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International Journal of Bank Marketing

Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image, service quality and
satisfaction
Josée Bloemer Ko de Ruyter Pascal Peeters

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Josée Bloemer Ko de Ruyter Pascal Peeters, (1998),"Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between
image, service quality and satisfaction", International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 16 Iss 7 pp. 276 - 286
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Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex
relationship between image, service quality and
satisfaction

Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT)

Josée Bloemer
Associate Professor of Marketing, Department of Applied Economics, Limburg
University Centre, Diepenbeek, Belgium
Ko de Ruyter
Associate Professor of Marketing, Faculty of Economics and Business
Administration, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands
Pascal Peeters
Research Assistant, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration,
Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

This article investigates how
image, perceived service
quality and satisfaction determine loyalty in a retail bank
setting at the global construct
level, as well as the level of
construct dimensions. At the
global level the results of a
large-scale empirical study
reveal that image is indirectly
related to bank loyalty via
perceived quality. In turn,
service quality is both directly
and indirectly related to bank
loyalty via satisfaction. The
latter has a direct effect on
bank loyalty. At the level of
the dimensions underlying
aforementioned constructs, it
becomes clear that reliability
(a quality dimension) and
position in the market (an
image dimension) are relatively important drivers of
retail bank loyalty.

International Journal of
Bank Marketing
16/7 [1998] 276–286
© MCB University Press
[ISSN 0265-2323]

[ 276 ]

Introduction
During the past decade, the financial services
sector has undergone drastic changes, resulting in a market place which is characterised
by intense competition, little growth in primary demand and increased deregulation. In
the new market place, the occurrence of committed and often inherited relationships
between a customer and his or her bank is
becoming increasingly scarce (Levesque and
McDougall, 1996). Several strategies have
been attempted to retain customers. In order
to increase customer loyalty, many banks
have introduced innovative products and
services (Meidan, 1996). However, as such
innovations are frequently followed by similar charges, it has been argued that a more
viable approach for banks is to focus on less
tangible and less easy-to-imitate determinants of customer loyalty such as customer
evaluative judgements like service quality
and satisfaction (Worcester, 1997; Yavas and
Shemwell, 1996). Surprisingly, however, while
there has been a large number of studies that
focused on service quality and satisfaction
issues (Lewis, 1993), research on the relationship between satisfaction, service quality and
loyalty in retail banking has remained limited. Yet, in the present environment of
increased competition with rapid market
entry of new service concepts and formats,
the challenge of increasing loyalty also presents a challenge of a more in-depth understanding of the complex relationship between
aforementioned types of customer evaluative
judgements and loyalty.
In addition, there is some evidence that
loyalty may also be determined by image
(Mazursky and Jacoby, 1986; Murphy, 1996;
Osman, 1993). Again, it has remained unclear
whether there is a direct relationship
between image and loyalty or whether this
relationship is mediated by, for instance,
satisfaction and perceived service quality. In

this article we address this issue. We propose
a model that describes the relationship
between service quality, satisfaction with a
bank and loyalty, taking into account the
effect of the image that a bank has in the
market.
Our article unfolds as follows. First of all,
we offer a brief outline of the construct of
loyalty. Next, we will differentiate conceptually between service quality and satisfaction
as determinants of customer loyalty. Subsequently, we will introduce the construct of
image and focus on the relationship between
image, satisfaction, service quality and loyalty by formulating a set of formal hypotheses. After dealing with the conceptual issues,
we will discuss the results of an empirical
study that was undertaken to test our
research hypotheses for the setting of retail
banking. In conclusion, we will address the
theoretical as well as the managerial implications of our findings on the relationship
between image, service quality, satisfaction
and loyalty.

Service loyalty
Research into customer loyalty has focused
primarily on product-related or brand loyalty,
whereas loyalty to service organisations has
remained underexposed (Gremler and
Brown, 1996). Frequently, a high positive
correlation between the constructs of satisfaction and quality and product loyalty is
reported. Likewise, with regards to service
loyalty, perceived service quality as well as
satisfaction have been identified as key
antecedents in banking as well as in other
service industries (Dick and Basu, 1994;
Lewis, 1993). However, there are a number of
reasons why findings in the field of product
loyalty cannot be generalised to service loyalty and more research into specific service
sectors is needed (Gremler and Brown, 1996;
Keaveney, 1995). Service loyalty is more

p. it has been demonstrated that loyalty is more prevalent among service customers than among customers of tangible products (Snyder. 1981). Parties identify commitment among exchange partners as key to achieving valuable outcomes for themselves. 19).. outcome-focused. At the other end of the continuum. We define bank commitment as: the pledging or binding of an individual to his/her bank choice (Kiesler. 1994. We define bank loyalty as: the biased (i. 1986). At one end of the continuum. repeat purchasing behaviour may not even be based on a preferential disposition but on various bonds that act as switching barriers to consumers (Liljander and Strandvik. the influence of perceived risk is greater in the case of services. have been criticised for a lack of a conceptual basis and for having a narrow. 1994). 1987). Therefore. the level of consumer commitment can differ considerably. 1995). we assume there is a continuum of bank loyalty. Indeed. In case of absence of bank commitment. 1987. repeat visiting behaviour is directed by inertia (Dick and Basu. Klemperer. behavioural measures. Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image. For instance. 1989. as customer loyalty may act as a barrier to customer switching behaviour (Guiltinan. expressed over time. In our view.e. Shemwell et al. Lastovicka and Gardner. 1968. 1983). Jain et al. 1987. service quality and satisfaction have both been advanced as antecedents of service loyalty. instead it is a consumer’s disposition in terms of preferences or intentions that plays an important role in determining loyalty (Bloemer and Kasper. p. which is a function of psychological (decision-making and evaluative) processes resulting in brand commitment. As mentioned above. Czepiel and Gilmore. revisit). 1994). When the decision-making and evaluative processes are not explicit and very limited.e. bank commitment enables us to define a degree of bank loyalty. by some decision-making unit with respect to one bank out of a set of banks. 31) argues that the degree of loyalty in banking can be gauged by “tracking customer’s accounts over a defined time period and noting the degree of continuity in patronage”. Service quality and satisfaction In most models of client evaluations of retail banking services the focus has been on a comparative judgement of expectations versus perceived performance resulting in the two major evaluative judgements of [ 277 ] . pricing strategies. the repeat visiting of the bank not based on any commitment at all. Likewise. for person-toperson interactions form an essential element in the marketing of services (Crosby et al. Moorman et al.e. i. service quality and satisfaction Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 dependent on the development of interpersonal relationships as opposed to loyalty with tangible products (Berry. 1969). a consumer becomes committed to the bank and therefore. 1987.. The critical part of our definition of bank loyalty is bank commitment. In the services context. as well as evaluative processes. In a services context. 1987). loyalty is frequently defined as observed behaviour (Liljander and Strandvik. 1978). the behavioural approach to loyalty may not yield a comprehensive insight into the underlying reasons for loyalty. 1995. This definition is based on Jacoby and Chestnut (1978). for instance. by definition. Commitment in service provider-customer relationships has been defined as “an implicit or explicit pledge of relational continuity between exchange partners” (Dwyer et al. a strong emphasis has been on behavioural measures.. Meidan (1996. (1992) define commitment as an enduring desire to maintain a valued relationship. intangible attributes such as reliability and confidence may play a major role in building or maintaining loyalty (Dick and Basu. Furthermore. 1995). In this way. non random) behavioural response (i. 1994). We propose that bank commitment is a necessary condition for bank loyalty to occur. i. and they endeavour to develop and maintain this precious attribute in their relationship (Morgan and Hunt.. 1977). view of what is in fact a dynamic process (Day.Josée Bloemer. As a result of explicit and extensive decision-making. Surprenant and Solomon. in the next section we will zoom in on these concepts and the relationship between them. Czepiel 1990. the consumer will not become committed to the bank and cannot be bank loyal. Zeithaml. a low degree of repeat purchasing of a particular service may very well be the result of situational factors such as non-availability. 1994).e. one finds spurious bank loyalty. becomes bank loyal. However. Furthermore. 1990. Consumers whose patronage is not based on bank loyalty may exhibit an attachment to bank attributes and can easily be lured away by competitors through. In theories of interorganisational relationships the concept of commitment plays a central role (Morgan and Hunt. such as repeat purchasing or visiting sequence. As most research originated from the field of packaged consumer goods (Jacoby and Chestnut. variety seeking and lack of provider preference. Therefore. one finds true bank loyalty. a patron to a bank is merely spuriously loyal. the repeat visiting behaviour based on a maximum amount of commitment. Therefore.

for instance. Stafford and Enis. as well as customer evaluation of attributes. they develop perceptions during the service delivery process and subsequently they compare their perceptions to their expectations in evaluating the outcome of the service encounter. 1993). rather than these evaluations being components of image (Hildebrandt. 1969). 1976. Smith. 1997). and empirical evidence provided by Cronin and Taylor (1992) and De Ruyter et al. A favourable image is viewed as a critical aspect of a company’s ability to maintain its market position. are a decisive influence on the formation of quality perceptions. reflecting a customer’s overall impression. 1968). Both concepts have been frequently used and measured in the retail banking services area (Lewis. That is. image is also an important determinant of customer patronage. 1976. 1974. attributions. delineation and conceptualisation concerning these evaluative judgements still exist (De Ruyter et al. Based on our review of the literature we formulate the following hypotheses: H1: Image will have a direct positive effect on loyalty. 1992). image will precede customer evaluations. cost/benefit analyses) that influence satisfaction. it has been argued that the two concepts are determined by different antecedents.. Lewis and Mitchell. According to the categorybased processing paradigm. While service quality and satisfaction are concepts that have a number of similar characteristics. in turn. Therefore. report a direct positive relationship between image and loyalty. Kunkel and Berry. they found that service quality can be seen as a determinant of satisfaction which in turn influences purchase intentions. Many conceptualisations of image have been advanced in the past (Doyle and Fenwick. we propose that as customer evaluative judgements such as perceived service quality and satisfaction are established in a process of inference making of expectations.. 1992). will be judged relative to the bank image. In the first place. 1981. 1988. On the other hand. it is proposed that incoming information. Lately.Josée Bloemer. Clients form expectations prior to their encounter with a bank (employee). it has been suggested that. in the product literature there is ample evidence that image significantly affects perceptions of quality (Darden and Schwinghammer. when a customer encounters a bank. The relationship between image. Using structural equation modelling. Cronin and Taylor (1992) undertook an empirical test of the reciprocity between satisfaction and quality across several service industries. The latter is increasingly regarded as the superordinate construct based on conceptual work by Oliver (1993) and Rust and Oliver (1994).e.. Render and O’Connor. image determines the nature of consumer expectations which. 1985. The number of antecedents to service quality is regarded as more limited (Oliver. i. in addition to service quality and satisfaction. . There is a growing consensus on the sequential order of service quality and satisfaction. whereas perceived service quality is generally viewed as being not necessarily experience-based. he or she will form a mental picture as to whether the bank matches any other categories of banks experienced in the past. however. However. Much of the confusion arises from the fact that both forms of evaluative judgements are based on comparable underlying constructs. Sirgy and Samli (1989). 1993. 1990. 1997). it has been demonstrated that the link between image and loyalty is mediated by customer evaluative judgements such as quality perceptions. (1997). 1985). Mazursky and Jacoby. The exact relationship between image and loyalty has remained a matter of debate. it is frequently argued that in order to form a satisfaction judgement. Evidence exists regarding a number of cognitive and affective processes (equity. Image has been treated as a “gestalt”. as becomes clear from major advances in the services marketing literature (Patterson and Johnson. they have points of differentiation as well. 1986). 1993). James et al. Smith. Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image. it has been argued that problems of definition. quality. We will discuss image in the next section. Clearly the two types of evaluative judgement are not perceived as isomorphic and increasingly treated as separate constructs in research on services. as image has been related to core aspects of organisational success such as customer patronage (Granbois. service quality and satisfaction Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 [ 278 ] perceived service quality and client satisfaction (Murphy. satisfaction and loyalty It has been suggested recently that retail banking has been suffering from an identity crisis and that image research studies should be undertaken with the objective of providing information that is as strategically important as financial performance data (Worcester. Korgaonkar et al. Keaveney and Hunt (1992) have argued that the image of a retail institution is formed along the lines of category-based processing theory. 1996. Moreover. Second. consumers must have experienced a service.

A commitment scale.53). The explained variance of loyalty by quality and satisfaction is 53 per cent.76. 1988) on the results of a qualitative study for the bank setting. Table II shows that both quality perception and satisfaction have a positive impact on loyalty (beta = 0.e. it is in line with our definition of bank loyalty which stresses the two aspects. Questionnaire development The design of the questionnaire was primarily based on multiple-item measurement scales taken from previous research. QUA = quality perceptions. a mediator effect).38 and beta = 0. With regards to perceived service quality. quality. The Cronbach alpha for this scale was 0. The results of this analysis are shown in Table II. image and loyalty (r = 0. Furthermore.Josée Bloemer. This operationalisation concerns the behavioural as well as the commitment aspect of loyalty. H4: Quality will have an indirect positive effect on loyalty via satisfaction (i. 2. H3: Image will have an indirect positive effect on loyalty via quality (i. and LOY = loyalty of the customers towards the bank. and the effects of quality and satisfaction on loyalty: LOY = b0 + b1 * SAT + b2 * QUA + b3 * IM + ε1 (Model 1. IM = image.e. The Cronbach alpha for this scale was 0. We expect a positive direct relationship between the image of a bank and the loyalty towards that bank. 1995).500 existing private customers were interviewed by phone with regard to their image of the bank. Bank commitment (COM) was measured with a scale containing four fourpoint Likert-scale items. we present an overview of the correlations between the variables: image. Results In Table I.59). Non-Dutch items were translated into Dutch via a procedure of double-back translation by a qualified translator (Brislin. ranging from 1 = completely disagree. their quality perception of the bank. Moreover. Nationwide. This scale was also pre-tested and found to be valid and reliable on the basis of our study. the descriptive data gathered in the study were compared with demographic variables that were available from previous market research studies within this bank.. Therefore.1) where SAT = satisfaction. together with the chance of visiting the same bank again. a mediator effect). H5: Satisfaction will have a direct positive effect on loyalty. satisfaction and loyalty[1]. there is a clear positive relationship between image and quality (r = 0. service quality and satisfaction International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 H2: Image will have an indirect positive effect on loyalty via satisfaction (i. The scale was developed on the basis of a qualitative research study conducted prior to the quantitative data collection phase. We expect an indirect positive effect between the image of a bank and the loyalty towards that bank through satisfaction (i. in terms of a scale varying from 1 to 10”). in contrast with a visit to the automatic teller machine – repeat visiting behaviour (RPB) – ranging from 0 per cent to 100 per cent). their satisfaction with the bank and their loyalty towards the bank.e.44). For this purpose we specify a model to test the relationship between image and loyalty. we used multivariate regression analysis to gain additional insight into the data and to test our hypotheses. The quality perception (QUA) of the bank was measured with a scale containing 19 four-point Likert-scale items. An empirical study Data collection An empirical study was conducted among customers of a major bank in The Netherlands in 1996. image and satisfaction (r = 0. For this purpose we specify [ 279 ] . The Cronbach alpha for this scale was 0.e.73. items were based on the service quality literature (e.83. Table I shows that all the correlation coefficients are significant (p < 0. quality and satisfaction (r = 0.42 respectively). Next. Image has no significant influence on loyalty. quality and loyalty (r = 0. Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) In the next section we will report the results of an empirical study designed to test these hypotheses. to 4 = completely agree.g. a mediator effect).59). 1980). The items were adapted to the specific characteristics of our research setting.55). Parasuraman et al. a mediator effect).001). Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image. The sample was randomly drawn and found to be representative for the bank’s private customers by checking the customer database. Customers had to rate the intention to visit the same bank next time they needed to visit a bank for personalised service. was used to determine bank loyalty (Bloemer and Kasper. customers were asked to state their satisfaction (SAT) with the bank (“how satisfied are you with the bank.66) and satisfaction and loyalty (r = 0. The image (IM) of the bank was measured with a scale containing 17 four-point Likert-scale items. In order to measure satisfaction.

SAT = overall satisfaction.53a 0. We also found that no indirect effect of image through satisfaction could be detected.42). we used exploratory factor analysis to determine the Table IV Results of regressions analysis based on model 1. Image seems to have no impact on loyalty here. IM = image. H4 and H5 can be accepted on the basis of our analysis. For this purpose we specify a model to test the relationship between image and quality.44 QUA 0. we conclude that indeed quality has an indirect effect via satisfaction (beta = 0. QUA = quality perceptions.66a SAT 0. service quality and satisfaction Table I Pearson correlations between the central variables International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 QUA IM IM QUA SAT LOY 0.1a b beta p Intercept –1.59a 0. SAT = overall satisfaction.00 0.92 0. As we developed a number of multi-dimensional scales to measure the constructs introduced above.47 0.55a 0. Table III shows that only quality perception has a significant effect on the loyalty of the customers towards this bank (beta = 0. Based on the analysis presented above.3) where QUA = quality perceptions.05).00 QUA 1.59 R2 0. In addition. Altogether this implies that although image has no indirect influence on loyalty directly via satisfaction. The indirect influence is via satisfaction. IM = image.00 QUA 1. we found that quality has a direct and an indirect impact on loyalty. H1 has to be rejected. SAT = b0 + b1 * QUA + b2 * IM + ε1 (Model 1. QUA = b0 + b1 * IM + ε1 (Model 1.48 0. The results of this analysis are shown in Table III.00 IMb R2 0. Figure 1 shows the mediator effect of the quality perception in the relationship between image and loyalty. we decided to perform a number of additional analyses in order to gain a deeper and more comprehensive insight into the relationships between our variables. QUA = quality perceptions.85 0. In fact. LOY = loyalty. The results of this analysis are shown in Table IV.55 0. Table IV shows that the image of the bank has a clear positive influence on the quality perception (beta = 0.00 .44 0. a = one-tailed significance < 0. LOY = loyalty a model to test the relationship between image and satisfaction.30 Notes: aSAT = b0 + b1 * QUA + b2 * IM + ε1.55) and that satisfaction has a direct effect on loyalty (beta = 0.42 0.53 Note: aLOY = bo + b1 * SAT + b2 * QUA + b3 * IM + ε1. b = not significant (p > 0. These analyses were used to examine the dimensional distinctiveness of both the image and quality constructs.44a 0. Figure 1 shows image does not have a direct positive effect on loyalty.55). Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image. We expect an indirect positive effect between the image of a bank and the loyalty Table III Results of regressions analysis based on model 1. b = not significant (p > 0.001 Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) Table II Results of regressions analysis based on model 1. it nevertheless has an impact on satisfaction via quality.34 Notes: aQUA = b0 + b1 * IM + ε1.Josée Bloemer. QUA = quality perceptions p 0. Furthermore. we also incorporated the effects of quality. and IM = the image of the bank. The results of the former analyses in terms of the significant beta coefficients are depicted in Figure 1.2a b beta p Intercept 0. SAT = overall satisfaction [ 280 ] towards that bank through quality (i. Next.05). and IM = the image of the bank. The explained variance is 34 per cent. IM = image.00 IMb R2 0. QUA = quality perceptions. We therefore have to reject H2 too. QUA = quality perceptions. a mediator effect). Likewise.38 0.00 SAT 0. Therefore H3 can be accepted. we expected that quality has an indirect positive effect on loyalty via satisfaction and that satisfaction will have a direct positive effect on loyalty.59).59a Notes: IM = image.2) where SAT = satisfaction.e.3a b beta Intercept 0. The explained variance of the loyalty of the customer by the quality perception is 30 per cent.30 0. Therefore.

efficiency. Next. efficiency (beta = 0. QF1 = factor scores quality perceptions first factor etc. position in the market.2) where SAT = satisfaction. 39 and beta = 0. accounting for 58.1) where SAT = satisfaction..64440 0. The results of this analysis are shown in Table VIII. satisfaction. According to the outcome of the factor analysis we specify a new model to test the relationship between loyalty. [ 281 ] . Table VIII shows that only reliability and empathy have a significant positive impact on satisfaction (beta = 0. For this purpose we specify a model to test the relationship between image and quality..55 IM SAT LOY β = .74857 Total explained variance 63.. QI1 = image factor scores first factor and LOY = loyalty of the customers towards the bank.61260 11 Strongest financial institutions of the world 0.38). procedures..18) and position in the market (beta = 0.49383 Society-driven (IF5) 12 Financial institution for everyone 0. We labelled the factors as following: customer contacts.42 Table V Result factor analysisa on image items Item Customer contacts (IFI) 8 5 7 10 Advice (IF2) 13 4 6 Relationship driven (IF3) 15 Description Factor loadingsb Little or no mistakes Customer treated respectfully Time arrangement Time and attention to customer 0.. LOY = b0 + b1 * SAT + b2 * QF1.51652 2 Modern 0. interest rates. The overall pattern of rotated factor loadings suggested a seven-dimensional solution.58235 Advice on investment funds Advice on insurances Expertise in advising 0.+ b14 * IF6 + ε1 (Model 2..67089 17 0.7 per cent of variance extracted. we used again multivariate regression analysis to gain additional insight into the data in terms of the importance of the different image and quality dimensions in relation to loyalty. The results of this analysis are shown in Table VII. Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image. advice.81116 14 Strong commitment to society 0.Josée Bloemer.8 per cent of variance extracted. The results of the factor analysis for the quality items are shown in Table VI.. relationship Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) Figure 1 Model based on ordinary multivariate least squares analyses β = . reliability (beta = 0. a mediator effect). QF1 = factor scores quality perceptions first factor etc.. The results of those factor analysis for the image items are shown in Table V. quality and image dimensions.4 driven. b8 * QF7 + b9 * IF1+. According to the outcome of the factor analysis we also specify a model to test the relationship between image and satisfaction. explained variance is 25 per cent).+ b13 * IF6 + ε1 (Model 2.76436 0. Table VII shows that satisfaction (beta = 0.36). as compared to the original model that did not include the different factors for quality and image.8% Notes: a = Using principal axis factoring and varimax rotation. empathy.74323 9 Attractive advertisements 0.75255 0. Here we incorporated the effects of quality: SAT = b0 + b1 * QF1. service quality and satisfaction International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 different dimensions of image and quality. The total explained variance of the model rises significantly from 53 per cent to 58 per cent.62373 Position in the market (IF4) 1 New products or services 0.66151 Taking other than business aspects into account Efforts for local community Own interest not on the first plan 0. b = Factor loadings > 0.68525 0.59 QUA β = . The factors found could be called reliability.. society-driven and prices. accounting for 63.. On the basis of factor analyses we are now able to zoom in on the relationships between determinants of loyalty. In each of the factor analyses. and QI1 = image factor scores first factor of the bank.30) have a significant positive impact on loyalty.e.32 respectively. the number of factors retained were those with eigenvalues greater than 1. We also expected an indirect positive effect between the image factor scores of a bank and the loyalty towards that bank through quality (i.82671 0.60782 Prices (IF6) 3 Reasonable prices 0. The overall pattern of rotated factor loadings suggested a six-dimensional solution.38 β = . expertise and access to money. b7 * QF7+ b8 * IF1 +.77410 16 0.

.3) QF2 = b0 + b1 * IF1 + .73091 12 Trouble-free cash dispenser –0.75083 5 Level of mortgage rates 0.4) QF3 = b0 + b1 * IF1 + .76423 3 Cost of using an account 0. empathy (beta = 0.. from most to least important..05) IF1 not significant (p > 0.... service quality and satisfaction Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 QF1 = b0 + b1 * IF1 + .39 0.05) R2 0.58 Notes: aLOY = bo + b1 * SAT + b2 * QF1 + .. QF1 .00 QF2 not significant (p > 0. Figure 2 shows that.. IF1 .00 QF3 not significant (p > 0.12) and society-driven (beta = 0.05) IF5 not significant (p > 0.00 IF5 not significant (p > 0.05) R2 0.05) QF4 not significant (p > 0.38 0. + b7 * QF7 + b8 * IF1 + .00 QF2 0.2a b beta p Intercept 3. IF6 = factor scores image. + b6 * IF6 + ε1 (Model 2.05) IF6 not significant (p > 0. The results of the former analyses in terms of the significant beta coefficients are depicted in Figure 2.40747 Efficiency (QF3) 15 Queuing time at the office 0.57432 14 Privacy at the office 0.30 0.51 0. the major determinants of loyalty Table VI Result factor analysisa on quality items Item Description Factor loadingsb Reliability (QFI) 10 Accuracy of employees 0.40249 18 Proactive suggestions Empathy (QF2) 17 Attention of employees 0..05) QF3 0.14 0.73697 13 Efforts for the customer 0.00 QF1 0.Josée Bloemer.32 0.05) QF6 not significant (p > 0. explained significant variance seven per cent) and that position in the market has a significant positive impact on efficiency (beta = 0... + b6 * IF6 + ε1 (Model 2.16..75316 Interest rates (QF4) 4 Level of savings rates 0..05) QF6 not significant (p > 0. IF6 = factor scores image..05) IF2 not significant (p > 0.18 respectively.1a b beta p Intercept 0. IF1 . b = Factor loadings > 0.05) IF3 not significant (p > 0.57773 16 Personalised consulting 0.25 Notes: aSAT = b0 + b1 * QF1 + .18 0.00 QF1 0.39 0.02) (taking into account both direct and indirect effects). QF1 . QF6 = factor scores of quality perceptions.05) QF7 not significant (p > 0.01 QF4 not significant (p > 0....05) IF4 0.74234 9 Kindness of employees 0.86090 Access to money (QF7) 2 Hours of opening 0..05) IF1 not significant (p > 0. customer contacts (beta = 0.58296 11 Recognition by employees 0. explained significant variance three per cent).59682 6 Handling complaints 0.30).36 0.05) QF5 not significant (p > 0.05 SAT 0. Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image.38 0..27 0. explained significant variance 11 per cent). Table VII Results of regressions analysis with factor scores according to model 2. The results of this analysis are shown in Table IX. LOY = loyalty Table VIII Results of regressions analysis with factor scores according to model 2.66828 Expertise (QF6) 19 Expertise on investment funds 0.05) IF6 not significant (p > 0.32 0. + b13 * IF6 + ε1.55281 Total explained variance 58. + b6 * IF6 + ε1 (Model 2. SAT = overall satisfaction. position in the market (beta = 0.18).5) where QF1 = factor scores quality perceptions first factor etc.05) QF5 not significant (p > 0...+ b8 * QF7 + b9 * IF1 + .05) IF4 not significant (p > 0.20 and beta = 0.. satisfaction (beta = 0.32.. QF6 = factor scores of quality perceptions.69945 7 Expertise of employees 0. + b14 * IF6 + ε1.7% Notes: a = Using principal axis factoring and varimax rotation.05) IF2 not significant (p > 0.38). Table IX shows that customer contacts have a significant positive influence on reliability (beta = 0. and IF1 = factor scores image of the bank first factor etc.16).51). SAT = overall satisfaction .05) IF3 not significant (p > 0.36 0.74595 Procedures (QF5) 1 Sending invoices 0.54 0. efficiency (beta = 0.05) QF7 not significant (p > 0.79880 8 Speed of handling at the office 0. that customer contacts and societydriven have a significant positive influence on empathy (beta = 0.4 [ 282 ] are: reliability (beta = 0.

calculative and moral commitment (Allen and Meyer.. Fourth. Likewise. Our analysis shows that. Furthermore.02 0. we are able to obtain a more detailed insight into the relationship between image and quality on the one hand and loyalty on the other.05) not significant (p > 0.4b Intercept IF1 IF2 IF3 IF4 IF5 IF6 R2 Model 2.11 not significant (p > 0. image. although we found significant relationships. additional research is required to test our model in business-to-business relationships.05) not significant (p > 0. our initial rejection of H1 could be revoked on the basis of the multi-dimensional approach that was taken subsequently. the external validity of our findings needs additional attention in terms of the replication of our study in a similar research setting. such as affective.. Therefore.05) not significant (p > 0. First of all. QF6 = factor scores of quality perceptions Theoretical implications An important implication of our results is that analysis on the level of the various underlying dimensions of elusive and difficult to operationalise constructs like image and quality provides additional insight into the relationship among them..05) not significant (p > 0. one distinct dimension (position in the market) has a direct positive effect on customer loyalty. 1990.Josée Bloemer.05) not significant (p > 0.. Additional research is needed to investigate whether a distinction can be made between cognitive and affective dimensions of satisfaction.03 Notes: aQF1 = b + b * IF1 + .05) 0. 0 1 6 IF1 .05) 0.. insurance. it seems important to validate the distinction between image and quality in other financial services settings (e.3a Intercept IF1 IF2 IF3 IF4 IF5 IF6 R2 Model 2. thus essentially from a static perspective. in addition to the direct positive effect of the overall quality construct.. service quality and satisfaction Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 Table IX Results of regressions analysis with factor scores according to models 2. 2. and investigate whether dimensions of satisfaction also has an effect on these consequences.18 not significant (p > 0.g. A number of theoretical shortcomings follow from our research. + b * IF6 + ε. bank quality and bank satisfaction and loyalty.32 not significant (p > 0..15 0. Fifth.05) not significant (p > 0.16 not significant (p > 0. we are now able to nuance that finding as it becomes clear that specifically reliability and efficiency could be viewed as important determinants of loyalty.5c b Model 2.05) not significant (p > 0.05) not significant (p > 0. Future research should focus on other attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. it should be taken into account that the levels of variance explained are relatively modest. corporate banking) and to verify whether the multi-dimensional approach taken here is valid for these settings. the literature on customer-firm relationships has suggested various types of commitment. the compositions of the evoked set and information search behaviour. Thus. as our study replicates and extends findings from the consumer product literature to bank image. we found that factors like society-driven. Finally. empathy and customer contacts have an indirect effect on loyalty via satisfaction and quality. we encountered a relatively strong relationship between reliability and satisfaction. in order to be able to [ 283 ] .e. QF1 . Obviously.18 0.07 not significant (p > 0.05) not significant (p > 0. quality and satisfaction) exert an influence on customer loyalty with banks.05) 0. + b * IF6 + ε . our conclusion is that all three constructs (i. Further research is needed to gain additional insight into the explanation of bank loyalty.05) 0. 1994).3a. Second.20 not significant (p > 0. This points to the relative importance of the reliability factor in retail banking. Finally.05) 0. 0 1 6 1 cQF3 = b + b * IF1 + ..4b and 2. IF6 = factor scores image.. all constructs were measured at one point in time.18 0. Kumar et al. + b * IF6 + ε . 0 1 6 1 bQF2 = b + b * IF1 + .05) 0.32 0. The obvious implication would be to investigate whether the type of commitment to a bank can further nuance the satisfaction-image-quality-loyalty relationship. Third.01 0. suggesting a number of issues that merit further research. In essence.. Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image.05) not significant (p > 0. such as word-of-mouth communication. although we did not find a direct relationship between the overall image construct and loyalty.5c Intercept IF1 IF2 IF3 IF4 IF5 IF6 R2 beta not significant (p > 0..03 p 0.05) 0. It should also be noted that customer contacts have a direct impact on empathy. this study was limited to loyalty as an expression of consumer preference. It may be worthwhile to study bank loyalty over time.00 0.

. Our study shows that although there is a direct positive relationship between satisfaction and loyalty.20 β = . Finally. vulnerability to price competition. In the dialogue with bank customers. caution should be taken with regards to the impact of image. switching behaviour.32 Customer contacts β = .32 Empathy Satisfaction β = . it follows that banks should invest in monitoring employees in order to make a trustworthy impression on the customers. First of all. Managerial implications In terms of the practical relevance of our research. customers apparently look for “external cues” in order to be able to [ 284 ] evaluate the bank in terms of the relative position it has within the market place.16 Position in the market take into account the dynamics in consumer patronage behaviour.18 Society driven β = . After all. then measures of actual behaviour and bank objective performance (e. expertise. reliability seems to be the most important factor influencing customer loyalty with banks. empathy and societydriven seem to be of lower order importance.g.30 β = . has a direct influence on loyalty.38 Loyalty β = . retail banking is very much a service depending on credence properties. providing customer feedback. they still have an indirect effect on customer loyalty and should be handled with “customer” care. Banks that take this into account promote loyalty among their customers. other determinants play an important role too.e. management and employees should strive to find out what customers expect in terms of accuracy. the use of corporate advertising creating the perception of a strong financial institution. Looking at the individual indicators of this quality dimension. Therefore. Following from the importance of the reliability dimension. with innovative products and services and modern facilities. efficiency. in addition to perceptual gauges. Customers are not willing to spend their valuable time waiting for services. Should such an approach be taken. could be taken into account. complaint handling and proactive suggestions.39 β = . a number of managerial implications may be derived. as well as in the handling of customer complaints. This implies an extensive and continuous training program. queuing time and speed of handling. both in the case of the general service encounter. Although customer contacts. relative market share). i. Just focusing on satisfaction may result in overlooking other important drivers of customer loyalty. seems important for the establishment of customer loyalty in retail banking.Josée Bloemer. Many banks have a customer satisfaction measurement program.18 Efficiency β = . A third managerial implication is that satisfaction is not the sole determinant of customer loyalty in retail banking. turnover. Ko de Ruyter and Pascal Peeters Investigating drivers of bank loyalty: the complex relationship between image.36 Reliability Downloaded by Indian Institute of Technology at Madras At 05:04 23 April 2016 (PT) β = . service quality and satisfaction International Journal of Bank Marketing 16/7 [1998] 276–286 Figure 2 Model based on factor analyses in combination with ordinary multivariate least squares analyses β = . Fourth.

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