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419-490_cengel_ch09.

qxd 10/2/09 9:47 PM Page 484

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DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW

9–83 A stirrer mixes liquid chemicals in a large tank (Fig.
P9–83). The free surface of the liquid is exposed to room air.
Surface tension effects are negligible. Discuss the boundary
conditions required to solve this problem. Specifically, what
are the velocity boundary conditions in terms of cylindrical
coordinates (r, u, z) and velocity components (ur, uu, uz) at all
surfaces, including the blades and the free surface? What
pressure boundary conditions are appropriate for this flow
field? Write mathematical equations for each boundary condition and discuss.
P = Patm

Free surface
v

9–86
Water (r  998.2 kg/m3 and m  1.003 
103 kg/m  s) flows in a long, straight pipe. The flow is
steady, fully developed, and laminar, so the analytical velocity profile is known. Write an expression for axial velocity
component u as a function of radial coordinate r, pipe radius
R, and average axial velocity V. Run FlowLab with template
Pipe_1d_Reynolds at Re = 1000. Record the average velocity
and write the velocity profile data to a file. Generate a plot of
u(r) that compares the analytical velocity profile to that generated by CFD. Is there good agreement? Repeat for Re =
2000. Discuss your results.
9–87 The ru-component of the viscous stress tensor in
cylindrical coordinates is
tru  tur  mcr

Rtank

r, m

D
z

1 u r 
uu
a b
d
r u 
r r

(1)

Some authors write this component instead as

r 

u u
1 u r
tru  tur  mc a 
u ub 
d
r u 
r

FIGURE P9–83
9–84 Repeat Prob. 9–83, but from a frame of reference
rotating with the stirrer blades at angular velocity v.
9–85 Consider liquid in a cylindrical tank. Both the tank
and the liquid rotate as a rigid body (Fig. P9–85). The free
surface of the liquid is exposed to room air. Surface tension
effects are negligible. Discuss the boundary conditions
required to solve this problem. Specifically, what are the
velocity boundary conditions in terms of cylindrical coordinates (r, u, z) and velocity components (ur, uu, uz) at all surfaces, including the tank walls and the free surface? What
pressure boundary conditions are appropriate for this flow
field? Write mathematical equations for each boundary condition and discuss.

(2)

Are these the same? In other words is Eq. 2 equivalent to Eq.
1, or do these other authors define their viscous stress tensor
differently? Show all your work.
9–88 Engine oil at T  60C is forced to flow between two
very large, stationary, parallel flat plates separated by a thin
gap height h  2.50 mm (Fig. P9–88). The plate dimensions
are L  1.25 m and W  0.750 m. The outlet pressure is
atmospheric, and the inlet pressure is 1 atm gage pressure.
Estimate the volume flow rate of oil. Also calculate the
Reynolds number of the oil flow, based on gap height h and
average velocity V. Is the flow laminar or turbulent?
Answers: 1.09  103 m3/s, 17.3, laminar
Pout

h

Pin
y

W
L

v

Free
surface

x

V

FIGURE P9–88
P = Patm

9–89 Consider the following
steady, two-dimensional,
incom→

pressible
velocity field: V  (u, v)  (ax  b)i  (ay 

cx2)j , where a, b, and c are constants. Calculate the pressure
as a function of x and y. Answer: cannot be found

g

r

R
Liquid

z
r

FIGURE P9–85

9–90 Consider the following
steady, two-dimensional,
incom→


pressible velocity field: V  (u, v)  (ax2)i  (2axy)j ,
where a is a constant. Calculate the pressure as a function of
x and y.
9–91 Consider steady, two-dimensional, incompressible
flow due to a spiraling line vortex/sink flow centered on the

un). meaning that nothing is a function of coordinate u (uu and P are functions of radius r only). h. Navier–Stokes equation (Eq. n) coordinate system with velocity components (us. The flow is also circular. parallel. make sure that your result agrees with that of Example 9–17 when a  90. P9–95.80 kg/m · s. y. P9–93). and g. and gravity acts in the negative z-direction (downward in the figure). laminar. v. Generate expressions for both the pressure and velocity fields. generate an expression for the volume # flow rate per unit width (V L) as a function of r. Compare your result to that of the same fluid falling along Expand this expression as far as possible using the product rule. P9–98.) 9–98 An incompressible Newtonian liquid is confined between two concentric circular cylinders of infinite length— a solid inner cylinder of radius Ri and a hollow. As a check. Now combine all three terms into one term. incompressible. except for the case in which the wall is inclined at angle a (Fig. Generate an exact expression for velocity component uu as a function of radius r . and two-dimensional in the ru-plane. Calculate the pressure as a function of r and u. z Fluid: r. [Hint: It is most convenient to use the (s. yielding three terms. V  (u. The distance between the walls is h. The first two viscous terms in the u-component of the u u uu 1  ar b  2d. b. where y is into the page in Fig. m. There is no applied (forced) pressure driving the flow— the fluid falls by gravity alone. m. meaning that velocity component ur  0 everywhere. Streamlines and velocity components are shown in Fig. Discuss the differences and provide a physical explanation. m s h z x a FIGURE P9–95 9–96 For the falling oil film of Prob. P9–91. where C and K are constants. The inner cylinder rotates at angular velocity vi. Plot the dimensionless velocity profile u*s versus n* for the case in which a  60. where a. m Air n FIGURE P9–91 → g Fixed wall 9–92 Consider the steady. Calculate the velocity field and sketch the velocity profile using appropriate nondimensionalized variables. The flow is also rotationally symmetric. Calculate (V L) for an oil film of thickness 5. all else being equal. 9–93 Consider steady. The velocity field is ur  C/r and uu  K/r. and c are constants. incompressible → → → velocity field. The flow is steady. laminar flow of a viscous fluid falling between two infinite vertical walls (Fig.0 mm with r  888 kg/m3 and m  0. stationary outer cylinder of radius Ro (Fig. the z-axis is out of the page). P9–89). generate an expression for the volume flow rate per unit width of oil # falling down# the wall (V L) as a function of r. Answer: rgh3/12m downward 9–95 Repeat Example 9–17. 9–62c) are mc r r r r 9–97 x Fixed wall P = Patm Fixed wall → g h FIGURE P9–93 9–94 For the fluid falling between two parallel vertical walls (Prob. (Hint: Use the product rule in reverse—some trial and error may be required. uu uu = K r r ur = one vertical wall with a free surface replacing the second wall (Example 9–17). The pressure is constant everywhere in the flow field.qxd 10/2/09 9:47 PM Page 485 485 CHAPTER 9 z-axis. 9–93).419-490_cengel_ch09. v)  (ax  b)i  (ay  c)j . two-dimensional. 9–95. Calculate the pressure as a function of x and y.] C r Oil film: r. h. and g.

Run two cases: (a) a small gap of 0. In other words. Derive an expression for the velocity field in the annular space in the pipe. vo  400 rpm. (P/dx)  (P2  P1)/(x2  x1). Show that the velocity profile approaches linear from the outer cylinder wall to the inner cylinder wall. 9–97 is useful. The inner radius is 0. Outer pipe wall Fluid: r. (Hint: The result of Prob. while the inner cylinder radius is very small. 9–98 for the more general case. namely. The outer cylinder is stationary. let the inner cylinder rotate at angular velocity vi and let the outer cylinder rotate at angular velocity vo.060 m. x) and (ur.799 kg/m s) flows between two concentric cylinders as in Prob.060 m.12 m. incompressible. Verify that when vo  0 your result simplifies to that of Prob. (Hint: Define y  Ro  r. laminar flow of a Newtonian fluid in an infinitely long round pipe annulus of inner radius Ri and outer radius Ro (Fig. 9–98. we compare analytical to CFD results. m r x P1 x1 Ri Ro ∂P P2 – P1 = ∂x x2 – x1 FIGURE P9–106 P2 x2 . vo  0 and (b) vi  200 rpm. A constant negative pressure gradient P/x is applied in the x-direction. but let the inner cylinder be stationary and the outer cylinder rotate at angular velocity vo. plot and save the velocity profile data. 9–99. Ignore the effects of gravity.9 kg/m3 and m  0. Run FlowLab with template Concentric_gap. Run FlowLab with template Concentric_outer. What kind of flow does this approach? 9–103 Repeat Prob. h  gap thickness  Ro  Ri. 9–103.9 kg/m3 and m  0. On the same plot. Compare to the analytical prediction for both cases. compare the analytical prediction from Prob. Compare to the analytical prediction for both cases. and the outer radius is 0.) (b) The outer cylinder radius approaches infinity. In this problem. u). When the gap is large. and V  speed of the “upper plate”  Ri vi. Answer: vor 9–106 Consider steady. however. (r. setting vo  500 rpm. Plot and save the velocity profile data to a file. 9–104 Glycerin (r  1259. where x1 and x2 are two arbitrary locations along the x-axis. For each case. Generate an exact solution for uu(r) using the step-by-step procedure discussed in this chapter.9 kg/m3 and m  0. Note that we adopt a modified cylindrical coordinate system here with x instead of z for the axial component. 9–100.419-490_cengel_ch09.) Liquid: r.001 m and (b) a large gap of 0.799 kg/ms) flows between two concentric cylinders as in Prob. Is there good agreement? How good is the linear approximation? Discuss your results. Run FlowLab with template Concentric_gap. Namely.060 m. 9–100. The inner cylinder is stationary. uu. For each case. 9–105 Analyze and discuss a limiting case of Prob.qxd 10/2/09 9:47 PM Page 486 486 DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS OF FLUID FLOW and the other parameters in the problem. The inner radius is 0. P9–106). 9–100 Repeat Prob. and P1 and P2 are the pressures at those two locations. The inner radius is 0. You may ignore gravity. All else is the same as Prob. m Ro vi Ri Rotating inner cylinder Stationary outer cylinder FIGURE P9–98 9–99 Glycerin ( r  1259. Generate an exact expression for velocity component uu as a function of radius r and the other parameters in the problem. Generate an expression for uu as a function of r. and the outer cylinder rotates at 500 rpm. The pressure gradient may be caused by a pump and/or gravity. u. plot and save the velocity profile data to a file. 9–98. Is there good agreement? How good is the linear approximation? Discuss your results. 9–98: (a) The gap is very small. 9–102 Analyze and discuss two limiting cases of Prob. 9–94 in which there is no inner cylinder (Ri  vi  0). for a very tiny gap the velocity profile reduces to that of simple two-dimensional Couette flow.060 m. we expect the linear approximation to fail. What kind of flow is this? Describe how this flow could be set up experimentally. 9–98. Run two cases: (a) vi  300 rpm.799 kg/m s) flows between two concentric cylinders as in Prob. Is there good agreement? Discuss your results. and the inner cylinder rotates at 300 rpm. 9–101 Glycerin (r  1259. Recall from Chapter 2 that when the gap between the cylinders is small. the tangential velocity of the fluid in the gap is nearly linear.