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TRNG

HCL
BCH
TP.QUA
HCM
PHNG
PHAI
P NH
NGKHOA
TRONG
N LY
Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO
Khoa KTXD - B mn KTTNN

Ging vin: PGS. TS. NGUYN THNG


E-mail: nthong56@yahoo.fr or nguyenthong@hcmut.edu.vn
Web: http://www4.hcmut.edu.vn/~nguyenthong/index

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

NI DUNG MN HC
Chng 1: Gii thiu PPL trong qun l
Chng 2: Quy hoch tuyn tnh.
Chng 3: C s l thuyt RQ
Chng 4: Bi ton vn ti.
Chng 5: Qun l kho.
Chng 6: Ra quyt nh mc tiu.
Chng 7: L thuyt sp hng.

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Tl. (08) 38 640 979 - 098 99 66 719

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

1/6/2016

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

NI DUNG MN HC (tt)
Chng 8: Phn tch thnh phn chnh (PCA).
Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO
Chng 10: Phng php AHP
Chng 11: Qui hoch ng
Chng 12: Hoch nh d n
Chng 13: Xch Markov
Chng 14: L thuyt tr chi.
Chng 15: M phng Monte Carlo.
1/6/2016

KIM NH
CRONBACHS ALPHA

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

T VN

Cc bin Xi l cc ni dung cn nh
gi cho i tng nghin cu.
Gi thit nu X1 trng vi X2 (bn
cht cng mt tiu ch) th v
nguyn tc cc gi tr nh gi ca
cc bin ny (vect ct) phi
BNG NHAU (!) Tnh nht qun
(Consistency)
Thc t c th KHNG PHI ?!

Xt mt kho st sau. Kt qu phng vn c


trnh by:
Gi tr nh gi
Bin

Bin
i tng
Tui tr
Thanh nin
NL
Si Gn

X1
5
8
4
3

X2
5
8
4
3

X3
6
7
3
2
5

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Trong thc t nghin cu i khi


ngi ta cn nghin cu mt hin
tng no nh vo s gii thch
ca mt bin tng hp.
Bin tng hp ny c hnh
thnh t cc bin c bn.
Cu hi t ra l cc bin c
bn ny c cng cng tc
phn nh bin tng hp ?

Cronbachs Alpha l mt kim nh cho


php nh gi mc tin cy ca
vic thit lp mt bin tng hp
trn c s nhiu bin n (item) .
Ni khc i cho php nh gi tnh
nht qun (consistency) ca cc
bin n v nguyn tc l i biu
cho cng subjet.

Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Cronbachs Alpha KHNG phi l


mt kim nh thng k
N n gin ch l mt h s
tin cy (coefficient of reliability
or consistency).

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

NH NGHA THAM
S CRONBACHS
ALPHA
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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Gi Xi (i=1,N) l cc bin (item) cn nh gi


tnh nht qun (consistency). Gi [A] l ma
trn [Variance-Covariance] nh sau:
X1

X1 2

X2

XN

.

1,1

X2 sym
.

A
sym sym .
.

2
XN sym sym sym N , N

2
1, 2
2
2, 2

2
1, N
2
2,N

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Trong :
[A] ma
i2,i Var ( x i )
trn
i xng. 2

i 1

K 1 i 1

Xi

K 1

i , j Co var( x, y)
(Khc vi
nh ngha
1 K
x i Xi
trong Excel !)

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x
K

Yi
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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

DNG NH NGHA KHC

nh ngha tham s Cronbachs Alpha:

TNG NG

N
Sum _ Var
1

N 1 Sum _ Total

N s item (bin)
Sum_Var = Tng cc h s trn ng
cho ma trn [A]
Sum_Total= Tng cc h s ma trn [A]
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C
V

N.C
V N 1.C

s bin nghin cu
gi tr trung bnh ca cc Cov gia cc
bin.
gi tr trung bnh cc phng sai tng
bin.
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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

NHN XT

NGHI
C_bar ln cc bin u
dng kho st cng hin
tng
Do ti sao khi tng ngi
ta thng kt lun l s liu
kho st c tin cy cao

N (s lng bin) tng tng


C_bar gim gim & ngc li.
Khi cc bin l trng nhau v mt l
thuyt = 1 (completely consistency).

N.

X
N

x X
X
N 1. i
N
N
2

1
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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

GHI CH
Trong thc hnh nu > 0.75
Ok (c tin cy chp
nhn c khi cho rng cc
bin u dng phn nh
mt hin tng nghin
cu) KHNG mu thun.

GHI CH

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Mt cch tng i, khi N tng


ga tr tng.
Trong thc hnh ngi ta hay
xem xt s gim gi tr khi ln
lt cc bin xt b loi ra khi
tp hp bin nh gi vai
tr ca n.
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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

V d 0: Kt qu mt thm d c thc hin trn


2 bin X1, X2. Kim tra tnh nht qun thng qua
gi tr Cronbachs Alpha vi ngng 0.8:

Bi tp 1: Mt ngi c phng vn 2 ln khc


nhau nh gi 4 ni dung ging nhau thng
qua mt bng cu hi. Kim tra tnh nht qun
v ni dung tr li thng qua gi
tr
Cronbachs Alpha vi ngng 0.8.

X1
10
9
7
2
4
1

X2
12
13
8
4
2
0

PGS. TS. Nguyn Thng

S: =0.94
S liu c tnh
19
nht qun

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Ni dung 1
Ni dung 2
Ni dung 3
Ni dung 4

Reliability Statistics

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Cronbach's
Alpha Based on N of
Items
Standardized
Items
.712
2

Var1

Var2

Var3

Var4

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Var2

Var3

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

HD

HD
Var1

Ln 2
5
9
6
7

Bi tp 2: Ngi ta mun xem xt 4 bin


sau c tnh nht quan hay khng? S
dng tham s Cronbachs Alpha vi
ngng =0.75.

HD

Cronbach's
Alpha
.670

Ln 1
6
8
3
9

Var4

Inter-Item Covariance Matrix


VAR001 VAR002 VAR003 VAR004
7.300
5.800
6.750
8.050

Mean

5.4

3.4

6.0

5.4

VAR001

Variance

7.30

5.30

6.50

9.30

VAR002

5.800

5.300

5.000

6.050

Sigma

2.70

2.30

2.55

3.05

VAR003

6.750

5.000

6.500

7.750

VAR004

8.050

6.050

7.750

9.300

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Gi
tr
trung
bnh
cc
Covariance:
C_bar=6.567
Gi tr trung bnh cc Variance:
V_bar=7.1

Bi tp 3: Tnh gi tr Cronbachs Alpha cu 3


bin sau:

N.C
4 * 6.567

0.98
V N 1.C 7.1 4 1.6.567

Var1

Var2

Var3

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

HD
Mean

5.50

4.33

6.17

Var
sigma

5.90
2.43

9.47
3.08

5.37
2.32

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Reliability Statistics

Inter-Item Covariance Matrix


VAR001
VAR002
VAR003
VAR001
5.900
5.200
5.500
VAR002
5.200
9.467
4.933
27
VAR003
5.500
4.933
5.367

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Cronbach's
Alpha Based on
Cronbach's Standardized
Items
Alpha
.902
.918

N of Items
3

28

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Bi tp 4: Hy cho cc v d
trong thc t ta cn dng
kim
nh
Cronbachs
Alpha.

CRONBACHS ALPHA
VI SPSS

30

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

KIM NH KMO
(Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin-Kriterium)

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Thng
Dr. Nguyn

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

T VN
Mt nghin cu s dng phng
php PCA (hoc EFA) ch c ngha
khi cc bin c tnh phn tng
thng qua hnh thnh cc thnh
phn chnh (principal factor) c
cc bin (nhm bin) c tnh
tng quan cao.

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

Dng s liu (3D) c tnh xu th

Nu s liu c dng hnh cu (siu


hnh cu) Phng php PCA
KHNG hiu qu.

35

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

nh gi p dng PCA phn tch


tp d liu c hiu qu dng
kim nh KMO:

KMO > 0.7 Ok


KMO < 0.5 Khng thch hp
dng PCA

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

rjk2

h s tng quan (correlation


coefficients)
p 2jk h s tng quan ring phn
gia tt c cc cp bin (partial
correlation coefficients)

37

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

BARLETTS TEST OF SPHERICITY

Kim nh ny c mc ch ging
KMO, kim nh gi thit ma
trn tng quan l ma trn n v
hay khng? (ma trn ng cho).
Xem significance <0.05 Ok, v
chng ta mun cc bin c tng
quan mi c ngha khi dng
phng php PCA (data reduction).

38

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

BARLETTS TEST OF SPHERICITY

Nu l ma trn n v dng
PCA KHNG hiu qu.

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

KMO & BARLETTS TEST OF


SPHERICITY TRONG SPSS

PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

KMO TEST & BARLETTS TEST OF


SPHERICITY

KMO and Bartlett's Test


Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling
Adequacy.
Bartlett's Test of
Approx. Chi-Square
Sphericity
df
Sig.

41

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.880
2992.298
666
.000

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PHNG PHAP NH LNG TRONG QUAN LY


Chng 9: Kim nh Cronbachs Alpha & KMO

HET CHNG

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TS.Nguyn
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Thng