Exact Solutions of Lotka Volterra Equations

© All Rights Reserved

93 views

Exact Solutions of Lotka Volterra Equations

© All Rights Reserved

- Development+of+a+Reviewer+Manual+in+Mechanical+Engineering+With+Theories+and+5%2C001+Solved+Problems+and+Answered+Questions+%28Elements%29+%3A+For+Computerized+Mechanical+Engineering+Licensure+Examination.pdf
- Script PDE
- Metrobank MTAP DepEd Math Challenge Reviewer for Second Year HS
- High School Course Catalog 2017-2018
- Time Table - Spring 2014(Tentative)
- Class-10_26
- Basic Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations Universitext
- 11.[95-103]Solution of Telegraph Equation by Modified of Double Sumudu Transform Elzaki Transform
- portfolioliteracylessonplan
- Chapter 1
- System of Linear Equation and application
- mathematics-framework
- Process Dynamic Modelling
- Tutorial 1
- 240 Syllabus
- Problem 2.125
- PH2130 2001
- sample project based task
- unit-ii
- course syllabus of differential equations

You are on page 1of 5

293

Equations

MOSTAFA A. ABDELKADER

25 Sh. Chdmpollion, Alexandria, Egypt

Communicated

by Richard Bellman

ABSTRACT

The Lotka-Volterra

nonlinear differential equations for two competing species P

and Q contain six independent parameters. Their general analytic solutions, valid for

arbitrary values of the parameters, are at present unknown. However, when two or

more of these parameters are interrelated, it is possible to obtain the exact solutions in

the P, Q phase plane, and six cases of solvability are given in this paper. The dependence

of the solutions on the parameters and the initial conditions can thus be readily

investigated.

The well-known

competing species

;

Lotka-Volterra

= (1. - UP -

bQ)P,

differential

z=

equations

(s - CP -

for

two

dQ)Q,

P(0) = P, and Q(0) = Q,,, and where the

parameters a, b, c, d, r, and s are positive numbers, do not seem to have

been integrated

exactly. In view of the six independent

parameters

in

Eqs. 1 and the imposition of arbitrary initial conditions, the use of computers for their approximate

integration,

for arbitrary

choices of the

values of these parameters and initial conditions,

can give only a limited

picture of the totality of possible solutions.

The exact analytic solutions of these nonlinear equations for arbitrary

values of all the parameters must be quite complicated expressions, as will

be shown below, and they remain at present unknown.

However, when

two or more of the parameters are interrelated,

the writer has been able

to find the exact solutions, and it is the aim of this note to give these

solutions. The solutions involve a variety of algebraic, transcendental,

and

Bessel functions, as well as exponential

integrals, and the dependence of

the solutions on the values of the parameters and the initial points can be

0 American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., 1974

294

MOSTAFA A. ABDELKADER

of certain

readily investigated

(for instance,

parameters,

and the changes in the solution curves as these vary, can be

easily assessed).

We shall give here the solutions in the P, Q phase plane, that is, the

one-parameter

families of solutions of the differential equation

dP

(r - UP - bQ)P

(2)

dQ=(s-cl-dQ)Q

are

interrelated.

The time dependence of P and Q, when the solution 4(P, Q)

= C is known, may be obtained if one replaces Q or P in the solution by

1

i

respectively, to get a differential equation for P or Q with the independent

variable missing. In one of the following cases we shall give P(t) and Q(t)

explicitly.

It is obvious from Eq. 2 that the case for which

R = Ir - ksl + Ia - kc1 + lb - kdl = 0,

where k is a nonzero constant, is of no interest, and so we assume throughout that R > 0. We have the following six cases.

CASE

I

s =

The general

solution

r.

of Eq. 2 is given by

b-d+(a-c);

= exp

+rju&=c,

(c-

of integration,

2a)[ -

(3)

and

b

vanishes or not; thus,

forms

accordingly

as (a - c)(b - d)

a+1

Pp+lQ--p (a - c); + b - d

1

+

rJiq(a - c)l:+ b -

d) d5 = C,

(4)

EXACT

SOLUTIONS

OF LOTKA-VOLTERRA

295

EQUATIONS

where

b

a=

=d-b

a(2d - b) - cd

(a - c)(b - d).

which determine the expression for the integral. For instance, if p = - 2

and a = - 3, so that 2d = b and 4c = a, we get the transcendental

solution

z-l

- cr log

Jzz

- J3 cr arctan2j:

= C,

+ z + 1

where

3cP

z=

.

i dQ+l

In contrast, if either p or a is a positive integer, the solution

of algebraic curves.

(ii) For c = a, the solution

is a family

3 becomes

+ YJP exp

(74)

d[ = C,

(5)

where T(d - b) = 1.

(iii) For d = b, Eq. 3 becomes

(a - c)PKCQKO exp {IcbQ/P} + r J ivexp

{~b/i}

dc = C,

(6)

where

7c(a - c) = 1,

v(a - c) = c - 2a.

the integrals in

Eqs. 5 and 6 can be evaluated in terms of either the exponential function

or the exponential integral.

CASE

II

-r =

The general solution

d(a - c)

a(b)c*o,

a>.

of Eq. 2 is

b-dQ

_ c

PQ = C P + a

where

a = d(c - a),

z = a@ - d),

v = bc - ad.

296

MOSTAFA

A. ABDELKADER

CASE III

d = b.

c = a,

The general

solution

of Eq. 2 is

P +

%Q

+ CP'_"Q" = 1,

where a(r - s) = I.

We get

p(t) =

; +

!$

-1

@-*Jr

C e-

and

Q(t) = $P(t)

ecserjt,

where C is given by

?Po +

;Q,+ CP;-"Q; = 1.

= r/a and Q(a) = 0. All of these ultimate values are

independent

of the initial values.

CASE IV

n

s

-==

I

b + d

The general

solution

2ad

C=bdd.

of Eq. 2 is

r}P

= CQ,

where 0 = I + b/d.

CASE V

2s = r,

The general

solution

2c = a,

d = 2b.

of Eq. 2 is

-cl;(z)

aP = bQ + JarP

Cl*(z)

+ Z&(z)

+ Z_+(Z)

where 3bQz = Vat-P , I, denotes the modified Bessel function of the first

kind of order v, and primes denote differentiation

with respect to z.

EXACT

CASE

SOLUTIONS

OF LOTKA-VOLTERRA

EQUATIONS

VI

s =

The general

solution

2r,

c = 4a,

Sd = 26.

of Eq. 2 is

2A + B + 51

2A - B -5

where

A = JSbrQ,

B = bQ - 5aP.

297

- Development+of+a+Reviewer+Manual+in+Mechanical+Engineering+With+Theories+and+5%2C001+Solved+Problems+and+Answered+Questions+%28Elements%29+%3A+For+Computerized+Mechanical+Engineering+Licensure+Examination.pdfUploaded byTristan Tabago Consolacion
- Script PDEUploaded byc
- Metrobank MTAP DepEd Math Challenge Reviewer for Second Year HSUploaded byRiemann Soliven
- High School Course Catalog 2017-2018Uploaded bykennedycatholic
- Class-10_26Uploaded bySeng Soon
- Time Table - Spring 2014(Tentative)Uploaded byMeme Doll
- Basic Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations UniversitextUploaded bysfilop
- 11.[95-103]Solution of Telegraph Equation by Modified of Double Sumudu Transform Elzaki TransformUploaded byAlexander Decker
- portfolioliteracylessonplanUploaded byapi-269468525
- Chapter 1Uploaded byKan Samuel
- System of Linear Equation and applicationUploaded byihsaanbava
- mathematics-frameworkUploaded byapi-289190212
- Process Dynamic ModellingUploaded bythenmolhi
- Tutorial 1Uploaded bybaklol
- 240 SyllabusUploaded byScott Middleton
- Problem 2.125Uploaded byEric Castillo Martínez
- PH2130 2001Uploaded bybbteenager
- sample project based taskUploaded byapi-311026309
- unit-iiUploaded byapi-352822682
- course syllabus of differential equationsUploaded byJonathan Guerra
- map of barangay sun valleyUploaded byapi-294448986
- mat write up 5Uploaded byapi-460192131
- 01.1.1 - Orientation (1)Uploaded byChua Kimberly
- LADE2 Separable EquationsUploaded byRoumen Guha
- Linear EqnUploaded byJai Gaizin
- ch_1.1Uploaded byalex
- 1 Storder n LodeUploaded byAzza Ahmed
- SolveSysByElimAddSub.pptUploaded byTabitha Jones
- edma417 madelinecooney trigextendedtask partaandbUploaded byapi-318829239
- laplace2.pdfUploaded byLeonel Aguilar

- Crivelli the Stormer Verlet MethodUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Volume Energy Preserving Integrators for Hamiltonian SystemsUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Hidden Nambu MechanicsUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Canadian Cancer Statistics 2017 en (1)Uploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Archery (2012) ASU SyllabusUploaded byBruce
- Angol Ordinary Differential EquationsUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Patidar nonstandard finite difference methods.pdfUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Hone On nonstandard numerical integration methods for biological oscillators.pdfUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Chaos in Lotka Volterra ModelsUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Loshin Enterprise Knowledge ManagementUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Hone on Nonstandard Numerical Integration Methods for Biological OscillatorsUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Waldvogel the Period of the Lotka Volterra Model is MonotonicUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Chasnov Mathematical BiologyUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre
- Patidar Nonstandard Finite Difference MethodsUploaded byjjj_ddd_pierre

- Android for Work Security White PaperUploaded byIgor Oliveira
- Assignment 1 - Unix- Comp 206Uploaded bykita
- Migrating Web DynproUploaded byfreemindxx600
- Biometric Technology.pdfUploaded byAllan Benogsudan
- A Mapping Model for Transforming Traditional Software Development Methods to Agile MethodologyUploaded byijsea
- 10. Annexure [10] Project Management Policy RequirementsUploaded bymanishcsap3704
- Arrow Diagram MethodUploaded byManoj Rathi
- Drums Overkill Kontakt Player2 ManualUploaded bymarianungur
- Oracle to InformixUploaded byAnilbabu Makkena
- Astro Digital Spectra Detailed Service Manual 1Uploaded byJozo Ćurčić
- VPN Remote Access With IOS & Introduction to FlexVPNUploaded byJeton Ahmeti
- AMOS2 Suite Vrs. 6.3.10 MMP User Guide.pdfUploaded byZaldy Tamidles
- Mini projectUploaded byAshish Singh
- IP Spoofing in Jmeter.pdfUploaded byPavan Hari Kishan
- PfmeaUploaded bysenzo scholar
- Image ViewerUploaded byRajesh Venkatraman
- RadioUploaded byTomás Villalba Lopez
- 8086Uploaded bykranthi6190
- 9781587205880.pdfUploaded byDIEGO
- MIN_SM_EN_T8_H50661-11 English(1)Uploaded byMitchell Lowery
- hw_132368Uploaded byVictor Chacchi Ricra
- 02 Hardware and SetupUploaded bygeneral.telecom
- Presentation FMC SME Engl Final 06 07Uploaded byapi-3852468
- Scilab and SIVP Installation GuideUploaded bybakerfm
- Staad StrucUploaded bySheila Marie Menes Omega
- e 2 Vo Presentation EditUploaded byJuanPerez
- 1756-GuardLogix Controller SystemsUploaded byMohammad Okour
- Centura Report BuilderUploaded byKiefer Fernandez
- Panel Accessories Price List 01-01-2016Uploaded byPankaj Kamaliya
- Adapter User GuideUploaded byalexander