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Sample Questions

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What do you understand by a 16 bit microprocessor? Give examples.
Mention the sizes of address and data buses of 8086 and 8088 microprocessors and comment on their
importance/significance? Also comment on their impacts on processors’ performance.
What do you understand by instruction fetch? List the steps involved in instruction fetch.
What is stack? Why it is used? Briefly describe.
What is index register? Why it is used?
What is program counter? Briefly explain its function.
What do you understand by bus system of computer, briefly describe.
What do you understand by Address bus, data bus and control bus? State the function, significance and
direction of signal flow for each.
What do you understand by register? How does it affect the performance of a processor?
Define (i) Stack, (ii) Program Counter, (iii) Index register, (iv) Status register of a microprocessor.
What do you understand by Address bus, data bus and control bus? State the function and direction of
signal flow for each bus.
What do you understand by clock cycle/clock speed of a microprocessor?
What do you understand by Bus cycle of a processor? How it is related to processor’s clock cycle?
How many bus cycle 8086 microprocessor requires to read
o An 8 bit data from main memory stored at an even address
o An 8 bit data from main memory stored at an odd address
o A 16 bit data from main memory stored at an even address
o A 16 bit data from main memory stored at an odd address
What do you understand by on-chip and off-chip operation? Which one id faster and why?
What do you understand by pipelining? What is its advantage?
Draw the internal architecture of 8086 microprocessor and indicate its different function units in detail.
List CPU registers within execution unit and state their special/default uses in assembly language
programming.
List CPU registers within BIU and state their special/default uses in assembly language programming.
What is flag register? Briefly describe the functions of each flag bit of 8086.
State the functions of control flag bits? List some instructions used to set/reset the control flag bits.
State the significance of flag register and flag bits? How/why these are used in programs.
List the registers and other parts in the 8086/8088 execution and bus interface unit.
Describe how the 8086/8088 calculates memory addresses. Give example.
What is IP? What is its function?
Describe the function of the 8086/8088 instruction queue. State its benefits. Also indicate its possible
drawback, if any.
What do you understand by addressing modes? Briefly describe five addressing modes with examples.
What happened in cases of following instructions?
o MOV [BX], CL
o MOV DX, [BP+DI]
o MOV [BP+SI], DX
o MOV [BX+SI], CL

What additional controller is required to run 8086/8088 microprocessor in maximum mode? Why this is necessary? Briefly explain. [BX+0F] What are different modes of operation of 8086/8088 microprocessor? How it is selected? What are IC 8288 and IC 8254? Why these are used in 8086 based system design? Draw a simplified diagram of a system (personal computer) based on 8086 running in the maximum mode. How does 8086 microprocessor calculate physical addresses of memory locations within code segment and stack? Briefly explain the functions of the following pairs of pins and signals of 8086 o BHE/S7 and A0 o HOLD and HLDA o ALE o INTR and INTA o DEN and DT/R o RESET o MN/MX What is instruction queue? Why it is used? State how it speeds up CPU processing. What is the maximum size of a segment? How many segments can be used in a program? Briefly state.                  o MOV DX. What do you mean by pipelining? How it is designed and implemented in 8086 microprocessor? State the number of stages of pipelining used in 8086. How does CPU calculate physical address of a memory location? Explain with suitable examples. calculate the physical address of main memory location pointed by each:  [CS]:[IP]=[1F0AH]:[15A6H]. What are different modes of operation of 8086 and 8088 microprocessors? How these modes of operations are selected? Briefly describe. State the benefits of memory segmentation technique used in 8086/8088. List all pins and signals of 8086 and briefly state their functions including direction of signal flow and logic states. Given the contents of following register pairs. Also mention purpose for each case. How does it affect the CPU performance? What do you understand by multiplexed bus system? State its relative advantages and disadvantages. What do you understand by memory segmentation technique? State its benefits.  [SS]:[SP]=[82FFH]:[0FA1H] . List the segment registers and default registers used to hold offset addresses in memory address calculation. briefly describe.