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ASSIGMENT 1 (29/9/2016)
1) Discuss how the structure of an individual fatty acid affects its function within the body of
domesticated animals.
2) Discuss why the diet of ruminants is generally high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and yet
ruminant meat and milk are generally low in polyunsaturated fatty acids and high in saturated
fatty acids.
3) Discuss the role and function of steroids in the body of domesticated animals.

1) Fatty acid consists of saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid.
Saturated fatty acid like stearic contain no carbon-carbon double bonds.They have
linear structure and compact tightly in the solid.
Unsaturated fatty acid contains one or more carbon-carbon double bonds for example
oleic. Oleic contain one carbon-carbon double bond at the 9 position.
Unlike linear structure saturated fatty acid molecules, these unsaturated fatty acid
cannot packed tightly together in solid. Unsaturated fatty acid has low melting point.
At room temperature, both oleic and steric are in solid state but as temperature
increase, oleic with the kink structure melts first.It becomes liquid below room
Steric with linear structure has much higher melting point that make a solid at room
2) Several studies have shown that dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFA can be incorporated into
adipose tissue and muscle of ruminants despite the biohydrogenation of dietary fatty
acids in the rumen.
The study of Warren et al.of steers of two breeds fed a concentrate or grass silage diet
from 6 months of age to 14, 19 and 24 months contrasts the incorporation of 18:2 n- 6
from a grain-based concentrate diet with 18:3 n-3 from a grass silage diet.
Results show that 18:2 n-6 in steers fed the concentrate diet was at higher proportions
in muscle than adipose tissue at 14 and 24 months of age. These results show that
ruminants preferentially incorporate essential fatty acids, with their important
metabolic roles, into muscle rather than storing them in adipose tissue.
Ruminants conserve PUFA in muscle whereas in pigs, concentrations are higher in
adipose tissue; long chain (C20-22) PUFA are found in adipose tissue and muscle

neutral lipid in pigs and sheep but not in cattle; and the ratio of 18:0/18:2 n-6 in
adipose tissue increases as fattening proceeds in pigs but declines in ruminants.
In muscle, the high proportion of 18:2 n-6 in phospholipid compared with neutral
lipid in all species means that muscle from lean animals has high proportions of this
major PUFA.
As the animal is fattened for meat, the decline in PUFA proportions is more dramatic
in the ruminants because PUFA levels in neutral lipid are so low.Since desirable
sensory characteristics tend to increase with fatness, there is potentially an inverse
relationship between nutritional value and eating quality in ruminants.Of the 2 major
PUFA, 18:2 n-6 is more rapidly taken up into meat tissues than 18:3 n-3 and reaches
much higher levels.
Synthesis of long chain PUFA from these precursors occurs in phospholipid but the
available sites for incorporation are soon filled and long term feeding of linseed to
pigs or grass to cattle does not increase levels and so proportions decline.Oxidation of
fatty acids proceeds at a naturally higher level in ruminants than pigs after slaughter
despite the lower PUFA proportions.
3) Steroid hormones are all derived from the cholesterol. The function of steroid
hormones is to act as membrane components and signalling molecules. Cholesterol is
the major sterol in animals. The role of cholesterol is to maintain membrane fluidity
and act as precursor to other steroids.
There are two types of sex steroids in animals which is for male and female.For the
male animals, the hormones are situated in the testes which they called Testosterone
while in female, the sex hormone is situated in the ovaries which called Estradiol.
Corticosteroid are made in adrenal cortex which is also called as the cortico steroids.
There are three types of corticoid which are gluco corticoid, mineral corticoid and
synthetic corticoid.
Gluco corticoid is the stress hormone which affects the blood glucose level of the
animal. Mineral corticoid effects on minerals in body especially sodium. Synthetic
corticoid is used to treat inflammation disease.