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# Module 4: Analysis of Frame Structures

Lecture 3: Stiffness of Beam Members

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4.3.1 Introduction
A beam is a structural member which is capable of withstanding load primarily by resisting
bending. The primary tool for analysis of beam is the Euler–Bernoulli beam equation. Other
methods for determining the deflection of beams include "slope deflection method" and
"method of virtual work". For calculation of internal forces of beam include "moment
distribution method", force or flexibility method and stiffness method. However, all these
methods have limitations if either of geometry, loading, material properties or boundary
conditions becomes arbitrary in nature. Finite element techniques can well handle such cases
and relieve the analyzer of making simplifications to arrive approximate solutions.
4.3.2 Derivation of Shape Function
The degrees of freedom at each node for a beam member will be (i) vertical deflection and
dv
, where
(ii) rotation. For a beam member, the slope of the elastic curve θ is given by:  
dx
the variable v is the displacement function of the beam. As the beam has two degrees of
freedom at each node, the variation of v will be cubic and can be expressed using Pascal’s
triangle as:
 0 
 
v x   0  1 x   2 x 2   3 x 3  1 x x 2 x 3  1 
(4.3.1)
 2 
 3 
and
 0 
 
dv
 
 0 1 2 x 3x 2  1 

dx
 2 
 3 

Fig. 4.3.1 Beam element

(4.3.2)

 2   2   3   3  At x=L: V2  1 L L2  0   0        L3   1  . the following expressions from the above relations can be obtained: At x=0:  0   0        V1  1 0 0 0   1  .3. and N  x  x  N   N    x  x 2 3 4 L L L2 L2 L2 L3 L2 L3 (4. N1  1  2 2 x3 3x 2 2 x 3 x2 x3 3 2 2 3 .  v x   1 x x2  1  0  3 x 3  2  l  2  l 3  0 0 1 2  l 1 l2 0 3 l2 2  3 l 0 V1  0    1 1       N1 l  V2  1     2 l 2  N2 N3 V1      N 4  1  V2   2  (4.6) .5) Where.3.3.  2  0 1 2 L 3L2   1   2   2   3   3  Thus combining the above expressions one can write: V1  1   0  1    V2  1  2  0 0   0  1 0 0  1      A  L L2 L3   2   1 2 L 3L2   3  0 0 (4. applying boundary conditions.  0  1   0  1     2  1   3  0 1 0  V1   1  0  2   0   3 L L2 L3  V2   L2  1 2 L 3L2  2   2 0 1 0 0  L3 0 1 2  L 1 L2 0 0 3 L2 2  3 L 0  V1  0    1  1     L  V2  1     2 L2  (4. 1   0 1 0 0  1  .16 Now.3.4) Therefore. .3) So.

8) Strain energy.3.3.9) 0 Thus.  A   1  0 (4.1):  d 2v  0 dx 2 0  0     1  1 6 x    B    B A d   2     4  2 1 0 Where. the stiffness matrix will be: k   EI  A 1 T B T B A 1 dx  EI A 1 T  B T B dxA1 0 L 0 0 0 0  L L 0 0 B T B dx    0 0 2 6 x dx    0 2 0 0  6 x  0   L Now.3. 4.11) 0 0 0 0   0 0 0 0  dx   0 4 12 x  0   0 12 x 36 x 2  0 0 0 0 0 0 4L 0 6 L2 0   0   6 L2   12L3  (4. (4.12) .17 N is called shape function which interpolates the beam displacement in terms of its nodal displacements.7) 0  V1     1 0 0    .3. we can write: M  EI  EI d 2v 1  EI B  A d  2 dx (4.  B    0 0 2 6 x  . L (4.3.3.10) So.3. F     B B A d dx U  EI  A 1 d  0 L T T 1 (4. d    2  2 3 L L L  V2  2  2  1 2 L 3L  0 0 From the moment curvature relationship. L U  EI 1 T 0 2   M dx = 2  d  A  B  B A d dx L T 1 T 1 T (4.3 Derivation of Element Stiffness Matrix Now. the strain displacement relationship matrix [B] can be expressed from the following expressions with the help of eq.3.

13) 4. By resolving the forces along local X and Y direction. .4 Generalized Stiffness Matrix of a Beam Member Consider a beam member making an angle ‘’ with X axis as shown in Fig 4. the following relations are obtained.3.2 below. 0  0 k   EI A1 T  0  0    1  0 k   EI  0   0  0 0  EI  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4L 0 6 L2 2  L3  0 1   0 L2   2  3  0 L  1  0  L2  3 L2 2  L 3 L2 1  L   1 0 6  0  2 0   3  0 6  L2   2 6l   2  L3 0 0 1 2  L 1 L2 0 3 L2 2  3 L 0   0  1  A 6 L2   12 L3  0 0 0 0 0 4L 0 6 L2 0  1  0   0 3   6 L2   L2  2  12 L3   3  L  12 0   L3   0   6  L2 1    EI  L   123  L 1   6 2  L   2  L 6 L2 4 L 6  2 L 2 L 12 L3 6  2 L 12 L3 6  2 L 0 0 1 2  L 1 L2 0 3 L2 2  3 L 0   0  1   L 1  L2  6  L2   2  L  6   2 L  4   L  Thus.3. the element stiffness of a beam member is: 6 L 12 6 L   12  6 L 4 L2 6 L 2 L2  EI  k   3  12 6 L 12 6L  L  2 2   6 L 2 L 6 L 4 L  (4.18 So.3.

14) Fy 2   Fx 2 sin   Fy 2 cos  M1  M1 M2  M2 Where.14) can be rewritten in matrix form as follows:  Fx1   cos      Fy1    sin  M 1   0    Fx 2   0  Fy 2   0     M 2   0 sin cos  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 cos  0  sin 0 0 0 0 0 sin cos  0 0   Fx1  0   Fy1  0   M 1    0   Fx 2  0   Fy 2    1   M 2  (4.3.16) .3.2 Inclined beam member The relationship expressed in eq. the above equation can be expressed in short as: F   T F  (4. (4.3. M1 and M 2 are the moment about its axis at node 1 and 2 respectively.19 Fx1  Fx1 cos   Fy1 sin  Fx 2  Fx 2 cos   Fy 2 sin  Fy1   Fx1 sin   Fy1 cos  (4. Fy1 and Fy 2 are the forces perpendicular to the member axis X . Similarly.3.15) Now. Fig.3. Fx1 and Fx 2 are the axial forces along the member axis X . 4.

) may be transformed to global ( . Now. the displacement vector in local coordinate system ( . 1  k  T d  Here.3.3. Thus. ) coordinate system by the following relation.18) can be rewritten as follows with the use of eqs.16) and (4. (4.21) Considering   cos  and   sin  the above expression can be written as follows: . d   T d  (4.3.20) Or.3. the eq. the generalized stiffness matrix can be expressed as: k   T T k T  (4. T F   k T d  (4. from the above relationship.17) The force-displacement relation in local coordinate system may be expressed as: 0 0   Fx1   0 12 EI    L3  Fy1   6 EI   0  M1   L2   0  Fx2   0    12 EI  Fy2   0  3  L M   2  6 EI 0  L2 0 6 EI L2 4 EI L 0 6 EI  2 L 2 EI L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 EI  3 L 6 EI  2 L 0 12 EI L3 6 EI  2 L 0  6 EI   u  1 L2    v 2 EI   1     L  1   0  u2   6 EI    2   v2  L    4 EI   2   L  (4.3.3. the transformation matrix [T] is orthogonal.20 Similarly.3.17).19) F   T  (4.18) The matrices in the above equation are written with respect to the member axis. (4.3.

21    0  k   EI  0 0  0   0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0  0 0 0   0 0 0  12 0  0 L3   0  6 0   0  L2  0  0 0  0  12  0  3 L 1   6 0  L2 0 6 L2 4 L 0 6  2 L 2 L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 12  3 L 6  2 L 0 12 L3 6  2 L 0  6   L2   2    L  0  0  0  6  0  2  L  0 4   L   0  0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0  0    0 0 0 0 (4.22) Thus. the generalized stiffness matrix of a beam member is derived as:  12  2  L3   12    L3    6 2   k   EI  L 2   12   L3   12   L3  6    L2 12  L3 12 2 L3 6 L2 12  L3 12 2  3 L 6 L2  6 L2 6 L2 4 L 6 L2 6  2 L 2 L  12  2 L3 12  L3 6 L2 12  2 L3 12   3 L 6 L2  12  L3 12 2  3 L 6  2 L 12   3 L 12 2 L3 6  2 L 6  L2  6  L2   2  L   6  L2   6  2 L  4   L   (4.23) 0 0  0  0 0  1 .3.3.