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# Lectures on Reinforced Concrete Design: Lecture 3

Flexural Analysis of R.C. Beams(2)
BY
Dr. A.W.HAGO

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Maximum moment capacity of a section
Following BS8110 in limiting depth the neutral axis, x=0.5d, then the
corresponding lever arm becomes:
Z=d - s/2= d-0.9X/2 =d – 0.45(0.5d) =0.775d
Hence, the maximum moment of resistance of the section is:
Substitute s = 0.9 x = 0.9 × 0.5d = 0.45d
M max = F ccz = 0.45 f cu b( 0.45d )( 0.775d )
= 0.156 f cu bd 2 = K ' f cu bd 2
∴ K' =

M max
= 0.156
2
bd f cu

Which is the limiting value for K
for a singly reinforced section.

0.45 f cu

ε cc = 0.0035

ε sc

Neutral
axis

d

S=0.9x

b

x

M = 0.45 f cu bsz

Fcc

Ast
ε st

Section

Strains

Fst

Stress block

If K>K’ compression reinforcement is required to prevent crushing of concrete.
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9X/2 = d-0.5d =0.5d.775d 3 .Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections • When the applied bending moment M > 0. the design ultimate moment exceeds the moment of resistance of concrete and compression reinforcement is needed.9*0.156fcubd2. the maximum value allowed by the Code. The neutral axis of the beam will be fixed at X=0. Then the lever arm z=d-s/2= d-0.

...9 x) 0.(2) Fst = 0........(1) st and M =Fcc z + Fsc (d − d ')....405 = f cu bx 0.45d X=0....405 f= 0......Doubly reinforced rectangular sections b ε cc = 0....201 f cu bd cu b(0.95 f st Ast Fsc = f sc Asc But = Fcc 0...........45 = f cu b(0.45 f cu Fsc Fcc Neutral axis z Ast Fst ε st Section Strains Stress block For equilibrium: F= Fcc + Fsc .....5d ) ........9x =0.....0035 Asc d ε sc S=0.5d d‘ 0.....

.......95 f y and hence: 0..95 f y Ast z 0.......201 f cu bd (0..............(3) and taking moments about the centroid of tension steel equation 2 becomes: M =Fcc z + Fsc (d − d ').......................95 f y Ast = 0.....775d ) + f sc Asc (d − d ') ∴ M = 0. then f sc = 0..............................156 f cu bd 2 + f sc Asc z If the compression steel is yielding.............∴ 0.775d) we get: = 0....e.....(4) f sc (d − d ') f sc (d − d ') Multiplying both sides of equation (3) by z (i.....201 f cu bd + f sc Asc ...........156 f cu bd 2 ( K − K ') f cu bd 2 = ∴ Asc = .......156 f cu bd 2 + f sc Asc (d − d ') = M 1 + M 2 M − 0.95 f y z ....(5) 0.(2) = M 0..156 f cu bd 2 = Ast + Asc .............. 0.

187 compression steel yields. then in equation (4): f sc Esε= = 200000ε= 700 − 1400 sc sc d' d .0035(0.00219 = 0. If the compression steel is not yielding.0035 − 0.0035 − 0.95 × 460 d' ε sc= ε= = = 0.To see if compression steel is yielding.95 f y 0.00219 = ∴ = 0.0035( x − d ') 0.007 So with fy=460 N/mm2 steel.187 d 0.5d For yielding with fy=460 N/mm2 steel: 0.5d − d ') d' = = 0.007 y 200000 E d d ' 0.007 x d 0.0035 − 0. if d’/d < 0. we have from the strain diagram: = ε sc 0.

Solution 260 50 440 7 . If fcu=30 N/mm2 and fy= 460 N/mm2 design the reinforcement for the beam. Take d'=50mm.Example 1: A rectangular beam 260mm wide. 440mm effective depth is subjected to an ultimate design moment of 285 kNm.

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9x Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the cross-section shown in figure below given that the characteristic strengths are fy= 460 N/mm2 for the reinforcement and fcu = 30 N/mm2 for the concrete Solution: b= 280 Neutral axis Ast = 2410 Fst 0.Example 2: Analysis of a doubly reinforced section Asc = 628 X=0.45 f cu Fsc Fcc z ε st 9 .5d ε cc = 0.0035 d ‘=50 d= 510 ε sc S=0.

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with the steel strains and stresses being calculated from strain and stress diagrams.lf the depth of neutral axis was such that the compressive or tensile steel had not yielded. it would have been necessary to try successive values of x until all forces balance. The steel stresses at balance would then be used to calculate the moment of resistance 11 .

..( 1 ) bd d bd Taking moments about the neutral axis ∴ M = Fcc ( x − 0.( 2 ) bd  d  d d  For any value of x/d...405 f cu bx( 0....0035 For equilibrium of the section: Asc X d‘ ε sc 0..9x b Neutral axis F= Fcc + Fsc .....405 f cu bx Ast Fsc = f sc Asc Fst ε st Fst = f st Ast ∴ f st Ast = 0.45 x ) + Fsc ( x − d' ) + Fst ( d − x ) ∴ M = 0.Design Charts ε cc = 0.45 f cu S=0... As’/bd... equations (1) and (2) can be solved for As/bd and M/bd2 and a set of design charts can be plotted (as shown)..405 f cu + f sc sc ..(1) d st But: Fcc = 0..9 x ) = 0.55 x ) + f sc Asc ( x − d' ) + f st Ast ( d − x ) Dividing both sides by bd 2 we get: 2 A M x ∴ 2 = 0...405 f cu bx + f sc Asc Dividing both sides by bd we get: A A x ∴ f st st = 0............2275 f cu   + f sc sc bd bd d  A  x  x d'   −  + f st st  1 − .... Fsc Fcc ...... d’/d..45 f cu b( 0...... Steel stresses are to be obtained for any x/d 12 from the strain diagram and stress-strain curve for steel..

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Example 3:Use of Design Charts The ultimate design moment to be resisted by the section shown is 300 kNm. Determine the area of tension reinforcement (As) required given the characteristic material strengths are fy = 460 N/mm2 and fcu = 40 N/mm2. b= 250 Solution: d= 700 16 .

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Example 4:Use of Design Charts The ultimate design moment to be resisted by a beam section with b=250mm and d=700mm is 900 kNm. What is the x/d ratio of the beam so designed? Solution: 19 . Determine the area of tension reinforcement (As) required given the characteristic material strengths are fy = 460 N/mm2 and fcu=40 N/mm2.

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