (relatif terhadap hasil
sucrose tebu dengan perlakuan dosis pupuk tertinggi).

17

EFISIENSI PEMUPUKAN N TANAMAN TEBU


(The substantial benefits may be derived from variety specific
N fertiliser recommendations for sugarcane, rather than a
single recommendation)
SCHUMANN, A.W.; J.H. MEYER and S. NAIR. 1998. EVIDENCE
FOR DIFFERENT NITROGEN USE EFFlClENClES OF SELECTED
SUGARCANE VARIETIES. South African Sugar Association
Experiment Station, Private Bag X02, Mount Edgecombe, 4300.
Proc. S. Afr. Sug. Technol. Ass. (1998) 72.

There is increasing interest in improving the nitrogen (N) use


efficiency of cultivated crops, due to the high cost of
synthetic N fertiliser. Since existing differences in N use
efficiency between sugarcane varieties could be exploited to
improve N fertilisation, a hydroponic pot experiment was
conducted to test the performance of seven commercial
South African varieties (NCo376, N12, N14, N16, N19, N24,
N25) at three N concentrations (30, 60, 90 mg NL). At the first
N increment, significant varietal differences in internal N use
efficiency (g sucrose / g accumulated N) were recorded in the
ratoon cane. High N use efficiencies for N12 and N19 were 65
and 63% respectively, above the 'reference' variety NCo-376.
In contrast, N14 was 19% less efficient than NCo376, which is
in agreement with results from field trials. These data
suggest that substantial benefits may be derived from variety
specific N fertiliser recommendations for sugarcane, rather
than a single recommendation based on NCo376. Based on
field trial data, fertiliser recommendations for N14 have
recently been increased by 30 kg N/ha. The hydroponic
technique should be useful for initial screening of the many
commercial and new sugarcane varieties before final field
testing and amendments to fertiliser recommendations.

18

Pengaruh dosis pupuk N terhadap kadar N daun


beberapa varietas tebu.
(Sumber: SCHUMANN, MEYER and NAIR. 1998).

Pengaruh dosis pupuk N terhadap total biomasa akar


beberapa varietas tebu (Sumber: SCHUMANN, MEYER and NAIR.
1998).

19

Pengaruh pemupukan N terhadap rendemen beberapa


varietas tebu (Sumber: SCHUMANN, MEYER and NAIR. 1998).

Hubungan antara panen biomasa tebu (shoot) dengan


serapan N beberapa varietas tebu sebagai akibat dari
pemupukan N. A = tebu yang respon efisien. B= tebu

20

yang tidak respon. C = tebu yang respon tidak efisien


(Sumber: SCHUMANN, MEYER and NAIR. 1998).

Hubungan antara hasil sucrose tebu dengan serapan N


beberapa varietas tebu sebagai akibat dari
pemupukan N. A = tebu yang respon efisien. B= tebu
yang tidak respon. C = tebu yang respon tidak efisien
(Sumber: SCHUMANN, MEYER and NAIR. 1998).

----------------

21

BAHAN BACAAN
Gava, G.J.C., P.C.O. Trivelin, A.C. Vitti, and M.W. Oliveira. 2003.
Recovery of nitrogen (N-15) from urea and cane trash
by sugarcane ratoon (Saccharum spp.). R. Bras. Ci.
Solo. 27:621-630.
Muchovej, R.M., and P.R. Newman. 2004. Nitrogen fertilization
of sugarcane on a sandy soil: I. Yield and leaf nutrient
composition. J. Amer. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 24:210224.
Muchovej, R.M. and P. R. Newman. 2004. NITROGEN
FERTILIZATION OF SUGARCANE ON A SANDY SOIL: II.
SOIL AND GROUNDWATER ANALYSES. Journal American
Society Sugar Cane Technologists, Vol. 24, 2004.
Muchow, R.C.; M.J. Robertson, A.W. Wood, B.A. Keating. 1996.
Effect of nitrogen on the time-course of sucrose
accumulation in sugarcane. Field Crops Research.
Volume 47, Issues 23, August 1996, Pages 143153
Rakkiyappan, P.; S. Thangavelu, K. V. Bhagyalakshmi and R.
Radhamani. 2007. Uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and
potassium by some promising mid late maturing
sugarcane clones. Sugar Tech. Volume 9, Number 1,
23-27, DOI: 10.1007/BF02956909
Rice, R.W., R.A. Gilbert, and R.S. Lentini. 2002. Nutritional
Requirements for Florida Sugarcane. Florida Coop. Ext.
Ser., UF/IFAS, Doc. SS-ARG-228. Univ. of Fla.,Inst. Food
Agric. Sci., Gainesville.
Wood, A.W. ; R.C. Muchow, M.J. Robertson. 1996. Growth of
sugarcane under high input conditions in tropical
Australia. III. Accumulation, partitioning and use of
nitrogen. Field Crops Research. Volume 48, Issues 23,
October 1996, Pages 223233.