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Pante, Joezel C.

BSCE – 5th yr.

The sediment (the sand, mud and pebbles) that make up
Sedimentary rocks come from other rocks that have been worn
down by wind, rain and snow. When we find sedimentary rocks we
can work out what the environment was like when those rocks
were formed – old sand dunes and river channels are preserved in
the rocks.
Sedimentary rock formed at or near the Earth’s surface by the
accumulation and lithification of sediment (detrital rock) or by the
precipitation from solution at normal surface temperatures
(chemical rock). Sedimentary rocks are the most common rocks
exposed on the Earth’s surface but are only a minor constituent of
the entire crust, which is dominated by igneous and metamorphic
Sedimentary rocks are produced by the weathering of preexisting
rocks and the subsequent transportation and deposition of
the weathering products. Weathering refers to the various
processes of physical disintegration and chemical decomposition
that occur when rocks at the Earth’s surface are exposed to the
atmosphere (mainly in the form of rainfall) and the hydrosphere.
These processes produce soil, unconsolidated rock detritus, and
components dissolved in groundwater and runoff. Erosion is the
process by which weathering products are transported away from
the weathering site, either as solid material or as dissolved
components, eventually to be deposited as sediment. Any
unconsolidated deposit of solid weathered material constitutes
sediment. It can form as the result of deposition of grains from
moving bodies of water or wind, from the melting of glacial ice,
and from the downslope slumping (sliding) of rock and soil

masses in response to gravity, as well as by precipitation of the
dissolved products of weathering under the conditions of low
temperature and pressure that prevail at or near the surface of
the Earth.
Sedimentary rocks are the lithified equivalents of sediments. They
typically are produced by cementing, compacting, and otherwise
solidifying preexisting unconsolidated sediments. Some varieties
of sedimentary rock, however, are precipitated directly into their
solid sedimentary form and exhibit no intervening existence as
sediment. Organic reefs and bedded evaporites are examples of
such rocks. Because the processes of physical (mechanical)
weathering and chemical weathering are significantly different,
they generate markedly distinct products and two fundamentally
different kinds of sediment and sedimentary rock: (1)
terrigenous clastic sedimentary rocks and
(2) allochemical and orthochemical sedimentary rocks.
Clastic terrigenous sedimentary rocks consist of rock
and mineral grains, or clasts, of varying size, ranging from clay-,
silt-, and sand- up to pebble-, cobble-, and boulder-size materials.
These clasts are transported by gravity, mudflows, running water,
glaciers, and wind and eventually are deposited in various
settings (e.g., in desert dunes, on alluvial fans, across continental
shelves, and in river deltas). Because the agents of transportation
commonly sort out discrete particles by clast size, terrigenous
clastic sedimentary rocks are further subdivided on the basis of
average clast diameter. Coarse pebbles, cobbles, and boulder-size
gravels lithify to form conglomerate and breccia; sand becomes
sandstone; and silt and clay form siltstone, claystone,mudrock,
and shale.
Chemical sedimentary rocks form by chemical and organic
reprecipitation of the dissolved products of chemical weathering
that are removed from the weathering site. Allochemical
sedimentary rocks, such as many limestones and cherts, consist
of solid precipitated nondetrital fragments (allochems) that

3 kilometre. which are concentrically layered spherical grains of calcium carbonate. on the other hand. consist of dissolved constituents that are directly precipitated as solid sedimentary rock and thus do not undergo transportation. which is the thin. bedded evaporite deposits of halite. Orthochemical sedimentary rocks. and seismic profiles or indirectly estimated by comparing the chemistry of major sedimentary rock types to the overall chemistry of the crust from which they are weathered. the sediment shell in the ocean basins is roughly 0. Rearranging this shell as a globally encircling layer (and . and banded iron formations.8 kilometres. 80–90 percent of the surface area of the Earth is mantled with sediment or sedimentary rocks rather than with igneous or metamorphic varieties. Sediments and sedimentary rocks are confined to the Earth’s crust. Igneous and metamorphic rocks constitute the bulk of the crust. The mean shell thickness in continental areas is 1. The sedimentsedimentary rock shell forms only a thin superficial layer. Examples are calcareous or siliceous shell fragments and oöids. On the other hand.undergo a brief history of transport and abrasion prior to deposition as nonterrigenous clasts. which in turn accounts for less than 1 percent of the Earth’s total volume.gypsum. and anhydrite. The total volume of sediment and sedimentary rocks can be either directly measured using exposed rock sequences. Both methods indicate that the Earth’s sediment-sedimentary rock shell forms only about 5 percent by volume of the terrestrial crust. In other words. the area of outcrop and exposure of sediment and sedimentary rock comprises 75 percent of the land surface and well over 90 percent of the ocean basins and continental margins. light outer solid skin of the Earth ranging in thickness from 40–100 kilometres (25 to 62 miles) in the continental blocks to 4–10 kilometres in theocean basins. Orthochemical sedimentary rocks include some limestones. drill-hole data.

and ocean basins. it is appropriate to underscore the economic importance of sedimentary rocks. phosphates. and other natural resources. the study of the various folds or bends and breaks or faults in the strata of sedimentary rocks permits the structural geology or history of deformation to be ascertained.depending on the raw estimates incorporated into the model). texture. . and origin of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary rocks contain the fossil record of ancient life-forms that enables the documentation of the evolutionary advancement from simple to complex organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms. groundwater. continental blocks. they contain essentially the world’s entire store of oil and natural gas. but many of the significant events in Earth history are most accurately dated and documented by analyzing and interpreting the sedimentary rock record instead of the more voluminous igneous andmetamorphic rock record. salt deposits. composition. Sedimentary petrology is the study of their occurrence. Also. termedpaleogeography. not only are most rocks exposed at the terrestrial surface of the sedimentary variety. Finally. coal. An accurate interpretation of paleogeography and depositional settings allows conclusions to be made about the evolution of mountain systems. interpretation. Several subdisciplines of geology deal specifically with the analysis. A map of the distribution of sediments that formed in shallow oceans along alluvial fans bordering rising mountains or in deep. the shell thickness would be roughly 1–3 kilometres. When properly understood and interpreted. Despite the relatively insignificant volume of the sedimentary rock shell. subsiding ocean trenches will indicate past relationships between seas and landmasses. and other overall characteristics. as well as about the origin and evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere. sedimentary rocks provide information on ancient geography. For example.

) CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS In general.. particularly from the perspective of their age and regional relationships as well as the correlation of sedimentary rocks in one region with sedimentary rock sequences elsewhere. and many classifications reflect the philosophy. . and experience of those who propound them.knowledge of origin of a particular rock type is assumed). The book Rocks and Rock Minerals by Louis V. Sedimentary rocks are classified there rather simplistically according to physical characteristics and composition into detrital and nondetrital rocks. Sedimentary petrography involves the classification and study of sedimentary rocks using the petrographic microscope.whilesedimentology emphasizes the processes by which sediments are transported and deposited. and it has enjoyed various revisions. and discussion here will centre on some proposals. Pirsson was first published in 1908. Stratigraphy covers all aspects of sedimentary rocks. No scheme has found universal acceptance. see geologic sciences. (For further information about these fields.e. training. geologists have attempted to classify sedimentary rocks on a natural basis. but some schemes have genetic implications (i.

The mining of earth’s natural resources is. etc.Pante. BSCE – 5th yr. roads.based society. and it has accompanying environmental consequences. Joezel C. therefore accelerating. fertilizers. Demand for minerals is increasing world wide as the population increases and the consumption demands of individual people increase. cars. . E3C – GEOLOGY MINERAL RESOURCES Minerals provide the material used to make most of the things of industrial. computers.

or gaseous material. diamond (carbon). All of the Earth’s crust. copper. and non-metals (e.g. Industry depends on about 80 of the known minerals. Management of mineral resources has. liquid. Al. Si. except the rather small proportion of the crust that contains organic material. iron. clay. silver. A mineral deposit is a concentration of naturally occurring solid. in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and amount that its extraction and its conversion into useful materials or items are profitable now or may be so in the future. Fe. and sulphur.g. salt. More than two-thousand minerals have been identified and most of these contain inorganic compounds formed by various combinations of the eight elements (O. phosphates). therefore. and . gypsum. Ca.A mineral is a pure inorganic substance that occurs naturally in the earth’s crust. to be closely integrated with the overall strategy of development. is made up of minerals. sand. They constitute the vital raw materials for many basic industries and are a major resource for development.5% of the Earth’s crust. and Mg) that make up 98. Some minerals consist of a single element such as gold. Mineral resources are non-renewable and include metals (e. and aluminum). K. Na. Minerals are valuable natural resources being finite and nonrenewable.

(A) Fuel Minerals: Coal. oil and natural gas have been given prime importance as they account for nearly 87% of the value of mineral production whereas metallic and nonmetallic constitutes 6 to 7%.exploitation of minerals is to be guided by long-term national goals and perspectives. We have good reserves for coal but are very poor in more essential fuel — oils and natural gas. metallic and non-metallic. Types of Mineral Resources: Minerals in general have been categorized into three classes’ fuel. Fuel minerals like coal. (i) Coal: Proven coal reserves of the country as on January 1994 (estimated by GSI) is about 68 billion tonnes.D. oil and natural gas are the basic fossil fuel. The calorific value of coal varies with percentage of carbon present in it. We are mining about 250 tonnes annually and this rate is expected to go by 400 – 450 tonnes by 2010 A. can be divided into three categories . If we could maintain our mining rate of 400 tonnes per year then the coal reserves might last for about 200 years taking proven reserves as 80 billion tonnes. Coal depending upon variation in percentage carbon.

through conversion of remains of micro organisms living in sea. The petroleum on fractional distillation and further processing provides us numerous products and byproducts. . into hydrocarbon by follows (bituminous / anthracite type is the most abundant form present in Indian coal): Table 2.3: Categories of Coal % % Volatile % Type Carbon Matter Moisture Lignite 38 19 43 65 10 25 1 3 Bituminou s Anthracite 96 (ii) Crude Oil (Petroleum): It is believed that petroleum has been formed over a period of millions of years. pressure and catalytic action.

4.8 million tonnes of petroleum products. 25 Petrol C6-C12 (C8) 2. One million tonne of crude oil on fractional distillation provides about 0.Some of the common products obtained on fractional distillation are given in Table 2. along with the temperature (just below the boiling point) at which they tend to liquefy after crude oil feed at the base is heated to about 400°C. On an average the percentage composition of the common product with their number of carbon atoms is given in table 2.4. 45-60 Diesel & C6– C22 (C14) . of carbon S. of C atoms) obtained through fractional distillation.: Average % Composition of Petroleum products (with no. No. n products value 1.4. Table 2. The percentage composition varies with the quality of crude oil or it could be varied up to a certain limit depending upon the requirement or demand. % atoms with Compositio Name of average No.

Kerosene 3. In view of rapid growth of these vital sectors. Rest 60% of the petroleum products are used in industries including power generation. in recent . About 40% of the total consumption of the overall petroleum products of the country is used in road transport sector (in case of diesel. As regard to production vis a vis utilization aspect in earlier years. 15-20 Naphtha 4. However. more than half of gas coming out of the wells remained unutilized. domestic and for miscellaneous purposes. consumption of road transport sector is to the extent of 70% of the total diesel consumption of the country). the consumption of petroleum products has been increasing consistently over a period of last few years and is bound to increase at rapid pace in near future. 700 billion cubic meter (BCM).10 Fuel oil C30 – C80(C40) 5. 2-5 Asphalt C50 -C100(C100) We have very poor reserves for petroleum just limited to 700 million tonnes. 8. (iii) Natural Gas: The proven reserve for natural gas on April 1993 works out to be approx.

mineral deposits are unevenly distributed around on the earth. shipping and car industries. Use and Exploitation: The use of minerals varies greatly between countries. Keeping in view the future demands and proven gas reserves. it is unlikely that our gas reserves might last for more than 20 years. except coal. (B) Metallic and Non-metallic Minerals: India is poorly endowed with mineral wealth. The use of the mineral depends on its properties. iron ore. Some countries are rich in mineral deposits and other countries have no deposits. For example aluminum is light but strong and durable so it is used for aircraft. As per estimates if the present trend of production continues.years. in 25 to 30 years. The greatest use of minerals occurs in developed countries. there has been a phenomenal growth in production since independence. However. Like other natural resources. we will exhaust our reserves of all the important minerals and fuels. . limestone and bauxite. we have achieved a utilization rate of 80 – 90%. Except for iron ore and bauxite our share of world reserves of every other mineral is one percent or less.

and iron mining introduced a new age of man. and mineral resources. our known supply of . Human wealth basically comes from agriculture. gold. Our complex modern society is built around the exploitation and use of mineral resources. silver. we must understand that these resources have limits. And this was done without geologists for exploration. manufacturing. Tin and copper mines were necessary for a Bronze Age. Since the future of humanity depends on mineral resources. and gemstones adorned the wealthy of early civilizations.Recovery of mineral resources has been with us for a long time. mining engineers for recovery or chemists for extraction techniques. Early Paleolithic man found flint for arrowheads and clay for pottery before developing codes for warfare.

Furthermore. which has placed incredible pressure on the natural resources. modern agriculture and the ability to feed an overpopulated world is dependent on mineral resources to construct the machines that till the soil. The geometric rise of population as shown in Fig. . enrich it with mineral fertilizers. Limits of growth in the world are imposed not as much by pollution as by the depletion of natural resources. We are now reaching limits of reserves for many minerals. The consumption of natural resources proceeded at a phenomenal rate during the past hundred years and population and production increases cannot continue without increasing pollution and depletion of mineral resources. The pressure of human growth upon the planet’s resources is a very real problem. and to transport the products.minerals will be used up early in the third millennium of our calendar.3 has been joined by a period of rapid industrialization. 2. Human population growth and increased modern industry are depleting our available resources at increasing rates.

2..4. resource driven conflicts will increase.As the industrialized nations of the world continue the rapid depletion of energy and mineral resources. . We can avert this only if we embark on a planet-wide program of transition to a new physical. In Fig. economic. and social world that recognizes limits of growth of both population and resource use. and resource-rich lessdeveloped nations become increasingly aware of the value of their raw materials. we see that by about the middle of the next century the critical factors come together to impose a drastic population reduction by catastrophe.

we have been driven to search for new sources. With the increasing shortages of many minerals. Fundamental adjustments must be made to the present growth culture to a steady-state system. The population growth continues upward and the supply of resources continues to diminish. . This will pose problems in that industrialized nations are already feeling a loss in their standard of living and in non-industrialized nations that feel they have a right to achieve higher standards of living created by industrialization.In a world that has finite mineral resources. exponential growth and expanding consumption is impossible.

5 billion years ago. Scientists believe Earth and its moon formed around the same time as the rest of the solar system.Pante. BSCE – 5th yr. Joezel C. Its diameter is about . They think that was about 4. E3C – GEOLOGY THE EARTH (The preservation of planet earth) Earth is our home planet. Earth is the fifth-largest planet in the solar system.

The equator is an imaginary circle that divides Earth into two halves." a little girl named Goldilocks liked everything just right. It's warm. but not too warm. At the equator. yellow. Her porridge couldn't be too hot or too cold. which causes Earth's distance from the sun to vary during the year.8. which covers about 71 percent of Earth's surface. The northern half is called the Northern Hemisphere." In the story of "Goldilocks and the Three Bears. And the areas of white are ice and snow. or . Earth is nearest the sun. Liquid water is essential for life. Earth has been called the "Goldilocks planet. What Does Earth Look Like? From space. On Earth. The blue is water. or one year. but not too much water. Earth looks like a blue marble with white swirls and areas of brown. And it has water." in July when it's about 95 million miles away. The shape of its orbit is not quite a perfect circle. or at "aphelion. How Does Earth Move? Earth orbits the sun once every 365 days. The southern half is called the Southern Hemisphere. or at "perihelion. The northernmost point on Earth is called the North Pole. The southernmost point on Earth is called the South Pole.000 miles. Its average distance from the sun is about 93 million miles. It's more like an oval. Only Mercury and Venus are closer. Earth is farthest from the sun. everything is just right for life to exist. And Earth is the third-closest planet to the sun. The white swirls are clouds. Earth makes a full spin around its axis once every 24 hours.000 miles per hour. Earth spins at just over 1. green and white." in January when it's about 91 million miles away. Earth is the only planet where life is known to exist. The areas of brown. yellow and green are land. And her bed couldn't be too hard or too soft. Earth is the only planet known to have large amounts of liquid water.

Areas facing toward the sun experience daytime. From December to February. What Are Earth's Different Parts? Earth consists of land. most places on Earth cycle through day and night once every 24 hours. Earth's axis is tilted at an angle of 23. Areas facing away from the sun experience nighttime. From September to November. half of Earth is lighted by the sun and half is in darkness. The result is cold (winter) weather in the Northern Hemisphere and warm (summer) weather in the Southern Hemisphere. The result is fall in the Northern Hemisphere and spring in the Southern Hemisphere. water and life. The land contains . the sun's rays hit different parts of the planet more directly depending on the time of year. The result is spring in the Northern Hemisphere and fall in the Southern Hemisphere. the sun's rays hit the Northern Hemisphere less directly than the Southern Hemisphere. Why Do We Have Day and Night? At all times. day. The sun also shines equally on both hemispheres from March to May. As the planet spins. The result is warm (summer) weather in the Northern Hemisphere and cold (winter) weather in the Southern Hemisphere. From June to August. the sun shines equally on both hemispheres. Rather than straight up and down. Why Does Earth Have Seasons? Earth has seasons because its axis is tilted. the sun's rays hit the Northern Hemisphere more directly than the Southern Hemisphere. The axis is an imaginary line through the center of the planet from the North Pole to the South Pole. air.5 degrees. The North Pole and South Pole have continuous daylight or darkness depending on the time of year.

Life consists of people. There are millions of species. This information helps them predict how Earth might change in the future. Below Earth's surface are layers of rock and metal. Their sizes range from very tiny to very large. Some of the changes are natural and some are caused by humans. The water includes oceans.  People breathe air and drink water. The air is made up of different gases. valleys and flat areas. They take pictures of. oceans. Satellites look toward Earth from space. such as ozone and carbon dioxide. and collect information about. all of Earth's parts. on Earth. Scientists want to understand how Earth has changed in the past and how it is changing now. streams. water and life . all the way to about 12. Earth's parts . NASA studies Earth using satellites. Temperatures increase with depth. snow and ice.are always changing. rain. land and ice. For example:  Clouds in the air drop rain and snow on land. Earth's parts once were seen as largely separate from each other. NASA satellites are especially good for observing clouds. or kinds of life.  Volcanoes on land send gas and dust into the air." Each part connects to and affects each of the other parts.  Water gives life to plants and animals. They also measure gases in the atmosphere. air. They .mountains. Why and How Does NASA Study Earth? NASA studies Earth to learn about how the planet changes. lakes. rivers. Earth system science is the study of interactions between and among Earth's different parts. animals and plants. But now they are viewed together as the "Earth mainly nitrogen and oxygen.000 degrees Fahrenheit at Earth's inner core.

And they monitor wildfires. a field trip to Mount St. and an excursion to learn about the geology of the Columbia Gorge and the Columbia Land Trust's focus on land preservation. And it helps emergency workers respond to natural disasters. It helps farmers decide when to plant crops and what kinds to plant.measure how much energy enters and leaves Earth's atmosphere. recognition of preservation achievements. and participations in projects with local environmental groups. Awareness The Preserve Planet Earth committee sponsors field trips for members to learn about sustainable environmental practices and activities to protect the environment. the better decisions they can make. Preservation of Planet EARTH The Preserve Planet Earth committee of the Rotary Club of Portland promotes the protection of our planet and the use of sustainable practices that improve our environment. In the past. and Green tour to green wineries to learn about sustainable practices in wine making. Recognition Annually. the award is . The more people know about Earth and its current and predicted changes. It also helps public health officials track disease and famine. The committee accomplishes these goals through awareness of issues. volcanoes and their smoke. White. Helens. Begun in 1997. the committee has sponsored the Red. Information gathered by NASA satellites helps scientists predict weather and climate. the Preserve Planet Earth committee takes nominations from Rotary members and presents the Rotary Club of Portland Environmental Achievement Award.

or individual that has made an outstanding contribution to preserving planet Earth. organization. By partnering with established community organizations. the planet faces the challenges of providing for more than 9 billion people. neighborhood. In the run-up to COP21. over twenty Rotary members worked with Oregon Trout to plant more than 3. Humanity has the opportunity this year to take a huge step in transforming our current course for the better. Participation The Preserve Planet Earth committee partners with local environmental organizations to identify projects where Rotary members can work to improve the environment.presented to a business. more conversations have shifted to the nexus of food. including:   A food supply that will need to double. The Environmental Achievement Award serves to keep the club abreast of environmental issues. Projects promoting recycling. and about poverty. or otherwise protecting the environment and promoting awareness of environmental needs are eligible for consideration.000 trees on the Deschutes River. It's become a familiar story and the mid-century projections are well documented. climate change and risk. . Recently. as well as to champion purveyors of sustainable environmental practices. The Club recycles electronic waste through Goodwill Industries of the Columbia Willamette and actively solicits bicycle donations for the Community Cycling Center during Environmental Awareness Month. as part of Oregon Trout’s effort to promote river restoration. conservation. As much as a 40 percent deficit in clean water compared with anticipated demand . Rotary works to get things done in the most efficient and effective manner for its member volunteers. By 2050. improvement of air or water quality. community. water and energy.

It's the most complete look. And to understand the opportunity. at the potential impact global growth . Sustainable Development goals represent progress in recognizing that the success of the 21st-century development story — increasing economic growth and prosperity while solving poverty." It's almost as if the "sustainable" in sustainable development has been an afterthought. All of this discussion boils down to one word: development. [What 11 Billion People Mean for the Planet ] Sustainable development needs sustainable conservation When businesses. But the new U. Despite the ominous facts and figures. and then caveat those needs with the vague recognition that we must do it all "within the boundaries of what nature can provide. we need to understand the risks. governments and pundits talk about developing "sustainably. hunger. climate change and inequality — depends in no small part on what people do with the natural world. gas and renewable energy activities. there hasn't been a great picture of how expected future development will affect nature's future. this is a story about opportunity — to be smarter about farming and ranching practices . and preserving the services of crucial natural infrastructure as a central part of expanding urban spaces. to date. A new study from The Nature Conservancy — our Global Development Risk Assessment — now offers that glimpse. oil.  The need to maintain economic growth while reducing carbon pollution.N. Until now. Expanded urban infrastructure to support three out of four people living in cities. where and how to set up mining." we've tended to provide adequate detail and clarity around the material things we need. disease.  Nearly 2 billion more people with electricity.

The planet will lose clean water and critical climate regulation. and nearly irrecoverable once they're gone. animals. Bottom line: a full 20 percent.will have on forests. Even more staggering: Only 5 percent of natural lands considered to be at the highest risk for development are under protection today. we will lose iconic plants. All priceless ingredients of a sustainable future. this development could drastically change the lives of long-standing human communities that have lived in harmony with their lands for millennia. the amount of natural land converted to working land in South America could double. These two continents stand to look wildly different than they do today. South America and Africa will be ground zero. savannas and forests. or nearly 2 billion hectares. of the world's remaining natural lands could be developed by just the middle of this century. These critical places are completely vulnerable. That's an area double the size of the United States. If nations do this poorly. And. and Conservationists must think beyond traditional land protection to find solutions that work with development — we must do more. According to our study. . 2. grasslands and other natural ecosystems that people depend on worldwide. while in Africa it is set to triple. This key finding tells us two important things: 1.