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ISSN: 2321-0869, Volume-3, Issue-6, June 2015

**Reduction of Harmonics and Inrush Current of Power
**

transformer using Prefluxing Technique

Girraj Singh, Dr. Mukesh Kr. Gupta

Abstract— At the time of transformer energisation, a high

current will be drawn by the transformer. The mentioned

current is called transient inrush current and it may rise to ten

times the nominal full load current of transformer during

operation. Energisation transients can produce mechanical

stress to the transformer, cause protection system malfunction

and it often affects the power system quality and may disrupt the

operation of sensitive electrical loads such as computers and

medical equipment connected to the system. Reduction and the

way to control of energisation transient currents have become

important concerns to the power industry for engineers. A

technique has been proposed to mitigate inrush current in three

phase transformer, by a process called pre- fluxing. After setting

the initial fluxes of transformer it is energized by conventional

controlled switching. In this paper, a system of power

transformer

of

specified

rating

is

simulated

in

MATLAB/simulink and results were obtained.

**Index Terms— Transformer, Harmonics, Inrush Current,
**

Prefluxing, MATLAB/Simulink

I. INTRODUCTION

Inrush Current is a form of over-current that occurs during

energisation of a transformer and is a large transient current

which is caused by part cycle saturation of the magnetic core

of the transformer. For power transformers, the magnitude of

the first peak of inrush current is initially several times the

rated load current but slowly decreases by the effect of

oscillation damping due to winding and magnetizing

resistances of the transformer as well as the impedance of the

system it is connected to until it finally reaches the normal

exciting current value. This process typically takes several

minutes. As a result, inrush current could be mistaken for a

short circuit current and the transformer is erroneously taken

out of service by the over - current or the differential relays

[1]. The transformer design and station installation

parameters affect the magnitude of the inrush current

significantly. Therefore, it is important to have an accurate

calculated value of the magnitude and other parameters of

inrush current in order to design the relaying to properly

differentiate between inrush and short circuit incidents. Also,

a proper calculation of the minimum % ratio of 2nd harmonic

content of inrush current is an especially important parameter

for this differentiation [2].

This paper contains basic principle, fundamental theory and

mitigation of inrush current in transformer. The effects of

inrush current are described in brief The MATLAB Simulink

is used for the simulation.

**II. NATURE OF INRUSH CURRENT
**

The saturation of the magnetic core of a transformer is the

main cause of an inrush current transient. The saturation of the

core is due to an abrupt change in the system voltage which

may be caused by switching transients, out-of-phase

synchronization of a generator, external faults and faults

restoration. The energization of a transformer yield to the

most severe case of inrush current and the flux in the core can

reach a maximum theoretical value of two to three times the

rated value of peak flux. There is no direct evidence that the

energization of a transformer can cause an immediate failure

due to high inrush currents. However, insulation failures in

power transformers which are frequently energized under no

load condition support the suspicion that inrush currents have

a hazardous effect. A more typical problem caused by the

energization of transformers is due to harmonics interaction

with other system components that develops into

over-voltages and resonant phenomena. The study of the

energization of a transformer installed in an industrial facility

carried out in highlights problems due to harmonics,

over-voltages and resonances. In the authors show how the

harmonic distortions caused by the switching of lightly loaded

or unloaded transformers may be amplified during a power

system restoration process, creating high harmonic

over-voltages [3] [4]. In the energization of large size

transformers in EHV substations with long transmission lines

is discovered to cause significant temporary disturbances

when harmonic resonances are reached. In particular, when

there are transformers already connected to the bus, the

disturbances caused by the energization of one more

transformer have greater duration and intensity. In it is

discussed how transformer inrush current can excite

resonance frequencies in inter-connected offshore power

systems [5] [6].

**Factor Affecting Inrush Current
**

Starting phase angle of voltage

Residual flux in core

Core material

Supply/Source impedance

Loading on secondary winding

Size of transformer [7] [8]

Reduction of inrush current using Prefluxing

**Girraj Singh, Scholar, M.tech, Jagannath University, Jaipur
**

Dr. Mukesh Kr. Gupta, Professor, Deptt. of Electrical Engg, JNIT Jaipur

72

**The innovation behind the prefluxing inrush current reduction
**

strategy lies in the prefluxing device itself. The prefluxing

www.erpublication.org

and the transformer is fluxed to the appropriate polarity depending on how the device is connected. this current is equal to 2400 kA.Reduction of Harmonics and Inrush Current of Power transformer using Prefluxing Technique device capacitor is charged to a user-specified voltage and then discharged into the transformer when closing the device switch. The prefluxing device does not require knowledge of the initial transformer flux since the prefluxing device will set the transformer flux to the desired polarity. A charging circuit (not shown) establishes the initial voltage across the capacitor. Unlike the pre-insertion resistors. receiving a voltage signal from a bus PT issues a close command to the connecting CB to energize the transformer at the appropriate angle given the flux polarity. connected to a supply source as shown in fig. but also to do so efficiently. the prefluxing device is safely removed from the circuit and then an intelligent electronic device. Here three phase power transformer having a rating of 250 MVA. Figure 1: Simulink model of uncompensated System A three phase 11 kV source connected with the transformer which is shown in figure 1. Figure 3: Inrush Current in phase B Figure 4 shows the inrush current in phase C which is equal to 850 kA and figure 5 shows the flux in all three phases which is saturated. Hence. Figure 3 shows the inrush current in phase B. but requires additional. the prefluxing device only operates during the isolation period and then is removed from the power system prior to energisation. such as a protective relay. Figure 4: Inrush Current in phase C 73 www. personnel can charge the device. First. III. the prefluxing of the transformer is performed after any measurements are made on the transformer during maintenance procedures to ensure the residual flux is at the known polarity prior to the controlled energisation [10]. . and the device is connected to the transformer through the isolators. The results of uncompensated system are shown as under.erpublication. When the maintenance work is completed on the transformer. supplementary measurement equipment is not needed. The prefluxing reduction strategy is a two part process. Prior to energisation. and a switch. Figure 2: Inrush Current in phase A Figure 2 shows the inrush current in phase A which is equal to 2900 kA. In addition. a diode. The controlled closing with flux measurements strategy acquires the residual flux information from the transformer for consistent performance. or 330 for negative residual flux.org . The second part of the process controls the CB to energize the transformer at either an angle of 210 for positive residual flux. a fuse. These angles are chosen as part of an inrush current reduction strategy for three-phase transformers that enable the use of a three-pole CB. permanent measurement equipment be mounted on the transformer terminals. It is necessary for the prefluxing device to set the residual flux of a transformer as high as possible to minimize the inrush current. Prefluxing device consists of a capacitor. SIMULATION MODEL AND RESULTS Without using any mitigation technique A MATLAB model has prepared for simulation study. the switch is closed. the transformer’s residual flux is set as close as possible to its maximum achievable residual flux when the transformer is de-energized. The prefluxing inrush current reduction method overcomes many of the shortcomings inherent in the other inrush current reduction methods discussed previously. 11 kV/400 kV. 50 Hz. Once the prefluxing device is charged. the charging circuit is disconnected from the device. The device is used when the transformer is isolated from the power system and connects across one of the transformer windings [9].

the inrush current is mitigating from 650 kA to 35 kA. www.7 and 8. the inrush current is mitigating from 2400 kA to 35 kA. a new technique has been introduce to mitigate high inrush current. Figure 5 show harmonic in phase A.86 %.org . Second harmonic is 102 % which is highest among all three phases. The results are shown as below. The DC component in this phase is 62 % which is large compare to phase A DC component but second harmonic is 105 % which less than phase A second harmonic Figure 10.erpublication. This technique mitigate the inrush current till 90% and provide a smooth wavefrom. The magnitude of current is 38 kA.International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869. June 2015 Figure 5: Flux in all three phases Figure 8: Harmonics in phase C Harmonics With using prefluxing technique Harmonics of uncompensated system is shown in figure 6. Total harmonics distortions 110.The DC component in this phase is 68 % and second harmonic is 100 %. 74 Figure 12 show the inrush current in phase C in power transformer with using prefluxing. Issue-6. Figure 9 shown the simulation model which is same as describe as above but in this model. Figure 9: Simulink model of uncompensated System Mitigate current Figure 6: Harmonics in phase A Figure 7 show harmonic in phase B.The DC component in this phase is 55 % which is large compare to phase A but less compare to phase B. The magnitude of current is 35 kA. shown the inrush current in phase B in power transformer with using prefluxing. Total harmonics distortion is 37. shown the inrush current in phase A in power transformer with using prefluxing. Total harmonics distortion is 46. The magnitude of current is 35 kA. Volume-3. Figure 10: Mitigated current in phase A Figure 11 . the inrush current is mitigating from 2900 kA to 38 kA. Compare with figure 2. Compare with figure 3.37 %. Compare with figure 4.46 %. Figure 7: Harmonics in phase B Figure 8 show harmonic in phase C.

Total harmonics distortion is 0.30 % which less than the THD which achieved in uncompensated system. The THD in uncompensated system is 46.erpublication.02 %.12 % which is large compare to phase A DC component but second harmonic is 0.Reduction of Harmonics and Inrush Current of Power transformer using Prefluxing Technique Figure11: Mitigated current in phase B Figure 14: Reduced Harmonic in phase A Figure 12: Mitigated current in phase C Figure 15: Reduced Harmonic in phase B Figure 13 shows the flux which is generated by prefluxing device and system voltage source.org . Total harmonics distortion is 0. including removing the need for residual flux measurements during transformer de-energisation.12 % and second harmonic is 0. CONCLUSION This paper presented an inrush current reduction strategy which sets the residual flux of a three-phase transformer to a large magnitude and specific polarity in a method known as prefluxing and then energizes the transformer at a specified system voltage angle based on the flux polarity. The THD in uncompensated system is 110.02 %.04 %. V.37.050 % which less than the THD which achieved in uncompensated system. Total harmonics distortion is 0. This flux is more symmetrical then uncompensated system Figure 16 shown harmonic in phase C. This strategy has advantages over some of the presently suggested reduction strategies.The DC component in this phase is 0. The DC component in this phase is 0. The prefluxing device that sets the flux of the transformer is Figure 15 shown harmonic in phase B. HARMONICS Figure 15: Reduced Harmonic in phase C Figure 14 shown harmonic in phase A. The DC component in this phase is 0.025 % which is large compare to phase A DC component but second harmonic is 0.25% While THD in uncompensated system is 31.86 % Figure 13: Flux in all three phases IV.46% 75 www.

Hajivar. Kundur. and P. P. Brian K.International Journal of Engineering and Technical Research (IJETR) ISSN: 2321-0869. F-X. 2008. [9] Douglas I. Coulomb. 2. “Elimination of Transformer Inrush Currents by Controlled Switching—Part II: Theoretical Considerations” IEEE Transation. “Elimination of inrush current using a new prefluxing method. Ali Moshref. vol.16. Terrence G. Vol. Johor Baharu. Chadebec. “Elimination of Transformer Inrush Currents by Controlled Switching—Part I: Theoretical Considerations” IEEE Transaction. Johnson. and Normann Fischer. Kip Morison. Joseph D. “Assessing and Limiting Impact of Transformer Inrush Current on Power Quality” IEEE Transaction. and K. Jan 2012. No. 1. Taylor. “Single-Phase Transformer Inrush Current Reduction Using Prefluxing” IEEE Transaction. Mohsen Saniei. REFERENCES [1] Mukesh Nagpal. In addition. S. Zgainski. the device can operate at lowvoltage levels. [7] F. Vol. Martinich. J-L. O. December 1-3. April-2001.H. Basu.S. Application to a single-phase transformer” IEEE-2014 . Brunke. 1. and Klaus J. and Soib Taib. Oiring de Castro Cezar. Issue-6. “Reduction of Magnetizing Inrush Current in a Delta Connected Transformer” 2nd IEEE International Conference on Power and Energy (PECon 08). 27.erpublication. regardless of the voltage rating of the transformer. L-L. and Klaus J. [2] Gholamabas M. Fard Ali Asghar.org . P. Caillault. October 2013. 76 www. Frohlich. and B. Brunke.16. “Reduction of three-phase transformer magnetizing inrush current by use of point on wave switching” IEEE. [8] Abbas Ketabi. “Magnetizing Current. Harmonic Content and Power Factor as the Indicators of Transformer Core Saturation” Journal of Clean Energy Technologies.Mortazavi. Vol. vol. 4.2010. “The Neutral Grounding Resistor Sizing Using an Analytical Method Based on Nonlinear Transformer Model for Inrush Current Mitigation” UPEC. [3] Ismail Daut. Frohlich. Syafruddin Hasan. Ali Reza Hadidi Zavareh. Law. [4] K. such as the substation ac or dc supply. Basu and Ali Asghar. April-2001. Volume-3. “New Method for Inrush Current Mitigation Using Series Voltage-Source PWM Converter for Three Phase Transformer” IEEE-2011. N0. June 2015 simple in form and flexible to apply to any range of transformer sizes. April 2006. Malaysia [5] John H. [10] V. Student Conference-Nov 2009. [6] John H. Rouve.

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