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You are on page 1of 19

(Section 15.1)

Todays Objectives:

Students will be able to:

a) Calculate the linear momentum of a particle and linear

impulse of a force.

b) Apply the principle of linear impulse and momentum.

APPLICATIONS

removed using an impulse tool, which

delivers a force over a very short time

interval.

How can we determine the magnitude of

the linear impulse applied to the fender?

Could you analyze a carpenters hammer

striking a nail in the same fashion?

APPLICATIONS (continued)

hammer, a large impulsive force is

delivered to the nail and drives it into

the wood.

If we know the initial speed of the

hammer and the duration of impact, how

can we determine the magnitude of the

impulsive force delivered to the nail?

Linear momentum: The vector mv is called the linear

momentum, denoted as L. This vector has the same direction as

v. The linear momentum vector has units of (kgm)/s or

(slugft)/s.

Linear impulse: The integral F dt is the linear impulse,

denoted I. It is a vector quantity measuring the effect of a force

during its time interval of action. I acts in the same direction as

F and has units of Ns or lbs.

The impulse may be determined by

direct integration. Graphically, it can be

represented by the area under the force

versus time curve. If F is constant, then

I = F (t2 t1) .

The next method we will consider for solving particle

kinetics problems is obtained by integrating the equation of

motion with respect to time.

The result is referred to as the principle of impulse and

momentum. It can be applied to problems involving both

linear and angular motion.

This principle is useful for solving problems that involve

force, velocity, and time. It can also be used to analyze the

mechanics of impact (taken up in a later section).

The principle of linear impulse and momentum is obtained

by integrating the equation of motion with respect to time.

The equation of motion can be written

F = m a = m (dv/dt)

Separating variables and integrating between the limits v = v1

at t = t1 and v = v2 at t = t2 results in

t2

v2

F dt = m dv

t1

= mv2 mv1

v1

and momentum. It relates the particles final velocity, v2,

and initial velocity (v1) and the forces acting on the

particle as a function of time.

The principle of linear impulse and momentum in vector form

t2

is written as

mv1 + F dt = mv2

t1

The particles initial momentum plus the sum of all the impulses

applied from t1 to t2 is equal to the particles final momentum.

of the particles initial and final momenta, mv1 and mv2. The

impulse diagram is similar to a free body diagram, but includes

the time duration of the forces acting on the particle.

Since the principle of linear impulse and momentum is a

vector equation, it can be resolved into its x, y, z component

t2

scalar equations:

m(vx)1 +

Fx dt = m(vx)2

t1

t2

m(vy)1 +

Fy dt = m(vy)2

t1

t2

m(vz)1 +

Fz dt = m(vz)2

t1

the principle of linear impulse and momentum once the velocity

and force vectors have been resolved into x, y, z components.

PROBLEM SOLVING

Establish the x, y, z coordinate system.

Draw the particles free body diagram and establish the

direction of the particles initial and final velocities, drawing

the impulse and momentum diagrams for the particle. Show

the linear momenta and force impulse vectors.

Resolve the force and velocity (or impulse and momentum)

vectors into their x, y, z components, and apply the principle

of linear impulse and momentum using its scalar form.

Forces as functions of time must be integrated to obtain

impulses. If a force is constant, its impulse is the product of

the forces magnitude and time interval over which it acts.

EXAMPLE

Given:A 40 g golf ball is hit over a time

interval of 3 ms by a driver. The

ball leaves with a velocity of 35

m/s, at an angle of 40. Neglect

the balls weight while it is struck.

Find: The average impulsive force exerted on the ball and the

momentum of the ball 1 s after it leaves the club face.

Plan: 1) Draw the momentum and impulsive diagrams of

the ball as it is struck.

2) Apply the principle of impulse and momentum to

determine the average impulsive force.

3) Use kinematic relations to determine the velocity

of the ball after 1 s. Then calculate the linear

momentum.

EXAMPLE (continued)

Solution:

1) The impulse and momentum diagrams can be drawn:

W dt 0

mv1

+

mvO = 0

F dt

40

N dt 0

force N can be neglected because their magnitudes are

very small as compared to the impulse of the club. Since

the initial velocity (vO) is zero, the impulse from the driver

must be in the direction of the final velocity (v1).

EXAMPLE (continued)

2) The principle of impulse and momentum can be applied along

the direction of motion:

t1

40

mvO + F dt = mv1

t0

value over the duration of impact. Using vO = 0,

0.003

0 + Favg dt = mv1

0

Favg(0.003 0) = mv1

(0.003) Favg = (0.04)(35)

Favg = 467 N

40

EXAMPLE (continued)

3) After impact, the ball acts as a projectile undergoing freeflight motion. Using the constant acceleration equations for

projectile motion:

v2x = v1x = v1 cos 40 = 35 cos 40 = 26.81 m/s

v2y = v1y gt = 35 sin 40 (9.81)(1) = 12.69 m/s

=> v2 = (26.81 i + 12.69 j) m/s

The linear momentum is calculated as L = m v .

L2 = mv2 = (0.04)(26.81 i + 12.69 j) (kgm)/s

L2 = (1.07 i + 0.508 j) (kgm)/s

L2 = 1.18 (kgm)/s

25.4

CONCEPT QUIZ

F

A) 20 kgm/s

B) 10 kgm/s

C) 5 Ns

D) 15 Ns

10 N

2s

velocity from v1 to v2. Determine the force F if the particles

mass is 2 kg.

A) (17.3 j) N

B) (10 i +17.3 j) N

C) (20 i +17.3 j) N

D) ( 10 i +17.3 j) N

v2=20 m/s

60 v1=10 m/s

Given: The 500 kg log rests on the

ground (coefficients of static

and kinetic friction are s = 0.5

and k = 0.4). The winch

delivers a towing force T to its

cable at A as shown.

Find: The speed of the log when t = 5 s.

Plan: 1) Draw the FBD of the log.

2) Determine the force needed to begin moving the log,

and the time to generate this force.

3) After the log starts moving, apply the principle of

impulse and momentum to determine the speed of the

log at t = 5 s.

Solution:

1) Draw the FBD of the log:

y

W

Fy = 0 leads to the result that

x

N = W = mg = (500)(9.81) = 4905 N.

T Before the log starts moving, use

s. After the log is moving, use k.

N

N

2) The log begins moving when the towing force T exceeds the

friction force sN. Solve for the force, then the time.

T = sN = (0.5)(4905) = 2452.5 N

T = 400 t2 = 2452.5 N

t = 2.476 s

Since t < 4 s, the log starts moving before the towing force

reaches its maximum value.

3) Apply the principle of impulse and momentum in the xdirection from the time the log starts moving at t1 = 2.476 s to

t2 = 5 s.

t2

t1

0+

4

T 5dt - kN dt = mv2

2.476

2.476

2.476

(400/3)t3

2.476

=> v2 = 15.9 m/s

2.476

moving.

ATTENTION QUIZ

1. Jet engines on the 100 Mg VTOL aircraft exert a constant

vertical force of 981 kN as it hovers. Determine the net

impulse on the aircraft over t = 10 s.

A) -981 kNs

B) 0 kNs

C) 981 kNs

D) 9810 kNs

F = 981 kN

surface. If a force of a 100 N is applied

for 2 s, determine the impulse from the

force on the cabinet.

A) 0 Ns

B) 100 Ns

C) 200 Ns

D) 300 Ns

30

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