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General Studies – 1;

Topic: Urbanization – problems and remedies
Q1) Official projections suggest that with faster growth and rapid urbanisation,
Indian cities will be generating Municipal Solid Waste to the tune of 160-165
million tonnes — more than two-and-a-half times the present level — by 2030.
What challenges does this pose to Indian cities? Which best practices in
municipal solid waste management should be adopted to tackle garbage
problem?
Ans. Rapid urbanisation, coupled with Migration ,is likely to generate huge
amount of Solid waste in coming years. This will lead to following challenges for
Indian cities :
1) Separate land (landfill, dumping ground) allocation for waste
management. Might trigger deforestation in and around the city.
2) In absence of sewers, such solid waste might seep into ground or
waterbodies .Will affect potable water supply.
3) Garbage might get burnt in open for easy disposal. Will lead to release of
toxic gases and hence health hazard.
4) Safety of workers working in garbage management will be a challenge in
absence of safety gear.
5) Untreated effluents from industry, agriculture, household might affect local
ecosystem and biodiversity(eg. Eutrophication)
Thus, the need of the hour is to adopt best practices in solid waste management
from around the world.
a) Incentivise composting.
b) Segregate waste at individual/community level (organic and inorganic) for
easy disposal.
c) Adopt modern fecal sludge management.Have proper designs for septic
tanks and pit latrines. Would also help in curbing manual scavenging.
d) Pay as you go principle.
e) Promote Recycle/Reuse.Involve Private players.
f) Generate energy using the concept of Bioenergy-->Organic waste have
some calorific value which can be exploited by using technology. Engage
with Germany for this.
Short term growth shouldn't be compromised for long term survival.Hence along
with vigilantism of NGT,SC and strict ground implementation of schemes like
Smart city,Swacch Bharat,AMRUT would help us in tackling the menace.
General Studies – 2
Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social
Sector/Services relating to Health
Q2) The National Health Accounts data for 2013-14 present fresh evidence that
India continues to have a non-serious approach to the provision of universal

Inorder to increase the universal health coverage. Thus increase in health expenditure with a balanced public private partnership will help to increase the coverage under universal health coverage scheme in India. both at central and state government level b) Introducing a centralised system for procurement of essential drugs and an effective distribution system at the state level. Thus increase in privatisation will not help much in improving universal health coverage in India. 2) More research and development will be encouraged 3) Availability of world class level expert doctors 4) Reduce the stress on government and public system But in a country like india where majority of the people are middle class or poor . the following should need to be done: a) Increase in GDP allocation in the health field . d) Introducing a price regulatory mechanism to control prices of health service for all classes of hospitals. With increased defence cooperation between USA and India through USIndia DTTI. regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests Q3) Critically assess the significance of the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA) signed between India and USA. e) Increasing the health insurance coverage for all citizens of different age groups. and curbing of unethical and corrupt practices by hospitals and diagnostics centres. (200 Words) Ans. The national health accounts data 2013-2014 reveals that the universal health coverage is significantly low in India as compared to other developing countries. the next step both the countries have taken in the defence partnership is the LEMOA.health coverage to all its citizens. f) Proving Regulatory controls would automatically lead to a reduction in costs. Privatisation of health sector has both positive as well as negetive effects in the health sector: 1) Privatisation of health service will help to improve quality and facilities in the hospitals. these facilities are often ignored to them due high prices of services and medical treatment. (200 Words) Ans. c) Laying down standards of operation for all class of hospitals at district and state level. Topic: Bilateral. . Do you think more privatisation of health sector can bring about universal health coverage? Critically comment.

4) Maritime cooperation in Asia-Pacific 5) Improved bilateral relations with the USA and can be leveraged for better position of India in UNSC seat. agencies and fora. etc. may violate sovereignty The LEMOA. joint training. humanitarian assistance. 2) It will expand India’s capabilities in the disaster relief (E. 2004 Tsunami).their structure.Significance: 1) Both countries can use each other’s base for refueling. The importance of UNSC reforms for India is1) Raise India's geopolitical image in the international arena by becoming a permanent member 2) Ensures that any future resolutions against India for undue harm can be vetoed by her 3) Furthers India's adherence to principles of democracy as India's voice will be taken into account . Topic: Important International institutions. 6) Does not create USA bases in India and no ‘obligation’ to carry out an joint activity. Issues: a) Several delays in implementation even after clearing ‘Foundation Agreement’ due to various concerns on text of the agreement b) Increasing closeness with USA may antagonize countries like China. joitn exercises. (200 Words) Ans. on face value. who may see India as part of USA’s Pivot to Asia and not a non-aligned country anymore. humanitarian assistance (E. 3) It will enhance India’s military capability through joint exercises. port visits. repair. mandate Q4) Why is UNSC reforms is important for India? Do you think maintaining status quo at UNSC is in the interest of permanent members? Critically examine. etc. etc. c) If misused. Russia. NSG entry. India is also pushing for her permanent seat in UNSC. It will enable India to use USA military bases spread across the world for the purpose and can improve its soft power. etc. UNSC reforms pertain to allowance of greater number of permanent members in tune with the changed geo-political scenario. Operation Rahat).g. appears to be in the interest of both the countries and improve Indo-US relations. therefore India’s concerns on USA using India for its strategic benefit subside. disaster relief efforts. joint training. WTO disputes.g. etc. But only time will tell how its effects will unfold.

(200 Words) Ans. ATR are boon for infertile couple. India is a leader of developing countries and her inclusion can ensure benefits to existing permanent members on other international forums like World Trade Organization. specially the surrogate mother will be prevented from exploitation. institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections Q5) Write a note on Assisted reproductive technologies (ART). in light of exploitation under commercial surrogacy. India should continue to push its contendership for permanent status so as to democratize the institution of UNSC. It involves: 1. rights and identity of child born through surrogacy. inclusion of India has the benefit that it maintains the sanctity of UNSC as an institution. Hormonal treatement & medication for normal function of body to release sperm & ova 2. . Topic: mechanisms. Surrogacy is way in which woman (surrogate)carrys the child and become pregnant for the infertile couple(biological parents) on contract basis. This will give a legal backing to hitherto unregulated surrogacy.However. c) Identity: The intending couple will provide its identity to the born child and will not be allowed to escape their responsibility in case the kind of child they wished was not born. female who are not fit to concieve or couple having diease like HIV. this move is being opposed by someof the members of UNSC wanting to maintain the status quo. rights and Identity in following ways: a) Parentage: Infertile couples can opt for a surrogate mother within their family on Altruistic terms. This is becausea) Inclusion of India will raise voices from other countries for their inclusion in UNSC b) Greater number of members will hinder any effective decision making because of conflicting interests c) Reduces the geo-political weight of the existing members as for China in case of the Asian region But. Artificial insemination in which artifically a sperm is fertilized with ovum at women's uterus through by passing intercourse mechanism 3. Examine how does the Surrogacy Bill 2016 seek to address issues of parentage. laws. b) Rights: Rights of all the stakeholders is designed to be taken care of.e ovum and sperm respectively. In this method a fertilized egg of biological parents is placed in the womb of surrogate mother without any intercourse. The Bill plans to address issues related to Parentage. Assisted reproductive technologies comprises all types of fertility treatment and procedures to achieve pregnancy . It deals with both female and male gametes i.

cases of sedition have decreased while human trafficking.Increase awareness among people about laws so they can raise voice in time of exploitation 3) Security.Improve economic conditions through schemes like MGNREGA so that people do not fall in traps of traffickers for better life Cyber Crime-Violation of cyber laws and gaining access to personal information for harassing people.Increase awareness among people and educate the about loopholes that can be exploited d) International. This is because- . issues like complete ban on commercial surrogacy. five year period for married couples etc needs to be sorted out to safeguard the interest of all stakeholders. Measures neededa) Technical. Human trafficking and cyber crimes are increasingly becoming a tool for harassment and exploitation of human beings. Topic: Environmental pollution Q7) “The gravest threat to groundwater in India isn’t over-exploitation but arsenic and salt contamination. Organized crime Q6) NCRB data reveals crimes against women and foreigners. groundwater problem is more related to arsenic and salt contamination than over exploitation. (200 Words) Ans. including devadasi system.Establish anti-cyber terror cells in Police stations [cyberdome in Kerala] to take action against offenders c) Social. Human Trafficking-Implies sale of people like goods.” Discuss.Recruit cyber specialists for strengthening the cyber security infrastructure of the country b) Security. cyber crimes have increased. forced labor. How can India reduce crimes such as human trafficking and cyber crimes? Discuss.Sign Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties with countries to punish offenders in case of cross border crimes Preventing human trafficking and cyber crime is in the interest of the nation. It will ensure human rights to the people and will avoid attacks on critical infra of the country.sexual slavery and other kind of exploitation. General Studies – 3 Topic: Cyber security. Quantity and quality of groundwater id depletiong day by day.Though the bill is a step in right direction.Increase manning of porous borders to prevent working of cross border trafficking syndicates 4) Economic.Amend Indian laws to make the definition of human trafficking more inclusive in nature 2) Social. A new study has established that in India. Measures needed1) Legal. (200 Words) Ans.

In terms of interaction with society. Hence the overall quality of life by being good is much better.g. Once Abraham Lincoln on his way saw a helpless pig stuck in the mud and decided to help the pig. This should be the motivation for being good. There is need to develop a civic sense among people to avoid wastage of ground water along with legislative measures for addressing quality concerns. salty Acquifer zones of eastern Kolkata due to tides and waves 3)Both.g. A person does stand guilty in his own court of conscience for wrong doing. The growth of water intensive crops. Later he explained that he did that in self-interest as he would not had sound sleep that night if he didn’t help. . Being good is morally uplifting.Anthropogenic causes like excessive of chemical fertilizers. Even if bad people around are leading a good life they are in constant fear of law. Punjab. Thus. Being good brings peace of mind leading to good life. (150 Words) Ans. Good people are free from fear. Harayana and Rajasthan. excessive use of groundwater for irrigation and presence of Easement Act that allows a house owner to use groundwater resources below his house have caused an overuse of water. it boosts dignity and self-respect.1)Arsenic. this seems to be half truth as NASA satellites have shown that ground water is depleting at a fast rate with certain red pockets [extreme depletion] in states of Uttar Pradesh. Damodar river from Chotanagpur plateau 2)Salt-. it can be said that both depletion and contamination are equally responsible for quality and quantity concerns of ground water. However. leaching of metals contribute to contamination Over-exploitation doesn't look a great cause because acquifers are regularly recharged through rainfalls and regular flooding of rivers like Kosi thereby arresting depletion of groundwater.Rivers that are responsible for ground water recharge passes through mineral belts e. both good and bad people coexist in this world. fear of losing everything in a jiffy. release of industrial effluents. fear of getting embarrassed in front of their family. General Studies – 4 Topic: Ethics and Human Interface Q8) As you can see. What merits do you see in being a good person when bad people around you are leading a good life? Justify. the moral authority and persuasive power that good people enjoys are not with bad ones even if they lead good life.Occurrence of saline ingress in costal regions due to marine influences e.