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Macroetchant for polymer

Etch composition


75 mL dimethyl sulfoxide
25 mL HNO,


Immerse sample 4 h at 7580°C. Rinse with water,
then acetone, and dry
(Gaulin and Richardson

Macroetchants for refractory metals

30 mL HC1
15 mL HNO.,
30 mL HF

Immerse samples in
solution for 5-20 min at


15 mL HF
35 mL HN03
75 mL H2 0


10 mL HF
30 mL HNO,
50 mL lactic acid

Immerse sample in solution
at room temperature for 140


10 mL H2S04
90 mL H2 0

Immerse sample in boiling
solution for 2-5 min.


120-240 g NaOH
3.75-15 g potassium
1000 mL H,0

Electrochemical reverseetch process for detecting
grinding of hard Cr plating
developed by Grumman
Aerospace Corp. Use for Cr
plating on high-strength
steel. Use electrolytically at
room temperature at 12 V
dc, 0.62 A/cm2, 45 s
(Messier and Mailer).

Immerse samples in
solution at room
temperature for 1020 min.

Composite Material
Vacuum cathodic etching is particularly well suited for materials that are
difficult to etch chemically and for composite materials in which no one etch or

If a reaction begins at the end of the 1-min period. Grain and phase boundaries are revealed strongly. dissimilar welds. Usually requires 1 to 10 min. Thus. since the grains of interest are rendered more distinct on a photomicrograph. or structure development). corrosive attack (darkening. The etches are stain-free. the test is negative. In this method.. which is described by Davy and Farnham and by Short . pitting. Etching and staining have also proved useful for illustration purposes. Boundaries between phases with different removal rates can be widened unnaturally. Etching has also been used to study the structure of minerals. Vacuum cathodic etching is quite useful for revealing the structure of metals that are difficult to etch and has been used on radioactive materials and on ceramics. with composite materials. thus the technique offers no advantage over chemical etchants for steels. and fine polishing scratches are removed. After etching. One component may be satisfactorily etched. etc. Surfaces etched by ion bombardment usually exhibit a flat etch contrast. it is often difficult to completely reveal the structure by chemical etching. is based on the reaction of a sample to a standard set of reagents. In steels. If no reaction occurs during this period. the sputtering rates for ferrite and cementite are nearly identical. Ion-bombardment etching of low-melting-point metals can produce cone-shaped artifacts on the etched surface. tarnishing. and test results from the use of etchants must be viewed with caution. However. These . a drop of a particular reagent is applied to the sample on the stage of a microscope. staining. Etching can be followed by point counting to determine the amount of specific minerals in a sample. and the wet surface is examined to detect any effects obscured by the droplet. This step is necessary with some of the standard etchants in which the color of the drop makes examination difficult. and the action of the etchant is viewed optically for 1 min from the time of application. An expensive apparatus is also required. Considerable heat can be generated during etching.combinations of etchants can reveal the structure of the different materials present. the results are followed. Two basic approaches to mineral identification using etchants have evolved. or staining around the edge of the drop. The reaction is termed positive if any of the following effects are observed: effervescence. For best results. The procedure used in the United States. since the glow discharge will decompose the plastic and produce contaminating films on the surface. while the other is unaffected or overetched. the drop of etchant should cover only a single grain. the surface is washed with a jet of water. it can be difficult to interpret the microstructure when such features are present. Disadvantages of this method are that samples mounted in plastics are unsuitable. although times of up to an hour are sometimes used. Mineral Material Etching and staining procedures have been used by mineralogists as one of several tools for identifying minerals. coatings. The use of etchants to identify minerals is not simple. Cone formation seems to be more common when argon or neon gases are used.Vacuum cathodic etching has proved useful for developing the microstructures of aluminum and cast iron.

which is based on the work of Van der Veen. zonal growth. it has been observed that minerals can produce both positive and negative responses to a given etchant. Because mineral compositions do vary. The cited references should be consulted for additional detail.. In addition. . Sasaki et al. The second etch test approach. e. Scheiderhohn. etch test results must be combined with other optical and physical tests. The etch test method does not appear to be useful with some types of minerals. Those reagents that give highly specific reactions are employed for identification. and Ramdohr .. and deformation textures. etch response can also vary. uses a large number of reagents. These features are best revealed by etching in a manner similar to metallographic etching.g. since the droplet cannot be confined to a single grain in finegrained specimens. in this procedure the main purpose of the etch is to reveal the textural details. oxide and silicate ores. Have published etching response procedures for identifying minerals in blastfurnace and basic-oxygen-furnace slags . The method is most useful with coarse-grained minerals. for positive identification.procedures must be used along with other methods.g. e. Thus. However. twinning.