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extrusion. If the temperature of the metal is below its recrystallization temperature. strip. Rolled bar. and T sections for structural applications. coil. bars and rods. H beams. Rails. rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through one or more pairs of rolls to reduce the thickness and to make the thickness uniform. . Plates and sheets are rolled from slabs. and machining. for the production of railroad track. Many of these products will be the starting material for subsequent manufacturing operations such as forging. are rolled directly from blooms. sheet metal working. the process is known as cold rolling. Blooms are often rolled directly into I beams. The concept is similar to the rolling of dough. STEEL ROLLING At a rolling mill. channel beams. If the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature. blooms and slabs are further rolled down to intermediate parts such as plate. wire drawing. as well as for construction. is used in the machine building industry. of various shapes and special cross sections. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled.ROLLING In metalworking. sheet. billets. and are extremely important in the production of a wide range of manufactured items. then the process is known as hot rolling.

buses. this manufacturing process is being used to reduce the thickness of a work piece. tanks. It is essential that in a metal rolling process the level of friction between the rolls and work material is controlled. The roll zone is the area over which the rolls act on the material. In addition to reducing the thickness of the work. Principles of Metal Rolling Most metal rolling operations are similar in that the work material is plastically deformed by compressive forces between two constantly spinning rolls. airplane fuselages. other household appliances. and ships. refrigerators. train cars. the geometric shape of the work is changed but its volume remains essentially the same. this value is called the draft. to name a few. as well as its integration with other manufacturing processes. During a metal rolling operation. lubricants can help with this. office equipment. washers. nuclear vessels. large machines. Sheet is used for the production of car bodies.Plates are generally considered to be over 1/4". in thickness. Plates are used in heavy applications like boilers. the metal exiting the roll zone will be moving faster than the metal entering the roll zone. (6mm). and beverage cans. These forces act to reduce the thickness of the metal and affect its grain structure. An important factor in metal rolling is that due to the conservation of the volume of the material with the reduction in thickness. bridges. It is important to understand the significance of metal rolling in industry today. Friction is therefore a necessary part of the rolling operation. A basic flat rolling operation is shown in figure:130. but too much friction can be detrimental for a variety of reasons. the rolls also act to feed the material as they spin in opposite directions to each other. it is here that plastic deformation of the work occurs. containers. dryers. The reduction in thickness can be measured by the difference in thickness before and after the reduction. .

Rolling operation of Steel rod .

Steps involving process CONCLUTION These are some application and working of steel rolling process. .