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INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

181

EXERCISE 8.1
1. In ∆ ABC, right-angled at B, AB = 24 cm, BC = 7 cm. Determine :
(i) sin A, cos A
(ii) sin C, cos C
2. In Fig. 8.13, find tan P – cot R.
3,
calculate cos A and tan A.
4
4. Given 15 cot A = 8, find sin A and sec A.

3. If sin A =

13 ,
calculate all other trigonometric ratios.
Fig. 8.13
12
6. If ∠ A and ∠ B are acute angles such that cos A = cos B, then show that ∠ A = ∠ B.

5. Given sec θ =

7. If cot θ =

7,
(1 + sin θ) (1 − sin θ) ,
evaluate : (i)
8
(1 + cos θ) (1 − cos θ)

(ii) cot2 θ

1 − tan 2 A
= cos2 A – sin2A or not.
1 + tan 2 A
1 ,
9. In triangle ABC, right-angled at B, if tan A =
find the value of:
3
(i) sin A cos C + cos A sin C

8. If 3 cot A = 4, check whether

(ii) cos A cos C – sin A sin C
10. In ∆ PQR, right-angled at Q, PR + QR = 25 cm and PQ = 5 cm. Determine the values of
sin P, cos P and tan P.
11. State whether the following are true or false. Justify your answer.
(i) The value of tan A is always less than 1.
12
(ii) sec A =
for some value of angle A.
5
(iii) cos A is the abbreviation used for the cosecant of angle A.
(iv) cot A is the product of cot and A.
(v) sin θ =

4
for some angle θ.
3

8.3 Trigonometric Ratios of Some Specific Angles
From geometry, you are already familiar with the construction of angles of 30°, 45°,
60° and 90°. In this section, we will find the values of the trigonometric ratios for these
angles and, of course, for 0°.

182

MATHEMATICS

Trigonometric Ratios of 45°
In ∆ ABC, right-angled at B, if one angle is 45°, then
the other angle is also 45°, i.e., ∠ A = ∠ C = 45°
(see Fig. 8.14).
So,

BC = AB

(Why?)

Now, Suppose BC = AB = a.
Then by Pythagoras Theorem, AC2 = AB2 + BC2 = a2 + a2 = 2a2,
and, therefore,

Fig. 8.14

AC = a 2 ⋅

Using the definitions of the trigonometric ratios, we have :
sin 45° =

side opposite to angle 45° BC
a
1
=
=
=
hypotenuse
AC a 2
2

cos 45° =

side adjacent to angle 45° AB
a
1
=
=
=
hypotenuse
AC a 2
2

tan 45° =

side opposite to angle 45° BC a
=
= =1
side adjacent to angle 45° AB a

Also, cosec 45° =

1
1
1
= 2 , sec 45° =
= 2 , cot 45° =
= 1.
sin 45°
cos 45°
tan 45°

Trigonometric Ratios of 30° and 60°
Let us now calculate the trigonometric ratios of 30°
and 60°. Consider an equilateral triangle ABC. Since
each angle in an equilateral triangle is 60°, therefore,
∠ A = ∠ B = ∠ C = 60°.
Draw the perpendicular AD from A to the side BC
(see Fig. 8.15).
Fig. 8.15
Now
∆ ABD ≅ ∆ ACD (Why?)
Therefore,
BD = DC
and
∠ BAD = ∠ CAD (CPCT)
Now observe that:
∆ ABD is a right triangle, right- angled at D with ∠ BAD = 30° and ∠ ABD = 60°
(see Fig. 8.15).

INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

183

As you know, for finding the trigonometric ratios, we need to know the lengths of the
sides of the triangle. So, let us suppose that AB = 2a.
Then,

BD =

1
BC = a
2

AD2 = AB2 – BD2 = (2a)2 – (a)2 = 3a2,

and

AD = a 3

Therefore,
Now, we have :

BD
a
1
AD a 3
3
=
= , cos 30° =
=
=
AB 2a 2
AB
2a
2
BD
a
1
=
=
tan 30° =
.
AD a 3
3
sin 30° =

Also,

1
1
2
= 2, sec 30° =
=
sin 30°
cos 30°
3
1
= 3.
cot 30° =
tan 30°

cosec 30° =

Similarly,
sin 60° =
cosec 60° =

AD a 3
3
1
=
=
, cos 60° = , tan 60° =
2
AB
2a
2

3,

2 ,
1

sec 60° = 2 and cot 60° =
3
3

Trigonometric Ratios of 0° and 90°
Let us see what happens to the trigonometric ratios of angle
A, if it is made smaller and smaller in the right triangle ABC
(see Fig. 8.16), till it becomes zero. As ∠ A gets smaller and
smaller, the length of the side BC decreases.The point C gets
closer to point B, and finally when ∠ A becomes very close
to 0°, AC becomes almost the same as AB (see Fig. 8.17).

Fig. 8.17

Fig. 8.16

184

MATHEMATICS

When ∠ A is very close to 0°, BC gets very close to 0 and so the value of
BC
sin A =
is very close to 0. Also, when ∠ A is very close to 0°, AC is nearly the
AC
AB
same as AB and so the value of cos A =
is very close to 1.
AC
This helps us to see how we can define the values of sin A and cos A when
A = 0°. We define : sin 0° = 0 and cos 0° = 1.
Using these, we have :
tan 0° =

sin 0°
1 ,
= 0, cot 0° =
which is not defined. (Why?)
cos 0°
tan 0°

1
1 ,
= 1 and cosec 0° =
which is again not defined.(Why?)
cos 0°
sin 0°
Now, let us see what happens to the trigonometric ratios of ∠ A, when it is made
larger and larger in ∆ ABC till it becomes 90°. As ∠ A gets larger and larger, ∠ C gets
smaller and smaller. Therefore, as in the case above, the length of the side AB goes on
decreasing. The point A gets closer to point B. Finally when ∠ A is very close to 90°,
∠ C becomes very close to 0° and the side AC almost coincides with side BC
(see Fig. 8.18).
sec 0° =

Fig. 8.18
When ∠ C is very close to 0°, ∠ A is very close to 90°, side AC is nearly the
same as side BC, and so sin A is very close to 1. Also when ∠ A is very close to 90°,
∠ C is very close to 0°, and the side AB is nearly zero, so cos A is very close to 0.
So, we define :

sin 90° = 1 and cos 90° = 0.

Now, why don’t you find the other trigonometric ratios of 90°?
We shall now give the values of all the trigonometric ratios of 0°, 30°, 45°, 60°
and 90° in Table 8.1, for ready reference.

INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

185

Table 8.1
∠A

30°

45°

60°

90°

sin A

0

1
2

1
2

3
2

1

cos A

1

3
2

1
2

1
2

0

tan A

0

1
3

1

3

Not defined

Not defined

2

2

2
3

1

sec A

1

2
3

2

2

Not defined

cot A

Not defined

3

1

1
3

0

cosec A

Remark : From the table above you can observe that as ∠ A increases from 0° to
90°, sin A increases from 0 to 1 and cos A decreases from 1 to 0.
Let us illustrate the use of the values in the table above through some examples.
Example 6 : In ∆ ABC, right-angled at B,
AB = 5 cm and ∠ ACB = 30° (see Fig. 8.19).
Determine the lengths of the sides BC and AC.
Solution : To find the length of the side BC, we will
choose the trigonometric ratio involving BC and the
given side AB. Since BC is the side adjacent to angle
C and AB is the side opposite to angle C, therefore

AB
= tan C
BC
i.e.,
which gives

1
5
= tan 30° =
3
BC
BC = 5 3 cm

Fig. 8.19

186

MATHEMATICS

To find the length of the side AC, we consider
sin 30° =

AB
AC

(Why?)

i.e.,

1
5
=
2
AC

i.e.,

AC = 10 cm

Note that alternatively we could have used Pythagoras theorem to determine the third
side in the example above,
i.e.,

AC =

AB2 + BC 2 = 52 + (5 3) 2 cm = 10cm.

Example 7 : In ∆ PQR, right - angled at
Q (see Fig. 8.20), PQ = 3 cm and PR = 6 cm.
Determine ∠ QPR and ∠ PRQ.
Solution : Given PQ = 3 cm and PR = 6 cm.

PQ
= sin R
PR

Therefore,

Fig. 8.20

3 1
=
sin R =
6 2

or
So,

∠ PRQ = 30°

and therefore,

∠ QPR = 60°.

(Why?)

You may note that if one of the sides and any other part (either an acute angle or any
side) of a right triangle is known, the remaining sides and angles of the triangle can be
determined.
1
1
Example 8 : If sin (A – B) = , cos (A + B) = , 0° < A + B ≤ 90°, A > B, find A
2
2
and B.
Solution : Since, sin (A – B) =

1
, therefore, A – B = 30° (Why?)
2

1
, therefore, A + B = 60°
2
Solving (1) and (2), we get : A = 45° and B = 15°.
Also, since cos (A + B) =

(Why?)

(1)
(2)

INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

187

EXERCISE 8.2
1. Evaluate the following :
(ii) 2 tan2 45° + cos2 30° – sin2 60°

(i) sin 60° cos 30° + sin 30° cos 60°
(iii)

cos 45°
sec 30° + cosec 30°

(iv)

sin 30° + tan 45° – cosec 60°
sec 30° + cos 60° + cot 45°

5 cos 2 60° + 4 sec 2 30° − tan 2 45°
sin 2 30° + cos 2 30°
2. Choose the correct option and justify your choice :

(v)

(i)

(ii)

2 tan 30°
=
1 + tan 2 30°
(A) sin 60°

(B) cos 60°

(C) tan 60°

(D) sin 30°

(B) 1

(C) sin 45°

(D) 0

(B) 30°

(C) 45°

(D) 60°

(B) sin 60°

(C) tan 60°

(D) sin 30°

1 − tan 2 45°
=
1 + tan 2 45°

(A)

tan 90°

(iii) sin 2A = 2 sin A is true when A =
(A)
(iv)

2 tan 30°
=
1 − tan 2 30°

(A)

cos 60°

1

; 0° < A + B ≤ 90°; A > B, find A and B.
3
4. State whether the following are true or false. Justify your answer.
3. If tan (A + B) =

3 and tan (A – B) =

(i) sin (A + B) = sin A + sin B.
(ii) The value of sin θ increases as θ increases.
(iii) The value of cos θ increases as θ increases.
(iv) sin θ = cos θ for all values of θ.
(v) cot A is not defined for A = 0°.

8.4 Trigonometric Ratios of Complementary Angles
Recall that two angles are said to be complementary
if their sum equals 90°. In ∆ ABC, right-angled at B,
do you see any pair of complementary angles?
(See Fig. 8.21)

Fig. 8.21

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MATHEMATICS

Since ∠ A + ∠ C = 90°, they form such a pair. We have:
sin A =

BC
AC

cos A =

AC
cosec A =
BC

AB
AC

AC
sec A =
AB

tan A =

BC
AB

AB
cot A =
BC








(1)

Now let us write the trigonometric ratios for ∠ C = 90° – ∠ A.
For convenience, we shall write 90° – A instead of 90° – ∠ A.
What would be the side opposite and the side adjacent to the angle 90° – A?
You will find that AB is the side opposite and BC is the side adjacent to the angle
90° – A. Therefore,
sin (90° – A) =

AB
,
AC

cos (90° – A) =

BC
AB
, tan (90° – A) =

AC
BC 


 (2)
AC ,
AC ,
BC 
sec (90° – A) =
cot (90° – A) =
cosec (90° – A) =

AB
BC
AB 

Now, compare the ratios in (1) and (2). Observe that :

Also,

So,

sin (90° – A) =

AB
BC
= cos A and cos (90° – A) =
= sin A
AC
AC

tan (90° – A) =

AB
BC
= cot A , cot (90° – A) =
= tan A
BC
AB

sec (90° – A) =

AC
= cosec A ,
BC

cosec (90° – A) =

sin (90° – A) = cos A,

cos (90° – A) = sin A,

tan (90° – A) = cot A,

cot (90° – A) = tan A,

sec (90° – A) = cosec A,

cosec (90° – A) = sec A,

AC
= sec A
AB

for all values of angle A lying between 0° and 90°. Check whether this holds for
A = 0° or A = 90°.
Note : tan 0° = 0 = cot 90°, sec 0° = 1 = cosec 90° and sec 90°, cosec 0°, tan 90° and
cot 0° are not defined.
Now, let us consider some examples.