You are on page 1of 6

General Studies – 1;

Topic: World geography
Q1) What are stromatolites? Why their discovery is important to understand
geological history of the earth? (200 Words)
Ans. Stromatolites are the fossilized communities of bacteria found on earth.
Stromatolites are formed when microorganism such as certain kind of bacteria,
get trap in bits of sediments together in layers. These layers build up over time
to create solid rocks. They are actually the colonies of billions of bacteria which
are very much similar to the one found in today's oceans and seas.
The stromatolites are considered as the earliest known evidence of Earth's
fossils. Any further research on these structures can help in understanding the
following things1) It provides information to geologist about nature of fossils existing billion
years ago.
2) Being of sedimentary nature, successive layering of earth can be studied.
3) Determining which life form appeared first on the Earth's surface
4) Evaluating whether the regions where such structures are found were
connected in any manner
Thus, it can be said that stromatolite marks a step forward in unravelling the
geological past of the Earth. More research needs to be carried out before
coming to any conclusion.

Topic: Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
Q2) “For multiple reasons, Indian cities are largely auto-constructed. Put simply:
they have been built not by the intentions of planners or architects but by people
themselves.” What challenges this type of urbanization in India has posed to
dwellers and policymakers? Examine. (200 Words)
Ans. Urban planning was neglected by Government and policy makers since
Independence leading to unrestricted and unplanned growth of cities. Rush of
migrants from the hinterland further proliferated it, together creating numerous
challenges for dwellers and policymakers. Auto-constructed urbanization:
1) dwellers living in unorganized area are deprived of the basic amenities like
electricity, water etc
2) the presence of slums, squatters lead to spreading of diseases due to the
unhygienic conditions.
3) though the people living in such places contribute to the labour market ,
they also contribute to the crime rate in the city.
4) this outgrowth puts heavy pressure on the resource base of the city
5) and also responsible for the high population density, heavy traffic etc
Challenges posed on the policy makers

2) Holidays/strikes leads to delays in crucial judicial matters. 4) Lack of infrastructure : Fewer number of courts with just one supreme court further delays litigation matters. d) maintaining the infra such as hospitals. These problems for failure of judiciary are: 1) Unclear/inconsistent laws : Overlapping appeals. weakening of our judicial system is due to multifaceted problem. schools etc is always a challenge. water reservoirs leading to bigger problems in future( ex flooding in chennai) Therefore the urgent requirement of the hour is to check unplanned and illegal construction and growth of urban areas. public transports. 6) Power tussle between gvt and judiciary. 8) Lack of transparency in collegium system lower the people confidence in judiciary. General Studies – 2 Topic: Functioning of judiciary Q3) Do you think vacancies are the sole reason for debilitating judicial delays in in Indian judiciary? Discuss. Failure of NJAC and MoP further aggravates conflict between the two major organs of state. vacancy being only one of them. With rising delays in appointment of supreme court and high court judges. b) heavy pressure on the municipality to provide water and electricity to such dwellings. no strict timelines in solving cases leads to clog in the judicial system.a) once the unorganized dwelling established then its impossible to reorganize that . g) challenge of encroachment of public places. BUT. hence. at first glance. 7) Improper use of PIL. 3) Alternate Dispute mechanism fails to give much impact in solving dispute outside the court. 41% of hearing made in higher courts is through appeals. f) the outward growth leads to challenges of regulating and maintaining the public security. c) there is always a fear of spread of diseases like dengue( ex Delhi) which increases the tension of the policymakers. it seems that vacancy is the sole reason for debilitating judicial system. (200 Words) Ans. false/ambiguous claims further delays the time of proper judgement. The "Housing for all" initiative can be incorporated with "Swachh Bharat Mission" and "Total sanitisation Programme" to improve the current situation. 5) Quality of justice done in lower courts is unsatisfactory. e) increase in waste generation and management of this is a challenge. . Sustainable development of Indian cities should be India's way of Urbanisation and development.

Solutions: a) Following strict timelines. fairness. Topic: Issues relating to development and management of Social Sector/Services relating to Health. Q4) Locally or globally. mosquito-borne viruses are in various states of evolution and emergence. ii. c) Fairness in decision making by two organs keeping their personal grudges aside. b) Judiciary under ambit of RTI. . fuelled directly by the weapons humans use against them. objectivity in decision making needs to be maintained at every cost. Hence. (200 Words) Ans. from pesticides to drugs. which is a favourable condition for breeding of mosquitoes 4) Lack of awareness among people to use mosquito nets and mosquito repellent creams 5) Diseases like Zika are spread through the spread of virus through various types of contact with the infected person Mechanism of spread: a) Such diseases can spread to other persons by coming in contact with sweat or saliva of the other person or having coitus with the other person b) Zika virus can also be passed to the infant by the mother during pregnancy India’s readiness: i. proper transparency. The causes of such mosquito borne diseases include: 1) Stagnant water gives rise to breeding of mosquitoes 2) Indiscriminate use of pesticides and drugs leads to natural selection and the only the immune mosquitoes survive. Judiciary is the bulwork of our constitution and last resort for aggrieved. Discuss the causes and mechanism of emergence of mosquito borne diseases such as Zika and India’s readiness in dealing with such diseases. d) Cessation benches in other states.9) Frequent transfer of judges before completion of cases leads to delay. All people travelling back from Zika infected regions. making the drugs ineffective 3) Extended warm climate. are inspected for presence of virus in the blood stream and Issuing travel guidelines for advising pregnant women to avoid visiting Zika affected countries The health ministry is increasing awareness among citizens to not take any symptoms of joint pain and fever lightly and consult the physician immediately .

it doesn’t really mean it. As it stands. VoLTE . The National Institute of Virology is now equipped to conduct molecular testing of people believed to be infected with such viruses Regular spray of chemical in homes meant for killing the mosquitoes Thus. were a bit unreachable. (200 Words) Ans. research needs to be carried out for developing vaccines to prevent outbreak of these diseases. It works with the technology of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). 4G stands for fourth generation technology which provides faster broad band internet to mobiles. EIA Q6) Critically analyse India’s record in balancing development imperatives without compromising on ecological security in recent years.iii. it can be said that India is ready to tackle such mosquito borne disease to ensure a healthy living to people. it was decided that LTE. which is why Reliance Jio is confident of providing it for free of Cost 5G is the fifth generation of mobile telephonic services which is yet to be standardised. It is a mechanism in which voice calling could be enabled using the same platform for transmitting data. VoLTE and 5G technologies. iv. laptops and tablets. it is a form of technology which is essentially Voice over internet protocol. the name given to the technology used in pursuit of those standards. could be labelled as 4G if it provided a substantial improvement over the 3G technology. (200 Words) . despite the amount of money tech manufacturers put into achieving them. However. Topic: Conservation. It is estimated that 5G services will roll out no earlier than 2020. Reliance Jio is launched based on the same technology and it would eventually bring down the huge costs involved in enabling voice calls.stands for Voice over Long Term Evolution. For this purpose special devices are required which has a modem that supports these new frequencies. most of the time when your phone displays the 4G symbol in the upper right corner.developments and their applications and effects in everyday life Q5) Write a note on the features and applications of 4G. In response. It uses different frequencies for transmission of data than 3G. which helps in squeezing more amount of Data on to the same amount of radio frequency LTE stands for Long Term Evolution and it isn't as much as a technology as it is the path followed to achieve 4G speeds. The minimum speeds for 4G. LTE. General Studies – 3 Topic: Science and Technology. The speed of 4G is 5 times faster when compared with 3G technology.

following are the categories where land falls under public purpose and can be acquired by private companies1) For Public private partnership where the ownership of land continues to vest with government. ecological sustainability needs to be addressed at the global level. c) Industrialization has led to water pollution. Eg: International-Solar Alliance.Ans. Land Acquisition. etc. Under the LARR Act. Further. The developed nations would do well to transfer finances. Organic farming. development of villages or urban sites and other public purpose . etc. technology and best practices to developing countries like India to achieve this. Industrial policies Q7) Examine on what basis the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition. Several initiatives to clean Ganga have failed due to the scale of pollution d) Mineral and energy exploration have led to human-induced earthquakes and oil spills in oceans damaging the marine ecosystem e) Easing down guidelines for environmental clearance leading to faster removal of forests and biodiversity f) Relaxing the rules on Coastal Management can harm the local biodiversity by promotion of excess development However. encroachment of lakes. 5) CAMPA for increasing forest cover. India is presently the fastest growing economy in the world (IMF report). and allows acquisition for private companies. This has been aided by rapid urbanization and industrialization. Solar Mission. Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act sets out the categories of projects that would fall under public purpose. shift is being made: 1) Focus on renewable energy fuels. Do you think the recent Supreme Court judgment on Singur land acquisition will deter fresh investment by the private sector? Examine. this has come at the cost of environmental degradation. 2013. (200 Words) Ans. 2013 provides for land acquisition and compensation beside other provisions. Topic: Infrastructure. Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act. deforestation. a) Coal consuming thermal power plants while fulfilling energy needs have caused massive air pollution b) Urbanization has come at the cost of several inadequacies such as poor solid waste disposal. etc. Unfortunately. 2) Pollution taxation and other measures. fragmentation of wildlife. phasing out of old vehicles 3) Adopting community approach to ensure harmonious development 4) Policy initiatives such as National Green Mission. Eg: coal cess. for certain categories of public purpose 2) For private companies for public purpose like infrastructure projects.

But there is also a risk communalization if false priests and false prophets enter into politics. Religious interpretation is a very responsible job and any mishandling can lead to disaster like ISIS. Recently Chilcot committee report revealed that Britain invaded Iraq without all options of negotiation exhausting. If politicians would have adhered to religion then war on Iraq may have been averted. (150 Words) Ans. It was politics during our freedom struggle that brought whole of country together. So in my opinion politics must support all religion and religion must encourage good politics. People with same political ideology give their differences and come to common terms. War is to taken up only as last resort when all options of negotiations are exhausted. He was of the view that the believers whose faith is perfect are those who have the character. 2013 clearly defines categories for which land can be acquired for private companies under public purpose clause b) Judgment brings transparency and objectivity in process of such land acquisition and serves as guide to avoid hasty decisions c) Bona fide private players will continue to acquire land by paying the required amount of compensation as provided under Act Thus. . The judgment should be seen in positive light that would usher private investment without concerns of quashing at a later date. Religion is one of the important sources of morality. It teaches universal brotherhood. eg: Mahabharata or Jang-e-Badr. Religion teaches to ensure that one’s neighbours get their supper before one sleeping at night. it can be said that judgment marks a step forward in ensuring objectivity in the land acquisition process. It encourages coming to the common terms with various groups. Religions teach that peace is better that war. and sobriety. Q8) Do you agree with the view that religion and politics are two pillars holding up society and it is in the interest of society that they both should maintain from each other? Critically comment. piety. charity.The recent judgment on Singur ruling where the court quashed the land acquisition process stating that 'public purpose' clause cannot be arbitrarily invoked to acquire land and hand it over to private company will not deter private investment becausea) LARR Act. Gandhiji was always in the favor of bringing religion into politics. Alliance between various nations is also on political ground. All this brings cohesion in society and keep it together. General Studies – 4 Topic: Strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance. Politics also unites people.