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International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development

Available online on http://www.rspublication.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm

Issue 3, Vol.1 (January 2013)
ISSN 2249-6149

EFFECT OF SUB COOLING AND SUPERHEATING ON
VAPOUR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS
USING R-22 ALTERNATIVE REFRIGERANTS
Ashish Kumar Paharia1, R.C.Gupta2
1

PG Student (Heat Power Engg.), Mechanical Engineering Department
Jabalpur Engineering College, India.
2
Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department
Jabalpur Engineering College, India.

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ABSTRACT
This paper present performance of three hydrofrulocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-410A, R 507A, R-407C) selected to replace R-22 in a vapour compression refrigeration system using
thermodynamic simulation. The effects of the main parameters of performance analysis such
as refrigerant type, degree of sub cooling and super heating on the refrigerating effect,
coefficient of performance and volumetric refrigeration capacity were also investigated for
various evaporating temperature. The result showed that R410A and R407C have
thermodynamic performance similar to R-22.
Keywords: Vapour compression refrigeration cycle ,COP , theoreitical analysisR-410a,R407c etc.

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I. INTRODUCTION
During the last decade, the number of refrigerants likely to be used in refrigerating machines
has dramatically increased as a consequence of the elimination of the.CFC’s and HCFC’s.
Recently, the ozone depleting potential (ODP) and global warming potential (GWP) have
become the most important criteria in the development of new refrigerants apart from the
refrigerant CFCs and HCFCs, both of which have high ODP and GWP, due to the their
contribution to ozone layer depletion and global warming. In spite of their high GWP
alternatives to refrigerant CFCs and HCFCs such as hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants
with their zero ODP have been preferred for use in many industrial and domestic
applications intensively for decade. HFC refrigerants also have suitable specifications such as
non-flammability, stability, and similar vapour pressure to the refrigerant CFCs and HCFCs.
R22 is one of the important refrigerant used in air conditioning all over the world. R22 is
controlled substance under the Montreal Protocol. It has to be totally phased out by 2017. In
Europe, HCFCs have already been phased out in new equipment in 2002, and the total phase
out of HCFCs is scheduled in 2015.HCF 22 replacements options for A/C, heat pumps and
refrigeration systems can be grouped in three categories, Fluorocarbons that are used in
conventional vapor compression cycles such as R134a, R410a, R407C, alternatives fluids
which include propane R290 and R717 and are also used in vapor compression cycles, and
finally alternatives cycles that include absorption systems, and use Tran critical fluids (CO2
)and air cycle. In general these alternative technologies do not currently offer the same
energy efficiency as the vapor compression cycle.
Several investigations have been carried out in order to determine the efficiency of potential
substitutes to R22.
In this paper, a vapour compression refrigeration cycle for three HFC refrigerants is used to
obtain better performance. The present study mostly concentrates on therotical investigation
Page 521

REFRIGERATION CYCLE The refrigeration cycle studied is a standard vapor compression cycle composed mainly of four main equipments: Evaporator. The three HFC refrigerants (R410A. (h2 to h 3).volumetric refrigerating capacity(VRC) are investigated for various evaporating temperature ranging -150 C to 150 C and constant condensation temperature 40 0C.rspublication. Vol. The following assumptions are made -An evaporation at constant pressure. -An expansion at constant enthalpy in the throttling valve. Condenser and a throttling valve as illustrated in figure1.R507C. Traditional vapour-compression refrigeration cycle used in the analysis.R407C) are used as working fluid for comparison with conventional fluid R22.htm Issue 3. The effect of main parameters of performance analysis such as refrigerant type on refrigerating effect (RE) . corresponding from point 3 to Point 4 (h3= h4). from point 2 to point 3. Page 522 . Fig. 1. Compressor.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 of vapour compression refrigeration cycle.com/ijeted/ijeted_index. in the evaporator with an evaporator temperature. corresponding from point 1 to point 2 (h1 to h2). from point 4 to point 1 (h4 to h1) -An adiabatic isentropic compression process in the compressor. Tev. -A de superheating at constant pressure followed by a condensation at constant temperature (Tc) and pressure in the condenser. The vapour leaving the evaporator as well as the liquid leaving the condenser are supposed to be at saturated states. . and therefore neither superheating of the vapour nor sub cooling of the liquid are required.

They are Page 523 . coefficient of performance (COP).com/ijeted/ijeted_index. is calculated as follows: RE = Qevap = h1−h4 kJ/kg (2) Isentropic compression work of the compressor (Wcomp) is expressed as follows Wcomp = h2−h1 kJ/kg (3) The coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigeration system's cycle can be determined by: COP = RE /Wcomp: (4) In the vapour-compression system in Fig. pressure ratio. 1. isentropic compression work (W). The superheated state of vapour exists at the inlet part of the compressor as shown in Fig. there is a pressure drop greater than the ideal one between the condenser and expansion valve.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 II.5Wcomp / RE kWTR-1 (6) Suction vapour flow per KW of refrigeration can be determined as: SVFR = 1/ ρ1 ⋅RE L/S (7) III.THEORETICAL COMPUTATIONAL MODEL The pressure–enthalpy diagram prepared for theoretical data for two different cases is shown in Fig.rspublication.FLOW CHART FOR COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS A Simulation model was developed in order to investigate the effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the physical properties of refrigerants such as evaporation pressure (Pevap). The equations for the cycle analysis can be obtained by means of mass and energy conservation. 1. The pressure ratio of the cycle can be seen below as follows: The pressure ratio = Pcod /Pevap: (1) The refrigerating effect (RE). The ideal refrigeration cycle in Fig. Vol. the pressure of the liquid at the exit part of the condenser is lower than the pressure at the inlet part of it. volumetric refrigerating capacity (VRC) is given as: VRC = ρ1⋅RE kJm-3 (5) Power per ton of refrigeration is calculated as follows: Power per ton of refrigeration (P /TR) = 3.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www. refrigeration power. the heat transfer rate of the evaporator (Qevap). volumetric refrigeration capacity (VRC) and suction vapour flow rate (SVFR) is investigated in this theoretical study. and also a larger pressure drop occurs on the evaporation line. in other words.htm Issue 3. refrigerating effect (RE). It is known that the actual refrigeration cycle systems have some deviations from the ideal one due to pressure losses of fluid flow and heat transfer exchange between the surroundings. The data reduction of the theoretical results can be analysed below. 1b. 1 is considered for the working substances that change phase during the cycle.

1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 plotted against the evaporating temperature (T evap) . 3to10 The changes in evaporation pressure (Pevap) and pressure ratio with the evaporation temperature (Tevap) are shown in Fig. volumetric refrigeration capacity (VRC) and suction vapor flow rate (SVFR) is investigated in this theoretical study.Temp Condenser: Average sat.00 = 1.0 = -150C to +150C = 400C = 10 0C = 50C Fig 2 flow chart for simulation IV. 4 for listed refrigerant. refrigeration power. refrigerating effect (RE).International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www. Evaporation pressure Page 524 . and they are plotted against the evaporating temperature (Tevap) as shown in Figs.RESULT AND DISCUSSION The analysis of the variation of physical properties of refrigerants such as evaporation pressure (Pevap).00 = 0.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.htm Issue 3.0 = 0. coefficient of performance (COP). The ideal refrigeration cycle is considered with the following conditions.00 = 1.rspublication.00 = 1. isentropic compression work (W). 3 and fig. Temp Super heat Sub cooling = 1. Vol. pressure ratio. System cooling capacity (kW) Compressor isentropic efficiency Compressor volumetric efficiency Electric motor efficiency Pressure drop in the suction line Pressure drop in the discharge line Evaporator: Average sat.

Refrigerant R-410A have higher refrigerating effect and compressor work than other refrigerants as shown in fig. The reason for the improvement is the increase in the compressor inlet temperature and thus the increases in refrigerating effect and volumetric refrigerating capacity. Peva (Mpa) 1. The variation of performance coefficient (COP) with evaporation temperature (T evap) is illustrated in Fig. The comparison of the super heating / sub cooling with the non-super heating / sub cooling was illustrated in figures from 11 to15 for the refrigerant R-410a and in figures 16 to 20 for R 407-C. for all Fig.6 R407C(Tc=4 0 c) 0. evaporating temperature 5 PRESSURE RATIO 1. The cycle performance can be improved by the sub cooling and superheating applications.2 R507(Tc=40 c) 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15 Teva(0C) Fig 3 evaporating pressur vs. 5 and fig. The power needed for refrigeration is higher for refrigerant R-507A. 7 From this figure. 8 volumetric refrigeration capacity (VRC) with evaporation temperature (Tev) in Fig. 5 and fig.8 0.6.6 shows that the refrigerating effect (RE) increases with increasing evaporation temperature (Tevap) while the compressor power (Wcomp) decreases with increasing T evap for the constant condensation temperature of 40 °C and the evaporation temperatures ranging from −15 °C to 15 °C.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.2 6 R22(Tc=40c ) Peva(Mpa) 1 R410A(Tc= 40C) 0. evaporating temperature Page 525 .rspublication. Suction vapour flow rate per kW of refrigeration is higher for R407C. COP of R-22 is higher than all other refrigerants.4 4 3 2 1 PRESSURE RATIO R22(Tc=40c ) R410A(Tc= 40C) R407C(Tc=4 0 c) R507(Tc=40 c) 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 0 4 8 12 15 Teva( C) Fig 4 pressure ratio vs. the coefficient of performance (COP) increases as the evaporation temperature (Tevap) increases for the constant condensation temperature of 40 °C and evaporation temperatures ranging from −15°C to15 °C. Volumetric refrigeration capacity is higher for refrigerant R 410A.4 0. 10 are shown. The performance coefficient (COP) values of the super heating / sub cooling case are found to be higher than those of the non super heating sub cooling case. 9 and suction vapour flow needed for refrigeration (SVFR) with evaporation temperature (T evap) in Fig.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 for R-410a is higher in comparison with other refrigerants. pressure ratio refrigerants are having almost same value in all evaporating temperature. Vol. The changes in power needed for refrigeration with evaporation temperature (T evap) in Fig.htm Issue 3.

7 coefficient of 8 12 15 performance vs evaporating temperature 4 8 12 15 Teva(0C) Fig.8 COP R410A(Tc= 40C) 6 4 R407C(Tc=4 0 c) 2 R507(Tc=40 c) R410A(Tc= 40C) 0.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.htm REF EFFECT(KJ/KG) 180 50 45 160 R22(Tc=40c ) 140 ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION WORK 40 R22(Tc=40c ) REF EFFECT(kJ/KG) 35 R410A(Tc= 40C) 120 100 R410A(Tc= 40C) 30 W(KJ/KG) 200 Issue 3.5.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 25 R407C(Tc=4 0 c) 80 60 R507(Tc=40 c) 40 20 15 R507(Tc=40 c) 10 20 5 0 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 00 4 Teva( c) R407C(Tc=40 c) 8 12 15 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 0 4 Teva( C) 8 12 15 Fig.2 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 Teva(0c) Fig.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.rspublication. 8Power per ton of refrigeration vs evaporating temperature Page 526 .refrigerating effect vs. Vol.6 R407C(Tc=4 0 c) 0. 6 Isentropic compression work vs evaporating temperature Fig.2 10 R22(Tc=40 c) 8 POWER PER TON OF REFRIGERATION(KW/TR) 12 POWER PER TON OF REFRIGERATION 1 R22(Tc=40 c) 0. evaporating temperature. COP 1.4 R507(Tc=40 c) 0.

rspublication.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.evaporation temperature 12 4 178 176 REF EFFECT(KJ/KG) Ns h/ Ns c 174 RE(KJ/KG) C O 6 P 172 170 4 168 2 166 164 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15 Teva(oC) 162 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15 Teva(oc) Fig.7 7000 0.2 R507(Tc=40 c) 2000 R410A(Tc=4 0C) 0.6 R22(Tc=40 c) 6000 R22(Tc=40c ) 0.htm 8000 VRC(KJ/m3) Issue 3.10 Suction vapour flow rate vs evaporating temperature 182 COP(R410A) 180 10 N s h / N… 8 8 12 15 Teva(0C) 8 12 15 fig 9volumetric refrigeration capacity vs. 11 410A) coefficient of performance vs evaporating temperature (RFig.5 SVFR(L/S) R410A(Tc= 40C) VRC(KJ/m3) 5000 4000 R407C(Tc=4 0 c) 3000 1000 0.4 R507(Tc=40 c) 0.refrigerating effect vs evaporating temperature(R-410A) Page 527 .com/ijeted/ijeted_index. Vol.12.1 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 Teva(0C) Fig.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 SVFR(L/S) 0.3 R407C(Tc=40 c) 0.

Vol.2 10 0 0 -15 -12 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 -8 -4 15 0 4 8 12 15 Teva(oc) Teva(oC) Fig.14 Power per ton of refrigeration vs evaporating temperature 10 VRC (KJ/m3) COP 9 8000 8 7000 7 VRC(KJ/m3) 6000 5000 Nsh/Nsc 4000 sh/sc 3000 6 C O5 Nsh/Nsc P 4 sh/sc 3 2000 2 1000 1 0 0 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 15 -15 -12 -4 0 4 8 12 15 Teva(oc) Teva(oc) fig 15volumetric refrigeration capacity vs.rspublication.evaporation temperature -8 Fig.htm 1.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.8 W(KJ/KG) 40 Issue 3.16 coefficient of performance vs evaporating temperature Page 528 .com/ijeted/ijeted_index.2 50 power per ton of refrigeration(KW/TR) compression work(KJ/KG) 60 Ns h/ Ns c POWER PER TON REFRIGERATION(KW/TR) Nsh /Ns c 1 sh/s c 0.4 20 0.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 0. 13 Isentropic compression work vs evaporating temperature 9000 Fig.6 30 0.

18 Isentropic compression work vs evaporating temperature Fig.19 Power per ton of refrigeration vs evaporating temperature -4 0 4 Teva(oc) 8 12 15 fig 20 volumetric refrigeration capacity vs.2 0 0 -15 -12 -8 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 o 4 Teva( c) 8 12 15 Fig.17. Vol.evaporation temperature Page 529 .htm R407C R407C 200 180 Issue 3.4 1000 0.2 R407C 6000 PTR(KW/TR) 1 VRC(KJ/m3) 5000 N 4000 PTR(KW/TR) VRC(KJ/m3) 0.com/ijeted/ijeted_index.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 60 COMPRESSION WORK(KJ/KG) REF EFFECT(KJ/KG) 50 160 140 40 W(KJ/KG) RE(KJ/KG) 120 30 100 Nsh/Nsc 80 Nsh/Nsc sh/sc sh/sc 20 60 10 40 20 0 0 -15 -12 -15 -12 -8 -4 0 4 8 12 -8 15 Teva(oc) -4 0 4 8 12 15 Teva(oc) Fig.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www.8 3000 0.6 Nsh/Nsc sh/sc 2000 0.refrigerating effect vs evaporating temperature R407C 1.rspublication.

R-410a. C. Dalkilic . Experimental study of hydrocarbon mixtures to replace HFC-134a in a domestic refrigerator. (2010). REFERENCES [1] Arora. Applied Energy 84 (2007) 985–991. Performance of new refrigerant cycle using refrigerant mixture R32/ R134a for residential air-conditioner applications. Chimres. Seo. [4] M. The model was developed to predict the performance of the refrigerants based on their coefficient of performance.735-1935. Page 530 . Applied Thermal Engineering 19 (1999) 1181–1189.J.A. Z. Jung.S. J.M. Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2559– 2565. In this work. 3rd edition. D. (2010). [5] S. Performance of alternative refrigerants for residential air conditioning applications. All systems including various refrigerants were improved by analyzing the effect of the super heating / sub cooling case.”a performance comparison of vapour compression refrigeration system using various alternative refrigerants” Int. Tata McGraw Hill.com/ijeted/ijeted_index. Alsaad. Heat Mass Transf. Q. New Delhi [2] K.rspublication. Better performance coefficient values (COP) than those of nonsuper heating /sub cooling case are obtained as a result of this optimization. [7] A. [6] X. R410a has slightly lower coefficient of performance (COP). R-407cand R-507) regarded as R22 alternative in vapour compression refrigeration system were investigated using simulation model. Zhu. Han.International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www. Energy and Buildings 40 (2008) 2022– 2027. The use of hydrocarbon mixtures as refrigerants in domestic refrigerators. Cycle performance study on R-32/R-125/ R161 as alternative refrigerant to R-407C. Wang. Considering the comparison of performance coefficients (COP) and pressure ratios of the tested refrigerants and also the main Environmental impacts of ozone layer depletion and global warming. Chen. refrigerant R410A and R407Care found to be the most suitable alternatives refrigerants to refrigerant R22.A. higher refrigerating capacity than R22. refrigerating capacity and the compressor work etc. Vol.H. Yu. G. M. Hammad. the performance of three HFC refrigerants (. Wongwises. S.W. Energy Conversion and Management 46 (2005) 85– 100. Park. N.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 V. Chen. CONCLUSION R22 that is commonly used as working fluid in vapour compression refrigeration system all over the world is being phased out due to their environmental hazard of ozone depletion. “Refrigeration and Air conditioning”.htm Issue 3. [ 3] J. The result obtained showed that R410a and R407c have physical properties and thermodynamic Performance similar to R22. Commun. T. Wongwises.P.

International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development Available online on http://www. kNm kg−1 VRC volumetric refrigeration capacity. Vol. kg m−3 Subscripts cod evap comp 1 2 3 4 condensing/condenser evaporating/evaporator compressor evaporator superheat compressor superheat condenser saturated liquid evaporator saturated mixture Page 531 .rspublication. kg kJ−1 hfg latent heat of condensation.1 (January 2013) ISSN 2249-6149 Nomenclature atm atmosphere CFCs chlorofluorocarbons COP coefficient of performance GWP global warming potential h enthalpy.htm Issue 3. kW TR−1 RE refrigerating effect. °C or K W isentropic compression work. MPa P/TR power per ton of refrigeration. kJ kg−1 HCFCs hydro chlorofluorocarbons HCs hydrocarbons HFCs hydro fluorocarbons ODP ozone depletion potential P pressure. kJ m−3 sh/sc super heating/sub cooling Nsh/Nsc Non super heating/Non sub cooling Greek symbols ρ density. kJ kg−1 SVFR uction vapour flow per kW of refrigeration.com/ijeted/ijeted_index. L s−1 T temperature.