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You are on page 1of 38

Part IIB

LT 2005

Dr. Clemens Kaminski

Laser Analytics Group

Dept. of Chemical Engineering

University of Cambridge

clemens_kaminski@cheng.cam.ac.uk

http://www.cheng.cam.ac.uk/research/groups/laser/

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

By this one almost universally refers to piston engines. Although in gas turbines (GT) the

combustion also takes place internally their operating principle is fundamentally different

and will be dealt with in a later section. Some definitions:

working fluid: fuel- air mixture and combustion products.

work transfers: Between working fluid and mechanical parts of the engine.

There are two main types of engine (although they come in many variants):

spark ignition: Otto engine or petrol engine

compression ignition: Diesel engine

The great success of IC engines is due to their simplicity and their high power to weight

ratio, rendering them ideal devices for transport and (small scale) power generation.

4 stroke engines

Figure 1: Operating principle of a 4 stroke spark ignition (SI) engine. (TC = top centre,

BC = bottom centre, Vc =clearance volume, Vd =displacement volume, Vt =total cylinder

volume

Fig. 1 shows the operating principle of the 4 stroke cycle of an Otto (spark ignition)

engine:

CFK, Combustion, LT05

The IC engine

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

intake stroke Starts at TC, ends at BC. Draws fresh mixture into cylinder. Inlet valves

open just before stroke starts.

compression stroke Valves closed. Ignition near maximum compression.

expansion stroke Power stroke. Work done (WD) typically 5 times larger than that

required for compression. Close to BC exhaust valves open.

exhaust stroke Exhausts leave chamber due to overpressure and piston movement.

To get maximum efficiency we want:

largest cylinder volume, minimum boundary surface (minimise heat losses)

greatest working speed (minimise heat losses)

greatest compression ratio rc = Vt /Vc (extracts maximum work)

greatest pressure at beginning of combustion (allows greater expansion, i.e. more

work to be done)

Early problems: Large compression ratios produce engine knock (autoignition). Early

Otto engines only had compression ratios of around 4.

Early Developments:

Diesel engine(=compression ignition (CI) engine, 1892) Inject fuel spray into air

at high pressure and ignite by compression only: Autoignition not a problem!

Achieve much higher rc for CI engine than for SI engine (12-24 compared with

8-12)

Fuels Addition of tetraethyl lead reduced proneness to engine knock in SI

engines. Health concerns have reversed this and we are back to unleaded fuel

today requiring new methodologies to increase .

Problems with automotive combustion:

Smog: NOx + Cy Hz reactions in the presence of sunlight

Emissions:

pollutant

NO, NO2

CO

unburnt HCs

particulates

impact

smog; toxic

toxic

toxic

asthma

% of tot. emissions

40-60

90

30-50

50

SI engines g/km

0.65

3

1

0.2

trucks g/km

7

17

3

0.5

Noise: (from exhaust system, intake system, cooling fan noise, etc.) Are both

aerodynamic and combustion generated.

Current Developments:

Novel materials (reduce weight, heat loss)

Novel types: stratified charge (GDI - gasoline direct injection), HCCI (homogeneous compressed charge ignition) - these combine advantages of SI engine

combustion with those of CI engine combustion.

turbocharging (CI and SI engines)

CFK, Combustion, LT05

The IC engine

2.1 SI engines

2.1

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

SI engines

Figure 2: 4 stroke SI engine operating cycle. IVO=inlet valve open, IVC=inlet valve

close, EVO = exhaust valve open, EVC=exhaust valve close, xb =burnt mass fraction.

Fig. 2 shows the valve timings and volume relationships versus crank angle for a cycle

such as shown in fig. 1. Several points are noteworthy:

IV opens before TC and closes after BC to maximise mixture flow rates into cylinder

even at high engine speeds. The inducted fuel/air mixes with residual burnt gases

in the cylinder which are left over from the previous cycle.

EVO starts before BC: Overpressure in cylinder forces gases out towards end of

expansion stroke (blowdown). This results in some loss of useful expansion work

done, but this is less than what would be lost by blowdown during the exhaust

stroke.

Spark ignition: Ususally 10 to 40 degrees before TC. MBT (maximum brake torque)

obtained only for one precise ignition timing. Modern engines control this electronically and adjust this according to load / speed.

After SI: Turbulent flame propagation. Flame grows until it hits cylinder walls.

Combustion lasts for about 40 to 60 degrees c.a.

dashed line in fig. 2 corresponds to pressure rise due to compression alone (no

combustion).

CFK, Combustion, LT05

The IC engine

2.1 SI engines

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

The IC engine

2.1 SI engines

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

Figure 3: Cutaway of a 2.2l, 4 cylinder spark-ignition engine. Bore 87 mm, Stroke 92 mm,

rc = 9, 65 kW at 5000 rpm.

The IC engine

2.2 CI engines

2.2

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

CI engines

Air alone is inducted into cylinder at 1 atm and compressed to 40 bar, 800 K.

near TC fuel is injected directly into cylinder as a spray near maximum compression.

The fuel is atomised into drops, entraining air with the ensuing mixture above the

ignition point: After a short interval (=ignition delay) the mixture ignites.

Combustion phase: Flame spreads through the mixed parts of the charge, as the

expansion progresses there is continued mixing and ensuing combustion until the

entire charge is consumed (see graph for m

f b ).

Both the SI and CI engines can be turbocharged: Compressing (and often cooling)

the air on intake increases mass flow rate into cylinder, thus more fuel can be admitted

and more power can be obtained.

The IC engine

2.2 CI engines

2 4 STROKE ENGINES

exhaust processes are shown. SOI=start of injection, EOI=end of injection, m

f i =mass

flow rate of injected fuel, m

f b =mass rate of fuel burning.

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Operating parameters

3.1

geometrical properties

length; a=crank radius; =crank angle.

Refer to fig. 5. Compression ratio:

rc =

Vd + Vc

max cyl volume

=

min cyl volume

Vc

(1)

B

L

The ratio between connecting rod to crank radius is:

Rbs =

(2)

l

a

(3)

L = 2a

(4)

V

1

= 1 + (rc 1)[R + 1 cos (R2 sin2 )1/2 ]

Vc

2

(5)

R=

Also:

Hence (prove yourself):

Sp = 2LN

(6)

where N is the crankshaft rotational speed (in revs/sec). The instant piston speed is

given by:

ds

Sp =

(7)

dt

The maximum for this lies between 8 and 15 msec1 (limited by gas flow rates, mechanical

stress)

CFK, Combustion, LT05

The IC engine

3.2

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Brake power:

p(kW) = 2N (rev/s) T ((Nm) 103

(8)

The torque T is usually measured with a dynamometer (the stator of which is kept steady

by applying a brake force, hence the name brake power). Brake power is the power that

can be usefully delivered to a load. Brake horse power:

p(hp) =

5252

(9)

The IC engine

3.3

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Obtained from pressure data (see fig. 6), plotted against cylinder volume. The indicated

work output per cycle is then:

I

Wc,i = pdV

(10)

The gross indicated work per cycle, Wi,g is the work delivered to the piston during

compression and expansion only. The net indicated work per cycle, Wi,n is the work

delivered to the piston during the entire cycle. Pumping work:

Wp = Wg,i Wn,i

(11)

Wi N

(12)

nR

where nR is the number of strokes per power cycle. The indicated mean effective pressure

imep is the mean pressure, which, if acting on the piston during the working stroke, would

give the indicated work in the cycle:

Pi =

Wi

Pi n R

=

Vd

N Vd

(13)

Wp

= imepg imepn

Vd

(14)

imep =

The pumping mean effective pressure:

pmep =

A friction mean effective pressure f mep can be introduced in the same way. The brake

mean effective pressure (obtained from dynamometer measurements) is essentially constant for good engine designs, independent of their size. Actual designs can be compared

against these norms. For a typical SI engines this is 850 - 1050 kPa at the speed where

maximum torque is obtained ( 300 rev/min)

3.4

3.4.1

Definitions

Combustion in engines:

working fluids: need to consider both pre and post combustion species

CFK, Combustion, LT05

10

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

vs 10 cm)

Supply of fresh reactants and speed of conversion govern output power (as well as

losses)

Turbulence: Wrinkles flame front, flame surface area increases, reactants are consumed more quickly as a result

SI engine: Turbulent premixed flame

CI engine: Turbulent diffusion flame

fuels: 86 % carbons and 14% hydrogen by weight typical

Fuel composition:

Alkyl components

Paraffins (alkanes): Cn H2n+2 , single bonded open chain, saturated hydrocarbons. Eg methane, ethane, propane, iso-octane.

cycloparaffins (cyclanes): Cn H2n , single bond ring HCs, unsaturated. Eg cyclopropane

olefins (alkenes): Cn H2n , open chain, double bond, unsaturated. E.g. ethene,

propene, butene.

acetylenes: Cn H2n2

Aromatics: Cn H2n6 , eg benzene, toluene, xylene

Alcohols: Cn H2n+1 OH: Methanol, ethanol, etc

Stoichiometric combustion:

b

b

b

Ca Hb + (a + )(O2 + 3.773N2 ) = aCO2 + H2 O + 3.773(a + )N2

4

2

4

(15)

A

(1 + y/ 4 )(32 + 3.773 28.16)

=

F s

12.011 + 1.008y

(16)

y = b/a

(17)

where

as only the ratios of the species moles are required to set up a stoichiometric balance.

Fuel/air equivalence ratio:

(F/A)actual

=

(18)

(F/A)s

Air/fuel ratio:

= 1

(19)

CFK, Combustion, LT05

11

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

stoichiometric combustion: = = 1

rich: < 1, > 1

Fig. 7 shows the combustion efficiency of an engine as a function of fuel/air equivalence

ratio. For rich mixtures the exhaust will contain significant amounts of H2 and CO.

Burnt gases are at their equilibrium composition during cycle (except during end of expansion stroke where recombination reactions arent fast enough to maintain equilibrium).

For example adiabatic combustion of isooctane and air at = 1 produces species mole

fractions of N2 0.7; H2 O, CO2 0.1; CO, OH, NO, H2 0.01; H, O 0.001. Fig. 8

shows equilibrium compositions for isooctane air combustion products as a function of

for 3 different temperatures. At low temperature main species include N2 , H2 O, CO2 , O2

or CO, H2 . As the temperature increases, increasingly dissociative products are formed

(e.g. OH from H2 O and H). Note also the sensitive dependence of NO concentrations on

T and .

Reactions will tend to products if:

Gproducts < Greactants

(20)

as this corresponds to an increase in the entropy of the universe. For gas mixtures the

chemical potential:

G

i =

(21)

ni p,T,nj (j6=i)

CFK, Combustion, LT05

12

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

the overall composition of all other species constant. JANAF tables list i (T ) from which

i at different pressures can be calculated. If all components are ideal gases then

P

X p i v i

( i vi )

G

ln

= = ln Kp

(22)

= p0

RT

RT

where vi are the stoichiometric coefficients of species i and

Y p i v i

Kp =

p0

i

(23)

Non equilibrium chemistry: Problems occur where convective (turbulence) and chemical timescales are of similar magnitude chemistry not fast enough to maintain mixture

at equilibrium composition. In extreme cases the mixing timescales are so fast that the

flame extinguishes. Another example of where non equilibrium chemistry is significant is

autoignition (e.g. engine knock).

Fig. 8 shows mole fractions of equilibrium combustion products of isooctane and air

mixtures for different temperatures at 30 bar.

Figure 8: Mole fractions of equilibrium combustion products of isooctane and air mixtures

as a function of at 30 bar. a) 1750 k b) 2250 K, c) 2750 K.

The mixture compostion has a major bearing on thermodynamic efficiency as the

values for cp and cv are significantly different for reactant and product gases.

3.4.2

Combustion Efficiency

Control volume analysis: Engine can be seen as an open system which exchanges heat

and work with surroundings (atmosphere). Net chemical energy release is:

X

X

[HR (TA ) HP (TA )] = m

ni h

ni h

(24)

f,i

f,i

i, reactants

i, products

CFK, Combustion, LT05

13

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Here

TP = TR = TA

(25)

pR = pP = pA

(26)

and

(atmospheric T and p). The amount of fuel energy supplied is given by

mf QHV

(27)

where mf is the fuel mass and QHV is the heating value (calorific value) of the fuel. Thus

the combustion efficiency is given by:

c =

HR (TA ) HP (TA )

mf QHV

(28)

The heating value of the fuel is established from calorimeter measurements and these are

performed either at constant pressure or at constant volume. Then:

QHVp = (H)p,T0

(29)

or

QHVV = (U )V,T0

(30)

For fuels containing H we need to know whether H2 O is formed in the gas or in the liquid

phase. The lower heating value QLHVp refers to the case where H2 O is in the vapour

phase, which is usually the case for exhausts from engine combustion. The higher heating

value can be related to this by:

mH2 O

hf g H2 O

(31)

QHHVp = QLHVp +

mf

3.4.3

Control volume analysis surrounding the engine yields:

Q Wu = H

(32)

where Q is the heat transfer with the atmosphere, Wu is the useful work transfer to the

environment (i.e. non-pdV work) and

H = HP HR

(33)

Q

S

TA

(34)

Wu (H TA S) = B

(35)

B = (HP TA SP ) (HR TA SR )

(36)

TP = TR = TA

(37)

Hence

where

where again

14

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

and

pR = pP = pA

(38)

B = (G)TA ,pA

(39)

Hence

This is the maximum useful work output which occurs upon complete conversion of reactants to products. The so called availability conversion efficiency is given by

a =

Wactual

Wactual

=

Wu,max

(G)TA ,pA

(40)

This is so called as it can be considered as the fractional availability of unburnt fuel and

air mixture. In practice G is difficult to measure. However we can use a measurement

of hTA and then use equation 36 to find g. Usually the two are not very different

for hydrocarbon fuels. Note that hTA is the heating value of the fuel at the stated

temperature. One can then (with the aid of eq. 29) define a very widely used quantity,

the fuel conversion efficiency:

Wc

(41)

f =

mf QHV

where Wc is the work per cycle. Usually we use the lower heating value in this equation

as previously discussed. Note that for hydrocarbon fuels the availability a and f are

close to each other in value.

3.5

Standard air cycles: Only air used as a working fluid. A more useful approximation

to reality is the so called air/fuel ideal cycle. Here both the properties of combustion

products (taken as the equilibrium mixture composition) and air are taken into account.

The most critical assumption in this analysis is the combustion model: E.g. for the

constant volume combustion process assumed in the Otto-cycle combustion is assumed to

occur infinitely quickly at TC whereas in reality this process extends over 40 crank angle

degrees.

Fig. 9 shows pressure volume diagrams of ideal cycles. The assumptions in these

cycles are stated in table 3.5.

Process

Assumptions

compression (1-2) 1. Adiabatic, reversible (i.e. isentropic)

combustion (2-3) 1. Adiabatic

2. Combustion occurs at

a) Constant volume

b) constant pressure

c) limited pressure (part const. V , part const. p)

3. Combustion is complete (c = 1)

Expansion (3-4)

1. Adiabatic, reversible

Exhaust (4-5-6)

1. Adiabatic

and

2. Valve events at TC and BC

intake (6-7-1)

3. No change in V as p across the open valves go to zero

4. pi and pe are constant

5. Velocity effects negligible

15

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

volume combustion b) constant pressure combustion c) limited-pressure combustion d)

Throttled constant-volume combustion (pi < pe ) and e) supercharged constant-volume

combustion pi > pe .

Wc,i = WC + WE

(42)

where WC and WE are the compression and expansion work, respectively. The indicated

fuel conversion efficiency is

Wc,i

f,i =

(43)

mf QLHV

then

imep =

mf QLHV f,i

Vd

(44)

Lets briefly analyse the Otto cycle (refer to fig. 9, analyse others in a simlar way):

v1

v4

=

= rc

v2

v3

(45)

s2 = s1 , s 4 = s3

(46)

and

16

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

Combustion is at constant volume (no expansion work done). For the compression we

have:

WC = m(u1 u2 )

(47)

and for the expansion

WE = m(u3 u4 )

(48)

f,i =

m[(u3 u4 ) (u2 u1 )]

mf QLHV

(49)

f,i =

m[(h3 h4 ) (u2 u1 ) + p4 v4 p2 v2 ]

mf QLHV

(50)

f,i =

mf QLHV

(51)

Net efficiencies are lower than that because of pumping work during intake and exhaust

strokes. The pumping work is given by:

Wp = (pi pe )(V1 V2 )

(52)

which can have different signs (e.g. throttled and supercharged). Thus the net indicated

fuel efficiency is given by:

pe pi

f, i, n = f, i, g 1

(53)

imepg

where pe pi is the pumping mean effective pressure.

3.6

Novel Developments

Various technologies exist or are being developed to increase the efficiency of IC engines

and to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions. All concepts require lean mixtures to burn but

this is associated with problems:

Stability: The flame temperature and speeds decrease, making it more susceptible

to transients.

Ignition of very lean mixtures is difficult

3.6.1

HCCI engines

HCCI stands for homogenous compressed charge ignition engines. There are various other

names for the same thing (e.g. ATAC - Active Thermo Atmosphere Combustion, or AR

- activated radical combustion, etc.). Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is

used by some researchers and this is in fact a better description of what is going on, as

combustion is in fact not homogenous throughout the mixture in these engines.

HCCI: Very lean burn combustion preceded by gasoline injection

CFK, Combustion, LT05

17

The IC engine

3 OPERATING PARAMETERS

mixture is not spark ignited but it autoigites towards end of compression stroke.

Need to heat mixture prior to compression to reach autoignition temperatures upon

compression (1050-1200K). Usually achieved via EGR (exhaust gas recirculation,

see fig. 10) and sometimes by heating of intake air or running a pilot ignition

towards end of exhaust stroke.

combustion proceeds spontaneously throughout mixture in those regions where autoignition conditions are reached (hot spots). Combustion is thought to proceed

without propagation of a flame front.

At part load the HCCI process is very efficient with low emissions (peak temperatures for lean mixtures in engines mean NOx is lower by 2 orders of magnitude

compared with SI combustion).

problems with HCCI:

variable load causes changes in autoignition characteristics: difficult to control!

Technical solutions to this problem (e.g. variable valve timing) currently to

complex to be feasible

lower power density c.f Diesel or SI engines: Limits HCCI to part load applications

process is chemistry controlled rather than turbulence controlled and variations in fuel quality have a much higher bearing on overall performance.

Figure 10: Valve timings for port injected HCCI combustion. EGR is achieved by closing

exhaust valves early compared to SI combustion

3.6.2

GDI engine technologies combines Diesel technology (high pressure injection) with SI

engine technology. Fuel is injected directly into the cylinder near maximum compression.

Advantages:

18

The IC engine

are not an issue here. Can combust in excess air, resulting in significant efficiency

improvements.

Efficiency near that of Diesel engine, both in fuel consumption and CO2 emission

Variable injection timings possible to adapt to variable load

The problem with GDI combustion (as with all lean combustion) is that at very lean

conditions the flame becomes difficult to ignite. One therefore resorts to Charge Stratification, (see ) a process shown in fig. 11. The fuel is injected in a well defined spray pattern

which bounces off a shaped piston head (piston bowl) to create a locally rich mixture

around the spark plug at the time of ignition. The established flame kernel subsequently

propagates through a very lean mixture.

The gas turbine (GT) is the highest technological achievement of all high-tech products

commercially available today. Real GT engine is open circuit (see fig. 13) but a closed

circuit approximation to GT combustion is a useful approximation (see fig. 12).

Operating principle: Compression of a working fluid (gas) before expansion in a

turbine. In a perfect GT (no loss) the power developed in the turbine just equals

the power absorbed during compression. To overcome these limitations and provide

extra expansion to produce useful shaft work or thrust heat is added to the working

fluid after the compressor and before the turbine.

GT has no reciprocating components / rubbing members: Lubrication demands and

friction losses are extremely low.

CFK, Combustion, LT05

19

Gas Turbines

Figure 12: Schematic representation of a simple cycle gas turbine and corresponding T S

diagram (Joule or Brayton cycle).

largest compression ratio produces maximum work. Increase fuel flow: increases T

(expansion): Problem: Turbine blades get very hot. To put things in perspective:

The combustor outlet temperature (COT) is around 2200 K in an aero engine,

2000 K for industrial GTs. The melting temperature of turbine blade materials

is 2050 K (!) with a safe working temperature around 1600 K (aero) or 1500 K

(industrial). Blade cooling is essential (as well as combustor chamber wall cooling).

A modified cycle to incorporate this cooling is shown in fig. 14.

Main performance factors:

component efficiencies (85-90 %)

turbine working T

rc (up to 40:1!)

Efficiency: The RR industrial TRENT engine achieves an overall efficiency of around

42% in a simple cycle design . Combined cycle power plants (combining a gas turbine

CFK, Combustion, LT05

20

Gas Turbines

Figure 14: Gas turbine with blade cooling using air bled from the compressor

with a steam turbine cycle) can achieve efficiencies now in excess of 50 % (compared

with theoretical max efficiencies of around 60 %).

Combustion in the GT occurs at constant pressure which is theoretically less efficient than constant volume combustion but requires no moving valves to isolate the

combustion chamber from compressor and turbine and allows continuous operation.

In contrast to IC engines compression, combustion and expansion all occur in different compartments. This means that the GT is configurable in a multitude of configurations. For example, there can be several compressor and turbine stages which

may operate at different speeds (multi spool arrangements) and gas turbines can

easily be combined with other technologies, such as steam turbines (combined cycle

power plants).

intercooling: In multistage compressor arrangements the air can be cooled in between stages to reduce compressor work (used also in Diesel engine turbochargers!).

Compressors: Are driven from the turbine by a shaft. There are two types of

compressor: the centrifugal flow impeller type, and the axial flow type which consists

of several stages of alternating rotating and stationary aerofoil blades. Axial flow

compressors are more efficient but are prone to instabilities if operated away from

their optimal point (e.g. during engine start). Maximum single stage compression

achievable is around rc = 7, higher rc s require more stages. Rolls-Royce Trent 892:

overall rc of around 40:1 achieved. At full power its compressors rotate at 1600kph

and take in 1200kg of air per second.

GTs for aircraft use come in a variety of designs: Turbojets (gas jet is used for

propulsion, eg Olympus 593 used in Concorde), Turbofans (air bypassing the compressor is used for propulsion, quieter, more fuel efficient, used in most civil aircraft

today), turboprop (propeller motors), and turboshaft (helicopters). The term Industrial Gas Turbine very often refers to aeroengine designs which have been modified

for industrial use.

4.1

Simplest model of the open circuit CBT (compressor burner turbine) GT is the closed

air-standard Joule cycle (see fig. 12). Compression and expansion are isentropic and heat

is added and rejected at constant pressure.

CFK, Combustion, LT05

21

Gas Turbines

Figure 15: Cut of a Rolls-Royce TRENT 800 type turbofan engine, one of the most widely

used engines in the airline industry today.

Easy to show then that the cycle efficiency is given by (prove yourself):

c = 1

1

rt

(54)

rt =

T2

T3

=

= rp(1/)

T1

T4

(55)

and

p2

p3

=

(56)

p1

p4

Hence for the idealised cycle the efficiency only depends on the pressure ratio rp . The

x is obtained from the steady flow energy equation (see Appendix A for

net work rate W

a revision of this):

1

1

2

2

x=m

Q W

hout + Vout + gzout m

hin + Vin + gzin

(57)

2

2

rp =

Neglecting the potential and kinetic energy changes in this allows one to obtain the specific

work wx

1

wx = cp T1 1

(rt 1)

(58)

rt

CFK, Combustion, LT05

22

Gas Turbines

where = T3 /T1 (overall temperature ratio). For a fixed one obtains a maximum work

output at the optimal overall rt

rt, opt =

(59)

So for example for T1 = 300 K and T3 = 1700 K, rt, opt = 2.38 which for = 1.4

corresponds to rp = 20.8. The maximum work output corresponds to the situation when

the compressor outlet temperature corresponds to the turbine outlet temperature. The

work ratio is defined as:

wT wc

rt

wx

=

=1

(60)

Rw =

wT

wT

which compares the net work output to the turbine work. Thus for a high work ratio

(and less susceptibility to the irreversibilities in turbine and compressor) the overall temperature ratio should be high and the isentropic temperature ratio (i.e. pressure ratio)

low.

4.2

turbomachinery is not isentropic

pressure loss in combustor

cp and vary with T

cp higher for combustion products than for air

combustion occurs internally instead of heat being supplied externally

fuel addition increases mass flow rate in turbine

turbine exhaust is released into atmosphere and there is no cooler

Irreversibilities can be modelled using the concept of isentropic efficiency can be used

(see fig. 16).

The effect of this is best assessed by considering a typical example. Consider a GT

with:

compressor entry temperature

compressor isentropic efficiency

Turbine entry temperature

Turbine isentropic efficiency

pressure ratio

mass flow rate of air

T1 = 300 K

c = 90%

T3 = 1500 K

T = 90%

rp = 25

m

= 120 kg/s

If we ignore pressure losses in combustor and the fuel mass flow rate we get:

Reversible Joule

Irreversible Joule

Isentropic Compressor

Actual Compressor

1

1

T2s

h1

T1

= pp21

= rp = 2.508 c = hh2s2 h

= TT2s2 T

T1

1

1

i.e. T2s = 752.4K

i.e. T2 = 802.7K

Isentropic compressor work

Actual compressor work:

CFK, Combustion, LT05

23

Gas Turbines

Figure 16: reversible and non reversible Joule cycles with 90% isentropic efficiencies in

compressor and turbine

C = m(h

W

2s h1 )

= mc

p (T2s T1 ) = 54831kW

heat addition

Q 23 = mc

p (T3 T2s ) = 90609kW

Isentropic turbine:

1

p3

T3

= 2.508

=

T4s

p4

T4s = 598.1K

Isentropic Turbine work

T = m(h

W

3 h4s )

= mc

p (T3 T4s ) = 109310kW

Isentropic Net work

net = W

T W

C = 54479kW

W

Cycle efficiency

23

C = m(h

W

2 h1 )

= mc

p (T2 T1 ) = 60927kW

actual heat addition

Q 23 = mc

p (T3 T2 ) = 84513kW

Actual turbine:

T4

h4

= TT33T

T = hh33h

4s

4s

T4 = 688.3K

Actual Turbine work

T = m(h

W

3 h4 )

= mc

p (T3 T4 ) = 98378kW

Irreversible Joule cycle (c = T = 0.9)

net = 37451kW

W

Actual efficiency

23

Fig. 17 shows a jet engine and fig. 18 a corresponding analysis. The air intake nozzle

(leading to initial compression of the air due to the ram effect) and the propulsion

nozzle are modelled to be isentropic in this analysis.

There are disadvantages with using isentropic efficiencies: Consider the compression of

a gas from p1 , T1 to p2 , T2 with isentropic efficiency is,c . Next consider the compression

is spit into two sections:p1 to px and px to p2 . If the same isentropic efficiency is,c is used

for both processes we end up with a different outlet temperature T2 than previously. This

situation can be remedied using polytropic efficiencies (see appendix). For a perfect gas

24

Gas Turbines

(1/pc )

p2

T2

(61)

=

T1

p1

and:

(pt 1/)

T3

p3

=

(62)

T4

p4

Polytropic efficiencies are now universally in use in the GT industry.

The modelling of real gas properties is essential for GT design (as for engines in general,

see discussion in IC engine section). Fig. 19 shows the thermodynamic data for typical

mixtures of air and fuel products at their equilibrium composition for different temperatures. A major consequence of non-isentropic turbomachinery and real gas properties are

that the overall efficiency ov increases with combustor outlet temperature (COT) which

is in contrast to the Joule cycle, the efficiency of which only depends on rp . Secondly

for a given COT there is a maximum in ov at a particular rp and the result is shown in

fig. 20.

4.3

Land based or stationary: Atmospheric temperature and pressure are the stagnation

properties of the approaching air stream

Flight: Atmospheric temperature and pressure are the static properties of the approaching air stream

CFK, Combustion, LT05

25

Gas Turbines

Figure 18: Cycle analysis of aero-jet engine with intake and propelling nozzles

Intake: Pressure loss taken into account via an intake efficiency or an absolute

pressure loss. The stagnation temperature stays the same

compressor: allow for variation of cp and with temperature. Use same gas constant

R for air and combustion products. Three approaches:

use curves of cp vs temperature

use enthalpy / entropy tables

use mean cp based in stagnation temperature rise through components

combustion chamber: Allow for incomplete combustion

turbine: Similar approach as for compressor

power equation: compressor power plus shaft power = turbine power. Allow for

mechanical losses (bearings, gear box, etc)

specific fuel consumption:

m

f =

4.3.1

m

air

x

W

(63)

Example

Intake:

ambient pressure = 101.5 kPa

ambient temperature = 288 K

stagnation pressure loss in intake duct = 3.45 kPa (p0,1,t )

CFK, Combustion, LT05

26

Gas Turbines

compressor

air mass flow rate = 18.15 kg/s

stagnation pressure ratio = 5.5 (p2,t /p1,t )

isentropic efficiency = 85 %

Combustion chamber

stagnation pressure drop=3.8 of inlet stagnation pressure

combustion efficiency=98%

calorific value for fuel = 43.1 MJ/kg

Turbine

CFK, Combustion, LT05

27

Gas Turbines

Figure 21: Simple shaft cycle industrial turbine with pressure losses and irreversibilities

mechanical efficiency=99%

inlet stagnation pressure = 1000K

isentropic efficiency = 86%

exhaust duct stagnation pressure loss = 6.9 kPa

Ambient conditions for sea level static case are stagnation conditions since at a large

distance from the engine we have V0 = 0. Then

T0,t = TA +

V02

= Ta

2cp

(64)

and

p0,t = pA

(65)

3=m

Q W

A cp (T1,t T0,t )

(66)

(67)

For intake

adiabatic flow, hence

i.e. stagnation temperature remains constant for adiabatic flow with zero shaft work.

Stagnation temperature at compressor entry:

CFK, Combustion, LT05

28

Gas Turbines

(68)

Compressor:

0

T2,t

=

T1,t

p2,t

p1,t

1

(69)

Variation of specific heat: For real gases over the normal working range of temperature

and pressure cp is a function of temperature only. Since

1

R

Rm

=

=

cp

mcp

(70)

this is also true of . Gas turbines use kerosene with formula Cn H2n For known the

gravimetric composition of the products of combustion can be calculated and hence mean

values for cp and for the mixture. As increases cp and increase (see fig. 19). The

mean molecular mass of the combustion products are however little different to those of

air, therefore we can take:

Rm

0.287

1

=

=

mcp

cp

(71)

where

Rm

(72)

m

is taken as the value for air. It is necessary to guess a value for mean to evaluate

T2,t

=

T1,t

p2,t

p1,t

1

(73)

hence evaluate

T1,t + T2,t

(74)

2

find cp and and repeat until agreement is found for T2,t . For the present level of accuracy

it suffices to use tables of enthalpies and entropies and to use mean values of and cp for

different parts of the engine. For the compressor (air only) assume cp,12,t = 1.012 kJ/kgK.

Hence

R

0.287

1

=

=

= 0.2836

(75)

cp,12,t

1.012

Hence

0

T2,t

= 288 5.50.2836 = 467K

c =

T2,t = 288 +

0

T2,t

T1,t

T2,t T1,t

467 288

= 498.6K

0.85

(76)

(77)

(78)

Hence

p2,t = 5.5 0.98 105 = 5.393 105 Pa

(79)

(80)

compressor work:

29

Gas Turbines

Compressor power is

mw

c = 18.15 213.1 = 3868 kW

(81)

Combustion chamber: Require to find fuel / air ratio f which will transform unit mass

of air at T2,t and f kg of fuel at fuel temperature Tf to (1 + f ) kg of products at T3,t .

Assuming complete combustion and using SFEE:

0 = f cp,f (T0 Tf ) + 1 cp,a,02 (T0 T2,t ) + f h00 + (1 + f )cp,03 (T3,t T0 )

(82)

where T0 = 298 K is the reference temperature for h00 . Neglecting variations in h00 due

to the change in the reference temperature we recognise this as the calorific value. If we

neglect the f cp,f (T0 Tf ) term since f < 0.05 and cp,f = 2.0 kJ/kgK, we get:

0 = f QHVp + (1 + f )cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )

(83)

f

cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )

=

1+f

QHVp

(84)

Therefore

c/c =

Theoretical stag. T rise (complete combust.)

(85)

cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )th

(86)

c/c =

Then

f

cp,23 (T3,t T2,t )act

=

1+f

c/c QHVp

(87)

p23,t = 3.8%

(88)

p23,t =

= 0.2049 105 N m2

100

(89)

hence

p3,t = (5.393 0.2049) 105 = 5.188 105 Pa

(90)

For QHVp = 4.31 104 kJ/kg and cp,23 = 1.12 kJ/kgK we obtain f = 0.01349 or an

air/fuel ratio of 74.7/1 c.f. stoichiometric of 14.7/1. Turbine: loss of stagnation pressure

in exhaust duct = 0.069 105 Pa.

p4t = pA + p45,t = (1.015 + 0.069) 105 = 1.084 105 N/m2

(91)

Expansion ratio:

p3,t

5.188 105

=

= 4.7859

p4,t

1.084 105

CFK, Combustion, LT05

30

(92)

Gas Turbines

4.4 Intercooling

T3,t

=

0

T4,t

p3,t

p4,t

1

(93)

1

R

Rm

287

1

=

=

=

=

cp

mcp

1131

3.95

0

T4,t

=

(94)

1000

= 672.75 K

1

4.7859 3.95

0

T4t = T3,t T (T3,t T4,t

) = 1000 0.86(1000 672.7) = 718.5 K

(95)

(96)

Turbine power

T =m

W

g cp,34 (T3,t T4,t ) = 18.15(1 + 0.01349)1.131 (1000 718.5)

(97)

Power equation:

c+W

x=W

T

W

(98)

if mechanical loss due to bearing friction and windage between turbine and compressor is

1%, i.e. mechanical efficiency=99% then

3868

x = 18.15 1.01349 1.131 (1000 672.7)

+W

0.99

(99)

hence W

18.15 0.01349

3600 = 0.3037kg/kWh

2902

(100)

2902

= 159.89kJ/kg

18.15

(101)

specific output

4.4

Intercooling

burner turbine) circuit

isothermal compression would require minimum compressor work (in contrast to

isentropic compression), but this is not achievable in practice. Intercooling is partially achieving this.

CFK, Combustion, LT05

31

Gas Turbines

4.4 Intercooling

work output (reversible) consists of sum of two Joule cycles. Cycle 2,3,4,4 thus

represents the extra work output gained. The efficiency of this cycle is less than that

for the original cycle 1,2, 4,5,6 (smaller rp ) hence the efficiency of the intercooled

cycle is always less that that of the original Joule cycle.

advantages

more work output

cooler air available for cooling turbine blades (hence less air is required for

cooling)

disadvantages

less efficient

32

Gas Turbines

5 APPENDIX A

Appendix A

5.1

1 2

1 2

Q Wx = m

hout + Vout m

hin + Vin

2

2

(102)

ht = h +

V2

2

(103)

Hence

x=m

Q W

(hout,t hin,t )

(104)

ht = cp Tt

(105)

x = mc

Q W

p (Tout,t Tin,t )

(106)

x = mc

W

p (Tout,t Tin,t )

(107)

For a gas:

and

for adiabatic processes

i.e. shaft power for turbines and compressors.

Stagnation temperature:

Tin,t = Tin +

Vin2

2cp

(108)

pin,t

=

pin

Tin,t

Tin

1

(109)

1

a = (RT ) 2

Mach number

Ma =

V

a

(110)

(111)

Alternatively

and

Tin,t

1 2

=1+

Main

Tin

2

(112)

pin,t

1 2 1

= 1+

Main

pin

2

(113)

33

Gas Turbines

6 APPENDIX B

Appendix B

34

Gas Turbines

6 APPENDIX B

Figure 23:

35

Gas Turbines

6 APPENDIX B

Figure 24:

36

Gas Turbines

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Contents

1 The Internal Combustion Engine (IC engines)

2 4 stroke engines

2.1 SI engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 CI engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

3

6

3 Operating parameters

3.1 geometrical properties . . . . . . . . .

3.2 brake torque and power . . . . . . . . .

3.3 indicated work and pressure per cycle .

3.4 Thermochemistry and engine efficiency

3.4.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.4.2 Combustion Efficiency . . . . .

3.4.3 Maximum Work Output . . . .

3.5 Ideal engine cycles . . . . . . . . . . .

3.6 Novel Developments . . . . . . . . . .

3.6.1 HCCI engines . . . . . . . . . .

3.6.2 Gasoline Direct Injection . . . .

4 The

4.1

4.2

4.3

Gas turbine

The Joule cycle . . . . . . . .

Irreversible Joule cycles . . . .

Analysis of Real Gas Turbines

4.3.1 Example . . . . . . . .

4.4 Intercooling . . . . . . . . . .

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8

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19

21

23

25

26

31

5 Appendix A

33

5.1 Review of Thermodynamics and Compressible Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

6 Appendix B

34

37

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