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6.720J/3.

43J - Integrated Microelectronic Devices - Spring 2007

Lecture 15-1

Lecture 15 - p-n Junction (cont.)
March 9, 2007
Contents:
1. Ideal p-n junction out of equilibrium (cont.)

2. pn junction diode: parasitics, dynamics
Reading assignment:
del Alamo, Ch. 6, §6.2 (6.2.4), §6.3

Cite as: Jesús del Alamo, course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices, Spring 2007.
MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.edu/), Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].

Massachusetts Institute of Technology.43J . . course materials for 6.mit.720J/3. Spring 2007. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.6.edu/). Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].Integrated Microelectronic Devices .Spring 2007 Lecture 15-2 Key questions • What happens to the majority carriers in a pn junction under bias? • What are the main practical issues in synthesizing pn junction diodes? • How does a pn junction switch? What dominates its dynamic behavior? Cite as: Jesús del Alamo.

43J .edu/). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Spring 2007.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-3 1. ΔQen supplied from n-contact. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. if V ↑→ Qhn ↑→ |Qen| ↑ with: ΔQhn � |ΔQen| ≡ ΔQn ΔQhn supplied from p-contact.6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. quasi-neutrality implies: Qhn � |Qen| ≡ Qn Also. Consequences: n. .mit. Ideal p-n junction out of equilibrium (cont. Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. course materials for 6.) � Minority carrier storage Quasi-neutrality in QNR’s demands n� � p� . p compensating� compensating� +ΔQhp −ΔQen holes n(x) p(x) -Qen +Qhp NA ND +ΔQhn injected� −ΔQep p(x) electrons n(x) ni2 NA +Qhn -Qep -wp electrons -xp 0 xn injected� holes ni2 ND wn x In n-QNR.Integrated Microelectronic Devices . Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].720J/3.

Integrated Microelectronic Devices . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.43J .720J/3. course materials for 6. . Spring 2007.edu/). Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.6.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-4 Looks like a capacitor ⇒ diffusion capacitance. Diffusion capacitance (per unit area): Cd = dQn dQp + dV dV with: Qn = q � w n Qp = q � −x p xn p� (x)dx − wp n�(x)dx • If both sides are ”long”: Qn = qLhp� (xn ) = τhJh(xn ) Qp = qLen� (−xp) = τeJe (−xp) and Cd � q q qV [τhJh(xn ) + τeJe (−xp)] = (τhJhs + τe Jes) exp kT kT kT Cite as: Jesús del Alamo.

Spring 2007. course materials for 6.43J .720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.6.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .edu/).Spring 2007 Lecture 15-5 • If both sides are short and S = ∞: 1 Qn = q p� (xn )(wn − xn) = τtnJh(xn ) 2 1 Qp = q n� (−xp )(wp − xp) = τtpJe (−xp) 2 with τtn and τtp are the minority carrier transit times through QNR’s: τtn (wn − xn)2 = 2Dh τtp (wp − xp )2 = 2De Then: Cd � q q qV [τtnJh(xn ) + τtpJe (−xp)] = (τtnJhs + τtpJes) exp kT kT kT Similar result to long diode! Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. . Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].720J/3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

720J/3.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .43J . course materials for 6.mit.6.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-6 • General expression: Cd = q � kT n. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. negligible in reverse bias: Cd ∼ exp qV kT qV [check that Cd ∼ exp qV and not ∼ exp − 1] kT kT • Total diode capacitance: C Cd C 0 0 Cj V Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. . Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].edu/). Spring 2007.p dominant minority carrier time constant ×injected minority carrier current density Cd grows exponentially in forward bias. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.

• pn junction diodes used in rectifying circuits. Spring 2007.43J .720J/3. detectors in commu­ nications applications. bias shifters.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .mit. no special process steps available. input protection devices against electrostatic discharge.6. . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-7 2. • For integrated p-n diodes.edu/). MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. p-n junction diode • pn junctions present in most semiconductor devices (BJTs and MOSFETs). Typical cross section of p-n diode implemented in BJT process: p+ n+ n n+ p Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. course materials for 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.

course materials for 6. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.mit.Integrated Microelectronic Devices . Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. • Reduces internal diode voltage → I ↓ I = Is[exp q(V − IRs ) − 1] kT ideal with series resistance I log |I| IRs 1/Rs 0 0 V linear scale 0 V semilogarithmic scale • Higher VF required to deliver desired IF → more power dissipa­ tion.edu/). potential process control problems • RC time constant degraded.720J/3. Spring 2007.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-8 � Parasitics � Series resistance: • Accounts for ohmic drop in QNR’s (neglected so far).6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].43J . .720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. S = ∞) + peripheral SiO2-covered area (Ap . volume recombination only → Aeff � Ac + Ap – if Wp � Le. course materials for 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].720J/3. Spring 2007. characterized by Shl .6.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-9 � Minority carrier boundary conditions: • At top surface: depending on relative depth of emitter. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.mit. S = 0) peripheral area Ap contact area Ac p+ n Je (periphery) Wp Je (area) – if Wp � Le .43J .Integrated Microelectronic Devices . MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.edu/). surface recombination only → Aeff � Ac • At bottom surface: high-low junction. effective diode area changes – top surface=ohmic contact area (Ac. Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. .

Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-10 � Isolation: • Parasitic substrate p-n junction → needs to be reverse biased to avoid turning it on. course materials for 6.Integrated Microelectronic Devices . VDD p+ n n+ VDD desired� current path hole recombination in cathode p hole extraction by substrate VSS desired result parasitic� current path VSS actual result • Hard to make integrated pn diodes in CMOS process (unless they hang directly from the power rail that is connected to the substrate). Spring 2007. • Easier in bipolar since n+ buried layer and collector plug can prevent minority carrier injection.720J/3. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. substrate contributes parasitic capacitance. • Even reverse biased. Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. .edu/).6. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. • Additional danger: ”bipolar effect” between diode and substrate → minority carriers can be extracted by substrate → current diverted away from main body of diode.43J .mit.

720J/3. . Spring 2007. Additionally.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-11 � Dynamics Fundamental difference between p-n and Schottky diodes: minority carrier storage slows down p-n diode.mit.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .edu/). delays associated with minority carrier storage. course materials for 6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.43J .6. Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. delays associated with RsCj . Consider simple voltage switching: V I Vf + V Vf 0 t Vr -Vr Vj Vf-IfRs 0 t -Vr I If(pk)= If(Vf) Vf+Vr Rs slower decay τt RsC 0 Ir(pk)=If- RsC t Vf+Vr Rs trr As in Schottky diode. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.

edu/).mit.43J .Spring 2007 Lecture 15-12 � Switch-off transient Evolution of excess minority carrier concentration (long diode): excess� minority� carrier � concentration t=0­ t= x switch-off At t = 0−. dominant minority carrier time constant. internal V cannot change abruptly → need to get rid of minority carriers! Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. external V abruptly changes from Vf to Vr . Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Spring 2007. minority carrier stored charge: Q = τ t If with τt . At t = 0+. . course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.6. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. Vf → If .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .720J/3.

kT as Q discharges. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-13 t=0- t=0+ I I Rs Rs - Vf-IfRs+Vr + If(Vf) + + Vf-IfRs C Vf - Vf-IfRs C Vr - I(0− ) = If (Vf ) I(0+) = − 1 Vr (Vf −If Rs +Vr ) � − Rs Rs Two phases to discharge: Phase I .mit.6. Spring 2007. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].43J . course materials for 6.From Vj � 0 to Vj = −Vr .720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. Vf cannot change much.edu/). Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. Charge depletion capacitance → Rs Cj time constant (as in Schot­ tky diode).720J/3. . Massachusetts Institute of Technology.From Vj = Vf − If Rs to Vj � 0.Integrated Microelectronic Devices . Discharge proceeds nearly at constant current Ir (pk) � − RVrs Time to discharge (reverse recovery time): trr � Q If (Vf )Rs � τt |Ir (pk)| Vr Phase II . Since Q ∼ exp qVf .

Spring 2007. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].Integrated Microelectronic Devices . MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. • Then. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. course materials for 6.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-14 � Switch-on transient t=0- t=0+ I I Rs Rs + Vf+Vr - Vr - C Vr Vr + C Vf + I(0−) = −Is I(0+) = Vf + Vr Rs Evolution of excess minority carrier concentration (long diode): excess� minority� carrier � concentration t= t=0­ x switch-on • First.6.720J/3.43J .edu/). minority carrier charge injection → takes τt. Cite as: Jesús del Alamo.mit. . RsCj -type charge up of junction capacitance.

4 -0. N= 1. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.6. EG= 1.edu/). M= 0.720J/3.2e−13. course materials for 6.0 -0. .12.2 41 ps current (A) 0.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.2 -0.43J .Integrated Microelectronic Devices . Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].mit. RS= 8.4 0.6 ns 4 ns τon 730 mA 736 mA Irr If (pk) ? 736 mA Cite as: Jesús del Alamo.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-15 Example of SPICE simulations: IS= 6e−17.89 V .8 0 1E-10 2E-10 3E-10 4E-10 5E-10 time (s) parameter SPICE hand calculation 41 ps 46 ps trr 2. VJ= 0.6 -0. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.814.41. CJO= 1. Vr = −5 V 0. XTI= 3.6. Spring 2007. and TT= 4e − 9 Vf = +0.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Cj domi­ nates in reverse bias.720J/3.43J .720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw. • Reverse recovery time is time required to eliminate minority carrier stored charge in switch-off transient. Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. .Integrated Microelectronic Devices .6. • Difficult to implemented integrated diodes in CMOS process: parasitic bipolar transistor. Spring 2007. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY]. course materials for 6.edu/).mit.p(dominant minority carrier time constant kT ×minority carrier current density) • Cd ∝ J ∝ exp qV kT ⇒ Cd dominates in forward bias. • Dynamics of p-n diode dominated by minority carrier storage.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-16 Key conclusions • Diffusion capacitance arises from minority carrier storage in QNR’s and quasi-neutrality: Cd = q Σn.

Spring 2007. . • Equivalent circuit models for pn diode Cite as: Jesús del Alamo. course materials for 6. MIT OpenCourseWare (http://ocw.edu/).720J/3.Integrated Microelectronic Devices .mit.720J Integrated Microelectronic Devices.Spring 2007 Lecture 15-17 Self study • Diffusion capacitance in short diode. Downloaded on [DD Month YYYY].6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.43J .