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GSM BASIC CONCEPT

GSM Identifiers ᄃ

GSM Identifiers
IMEI – International Mobile Equipment Identifier.
The IMEI is an internationally-unique serial number allocated to the MS hardware at the
time of manufacture. It is registered by the network operator and (optionally) stored in
the AuC for validation purposes.
IMSI – International Mobile Subscriber Identifier
When a subscriber registers with a network operator, a unique subscriber IMSI identifier
is issued and stored in the SIM of the MS. An MS can only function fully if it is operated
with a valid SIM inserted into an
TMSI –Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
A TMSI is used to protect the true identity (IMSI) of a subscriber. It is issued by and
stored within a VLR (not in the HLR) when an IMSI attach takes place or a Location
Area (LA) update takes place. At the MS it is stored in the MS’s SIM. The issued TMSI
only has validity within a specific LA.
MSISDN – Mobile Subscriber ISDN number (Integrated Services Digital Number)
The MSISDN represents the ‘true’ or ‘dialled’ number associated with the subscriber. It
is assigned to the subscriber by the network operator at registration and is stored in the
SIM. It is possible for an MS to hold multiple MSISDNs, each associated with a
different service.
MSRN – Mobile Station Roaming Number
The MSRN is a temporary, location-dependant ISDN number issued by the parent VLR
to all MSs within its area of responsibility. It is stored in the VLR and associated HLR
but not in the MS. The MSRN is used by the VLR-associated MSC for call routing
within the MSC/VLR service area.
LAI – Location Area Identity
Each Location Area within the PLMN has an associated internationally-unique identifier
(LAI). The LAI is broadcast regularly by BTSs on the Broadcast Control Channel
(BCCH), thus uniquely identifying each cell with an associated LA. The purpose of LAs
is covered later in this course

B INTERFACE (MSC . When combined with the internationally unique LAI for its associated LA. However.CI – Cell Identifier The CI an identifier assigned to each cell within a network. the Global Cell Identity (GCI) is produced which is also internationally unique. The interface also allows control of the radio equipment and radio frequency allocation in the BTS. The BSS-MSC interface is used to carry information concerning: · BSS management. this interface is used between the BSC and BTS to support the services offered to the GSM users and subscribers. the BSIC and is used to distinguish neighbouring BTSs. A-BIS INTERFACE (BSC .BTS) When the BSS consists of a Base Station Controller (BSC) and one or more Base Transceiver Stations (BTS). the CI is only unique within a specific Location Area.5x-series of GSM Technical Specifications. BSIC – Base Station Identity Code Each BTS is issued with a unique identity. GSM Interfaces ᄃ ᄃᄃ Interface between the MSC and Base Station System (Ainterface) The interface between the MSC and its BSS is specified in the 08-series of GSM Technical Specifications. · mobility management. This interface is specified in the 08. · call handling.VLR) .

Also. a handover procedure has to be performed in order to continue the communication. the MSC informs (via the VLR) the HLR which stores these modifications and updates the VLR if required. This procedure occurs whenever an MS roams to another location area. C INTERFACE (HLR and the MSC) The Gateway MSC must interrogate the HLR of the required subscriber to obtain routing information for a call or a short message directed to that subscriber.VLR) This interface is used to exchange the data related to the location of the mobile station and to the management of the subscriber. For that purpose the MSCs have to exchange data to initiate and then to realize the operation. it interrogates the VLR. this interface . After the handover operation has been completed. The main service provided to the mobile subscriber is the capability to set up or to receive calls within the whole service area. D INTERFACE (HLR . The HLR sends to the VLR all the data needed to support the service to the mobile subscriber. Exchanges of data may occur when the mobile subscriber requires a particular service. To support this. When a short message is to be transferred between a Mobile Station and Short Message Service Centre (SC). when he wants to change some data attached to his subscription or when some parameters of the subscription are modified by administrative means. the MSC informs its VLR which stores the relevant information.The VLR is the location and management data base for the mobile subscribers roaming in the area controlled by the associated MSC(s). The HLR then instructs the previous VLR to cancel the location registration of this subscriber. E INTERFACE (MSC – MSC) When a mobile station moves from one MSC area to another during a call. the MSCs will exchange information to transfer A-interface signalling as necessary. when a subscriber activates a specific supplementary service or modifies some data attached to a service. When a mobile station initiates a location updating procedure with an MSC. Whenever the MSC needs data related to a given mobile station currently located in its area. the location registers have to exchange data. in either direction. The VLR informs the HLR of the location of a mobile station managed by the latter and provides it (either at location updating or at call set-up) with the roaming number of that station.

Long. F INTERFACE (MSC and EIR) This interface is used between MSC and EIR to exchange data. Um INTERFACE (MS. Orientation. The protocol used to transfer the data over this interface is not standardized. Alarm Verification Alarms are generated mainly due to number of reasons. H INTERFACE (HLR . G INTERFACE (VLR – VLR) When a mobile subscriber moves from a VLR area to another Location Registration procedure will happen.is used to transfer the message between the MSC serving the Mobile Station and the MSC which acts as the interface to the SC. Antenna Height. Lat. Antenna Type. and these needs to checked before Drive is being carried out for the Site. Alarms are checked from the NOC . This procedure may include the retrieval of the IMSI and authentication parameters from the old VLR.AuC) When an HLR receives a request for authentication and ciphering data for a Mobile Subscriber and it does not hold the requested data. Tilt. in order that the EIR can verify the status of the IMEI retrieved from the Mobile Station.BTS) The interface between the MS and the BSS is specified in the 04. Drive testing: Steps for DT-1 Physical Verification Physical Verification is carried out by verifying physical parameter of the New Site with the TSSR (Technical Site Survey Report) such as Address.and 05-series of GSM Technical Specifications. the HLR requests the data from the AuC. Building Height.

2. . • CPC (Cell Parameter Check) • MOC (Mobile Originated Calls) • MTC (Mobile Terminated Calls – Prepaid to Postpaid) • SMS (Short Messaging Service) • GPRS • Intra Site Handover • Inter Site Handover • TRX Test • Idle Drive (Normal Drive & Frequency Lock Drive) • Dedicated Drive Steps for DT-3 CPC (Cell Parameter Check) Given are the parameters that need to be checked while performing CPC. Frequency Plan Verification Frequency Plan can be verified from the NOC (Network Operating Centre) for BCCH and TCH frequencies being implemented as per the Site Integration Sheet sent to NOC (Network Operating Centre). Power measurement for each TRX. VSWR checking .Time: It is system time of computer. Steps for DT-2 Following is the procedure and parameters that need to checked while performing Drive Test for a New Site.Cell name: It displays the name of the sector which is serving according to the cellfile that is loaded in TEMS. BTS Type.(Network Operating Centre) and if found needs to be verified before drive being carried out. Hardware Configuration Verification Hardware verification is performed to know the Site type. CGI (Cell Global Identity) consists if MCC+NCC+LAC+CI BCCH Frequency BSIC GSM Band ᄃᄃ nDefinitions: 1. TRX Configuration.

Time slot: On which time slot of current TCH call is going on. to hop. Speech Codec: It shows FR for Full Rate. Steps for DT-4 MOC and MTC Given are parameter need to be checked while performing MOC and MTC RX Level (-47 dbm to -110dbm) RX Quality (0 to 7) SQI (20 to 30) . BSIC (Base Station Identity Code) : It is combination of Network Color Code (NCC) (0 – 7) & Base Station Color Code (BCC) (0 – 7). on which mobile is allowed to hop. Sub Channel Number: It is displayed at a time when mobile is on dedicated mode at time of call setup when it is getting SDCCH at that time it shows which SDCCH it is getting out of 8 available. 0 means sector will start from first freq.3. Band mobile is operating e. Band : It tells in which Freq. Values are Yes or No.g. from given MA list for sector hopping has to be started. Hopping Sequence Number (HSN) : Indicates sequence in which frequencies are allowed to hop from the MA List. time slot no. GSM 900/ 1800. 0 for Cyclic Hopping. 2. It consists of MCC. Hopping Channel : It shows that current sector is having hopping feature or not. Viz. It is decoded by mobile on every Sync. Values are Yes or No . Channel Message. E. Mode: It is shows in which state is mobile operating. Hopping Frequencies : It displays no. Like BCCH / SDCCH/8 + SACCH/C8 or CBCH / TCH/F +FACCH/F +SACCH/F. BCCH ARFCN: It tells by which BCCH is the mobile station getting served.63. HR for Half Rate & EFR for Enhanced Full Rate. 62. Dedicated & Packet.g. MA List for hopping of that sector. call is going on. viz.LAC. Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO): It is the number which tells from which freq.CGI : It stands for the Cell Global Identity which is unique for every sector of the site. Idle.g. Cipher by A5/2. Ciphering Algorithm : It shows ciphering algorithm used by the system to protect data for privacy. 0.g. of freq. E. 1 – 63 random hopping sequences. TCH ARFCN: On which Traffic Freq. e.MNC.g. Channel Mode : Shows mode of coding like Speech Full Rate of Half Rate. E.CI. MCC: Mobile Country Code 0 – 999 MNC: Mobile Network Code 0 – 99 LAC : Location Area Code 0 -65535 CI: Cell Identity 0 – 65535 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Cell GPRS Support: Tells sector is having GPRS or not. Channel Type: Type of channel mobile is getting now. of TRX.

. This feature reduces the power consumption of the transmitter. Depending on BER RxQual is measured. Range of RxQual 0 -7. FER : Frame Erasure Rate it represents the percentage of frames being dropped due to high number of non-corrected bit errors in the frame. MS Power Control Level : Displays range of power control from 0 to 8 depending upon network design. It is computed on basis of BER and FER.8 % which corresponds to RxQual of max.. BER countable and useful is up to 12. SQI : SQI is a more sophisticated measure which is dedicated to reflecting the quality of the speech (as opposed to radio environment conditions).5 s intervals. • • DTX : Discontinuous transmission (DTX) is a mechanism allowing the radio transmitter to be switched off during speech pauses. BER is a measure for the voice quality in network.DTX HSN (Hopping Sequence Number) (0 to 63) MAIO Hopping Frequency C/ I Ratio (>15 dbm) C/ A Ratio (>12 dbm) ᄃᄃ Definition of Radio Parameters: • • • • • • • RxLev : Receiving level in terms of dBm that mobile is receiving from the site. E. 2 dBm less acc. . and decreases the overall interference level on the radio channels affecting the capacity of the network. 0 means no power control and 1 means level that is defined by operator viz. To airtel. Max. BER 0 to 0. FR – 21 & HR – 17 are respectively ideal values. which is important for MSs. C/I : The carrier-over-interference ratio is the ratio between the signal strength of the current serving cell and the signal strength of undesired (interfering) signal components.g. 7. RxQual : Quality of voice which is measured on basis of BER. BER Actual : Ratio of the number of bit errors to the total number of bits transmitted in a given time interval. It is indication of voice quality in network.g. SQI is updated at 0. Range of -30 dBm to -110dBm. SQI is the best criterion to use. It should be atleast > 9 . This means that when optimizing the speech quality in your network. E.2 % corresponds to RxQual 0. For EFR 30.

it shows current value of RLT.• • • • TA : Value that the base station calculates from access bursts and sends to the mobile station (MS) enabling the MS to advance the timing of its transmissions to the BS so as to compensate for propagation delay. RL Timeout Counter (Cur) : This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks.1. Normally 16. for instance whether handover is disabled or multiband reporting enabled. Steps for DT-5 ᄃ GPRS (General Packet Radio System) This is performed to check whether GPRS is working on the Site. Value of 0 means MS in radius of 550mt. Range of 4 – 64 in step size of 4. When it reaches zero it results in normal DROP Call. RL Timeout Counter (MAX) : This parameter define the maximum value of the radio link counter expressed in SACCH blocks. From BS. 24.g. ᄃ Steps for DT-6 ᄃ TRX Test TRX Test is done to check whether calls originated are being handled by all the TRX’s. MS Behavior Modified : This window shows current settings for the mobile station. For GPRS to be checked it is necessary to see that the handset is WAP. Call made during the process is tracked by the MAIO number displayed on the screen for all the TRX’s.4.3.2. it shows current value of RLT. e. 20. Range of 4 – 64 in step size of 4. Decrease by 1 but increase by 2. GPRS enabled. for Site of configuration 6 TRX per sector the MAIO values for TRX test shall be 0. This is done by browsing a web page in browser of the phone. . Call can be originated on the BCCH or the TCH frequencies. Hence MAIO values will be reflected only for calls on TCH frequency and not on BCCH frequency.

Handover needs to checked mandatorarily for primary neighbor. Frequency Lock Drive . Inter Site Handover Inter Handover is performed to check whether handover is taking place both ways on the Site with it’s adjacent neighbor. Handover is performed among all the Sectors of the Site.ᄃᄃ 0 comments ᄃ ᄃᄃ Links to this post ᄃ Steps for DT-6 ᄃ Intra Site Handover Intra Handover is performed to check whether handover is taking place both ways on the Site. ᄃᄃ Steps for DT-7 ᄃ Idle Drive is performed in two fashion • • Normal Drive Frequency Lock Drive Normal Drive This is done to frame the potential area of the new site planned. It also helps us to get to know the important neighboring sites for which the handover has to take place. Handover is performed with all the defined neighbor's in the integration sheet.

and orientation. During drive being carried out one has constantly monitor parameters such as RX Level. SQI. Hopping Channel. RX Quality. tilt. DTX. This is useful for making decision related to GSM antenna height. Neighbor list. TA (Timing Advance). C/I Ratio.This is done by locking the BCCH frequency of the serving cell and performing the drive for the same cell unless the mobile enters into No Service Mode. Constant changes in these parameter are helpful for post Optimization of the site. Steps for DT For My Junior RF Engineer brothers Steps followed to perform Drive Test • • • • Physical Verification Alarm Checking Frequency Plan Verification Hardware Configuration Verification . Dedicated Drive Dedicated drive is an important part of Drive Test. Here call is made to a test number and drive is done for the potential areas of the Site.