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VA TECH Transmission & Distribution

Overcurrent Protection

Fundamentals of Operation and Application

K. Hearfield
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1a) Overcurrent Condition

OVERCURRENT CONDITION

OVERLOAD CONDITION
Current increases
with load

Short
circuit
MOTOR

Overcurrent protection
is provided for short
circuit clearance

MOTOR

Overload protection is
related to thermal
capacity of the plant

Load

Load

Most commonly used overcurrent devices are fuses and relays


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2a) Overcurrent Protection for Phase Faults

3 Phase
Overcurrent
Relay

Fuses
3 Phase Fault

Detect and interrupt overcurrents

Relays are used in conjunction


with circuit breaking device

Fault magnitude limited by


impedances of primary plant

2 Phase
Overcurrent
Relay

2 Phase Fault

Can provide cost saving - widely used,


but not suitable for all applications
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2b) Overcurrent Protection for Earth Faults
3 PH - E Fault

EF current path thru


generator earth

2 PH - E Fault

PH - E Fault
EF current path thru
transformer earth
Fault magnitude limited by:
Primary plant impedance
Method of earthing
System neutral resistance
Sensitive protection may be required
- settings below load current

Residually
connected
relay

Zero output
for balanced
or phase fault
conditions

Core
Balance
CT

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2c) Combined Overcurrent and Earth Fault Protection

2 Phase Overcurrent and Earth Fault

3 Phase Overcurrent and Earth Fault

Can provide cost saving - widely used,


but not suitable for all applications

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3) Methods of System Earthing

SOLID
High EF Current

EARTHING
TRANSFORMER
Used where system
neutral not available

ISOLATED NEUTRAL

RESISTANCE

Zero EF Current

Low 400 - 1200A


High 5 - 100A

REACTANCE
PETERSON COIL
Reactance chosen to
equal system capacitance

Smaller and less


expensive than resistance.
Can cause high over-volts.

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PROTECTION CO-ORDINATION AND GRADING

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4) Radial Distribution System

HV
Power
Source

S/Stn A

S/Stn B

S/Stn C

S/Stn D

S/Stn E

S/Stn F
MV
Load

LOAD

LOAD

LOAD

LOAD

Selective fault clearance is required for


PHASE-PHASE and PHASE-EARTH faults
Radial Power System
Power source feeds through a number of
substations - load taken from each S/Stn

Instantaneous overcurrent protection at each


location would not provide discrimination.
UNNACCEPTABLE TO SHUT DOWN WHOLE
SYSTEM FOR EVERY FAULT

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4.1) Current Graded Protection

Fault Max. 13100A


current Min. 6850A

8800A
5400A

2900A
2400A

630A (Equivalent
600A HV Currents)

1200A
1100A

MV
Load

F1

Relay at 'A' set to


operate for max. fault
current at remote end
A

RADIAL
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM

F2

8800A

D C

AIM - Protection co-ordinated to ensure minimum unfaulted load is


disconnected

Unreliable Scheme
Currents F1 and F2 may be similar - loss of discrimination
For minimum infeed A - B may be unprotected
NOTE: Max. fault at S/Stn. E < min. fault current between D-E

A
00
88

A
00
29
A
00
12
0A
63

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4.2) Time Graded Protection

Infeed

MV
Load
F

1.4s
A

1.0s
B

0.6s

0.2s
D

t
Relays nearer to power source are set to
operate in progressively longer times
DISADVANTAGE
Longest clearance time for faults nearest
to source

Operating
characteristic:
Definite time
delay

1.4s

1.0s

0.6s

0.2s

D
Amps

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Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) Operating Characteristic
Operate current = 1.05 x setting
At 2x setting operate time = 10s
At 10x setting operate time = 3s
3/10 operating curve
Time Multiplier = 1.0

Operating Time

At 30x setting operate time = 2s


Definite minimum time
Numeric IDMT relay operating algorithm:

10s

3s
2s

0.14
I

IS

T .M .

0.02

2x

10x

30x

Multiple of Current Setting

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Current and Time Grading of
IDMT Curves

Current Setting
Time Multiplier

Current Setting
Time Multiplier
Time Multiplier

1A
1.0

1A
1.5
0.1

Current Setting
Time Multiplier

1.5A
1.0

24.5s

15s
10s
4.5s

3.62s

3s

3s

2.27s

2s
1s

0.3s
0.2s
2A

10A

30A

2A

10A

30A

2A

10A

30A

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4.3a) IDMTL Curves - Time and Current Grading
IDMT Curve - General applications
t

0.14
I

IS

10000

T .M .

0.02

1
1000

VIDMT Curve
Closer grading where fault
levels differ significantly
t

13.5
I

IS

T .M .

100

T im e
(sec)

EIDMT Curve Grading with fuses


10

80
I

IS

T .M .
Long Time Inverse

Normal Inverse

LTIDMT Curve - Grading with liquid resistor


t

120
I

IS

T .M .

Very Inverse

0.1
Extremely Inverse

Characteristics can be supplemented with LS and HS


Stages e.g. to assist grading with complex characteristics

4 5 6

8 10

20

30

50 70 100

C u rren t (m u ltip le s o f s e ttin g )

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4.3b) Fuse Co-ordination

EIDMT relay &


fuse characteristics

Recommended current ratio 3:1


- avoids overlap of characteristics

Required
Time
Delay
"Grading
Margin"

Relay
Overshoot

Between
relay
and
fuse

Minimum
Relay
Operating
Time

Arcing

Between
two
fuses

Fuse
characteristics

Recommended current ratio > 2:1


Safety
Margin

Pre-Arcing

PreArcing

Arcing
PreArcing

0 ms

t' = 0.4tf + 0.15s

0 ms

T.D. of 0.2s will ensure


grading at high fault levels
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4.3c) Co-ordination between Time Graded Relays

R2

R1

Recommended current ratio 3:1


Safety
Margin
Overshoot
(R2)
Required
Time
Delay
"Grading
Margin"

Minimum
Relay
Operating
Time

Between
two
relays

Overshoot
Required
Time
Delay
"Grading
Margin"

Circuit
Breaker
Tripping
Time

Between
relay and
fuse

Arcing

CT Error
- IDMT only
Minimum
Relay
Operating
Time

Maximum
Relay
Operating
Time

PreArcing
0 ms

0 ms

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4.3d) Time Grading - Nominating Grading Margin
Older System
Safety
Margin
Newer System
Overshoot

Required
Time
Delay
"Grading
Margin"

Circuit
Breaker
Tripping
Time

Safety
Margin

Older
System

Newer
System

2TJM

Argus

Timing Error

7.5%

5%

Over-shoot

80ms

40ms

Safety Margin

50ms

40ms

CB Trip Time

150ms

80ms

Overshoot
Required
Time
Delay
"Grading
Margin"

250ms
400ms
CT Error

CT Error

Max. Op. Time


Min. Op.
Time

Min. Op.
Time

Circuit
Breaker
Tripping
Time

0 ms

Max. Op. Time


0 ms

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4.3e) System Study for IDMT Protection

3ph Max. Fault


3ph. Min. Fault

12596A
6846A

5753A
4156A

2882A
2417A

1410A
1289A

400/5

390A

300/5

225A

200/5

130A

11kV/415V
1 MVA
100/5

626A
601A

E
1600A

X = 4%

33/11kV
10 MVA

Infeed

165A

X = 7%
33kV Bus

95A

80A

50A

11kV Bus

PROCEDURE
Grade:

D with Fuse
C with D
B with C
A with B

Current Setting - Higher than max. load


Time graded @ max. 3ph. fault current

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4.3f) IDMT Grading Calculation Results
3ph Max. Fault

Infeed

33kV Bus

12596
A

400/5

390A

5753A
B

2882A
C
300/5

225A

200/5

1410A
D

130A

100/5

X=
4%

33/11kV
10 MVA

X=
7%

626A

11kV/415V
1 MVA
1600A

50A
165A

95A

80A

11kV Bus

@ D: P.S.M. = 626/(100 x 1.25) = 5


For p.s.m. 5: NI operating time = 4.3s
4.3 x TMS = 4.3 x 0.05 = 0.215s

Relay

Current
Setting

TMS

125%

0.375

100%

0.275

75%

0.175

125%

0.05

t
D
1.05
0.63
0.54

Grading margin steps 0.4s


Relay at 'A' operates for a close up fault in 0.75s.
IDMT fault clearance time < DTL time

0.205

DTL system relay at 'A' operate time


= 0.2 + 3 x 0.4 = 1.4s
53
57

82
28

10
14
6
62

Amps

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280 MVA

4.4a) Industrial System Protection Co-ordination Study

11/0.4 kV
1500 kVA
5%

Single Line Diagram


Power and Voltage Ratings

2500/1

2500/1

Equipment Impedances
CT Ratios

1600/1

Fuse Ratings
Relay Characteristics

450A

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4.4b) Co-ordination Issues

1000A

500A
25kA
Single Line
Diagram

2000A 25kA

25kA

500A
25kA

500A
44kA

F
Emergency
Operation

Normal Operation

1000A 22kA

F
No Operating
Restrictions

Establish load flow and short circuit currents


Grading curves plotted beginning at lowest voltage level and largest load.
Grade at the maximum fault level that can be seen by both relays simultaneously.
Grade at fuse cut-off point if less than the above.
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Protection Grading - Software

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PROTECTION FOR LOW EARTH


FAULT CURRENT LEVELS

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5.1) Sensitive Earth Fault Protection
SEF relay current setting as low as possible
limited by residual unbalance capacitance established by test
Low CT burden required - e.g. numeric relay
DTL characteristic, back-up function
S.E.F. Relay
Semi insulating object
Low earth fault current

Core summates fluxes of primary currents


Only one core is used - CT magnetising current
is reduced by approximately 3 to 1
Core
Balance
CT

Number of secondary turns need not be related


to rated current of protected circuit - can be
optimised to protection setting

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5.2) Neutral Displacement Protection
EF on non-effectively earthed system

Balanced
System
voltages

R phase EF

Faulted phase must not remain energised.


EF current very small
- OC detection may be impractical

VRES = 0

VRES
= VYR + VBR
= 3VPH

NDR detects residual voltage to earth

NDR

Operation not discriminative


- time delay required

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HIGH-SET INSTANTANEOUS PROTECTION

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6a) High Set Overcurrent Protection

12500
A

7000

Reach of high set

5700
B
Inverse
time element

Inverse time element


Set above max. fault
current at s/stn. B

Instantaneous high-set
primary setting 7000A

Plain Feeder

Reach of high set

Inverse time element

Transformer Feeder
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6b) HSOC Example - Calculating System Impedances
33kV
Max fault 1000 MVA
Min fault 650 MVA

Transformer Feeder
33/11kV
24MVA
Z = 22.5%

11kv

20km (0.3 + j0.43) Ohms/km


Inverse time element
Instantaneous high-set

To determine system impedances:


OHL impedance

= 20(0.3 + j0.43)

= 6 + j8.6 Ohms

= j330002/1000 x 106
= j330002/650 x 106

= j1.09 Ohms
= j1.68 Ohms

Source impedance

Min
Max

Transformer

100% impedance @ 33kV

= j330002/24 x 106
= j45.38 Ohms
22.5% impedance on 24MVA = 0.225 x 45.38
= j10.21 Ohms

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6c) HSOC Example - Establishing Relay Setting
33kV Source
Max impedance = j1.68 Ohms
Min impedance = j1.09 Ohms

33/11kV
j10.21 Ohms

11kV

6 + j8.6 Ohms
IDMT element
HSOC

Min infeed:
3ph fault 1601A
ph-ph fault 1387A

3ph max infeed


917A @ 33kV

Min. system impedance to LV busbars = min source + line + transformer


= j1.09 +(6 + j8.6) + j10.21 = 20.78 Ohms
Max. LV 3-phase fault
= 33000/(1.732 x 20.78) = 917A
Max. system Z to transf. HV side
Min. HV 3-phase fault

= max source + line


= j1.68 +(6 + j8.6) = 11.9 Ohms
= 33000/(1.732 x 11.9) = 1601A

Min. HV PH-PH Fault

= 0.866 x 1601 = 1387A

Best achievable grading margin


= (1387/917)^0.5 = 23%
i.e. RELAY SETTING OF APPROX 1128A PRIMARY

Where compromise is necessary: Stability is preferred to high speed protection


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APPLICATION OF OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

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7.1a) Effect of System Capacitance in Resistance Earthed System

IYC
IBC

IC
Delta or Un Earthed Star
Winding

F1

IYC
VR
IC

IBC

Instantaneous earth fault protection can be used to protect


feeder and un-earthed transformer winding, however:
For an earth fault at F1:
EF relay on healthy circuit may operate if not set above IC
IC = IBC + IYC = 3 x nominal charging current/phase

VB

VY

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7.1b) EF Protection Applied to Non-Earthed Transformer Feeder
7km Feeder
Charging current - 1.8A/km

33kV

IYC
IBC
IC

F1
IYC = 21.8A
VR
IC = 37.8A

On occurence of an EF (F1) the affected phase will be earthed. 33kV


system is resistance earthed, healthy phase voltage rises to line
volts level.

IBC

Normal per phase capacitance increased by a factor of 1.732


For fault F1:
EF relay on healthy circuit may operate if not set above IC
IC = 7 x 1.8 x 3 = 37.8A primary
Set relay 2 to 3 x 37.8A i.e. 75 - 112.5A

VB

VY

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7.2) HSOC & EF Protection for Transformer Feeders
Earthed Winding

F1

F3

E1
F2

Provides inst. prot for transformer feeder phase and earth faults
For fault F3 E2 will not operate
For fault F2 E1 will not operate
P
E2
TRIP

P = Phase fault protection relay


E1 = Residual earth fault relay
E2 = Earth fault check relay

P Set to
> 1.5 x max. lv fault current
> 2 x min. in zone (hv) fault current
E2 Set to
< P (for faults at F2 E2 may operate but P must not)
> LV infeed to a fault at F3
(since E2 operated by +ve and -ve sequence currents)

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7.3) Faults on Star Delta Transformers

I
K
3

I
K
3

SOURCE

I
K
3

F
I
K
3

I
I

I
I

SOURCE
2I
3K

I
K
3

Earth faults on star side of transformer is seen as a phase fault on Delta side
A phase fault on the star side of the transformer requires an additional current grading
margin of :

2I
I 16%
3

Care must be taken if applying 2 phase overcurrent protection to HV side:


2P protection suitable if minimum fault current/full load current > 4
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7.4) - Two Stage Overcurrent Protection

HV Source

HV Source
DTL
Stage
2 Trip

IDMT

IDMT

Separate
HV and LV
Overcurrent
Protection

2 Stage Overcurrent
Protection
Improved discrimination
Reduced grading margin
CT and Relay cost saving
Not applicable if there is a
possibilty of LV infeed to
transformer faults

IDMT
Stage
1 Trip

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7.5) - Interlocked Overcurrent Protection

F1
F2
Interlocked Overcurrent Relay
Busbar
Protection

Normally Inhibited - Until


Operation of Busbar Prot.
Unit Feeder Protection
F1 -

Cleared by busbar protection

F3 -

Cleared by circuit protection

F2 -

Operates busbar protection


Will not be cleared by fdr. prot.

F3

Feeder

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7.6) Voltage Dependent Overcurrent Protection
NETWORK
Generator

Overcurrent relay must be graded with network protection


Close up generator faults - initially high current.
May reduce rapidly - limited by amplitude of exitation
current and direct axis synchronous reactance

Volts Restrained OC Characteristic

Tap Setting as % of Tap


Setting at Rated Voltage

100
Volts Controlled OC

75

Inhibits overcurrent protection unless


voltage is below set-point:
Typically 0.7 - 0.9 Vn

50
25

25

50

75

100

Input Voltage (% of rated voltage)


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7.7) Flashing Fault Condition
R3

R2

Argus (Inst. Reset)


TRIP

% of Algorithm

Disc Travel

Electro-mechanical Relay

FAULT
R1 Clashing conductors or re-sealing cable

Time

Argus (DTL Reset)


TRIP

Time

Loss of grading /discrimination may occur:


If R2 Electromechanical & R1 Inst. reset or if R2 DTL reset and R1 electromechanical
Some compromise may be necessary where more than two relay points are in series
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DIRECTIONAL PROTECTION

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8a) Parallel Feeders - Application of OC Protection

51

51

51

51

I1

A&B
51

LOAD

I1 + I2

I2

51

LOAD

C&D
51

Conventional grading:
Grade A with C
Grade B with D
A and B have the same setting
C and D have the same setting

51

Faulted feeder:
Fault current can flow in both directions
Relays C and D operate together
Both feeders will be tripped

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8b) Parallel Feeders - Directional Protection
I1
51

Solution to faulted feeder problem:


Directional control of Relays C and D
Relay D on unfaulted feeder does not operate

I1 + I2

I2

67

51

51

LOAD

67

SETTING PHILOSOPHY:

GRADING PROCEDURE

Load current always flows in non-operate direction

Grade A and B with E, assuming one


feeder in service

Any current flowing in operate direction is indicative


of a fault condition.

Grade A with D (and B with C)


assuming both feeders in service

Therefore relays C and D may have sensitive setting,


fast operating time
C & D usually set to 50% full load, low T.M.S (0.1)
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9a) Ring System - Application of Time Graded OC Protection
A

51

2.1

B'

C'

67

67

67

67

0.1

RMU

1.7

0.5

LOAD

Source
Substation
A'

51

2.1

RMU

1.3

67

0.9

LOAD

F'

E'

67

67

67

67

RMU

RMU

LOAD

0.1

D'

1.7

LOAD

0.5

RMU

1.3

D
67

0.9

LOAD

With ring closed both load and fault current may flow in either direction - directional relays are required
Directional relays look into feeders - away from busbars
Non-directional relays can be used: At the source substation
On the RMU circuit with the longer time delay
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9b) Grading of IDMT Relays in Ring Main System
A

51

B'

C'

67

67

67

67

Source
Substation
A'

51

RMU

RMU

LOAD

LOAD

F'

E'

67

67

67

67

RMU

D'

RMU

67

D
67

RMU

Grading Procedure for IDMT Relays

Open ring at A
Grade A' - F' - E' - D' - C' - B'

Grading margins established at highest current level seen by


both relays
Highest fault level occurs with ring closed
Highest branch current occurs with ring open

Open ring at A'


Grade A - B - C - D - E - F
Relays A, B, C, A', E', F' may be non-directional

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9c) Grading of Ring Main with Argus Numerical Relays

RMU

51

67

67

RMU

67

RMU

Directional (Argus2) numerical relays can be set to tri-state, allowing


totally independent forward and reverse settings to be applied.

Source
Substation

LOAD

Outputs of Argus configured to trip relevant circuit breaker


Cost saving - less relays, CTs, installation etc.

51

67

67

RMU

RMU

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9d) Problem of Grading Ring Main with Two Sources

Correct discrimination between directional overcurrent relays is not possible:


For F1 - B' must operate before A', A before D
For F2 - B' must operate after A', A after D

F1

Source
Substation

B'

C'

67

67

67

67

67

67

67

67

D'

A'

F2

RMU
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9e) Grading Ring Main with Two Sources

Source 2
Substation

Option 2
Fit pilot wire protection to
circuit A - B
Consider S/Stns A & B as
common source busbar

50

Option 1
Trip least important
source instantaneously
Then treat as ring main
with single source

B'

C'

67

67

67

67

87

87

67

67

67

67

A'

D'

Source 1
Substation

RMU

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10a) Establishing Current Direction for Phase Faults

Directional OC protection required if current can flow in both directions through relay location e.g.
Parallel feeders, Ring main circuits
Direction of a.c. is by inference not an absolute quantity, it is measured relative to some reference quantity alternating at
the same frequency - the system voltage.

Reference

I = OPERATING QUANTITY
V = POLARISING QUANTITY

Comparing phase current (e.g. IRED) with relevant phase voltage (e.g. VRED) would indicate dirn of current flow, however;
P.F. USUALLY LOW (Power system apart from loads is reactive)
USE OF FAULT VOLTAGE IS UNRELIABLE (System volts at point of fault will collapse towards zero)
Each phase of directional overcurrent relays must be polarised with a voltage which will not be reduced excessively (close
up 3-phase faults notwithstanding)

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10b) Table Illustrating Relay Connections
300 Connection

600 No.1 Connection


Requires delta
connected CTs

600 No.2 Connection


Risk of mal-operation
for all fault types

900 Connection

APPLIED
CURRENT

APPLIED
VOLTAGE

APPLIED
CURRENT

APPLIED
VOLTAGE

APPLIED
CURRENT

APPLIED
VOLTAGE

APPLIED
CURRENT

APPLIED
VOLTAGE

Red
Phase

IR

VR-B

IR-Y

VR-B

IR

-VB-N

IR

VY-B

Yellow
Phase

IY

VY-R

IY-B

VY-R

IY

-VR-N

IY

VB-R

Blue
Phase

IB

VB-Y

IB-R

VB-Y

IB

-VY-N

IB

VR-Y

VR
IR

VR

VR-B

VR

VR-B

IR-

300

VR

IR

600

IR

-VB-N

600

VY-B
VY

VB
Example Red Phase

VY

VB

Example Red Phase

VB

VY
Example Red Phase

VY

VB
Example Red Phase

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10c) 900 Relay Connection with Selectable MTA
Relay
Phase
R

Applied Applied
MTA
Current Voltage (I wrt V)
IR

VY-B

IY

VB-R

IB

VR-Y

IR

VY-B

IY

VB-R

IB

VR-Y

Relay Circuit
I
MTA

30

MTA = displacement of
current and voltage
applied to relay

I'
300

90 - 45 Relay
Balanced
primary
system
conditions

MTA

45

I'
450

ITzero

-450
V
450

IUPF

1350
ITzero

For balanced system conditions:


90 - 30 Relay
MTA:
Zero torque limits:

90 - 45 Relay
MTA:
Zero torque limits:

ImaxT
0

Primary system volts leads primary system current by 60


Primary system volts leads primary system current by 1500
Primary system volts lags primary system current by 300

Primary system volts leads primary system current by 450


Primary system volts leads primary system current by 1350
Primary system volts lags primary system current by 450

W.K Sonnemann:
This relay gives the best characteristic
to fit the spread of possible phase angles

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11a) Establishing Current Direction for Earth Faults

Require:
OPERATING QUANTITY, POLARISING QUANTITY
Operating Signal
Obtained from residual connection of line CTs

IOP = 3Io

Polarising Signal
Ph - Ph or Ph - E voltages used in overcurrent protection
become inappropriate.
Residual voltage is used as the polarising quantity
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11b) DEF - Extracting Residual Voltage

To allow for the flow of zero


sequence voltage components:
VT primary must be earthed
VT can be of 3 phase, 5 limb construction or
3 single phase units
Open delta VT
secondary

VRES = VA-G + VB-G + VC - G = 3VO


VRES
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11c) DEF - Residual Voltage for Solidly Earthed Systems
S

ZS

ZL

Source
impedance

Line
impedance

System
Volts
ZS/ZL high
VR

Residual
Volts

VR =
Residual
Voltage

VR

System
Volts
ZS/ZL low
VR
Residual
Volts
CHECK FOR SUFFICIENT POLARISING VOLTAGE!

May limit
use of voltage
polarised relays
- modern relays
very sensitive

VR

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11d) DEF - Residual Volts for Non-EffectivelyS Earthed Systems

F
Z

ZS

S
R

Volts drop
due to earth
resistance

S
R
Neutral point
raised above
earth potential

System
Volts
Resistance
Earthed

SUFFICIENT
POLARISING
VOLTAGE SHOULD
ALWAYS BE
AVAILABLE
Insulated or
Peterson
Coil
Earthed

VR

VR

Residual
Volts

VR
(may
approach
3VPH)

Neutral
fully
displaced

System
Volts

Residual
Volts

VR

VR

VR

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11.2) DEF - Relay Connection with Selectable MTA
MTA (I wrt V)
O0

-150

-450

Resistive Neutral

IRES

IRES

Resistance
Earthed
Systems

Earthing Transformer
with Resistor

VRES

VRES

IRES

IRES

Distribution System
- Solidly Earthed

VRES
IRES

-900

Reactive Neutral

VRES

VRES

-650

Transmission System
- Solidly Earthed

VRES

IRES
Reactance
Earthed
Systems

VRES
VRES/IRES = 00

IRES

VRES/IRES = 900

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11.3a) Polarising with Neutral Current

VOLTAGE POLARISING MAY NOT BE PRACTICABLE


i)

A solidly earthed, high fault level (low source impedance) system


may result in a small value of residual voltage at the relaying point.

ii)

VTs may not be available

iii)

VTs may not be suitable - no zero sequence path

If a reliable polarising signal is not available then the relay may be


polarised from a suitable current source:
e.g. from a CT located in a suitable system neutral to earth.

Polarising
signal

For relay operation:


Polarising and operating current should be in phase
Neutral current of a power or earthing transformer may be used
- but only if earth fault neutral current always flows towards the system
Neutral of Star/Delta will always flow in correct direction for polarising
Double earthed Star/Star and Auto-transformers require study.

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11.3b) Current Polarising from 2 Winding Transformers

CORRECT

POL

OP

DEF Relay

POL

CORRECT

OP

DEF Relay

POL

OP

POL

DEF Relay

OP

DEF Relay

INCORRECT

INCORRECT

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11.3c) Current Polarising from 3 Winding Transformers

SOURCE
POL

OP

DEF Relay

Relay
polarising
circuit

CORRECT
if ZLO + ZSO is positive

Loaded
Delta

Relay
polarising
circuit

Unloaded
Delta
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11.3d) Current Polarising of DEF Protection on Auto-Transformer Circuit

Neutral connection is suitable for current polarising


if earth fault current flows 'up' the neutral for faults
on HV side
ZT

For correct application, check:

Z SO

SOURCE

ZH

ZL

Z TO
V
H 1
Z LO Z TO V L

POL

OP
DEF Relay

Where:
ZTO = Tertiary winding zero sequence impedance
ZLO = LV winding zero sequence impedance
ZHO = HV winding zero sequence impedance

(Note there is also a possibility that


neutral current may be zero)

Current polarising from


transformer delta preferred
(if transf. has delta winding)

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12) Application Consideration - 2 out of 3 Tripping
HV Infeed

Directional Relay Connected into Healthy Circuit


FWD. = direction of load
3450
450

BREV
CFWD

R-B
Fault

2850

IB=IC
=+1

IA =-2

1050

1650

REV

LV DOC
Relays

AREV

2250

For HV ph-ph fault one phase of relay may incorrectly


operate in FWD dirn - depends on phase angle of fault.
Select 2-out-of-3 logic, then a minimum of two phases
must be initiated for a trip output to be issued

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OVERCURRENT RELAYS

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13.1) - Electromechanical Induction Disc Relay - Reyrolle Type 2TJM

Electromagnetic system operates on a movable conductor


aluminium disc, on which a contact assembly is mounted
Torque is produced by interaction of two alternating
magnetic fields mutually displaced in space and time
Upper electromagnet

Plug bridge

T = K.M1.M2.sin2
Where:
T = Torque
M1 = Flux 1 i.e. flux produced by upper electromagnet
M2 = Flux 2 i.e. flux produced by lower electromagnet

Primary
winding

Disc
Secondary
winding
Lower
electromagnet

TORQUE

Single function device


1 Current input
2 o/p contacts
Flag indicator
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13.2) Schematic Diagram of Numeric Relay - Reyrolle Type Argus

Status
input
A

rms
D

dc

I>IS

Low
Set

HS1

HS2

DTL

DTL

DTL

HMI
Programmable
interconnection OUTPUTS
logic
Data
Comms

1 Phase of relay shown

Multifunction device
Up to 4 Current inputs
Up to 11 o/p contacts
LED indicators
Start
Trip

8 settings groups
Up to 9 status inputs
LCD
Data storage
Data comms PC software

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