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COAL

Coal is a solid non-metallic material used in the industry as energy fuel, reducing agent
particularly in metallurgy; raw material for carbon chemistry, absorbent, filtering.
From the geological standpoint, coal is an organic sediment deposited in tabular bodies
or layers called mantles. This is a non-crystalline gel, formed from plant remains
preserved from oxidation in swampy areas. Along with the plant remains noncombustible
materials constituting the ashes and reduce their economic value were deposited.
Organic matter lost due to internal heat of the earth and the pressure on the layers
recumbent, first water and then volatiles oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen with carbon; not
staying in the end the combined carbon and non-combustible inorganic portion. This
process is called carbonization and determines the range of the coal.
Coal is caused by the decomposition of terrestrial plants, leaves, wood, bark, and spores
that accumulate in swamps, lagoons or marine areas, shallow. The dead plants
accumulate at the bottom of a basin. They are covered with water and, therefore,
protected from air that would destroy them. Begins a slow transformation by the action
of anaerobic bacteria, a type of microorganisms that can not live in the presence of
oxygen. With time a progressive carbon enrichment occurs. Later they can be covered
with clay deposits, which help maintain proper anaerobic environment to continue the
process of coalification.

CONDITIONS FOR FORMATION OF COAL
- Development and evolution of lush vegetation.
- Hot and humid climate.
- Slow continuous increase in the water table.
- Slow Sinking.
- Protection against floods swamp.
- In tropical bog 7 - 9 years, growing from 5 to 6 m.
- In cold climates 7- 9 years 30 cm growth.

PROPERTIES OF COAL
- Wet: Meteoric and inherent.
- Volatile matter: H gives heat, N consumes heat, O, y CO2.
- Ash: Inorganic and noncombustible.
- Fixed Coal: Continuous heat source (unless the H).
- Power Binder: transformation into coke.
- Reflectance.

so it is used in the manufacture of electrodes. Its ignition temperature is very high. its price is much higher than the second variety. The graphite of Peru is "amorphous" or cryptocrystalline. quality. . This is a rather impure cryptocrystalline . In the department of Piura. crucibles.COAL IN PERU In Peru there were three major periods of the formation of coal: . GRAPHITE Graphite is a crystalline form of coal that differs from uncrystallized for their properties and uses. Deposits are small and are presented in the departments of Piura. It is formed by regional metamorphism. range and emerge with a few exceptions in different areas. formed by regional metamorphism.Miocene (Tertiary). It can be found in metamorphic aureoles of intrusive. Graphite is also a good conductor of heat and electricity. The diameter of the crystals of the first variety must exceed the minimum of 0. is distinguished by its magnitude. Coal deposits of the referred period. Ancash and Lima. graphite was also found in the Olmos Group near the “bigote” hamlet. Huallaga Marañón basin. Yura basin. La Libertad. Chavin – Conchucos basin. allowing use as a solid lubricant. Most Mesozoic coals were formed by contact metamorphism. for example in the manufacture of casting molds. GEOLOGICAL OCCURRENCE The "crystalline" and "amorphous" graphite two varieties are distinguished. their cleavage is perfect and sheets can bend.2 mm. Oyón basin. The hardness of graphite is 1 according to the Mohs scale. MAIN BASIN WITH COAL IN PERU - Chicama basin.Mississippian . The "amorphous" graphite has lower cryptocrystalline crystals actually being a microcrystalline. With this it is possible to determine carboniferous provinces containing coal deposits with similar characteristics and genesis.Jurassic to Cretaceous Transition (Mesozoic). Jatunhuasi basin. extent. so you may use as a refractory. .Lower Carboniferous (Paleozoic). Goyllarisquizga basin. among others.

COAL POTENTIAL Peru has a significant potential for coal utilization which offers interesting and varied opportunities for investors. paints. This potential is very limited advantage of. etc. brake packaging machines. electrodes. production is heterogeneous and insecure supply. Verifiable reserves in the basins of the Alto Chicama. Exploitation rates anthracite in Peru are very small. pens.0 million are available in the short term. Most of the extracted anthracite is used as fuel without washing brickworks and only a small fraction industries. . transportation is very expensive. Bituminous coal reserves with medium and low volatile material found in the basin of Jatunhuasi and southern part of the basin Oyon respectively. belts. The potential of anthracite in the Sierra Norte is the order of hundreds of millions of tons. It is used in steelmaking smelting.graphite. its existence is an important indication of the Paleozoic age of metamorphosed rocks. Oyon and Jatunhuasi amounted to 131. batteries. Holy. The best possibilities present exploitation and industrialization of anthracite of the Northwest Andes. The total coal resources estimated at 711 million MT.0 million MT of which 36.