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‘In the understanding zeal to depict the kids as creative

agents rather than manipulated dummies, this often plays
down the extent to which changes in youth culture are
manufactured changes, dictated by consumer society’
(Thornton:1995). Relate this quote to the current social,
cultural, technological and economic scene.
In shall begin by asking what youth culture is, I will also be
explaining what a sub-culture is. What influences youth
culture.
My essay with follow the structure of the four main points
Technological, Social, cultural, and economic scene. I will
look at these points in depth.
I will argue for and against ‘manipulated dummies’ and
‘creative agents’

My broad definition of Youth culture is, a unified group of
people which have similarities and common likes and
dislikes, this distinguishes them in a significant way from
other members of society and social groups.
Parsons (1942) described youth culture as a single cultural
system characteristic of youth in a modernising world. (Ref
youth culture identify in the post mod world)

After the post war 1945 youth culture was on the agenda.
Youth began to be addressed by fashion and music industry.
Manufactures saw a huge market. Youth culture became a
definitive era.
First I will relate the question to today’s technological
scene. The youth of today are exposed to a wide range of
technological influences. Mobile phones, advertising,
computers, internet, magazines. Communication is very fast.
Explain the mods..
During the dates etc. Technology was far less advanced.
Visual graphics were of low production values, for example,
disco club flyers were simple in design graphics, the hand
drawing was very much valued, it showed authentic practice
and had a personal touch. Today’s flyers have become more
commercial, competition between clubs has increased, as

The flyer must translate this into an ‘image’ in order to distinguish the night and entice an audience to go. Manufactures making it so easy for us is one explanation as to how consumerism has risen to such an extent. We are able to contact one another twenty-four hours a day. helped by advances in Desk-Top publishing. We can purchase over the Internet and then items are delivered to us.clubs have become a multimillion pound industry. and `Cream’ another London based club which tours throughout the country. Such as `Fabric’ in London. For example a potentially large money making market is in the disco clubs. Can we say that youth are manipulated dummies through the media. The club night `Renaissance’ unutilised company’s money like Silk Cut cigarettes and Calvin Klein and mobile phone companies. With help through sponsorship with large corporate companies. to enable successful club nights and generate thousands of pounds. As a result production levels have risen. Mobile phones for example allow anyone to become reachable from anywhere. It is almost impossible to avoid the media and influential advertising. Technology allows us to consume at with very little effort. Black and white hand drawn flyers have almost become extinct. interested in a night of good music and not fundamentally about consuming. All of these clubs have been successful in identifying their own marketing devices and brand identities. This could been seen as immoral and club nights becoming more about the consumerism than being part of a culture. Mobile phone manufactures have networks contract to suit every person. Branded clubs like Ministry of Sound enables us to purchase compilation CD’s online. ‘Media are motivated by corporate agendas like generating sensational copy to keep up high sales or maintaining their . Yet today’s clubbing youth are participating in a culture yet there is still a fluid mixture of people. Youth are far more interactive currently. `Pasha’ features sister club nights all over Europe. There is a huge demand for flyers and original design talent. There are many different advertising techniques to tackle every live style.

He has once again quoted from past youth culture. Where they would congregate and `pose’ often against the ‘Rockers’ who appropriated the motor bike to communicate a sub culture. icons. be seen to drive a customised vespa. They would mainly revolve there socialising at weekends. Oliver is filmed on his vespa in a Sainsburys advert. I may not overlook the fact it may indeed have been Sainsburys idea to implicate this image. In other words. films. fashion and young presenters. ‘Niche media like the music press construct subcultures as much as they document them’ (Thornton 116) and ‘National mass media. and youth cultures (unlike. to broaden his self image.’ ( Thornton P167) I think youth use the media to shape themselves as much as they bla bla All the time youth are receiving opposing media outlets for example prime time television chart shows verses late night narrow casts. Marketer realise that youth repeatedly have respect for adult orientated programming than for shows made specifically for their age group. A large majority of Sainsburys custom is aged forty to fifty this of course included the generation of the mods.’ Without the media intervention it would be hard to imagine a British youth movement. monopolies and merges commission inquiries) are one such subject. and is the face of Sainsbury’s brand image. media react to phenomena which don’t actually threaten them. . musical groups. Brighton was one of the favourite place of meeting. say. Today Jamie Oliver. So it is essential before considering if the media shape youth culture to view how youth depict subcultures. a famous celebrity chef who dominates huge media coverage. Secondly I will consider social influences such as social groups. such as tabloids develop youth movements as much as they distort them. The Vespa. Marketers are also aware that the audience they market fashion at may also be watching ‘Richard and Judy’ a show aimed at mainly middle-aged women. and is associated with authenticity and brand loyalty. For example the fashion market advertise clothes on ‘SMTV Live’ a show aimed at teenagers featuring latest pop groups.image as a family orientated public service. The mods would go to coffee shops to socialise. becoming the largest connotation attributed to the ‘the mods’ allowed them to travel around England.

Manufactured pop groups are invented which are predonamtly about endorsing products upon youth teenagers to produce more spending of the teenager’s pocket money.This is only one example of how every current `trend’ finds a way of selling itself. This enabled youth to construct its own immaculate identities. Manufactures then almost instantaneously sell that particular idea back to youth. Rather than the impact of `hype’ which is so much a consequence of the amount of money which is spent on music today. new ranges of commodities and comercial lesuire facilities were provided to absorb the surplus cash. They focus around key occasions of social interaction: the weekend . which for the first time in working class history youth had to spend on itself. `The Who’. It could be argued that the type of music the `Mods’ were spending money. `Small faces’ was because of the quality of music. Instead of developing a large youth culture movement. Youth’s `Creative agents’ originate an idea. `Beatles’. Youth culture today is constantly recycling the past. Moments later consumers were able to buy the same idea from mainstream shops such as `Top Shop’ at a higher price than it would in fact take the agent to construct the skirt by them self. `By the mid sixties youth culture had become largely a matter of commodity selection of emphatically stated taste preferences’. the bank-holiday trip. In this argument I would agree that today the circulation of the creative ideas and the actual production along with consumerism is so much faster than early youth culture. For example the teenage pop group `S Club 7’ are a seven person pop group. Later through history as Dick Hebdige explains. ( Hebdige p30hidingin light) I can relate this to current youth. Thirdly Economic After the war. youth today becomes more fragmented and less of an identity category. Youth todays try to mark out appropriated `territory’ in localities. the disco. with a personality to appeal to a range of . it may be a way of wearing an item of clothing or an appropriation of a single product. the week day evening. For example the ‘hand made jean skirt’ may have simply originated from an art college or an unrecognised fashion student. the night out in the ‘centre’ the ‘standing about doing nothing’.

One example would be the brand `Diesel’ originating and still in production from Italy. There is more merchandise of `S Club 7’ items than actual songs written. the Italian scooter. The `mods’ would also wear the Ben Sherman shirt which was the American influence. which involved a fascination with American and continental styles. and fashion are heavily influenced by culture. I will concentrate on how music. Today’s fashion is still taken from European culture. ‘Most commentators would agree on certain basic themes: that a mod was predominately working class-male dominated and centred around obsessive clothes-consciousness. because media consumption is a primary leisure activity and because they are leading disseminators of culture. which earned them a satisfactory wage. The media is constantly today protraying a ‘safe future’ for example the phone company Orange has a slogan ‘The futures bright the futures Orange’ The media are fundamental to the process of popular distinction. .’(Henbige p110) Lastly I will consider the cultural influences. Smooth crop hair.teenage personalities. The Spice girls were and example to which extent money can be made from ‘mass hype’ More than likely they would have a job. neat white Italian shirt.`Rockers’ and `Hippies’ were excited about the future. At a time of current Post-modernism youth are more hesitate about the future were as the during the sixty’s the `mods’ . During the period of the `Mods’ the fashion mimicked by the Italians.