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Brazing.

Joining metals by flowing a thin capillary thickness layer, of nonferrous filler metal
into the space between them. Bonding results from the intimate contact produced by dissolution of
a small amount of base metal into the molten filler metal, without fusion of the base metal. The
term
brazing is used when the temperature exceeds some arbitrary value, typically 470C (880F).
Carbon Restoration. Heating and holding a metal above the critical temperature (Ac1) in contact
with a suitable carbonaceous atmosphere which may be solid, liquid, or gas for the purpose of
restoring carbon by adding it to the surface. The amount of carbon added is usually sufficient to
return
the material to the original carbon content prior to a heat treat operation that reduced this carbon
level.
Carbonitriding. The introduction of carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding
above the critical temperature (Ac1) in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases, such as
hydrocarbons,
carbon monoxide, and ammonia. The carbonitrided alloy is usually quench hardened. Other
common names and related subjects are case hardening, dry cyaniding, gas cyaniding, nicarbing,
and nitrocarburizing (obsolete).
Carburizing. The introduction of carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above the critical
temperature (Ac1) in contact with a suitable carbonaceous atmosphere which may be solid, liquid,
or
gas. The carburized alloy is usually quench hardened. Other common names and related subjects
are
case hardening, gas carburizing, and cyaniding.
Cryogenic Treatment. The cooling of a material to a temperature low enough to promote the
transformation of phases. Other common names and related subjects are deep freezing, cold
treatment,
and subzero treatment.
Ferrous. A metal of, related to, or containing iron.
Hardening. An increase in the hardness of a material by suitable treatment usually involving
heating
and cooling. Other common names and related subjects are neutral hardening, quench hardening,
flame hardening, induction hardening, laser hardening, and surface hardening.
Homogenizing. Holding at high temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by
diffusion. The resultant composition is uniform with coring and concentration gradients eliminated.
Materials Science. The science and technology of materials. Metals and nonmetals are included
in this field of study.
Metals. (1) An opaque lustrous element that is a good conductor of heat and electricity and when
polished a good reflector of light. Most metals are malleable and ductile and, in general, heavier
than
other elemental substances. (2) Metals are distinguished from nonmetals by their atomic binding
and
electron availability. Metallic atoms tend to lose electrons from the outer shells. (3) An elemental