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GE Energy

Syngas Turbine Technology

Turbine
Innovation Realized
2x7F Syngas Coal
IGCC (USA)

GE turbines for syngas and low-Btu fuel

2010
2x9E Steel Mill (Asia)

applications are operating at locations


around the world with more than one
million hours of total operation.
This vast experience covers operations
employing GE and other gasification
technologies, and a variety of fuels
including high- and low-sulfur coals and

2x6F Syngas
Refinery (Asia)

3x9E Refinery
(Europe)

technology for syngas applications.

3x9E Steel Mill


(Europe)

1x7FA IGCC (USA)

1990

GE Turbines On Low-Btu Fuels

edge in providing customers with wellproven and experienced combined-cycle

2000

2x6FA Refinery (USA)

1x7FA IGCC (USA)

petroleum coke. GE offers an unparalleled

S Y N G A S T U R B I N E T E C H N O LO GY

Fuel Flexible Solutions


Sources for generating power are becoming more varied, and more stringent emission requirements are fueling a need
for flexible solutions to meet growing energy demand. At GE, were developing solutions today that are flexible enough to
integrate into your diverse portfolio of power generating options, helping you to profitably guide the industryand your
communityinto the future.
As a leader in combined-cycle gas turbine technology, GE has invested its time, resources and expertise to develop a
range of efficient, reliable gas turbines to help energy providers meet these new challenges. GEs versatile gas turbines
can operate on a variety of low-Btu fuels, in a wide variety of power applications, including hydrogen, low-rank steel
industry furnace gases, light distillates, heavy residuals from refining and syngas. Our solutions can help customers
enhance fuel utilization, reducing fuel costs and improving revenues.

Syngas Gas Power Generation in a


Carbon Constrained World
Many utilities look towards abundant supplies of relatively low-cost coal for power generation. Increasingly the use
of coaland the emissions and carbon burning it producesis coming under scrutiny, and many power generators
are turning to integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology.
At the front end of IGCC is gasification, which takes a carbon-based fuel source such as coal, refinery residuals
or biomass, and under high heat and pressure, converts it into a synthesis gas (or syngas) comprised of H2 and
CO. Impurities and carbon can be removed easily and economically from the syngas stream on a pre-combustion
basisleaving a hydrogen-rich fuelbefore it is burned to create electricity.
Carbon capture technologies, which have been in commercial operation for many years, offer the ability to
efficiently and cost effectively remove carbon from syngas for permanent storage or use in enhanced oil recovery
before burning the fuel. The resulting gas is essentially a carbon-free, high hydrogen fuel available for combustion
within a combined-cycle power plant. GEs syngas power turbines offer a powerful, reliable solution that can
operate on the high hydrogen fuels resulting from this carbon separation.
While todays GE syngas turbines have been used
successfully on fuels with up to 50% hydrogen, we
continue to advance the capabilities of the next
generation of gas turbines for high hydrogen fuels.
Were working on breakthroughs that will deliver cleaner,
efficient technologies to customers who may capture
carbon for storage.

SYNGAS TURBINE TECHNOLOGY

Challenges Met, Innovation Attained


Our syngas turbine platforms are built upon GEs extensive experience and rigorous engineering processes. Advances in
technology will deliver high efficiency and reliability. Among these advances is the Multi Nozzle Quiet Combustion (MNQC).
One of the key challenges of hydrogen fuel is the high flame speed. The MNQC, a diffusion flame-based system that is
free of the sensitivities to flame speed and combustion instability (combustion dynamics) that are inherent to lean pre-mix
combustion systems was developed to address this challenge.
GEs MNQC system has been designed to run on low-Btu fuels and is capable
of operating on many varieties of syngas, including high H2 fuels. It is built for
high efficiency and offers superior benefits for customers operating in base load
applications. This combustor is also capable of operating on natural gas for
start-up and shut-down operations, and can operate at base load on natural
gas for extended periods of time if syngas is not available.
With MNQC technology, GE can offer a similar combustor configuration for
several turbine products using syngas and high hydrogen fuels, all based upon
a combustion system design that has been in use since the 1990s, and can
operate with un-shifted and shifted (hydrogen-rich) syngas.

Syngas Turbine Fuel Applications

7EA
9E
6FA
7F
9F
FUEL HEATING VALUE
LOW
Air IGCC Syngas
Blast Furnace Gas

S Y N G A S T U R B I N E T E C H N O LO GY

MEDIUM
O2 IGCC Syngas
GTL Off-gas

HIGH
High H2 for CCS
High H2 for EOR

SYNGAS TURBINE TECHNOLOGY

Gas Turbines for IGCC Syngas Applications1


Gas Turbines

Combined-Cycle

Model

Nominal Syngas Power Rating2

Model

Nominal Syngas Output Power3

6B

46 MW (50/60 Hz)

106B

70 MW (50/60 Hz)

7EA

80 MW (60 Hz)

107EA

120 MW (60 Hz)

9E

140 MW (50 Hz)

109E

210 MW (50 Hz)

6FA

92 MW (50/60 Hz)

106FA

140 MW (50/60 Hz)

7F Syngas

232 MW (60 Hz)

207F Syngas

710 MW (60 Hz)

9F Syngas

286 MW (50 Hz)

209F Syngas

880 MW (50 Hz)

Notes:
(1) Conventional gasification fuel, without CO2 capture.
(2) Performance at ISO conditions.
(3) No integration with process. Steam turbine and generator product fit TBD.
Assumes multishaft configuration.

Gas Turbines for Syngas Applications


85 MW

SIMPLE CYCLE OUTPUT (MW)

85 MW

7EA

NATURAL GAS
77 MW

SYNGAS

92 MW

6FA
126 MW

140 MW

9E
187 MW

232 MW

7F
256 MW

9F

S Y N G A S T U R B I N E T E C H N O LO GY

285 MW

GE Syngas Turbine Solutions


GEs portfolio of syngas capable turbines, includes units for both 50 Hz and 60 Hz segments, simple-cycle
configurations with output ranging from 46300 MW, and combined-cycle configurations with output ranging
from 70880 MW, depending on fuel and site specific conditions.
6BReliable and rugged 50/60 Hz power
This rugged and reliable gas turbine, a popular choice for mid-range power generation service, has a well-documented availability of 94.6%
and 99% reliability. With over 1,100 units worldwide, the dependable 6B features low capital investment and low maintenance costs. It
has accumulated over 60 million operating hours in a wide range of applicationsincluding simple-cycle, heat recovery, combined-cycle,
and mechanical drive. Introduced in 1978, many upgrades are available to improve the performance of earlier versions, including rotor life
extension and combustion system retrofits that can deliver 5 ppm NOx when operating on natural gas. With its lengthy industrial experience
and high reliability, the 6B is an excellent fit for industrial and oil and gas applications, providing horsepower and high exhaust energy. The
6B has long operating experience on a variety of medium- or low-BTU fuels, including syngas produced from oil and steel mill gasses.

7EAProven performance for 60 Hz applications


The size of the versatile 7EA gas turbine enables flexibility in plant layout and fast, low-cost additions of incremental power. With high
reliability and availability, this unit provides strong efficiency performance in simple-cycle and combined-cycle applicationsand is ideally
suited for power generation, industrial, mechanical drive, and cogeneration applications. 7E/EA units have accumulated millions of hours
of operation using crude and residual oils, and were featured in the first large scale IGCC demonstration plant at Coolwater that operated
in the mid 1980s.

9EFlexible and adaptable performance for 50 Hz applications


Since its introduction in 1978, GEs 9E gas turbine fleet of 430+ units has accumulated over 22 million hours of utility and industrial
serviceoften in arduous climates ranging from desert heat and tropical humidity to arctic cold. Capable of operating on a variety of
medium- or low-BTU fuels, including syngas produced from oil and steel mill gasses, the 9E is a quick power solution also well suited for
IGCC or mechanical drive applications. This reliable, low first-cost machine has a compact design that provides flexibility in plant layout and
easy addition of incremental power when phased capacity expansion is required.

6FA (50/60 Hz)Advanced technology mid-sized combined-cycle and cogeneration


With over 2.5+ million operating hours and more than 110 units installed or on order, the 6FA gas turbine is a good fit for local power for
industrial complexes. It delivers high efficiency and high availability, and provides the operating flexibility needed for harsh environments. A
direct down-scaling of the proven 7FA, the 6FA is rated at 8595 MW when operating with syngas. Four 6FAs have been operating syngas
at two refinery cogeneration plants since the early 2000s.

7F SyngasLarge baseload syngas performance for 60 Hz


Building on GEs F-class syngas experience, the 7F Syngas turbine was developed specifically for syngas operation. The configuration of
the 7F Syngas turbine combines materials with known syngas compatibility and turbine components designed for the increased mass flow
in syngas applications. These elements allow the 7F Syngas turbine to generate 232 MW on dry syngas at ISO conditions. This turbinelike
GEs other syngas turbinesis capable of operating on syngas and on high hydrogen (carbon captured) fuels. The first two units shipped to
Duke Energys Edwardsport IGCC plant in 2010.

9F SyngasAdvanced turbine technology for 50 Hz applications


The latest addition to GEs syngas turbine portfolio is the 9F Syngas turbine. This unit, based on the 9FA, building on the worlds most
experienced fleet of highly efficient 50 Hz large units. The 9F Syngas turbine can be arranged in a single-shaft or multi-shaft configuration
that combines one or two gas turbines with a single steam turbine. This turbine is capable of operating on syngas (non-carbon captured)
or a high hydrogen fuel (carbon capture).

SYNGAS TURBINE TECHNOLOGY

Refinery Residuals for Cogeneration


Gasification technology combined with GEs syngas turbines is an effective way to use refinery residuals and generate N2,
H2, steam and power in a petrochemical complex.
GE deploys its advanced gas turbine technology to deliver greater performance levels than ever before, offering
customers gas turbine solutions with a wide range of fuel and process integration flexibility. Based on its significant gas
turbine and syngas experience, GE is pleased to offer solutions that deliver high efficiency and reliability for advanced
IGCC and cogeneration plants.

Plant Integration
Developing an IGCC plant or gasifier in a petrochemical complex is a capital-intensive project, so delivering results is important.
Seamlessly integrating the gasification and power islands will help enable operators of IGCC and cogeneration plants to derive
return on their investment. Our syngas turbines provide air extraction (air from the gas turbine compressor) to the process
plant, allowing for a reduction in the number of compressors required to supply air to gasifier, air separation unit, or other
plant-level process, delivering value to the operators.

GE offers expertise in the integration


of the syngas turbine, including:

High P, T Air to reduce


compressor loads

Steam-side integration
Nitrogen return
Full steam and air integration,
including air extraction
and nitrogen return

Syngas or high H2
N2 from Air Separation
Unit for dilution
Process heat for fuel heating

S Y N G A S T U R B I N E T E C H N O LO GY

SYNGAS TURBINE TECHNOLOGY

Flexibility of GE Syngas Turbine Technology


GE leads the world in the application of its heavy duty gas turbines to gasification combined-cycle gas projects. Our
success with low- and medium-Btu fuel gases is a consequence of extensive full-scale laboratory testing on various fuels
for nearly 24 years at GEs combustion laboratory in Schenectady, New York, and, since 2002, testing at the combustion
development laboratory in Greenville, South Carolina.

In these facilities, we develop and validate system components


and the impacts of impact of various characteristics on
performance of a combustion system. At our Greenville
test facility, for example, we are able to validate the 7F
syngas turbine combustion system, testing it at full pressure,
temperature and flows. The facility also has the capability
to blend a variety of syngas-like fuels. We can also test the
turbine on start-up fuel (natural gas) at full speed, no load
conditions. Typical test campaigns examine combustion full
and part load performance, including combustion dynamics,
emissions and exit profile. In addition, thermocouples, strain
gauges and thermal paint combined with advanced
computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis
allow full durability validation of the system. Combustion lab
testing has evaluated performance over a range of fuel space
and load points. Results from these tests have confirmed that
the system will be able to meet customers performance goals.

GE Delivers
GE Energy provides innovative, technology-based products and service solutions across the full spectrum of the energy
industry and is committed to investing in a cleaner, smarter, and more efficient future. To put GEs proven syngas turbine
technology to work for you, contact your local GE representative or visit http://www.ge-energy.com

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S Y N G A S T U R B I N E T E C H N O LO GY

SYNGAS TURBINE TECHNOLOGY

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2010 General Electric Company. All rights reserved.


GEA18028 (09/2010)