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Assessing Customer-based Brand Equity
Ratings in Family Restaurant
Article in Procedia Economics and Finance · December 2016
DOI: 10.1016/S2212-5671(16)30111-3





4 authors, including:
Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid
Universiti Putra Malaysia

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

Development and Validation of Job Satisfaction Instrument View project

All in-text references underlined in blue are linked to publications on ResearchGate,
letting you access and read them immediately.

Available from: Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid
Retrieved on: 27 September 2016

Peer-review under responsibility of Faculty of Business Management. Terengganu. Peer-review under responsibility of Faculty of Business Management.12) did not significantly different to each other.1 Background of the study * Corresponding author. Mohd Azuan Mohd Aliasa.81). Authors. Malaysia Abstract Due to customer’s changing demand and increased competition among restaurants. Puncak B. 23000.V. Selangor. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.30.1016/S2212-5671(16)30111-3 . Malaysia b Universiti Teknologi MARA. Peer-review under responsibility of Faculty of Business Management. E-mail address: mohdaliff@tganu.V.sciencedirect. Published by Elsevier B. However.17. Chemah Tamby Chikb a Universiti Teknologi MARA (Terengganu) 2212-5671 © 2016 The Authors. The study was conducted in three different family restaurant brands in Klang Valley with 349 usable questionnaires were analyzed by using one-way ANOVA.*. Universiti Teknologi MARA. © © 2016 2016The TheAuthors. brand loyalty. 42300. Universiti Teknologi MARA Keywords: Customer-based brand equity. brand awareness and brand association in determining the customer-based brand equity ratings.Published Publishedby byElsevier ElsevierB. SD=. Universiti Teknologi MARA doi:10. Pizza Hut (M=4. brand has become vital for the business to succeed. One of the strategies is to focus on improving their brand to add value to the restaurants. The implications and recommendations for restaurant operators and practitioners were also highlighted. The Scheffe’s test result proved that The Chicken Rice Shop was significantly different from others and obtained a higher brand equity rating (M=5. SD=1. Azlina Samsudina. Brand equity holds the key element of differentiation among competitors and this has been regarded as valuable asset.Available online at www.97) and Rasamas (M=4. Introduction ScienceDirect Procedia Economics and Finance 37 (2016) 183 – 189 Assessing Customer-Based Brand Equity Ratings in Family Restaurant Mohd Aliff Abdul Majida. This study employed four dimensions of customer-based brand equity. perceived quality.uitm.51.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.0/).V. family restaurant 1.0/).

Hypothetically. Cheung and Lo. Cobb-Walgren. 2003) because it is almost difficult to be imitated by other competitors. Ekinci and Whyatt. there are various aspects of branding remaining to be explored. 1995. focusing on family restaurants is limited hence. 1995. 2010). Malaysian brands are lacking in branding strategy and management. and Keller.2 Rationale of the study Recently. Lassar. and greater resiliency to withstand misfortune. Moreover. it is anticipated that Pizza Hut could have a better brand equity rating as compared to the other two competing brands. This is in line with Keller (2004) who identified a successful brand is a particular brand that can closely fit customer’s needs. Boo. Adding to that. hence. It demonstrated that building a strong brand is imperative for every company to obtain greater performance due to increased competition and varying needs of global market. and Donthu. Aseambankers (2007) explained that this circumstance occurred when market shares are dominated by global brands. KFC and McDonald’s have a better brand management as compared to Malaysian restaurant brands such as 1901 Hot Dog and Marrybrown. A company with strong brand has a higher probability to gain competitive benefit and easily noticeable as compared to other competing companies. Nam. Refining their brand to add significant value to the restaurants is the strategy to emphasis on. It is asserted that there are several Malaysian food brands have insufficient competencies in branding and marketing strategies and management.1 Brand Equity For more than two decades. 2011. Nam. the study of restaurants’ brand equity. customer’s demands had forced restaurants to display fierce competitions and brand has become one of the important elements for the business to prosper. The findings could assist family restaurants operators to comprehend the significance of the brand value that the restaurants hold and facilitate them to benchmark themselves to convalesce their proficiency in value creation. Mittal and Sharma. customer loyalty. investment and improved marketing strategies aids in enhancing the value of brand equity and the dimensions of brand equity help firm to develop a competitive benefit over their competitors. there were many substantial studies of brand equity in diverse extent in hospitality industry such as airlines (Chen and Chang. Therefore. 2008) and Aaker (1991) recommends that the nature of brand equity contrasts from one context to another and it should be described within a specific industry circumstance. 2. Kim and Kim. 2004). most chain restaurants such as KFC and McDonald’s have recognizable brand. and many companies reckon this as their invaluable asset (Ambler. hotels (Zhou and Jiang. many industries have been deliberated brand equity as the significant investment to the companies (Chen and Chang. However. the results showed that there were differences on improvement of brand equity between local and global brands. Devinaga and Hishamuddin (2013) on the brand equity challenges on Malaysian fast food brands. in a study conducted by Tan.184 Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid et al. the study of brand equity has intrigued many marketing management researchers and scholars (Aaker. which are TCRS and Rasamas. Emphatically. They further affirmed that global established brands such as Pizza Hut. regardless of any businesses. Seemingly. 1996. the main purpose of this study is to assess the customer-based brand equity (CBBE) ratings among Pizza Hut. Although hospitality researchers and scholars spent numerous efforts in branding and brand equity for many years. 2000). thus further strengthening current literature. Adding to that. Literature Review 2. Hoeffler and Keller (2002) mentioned the advantages comprise of greater better marketing communication effectiveness. Customers who perceived the brand value and the companies preserving the brand have been theorized with “brand equity” (Randall. . Busser and Baloglu (2009) validated that the applications of the goods-based brand equity models demonstrate a poor validity in the tourism industry. 1. restaurants (Majid and Chik. Adding to that. For instance. this study has narrowed brand equity into this possibility. This study proved an evident to conclude that Malaysian restaurant brands could compete with international brands. / Procedia Economics and Finance 37 (2016) 183 – 189 Brand is measured as the vital element to predict customers’ purchase decision. 2013. 2008). Ruble. and casinos (Tsai. The Chicken Rice Shop (TCRS) and Rasamas. The findings also postulate significant information on the present situation of the industry. Ekinci and Whyatt 2011). 2011. where customers could certainly identify them. contribute to poor development of brand equity.

brand extensions. Aaker (1991. Lu and Xie (2000) also agreed that if the other proprietary assets. excluding brand awareness and the findings shown that these dimensions contribute to brand equity. brand awareness. Yoo and Donthu (2001) stated that brand equity gives value to the firm by enhancing efficiency and effectiveness of marketing programs. were distributed by the managers and . Low and Lamb. Selangor were selected as study area. as the perceptions of customers are the key in marketing strategies. Keller. 1993). which is the fifth element of the brand equity concept. 1995). Cobb-Walgren et al. 1993) adopted his theory in assessing brand equity. Aaker (1991) debated brand equity will result in value to customer by amplifying their comprehension and processing of information. Adding to that. 1998. 2005. brand associations and other proprietary assets such as trademark... Prasad and Dev. will be excluded in this study. Furthermore. which are brand loyalty. competitive advantage. 1996) corroborated that CBBE consists of four dimensions. 2005). Aaker. 2001. In addition. The Chicken Rice Shop and Rasamas within Klang Valley. prices and profits. In a recent study by Hosseini and Moezzi (2015). Washburn and Plank (2002) and Yoo and Donthu (2001). 2003. Park and Srinivasan confided that the brand equity has no specific definition to oppose Aaker (1991). it would conflict with the CBBE approach and it is also not applicable on customer’s perspective. response of consumer to the marketing of brand (Keller. The effects of the study on the brand equity includes the value added to the products (Aaker. Yoo and Donthu (2001) agreed that there is an extensive argument in regards to the definition and measurement of brand equity whereas. perceived quality. Brand equity is believed to be consumers’ motivating factor next to the brand name itself. Many scholars (Yoo and Donthu. “Drop-off/ pick-up technique was employed as no permission granted to personally administer the questionnaire. Yoo. in one of their studies. it was important for authors to include these four dimensions in order to measure CBBE ratings.” Despites the many findings and understandings. 1993) and consequence of marketing efforts (Villarejo-Ramos and Sánchez-Franco. emphasized the most significant agreement on brand equity is the augmentation to the value of the product in relation to the brand name. thus. value of the customer (Martensen and Grønholdt. Srivastava and Shocker (1991) before stating the interrelation of brand equity with brand value and brand strength. Motameni and Shahrokhi. it has a wide-ranging target population of customers that provided meaningful and significant responses. 1995). 1991). the other proprietary asset. 1991). CBBE has pulled a lot of attention. 1993). brand preference and purchase intention (Cobb-Walgren et al. A total of 450 questionnaires with each restaurant were handed 150 questionnaires. who claimed to have accurately defined brand equity as “a set of brand assets and liabilities linked to a brand. which in nature are a market-based are to be included. Three family restaurants namely Pizza Hut. Aziz and Yasin (2010) stated that Klang Valley comprises of the heterogeneous subject from diverse demographic backgrounds and ethnic clusters. Jin-Sun and Kim (2008). In other cases. 3. CBBE is deemed to be a factor in the firm operation framework in building a stronger brand.2 Dimensions of Brand Equity According to Aaker (1991) brand equity consist of brand loyalty. 2000. Keller. Keller (1993) added brand equity as the “the differential effect of brand knowledge on consumer response to the marketing of brand. 2. confidence in the buying decision and satisfaction. Donthu and Lee (2000) have tested a model by using three dimensions of Aaker’s (1991) components. There are several numbers of researches accentuating the importance of building brand equity for the benefit to the firm of more consumers’ brand preference and purchase intention (Myers. It was also supported by Kim. incremental utility (Simon and Sullivan. Aaker. Kim and Kim (2004) affirmed the importance of the four dimensions to be included in the brand equity model. it explained the uneven number of respondents obtained from each restaurant.Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid et al. / Procedia Economics and Finance 37 (2016) 183 – 189 185 1993). brand awareness and brand association. In 1994. perceived quality. copyrights and patents and due to the fact that this study is focused on model of CBBE. 1996. 2003. value of the firm (Kim and Kim. Therefore. Methodology A quantitative research design was employed and 33-item of structured questionnaire from previous research in CBBE studies was developed as the instrument of the study. and trade leverage. Therefore. 2000. its name and symbol that add to or subtract from the value provided by a product or service of a firm’s consumers”.

05 4.000 -. 36.79464* . 4. Pizza Hut (n=122).07.12571 . as the sample size was not very different.0.2 Details of the analysis An analysis of variance in Table 1 shows that there is a significant effect of brand equity on measured family restaurants.774 387.161). TCRS attained the highest CBBE ratings among the measured restaurants (M=5.51 SD 1.7207 -1.97 Note: Rasamas (n=114).26 1. The results were properly presented.28 M 4.7207 .161 . Data analysis 4.07 4.186 Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid et al.30).161 .17 . TCRS and Pizza Hut).03495* .12782 .24031 1. However.001. Table 1: ANOVA Sum of Squares 66. Respondents were divided into three groups according to restaurants (Rasamas.3492 -. oneway ANOVA was employed.1 CBBE ratings for measured restaurants One-way ANOVA was the statistical technique that was used to measure brand equity ratings.1037 .44 4.03495* .17).12543 . it shows that there were no significant differences between Pizza Hut and Rasamas (p < . TCRS shows the highest brand equity rating as compared to the other restaurants and the differences are statistically significant.3492 .24031 . Scheffe’s test in Table 2 reveals that the brand equity for TCRS is significantly different with each other (p < .64 BW SD 1.555 Between Groups Within Groups Total df Mean Square 33.4856 Table 3: Mean differences among measured restaurants BL Rasamas TCRS Pizza Hut M 4. Error Sig.30) and Pizza Hut (M=4. / Procedia Economics and Finance 37 (2016) 183 – 189 employees using convenience sampling method to customers from participating restaurants.30 1.5486 -.79464* .30 1.81 4. The results from one-way ANOVA for brand loyalty signified that TCRS obtained a higher score (M=5. SD=1.4856 -. In term of perceived .1037 -.30 1.0680 1.51 1.28 M 4.000 Table 2: Multiple comparisons (I) Type of restaurant Rasamas (J) Type of restaurant Mean Difference (I-J) TCRS PizzaHut TCRS Rasamas PizzaHut PizzaHut Rasamas TCRS Std. BS=brand association 4.38 5.05 PQ SD 1.00 4.12782 .35 1. Evidently.00.000 -.40 5.001). while the least brand equity ratings was Rasamas.12571 .35 5. Table 1 presents the details of mean scores obtained from three family restaurants on each dimension of brand equity.07 5.000 .10 1.20 .0680 1. PQ=perceived quality. F(2.83 BS SD 1. BW=brand awareness. In order to determine brand equity ratings among measured family restaurants.92 M 4.05. TCRS (n=113).000 -1.51 .5486 . followed by Rasamas (M=4. SD=1.016 Sig. 349 usable questionnaires were analysed and the data set was coded and keyed for analysis using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21.390 . SD=1. .12543 .346). 95% Confidence Interval Lower Bound Upper Bound -1.927 2 346 348 F 36.28).02 = p < .781 320.71 .12 Total M SD 4. BL=brand loyalty.12 5.

restaurants are required to work continuously to develop. As suggested by Severi.07. Pizza Hut recorded better brand equity ratings as compared to Rasamas for both dimensions (M=4.05. SD=. some of the factors might also come from the menu selection.35. it refers to the unaware of the brands and lower purchase intentions from the customers. In other hand. assist in perceived brand value of customers towards the restaurant. The overall score of TCRS was (M=5.20). Pizza Hut found to have a higher rating of perceived quality (M=4.83.1 Implications. 5. Thus. SD=1. TCRS also give a new look and vibrant image to most of their restaurant outlets in Klang. SD=. thus improve the company’s brand equity. Lack of brand equity also would affect the customer purchase intention in the future. Some of the success factors might come from the aggressive advertising through the mass media such as television.26 and M=5.40. Rasamas attain the lowest brand equity score as it indicated that the restaurant did not receive much attention from the customers. the decreasing numbers of customers are expected.51. followed by Pizza Hut (M=4. overextension or lack of investment in building brand value as it will lead to the perish of familiar brands. they have to be cautious due to the poor brand management.10 respectively). Rasamas had poor brand equity management and it is suggested that Rasamas should invest and participate actively in order to gain customers’ repurchase intention. it conversely recorded for this dimension. In contrast with TCRS. this study only looked into family restaurant. Ling and Nasermoadeli (2014). SD=.38. it was clearly revealed that TCRS obtained the highest brand equity in score ratings in relative to other measured restaurants and was significantly different from the other restaurants. Clearly. the finding showed that TCRS has a highest brand equity score as compared to the Pizza Hut.15 respectively).71. It is recommended to employ probabilitysampling technique for the purpose to improve validity and generalizability of the study outcomes.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research The findings of this research might be seen with a number of limitations. Positively.17.44. Discussions 5. at this situation. Besides. In addition. / Procedia Economics and Finance 37 (2016) 183 – 189 187 quality. TCRS showed an excellent brand equity strategy as it attained highest rating for brand awareness and brand association (M=5. Future research could look into different types of restaurants to assist these practitioners in enhancing brand equity towards their customers. Consequently. radio and social media. Kim and Kim (2004) mentioned that as a restaurant brand operator.28 and M=4. Furthermore. In addition. thus might be difficult for other types of restaurant operators to adopt the implications. SD=1. Mongkol (2014) stated that company should to pay more attention on appropriate marketing strategies such as advertising. The convenience sampling technique employed has restricted the generalizability of the research findings. brand awareness and brand association towards the restaurant.12).81). SD=1. 5. the highest rating was obtained by TCRS with M=5.Mohd Aliff Abdul Majid et al. Although Rasamas obtained a slightly higher rating as compared to Pizza for brand equity scores. SD=1. It is convinced that if the restaurant operators do not make an effort to improve the brand equity of the restaurant.51.64. It can be concluded that TCRS work an excellent marketing strategy. promotion and interactive marketing to create competitive advantages. SD=1. SD=1. recommendations and conclusion Unexpectedly. as it seems to be trusted by customers. This is evident in marketing strategy by developing and improving brand equity will lead to a better customer’s purchase intention. as it did not match with customer’s demand and preferences.97) and Rasamas (M=4. SD=. Again. improve and maintain their restaurant brand in competing with other restaurants. SD=1. . Abridging from the results interpreted above. competing with its competitors. as its project new impression and better dining experience towards their existing and potential customers. thus. there is an increment in their revenue as customer turnover getting an increase.35.92) while Rasamas (M=4.30.51 and M=4. It can be concluded that CBBE leads the intention of customers to repurchase the product or services offered. social media is a great advertising strategy to enhance brand equity. the changes will improve customer’s perception. It was recorded that Rasamas has the lowest rating of brand equity for brand awareness and brand association with M=4. hence. SD=1.

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