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Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima și

Nagasaki

Norul ciupercă provocat de explozia aruncării primei bombe atomice, Little Boy, deasupra orașului Hiroshima.

Norul ciupercă provocat de explozia aruncării celei de-a doua
bombe atomice, [The] Fat Man, deasupra orașului Nagasaki s-a
ridicat la 18 km (sau 11 mi = 60,000 ft) în atmosferă deasupra
hipocentrului.

dispuneau doar de câteva) ci politic. Din punct de vedere
militar, Statele Unite ar fi câștigat puțin prin distrugerea
a două orașe japoneze. Dar din punct de vedere civil,
Japonia avea să piardă mult. Noutatea adusă de armele
nucleare a fost nu distrugerea la scară largă (care s-ar fi
putut realiza și cu arme convenționale în cantitatea necesară), ci faptul că armele nucleare comprimă distrugerea
catastrofică într-o perioadă de timp foarte scurtă schimbă dramatic politica războiului, motivațiile oamenilor cu
putere de decizie și capacitatea de a reflecta în timp ce
războiul se desfășoară.

Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima și Nagasaki au constat din două atacuri nucleare implicând aruncarea a două bombe atomice, produse de Statele Unite ale
Americii, la sfârșitul celui de-al doilea război mondial,
asupra a două orașe din Japonia, Hiroshima și Nagasaki.
La timpul aruncării celor două bombe atomice, deși războiul din Europa se terminase prin capitularea necondiționată a Germaniei, Imperiul Japoniei și Statele Unite ale
Americii se aflau încă în stare de război. La 6 august 1945
bomba atomică cunoscută ca "Little Boy" a fost aruncată
deasupra orașului Hiroshima, iar trei zile mai târziu, la 9
august 1945, cea de-a doua bombă atomică, cunoscută ca
"Fat Man", a fost detonată deasupra orașului Nagasaki.

2 Bibliografie

Există o literatură extensivă dedicată subiectului, bombardării propriu-zise, deciziei de a utiliza bombe atomice
și capitulării Japoniei. Sursele care sunt menționate mai
jos furnizează exemple de scrieri de valoare referitoare
la acest subiect. Datorită continuei și intensei dezbateri a
Cele două arme atomice au fost arme de șoc și teroare. justificării bombardărilor, este posibil ca unele din surse
Avantajul enorm al acestor arme nu a fost militar (SUA de mai jos să conțină puncte de vedere disputate.

1

Motive pentru efectuarea bombardamentelor

1

Thomas C. and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings. Government Printing Office. ISBN 4-7700-1845-2 • Weller. The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan in the Modern World). U. John (15 septembrie 1985). University of North Carolina Press.S..: Arms and Influence (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. George and Weller.. Westview Press.gwu. • „Tale of Two Cities: The Story of Hiroshima and Nagasaki”. Manhattan Project. Quill Publishing. ISBN 0-679-72103-7 An account of the bombing by an American journalist who visited the city shortly after the Occupation began. Vintage Press. • Sodei. ISBN 0-307-34201-8 • Lifton. Mandate For Change: 1953-1956. and interviewed survivors. Hibakusha: Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Sharpe. ISBN 47700-2776-1 • Sekimori. The Army Air Forces in World War II. http://www. U. ISBN bly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the 1-56324-967-9 Oppenheimer Years. Were We the Enemy? AmeriISBN 0-8047-3957-9 can Survivors of Hiroshima. et al (1993). Robert (2004). The Harry S. ISBN 087332773X • Takashi.2 2 BIBLIOGRAFIE • Hein. (2003). 1946.atomicarchive.atomicarchive. „United States Strategic Bombing Survey. The Bells of Nagasaki.com/Docs/MED/index. Nagai (1949). Laura and Selden. official homepage. Critical Assemral Conflicts in the Nuclear Age.shtml. Hiroshima Diary. Dwight D. 1965) ISBN 0-300-14337-0 • Hachiya. Gaynor (1986). Mark (Editors) (1997). William (Editor) (2005).64 de ani de la cel mai mare cosmar al omenirii. • Schelling. • Burr. Army. Sharpe. Lillian.org/whistlestop/study_ collections/bomb/large/index. A World Destroyed: Hiroshima and its Legacies. Truman Library. Hiroshima in America: A Half Century of Denial. • Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. official homepage. M. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical. • Ogura. Robert and Mitchell. written by a doctor who was in the city when the bomb was dropped. Li. ISBN 0-80784547-7 A daily diary covering the months after the bombing. Letters from the End of the World: A Firsthand Account of the Bombing of Hiroshima. Anthony (2006).htm. E. Peter Lang Publishing.ibiblio. . • Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum. et al (1986).php. Wesley Frank.S. Medical. • „The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki”. http://www. ISBN 0-465-02985-X Detailed accounts of the immediate and subsequent casualties over three decades. • „Documents on the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb”. Enola Gay and the Court of History (Frontiers in Political Communication). (1963). Rinjiro (1998). Hiroshima. • Hersey. ISBN 0-8133-3750-X • Newman. Basic Books.trumanlibrary.1 Istorisiri și descrieri ving with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultu• Hoddeson. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-380-72764-1 • The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1981). First Into Nagasaki: The Censored Eyewitness Dispatches on Post-Atomic Japan and Its Prisoners of War.2. ISBN 4-333-01204-X • Selden. ISBN 0-8204-7457-6 • Eisenhower. Kyoko. http:// www. Michihiko (1955). ISBN 0-521-44132-3 • Sherwin. http://www. Vintage Press. Cambridge University Press. Toyofumi (1948). M. Kosei Publishing Company. James Lea Cate (1946). http://www.shtml.html. Doubleday & Company • Craven. Summary Report (Pacific War)”. Martin J. „The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II: A Collection of Primary Sources”. National Security Archive.edu/~{}nsarchiv/NSAEBB/ NSAEBB162/index.com/ History/twocities/index. Kodansha International Ltd. • Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims • Hiroshima . Kodansha International Ltd. E.org/hyperwar/AAF/ USSBS-PTO-Summary. Greg (1995). The White House Years.

J. ISBN 014-100146-1 A history of the final months of the war. Stephen (2005). Harper Perennial. (1960). ISBN 0313-24221-6 A history of the bombings. • Weintraub. 1956. and the decision-making to use them. William (1967). • Hogan. • Rhodes. Truman Talley Books.3 • Craig. Fletcher and Bailey. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 156852-597-4 A history of the preparations to drop the bombs. No High Ground. Richard (1977). 3 Vezi și • Ploaia neagră (film japonez) . ISBN 0-380-78874-8 • Rhodes. Harper and Row. Richard (1986). and that they hoped that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government. The author contends that the Japanese military leaders were preparing to continue the fight. et al (1999). Hiroshima in History and Memory. the bombings. Prompt and Utter Destruction: President Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs Against Japan. Richard B. Quill Publishing. Shockwave: Countdown to Hiroshima. Cambridge University Press. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Samuel (1997). (2001). ISBN 47700-2887-3 An account of the Japanese surrender and how it was almost thwarted by soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor. ISBN 0-88365-985-9 A history of the governmental decision making on both sides. 1958) • The Pacific War Research Society (2006). War’s End: An Eyewitness Account of America’s Last Atomic Mission. (1996). Simon & Schuster. The Last. Japan’s Longest Day. Great Victory: The End of World War II. Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists (New York: Harcourt. and of the missions. Galahad Books. ISBN 0-52156206-6 • Knebel. Charles W. Brace. Michael J. Penguin Books. Oxford University Press. Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. ISBN 0-06-0742852 Narrative events in the lives of those involved in or touched by the bombings. ISBN 0-671-44133-7 • Sweeney. The Fall of Japan. • Frank. ISBN 0-8078-2361-9 • Walker. ISBN 0-525-93687-4 Recounts the events day by day. • Robert Jungk. Enola Gay: The Bombing of Hiroshima. • Walker. and the opening of the Occupation. with emphasis on the preparations and prospects for the invasion of Japan. Charles. Stanley (1995). Konecky & Konecky.

jpg Sursă: https://upload.svg Sursă: https://upload. Jirka62. Mishuletz. Dual Freq assumed (based on copyright claims). and licenses 4. Alex:D. Navy Naval History and Heritage Command Artist original: United States Navy photograph.svg Licență: Public domain Contribuitori: No machine-readable source provided. JAnDbot. Ark25. GÜT. ArthurBot. photographed from USS West Virginia (BB-48).org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Nagasakibomb. Navy photo 80-G-K-3829 from the U. Victor Blacus. Adrian ach. HerculeBot. Wars. Dinamik-bot. Miehs. Thijs!bot. George R. contributors. Ionutzmovie. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims). ChuispastonBot.S. Gikü.archives.jpg National Archives image (208-N-43888) Artist original: Charles Levy from one of the B-29 Superfortresses used in the attack.2 Images • Fișier:Atomic_cloud_over_Hiroshima.gov/research/military/ww2/photos/images/ww2-163.wikimedia.S. Tolea93.0 Contribuitori: and File:DSP Z 8702 C.jpg Sursă: https://upload. Alex Nico. Aibot. Artist original: Enola Gay Tail Gunner S/Sgt. RebelRobot. ZéroBot. Xqbot. Alexbot. Andrei Stroe. 4. Sîmbotin.org/wiki/Bombardamentele_atomice_de_la_ Hiroshima_%C8%99i_Nagasaki?oldid=10511674 Contribuitori: Vali. EmausBot. XXN-bot. Arado. TuvicBot. CONTRIBUTORS. Artist original: No machine-readable author provided. AND LICENSES 4 Text and image sources.wikimedia. Addbot. BodhisattvaBot. EmilyBot.1 Text • Bombardamentele atomice de la Hiroshima și Nagasaki Sursă: https://ro. uploader was Denelson83 • Fișier:New_Mexico_class_battleship_bombarding_Okinawa.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/US_Naval_Jack_48_stars.jpg Licență: Public domain Contribuitori: This media is available in the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration.pdf Artist original: David Newton. WikitanvirBot. MerlIwBot. Sz-iwbot. Macariev. RadufanBot. Nife.wikimedia.wikimedia. TXiKiBoT. Gray eyes.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/Atomic_cloud_over_ Hiroshima. Luckas-bot.org/wikipedia/commons/4/49/ New_Mexico_class_battleship_bombarding_Okinawa. Saxonul.jpg Licență: Public domain Contribuitori: http://www.jpg Licență: Public domain Contribuitori: Official U. (Bob) Caron • Fișier:Nagasakibomb.svg Licență: CC-BY-SA-3. • Fișier:US_Naval_Jack_48_stars.jpg Sursă: https://upload.0 . Loveless. YFdyh-bot. Mihai Andrei. Kerouac. Rad Urs. JYBot.4 4 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES.wikimedia. • Fișier:Naval_Ensign_of_Japan.wikipedia. Makecat-bot. Strainubot. Silenzio76. Ptbotgourou.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4f/Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. Abedwyz și Anonim: 17 4. Mycomp.svg Sursă: https://upload. cataloged under the ARC Identifier (National Archives Identifier) 542192. Strainu.3 Content license • Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Turbojet. Vitalie Ciubotaru.